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# Pharmacology

TAC Workshop
February 2010

simon.collins@i-Base.org.uk
Definitions

Pharmacology:
study of drugs

Pharmacokinetics (PK):
study of how drugs behave in
a living person (or animal)
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
Using graphs
Graphs can show you information in a concentrated way.

## There are usually 2 -axis. In this example drug concentration is

measured on one axis and time is measured on the other.

x
x x
Drug concentration x
x x
x
x
xx
x x x
x
0

www.i-Base.info
Time TAC workshop: February 2010
dose
Using graphs
Graphs can show you information in a concentrated way.

## There are usually 2 -axis. In this example drug concentration is

measured on one axis and time is measured on the other.

## x Information can then be

x x plotted on the graph.
Drug concentration x
Each x tells you the drug
x x concentration at a specific
x
x time.
xx
x x x
x
0

www.i-Base.info
Time TAC workshop: February 2010
dose
Drug absorption
After taking a drug, levels peak quickly and then slowly drop as the
drug is broken down and metabolised by the liver and/or kidneys.

## Every drug has its own drug absorption curve

Drug concentration

## www.i-Base.info Time TAC workshop: February 2010

dose
Drug absorption
C max = the maximum concentration - usually reach after a few hours
T max = the time taken to reach the maximum concentration

C Max

Drug concentration

0
T Max Time
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
dose
Drug absorption
T 1/2 (half life) = time taken for C max to drop in half
It takes 5 x T 1/2 for a drug to be eliminated from the body

C Max

Drug concentration

0
T Max Time
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
dose T 1/2
Drug absorption
T 1/2 (half life) = time taken for C max to drop in half
It takes 5 x T 1/2 for a drug to be eliminated from the body

C Max
AUC describes the total drug
concentration over time.

Drug concentration

## AUC = Area Under Curve

0
T Max Time
www.i-Base.info TAC workshop: February 2010
dose T 1/2
Drug absorption.2
When you take another doses of a drug, it boosts the level again.
Each dose taken on time makes sure that you keep above a mimimum level

C Max

Drug
concent
ration
C Min or C tough

Time
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dose TAC workshop: February 2010
dose dose
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## Drug levels and resistance

The target drug level needs to be above the MEC to avoid resistance and
not so high as to cause side effects

## Increased risk of side effects

MEC =
MEC Minimum
Effective
Increased risk of resistance
Concentration
0

dose dose
www.i-Base.info

## Drug levels and resistance.2

If you miss a dose or are late drug levels can drop to a level where
resistance can occur

MEC
(Minimum
Effective
Concentration Increased risk of resistance
0

dose
dose dose