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COMMITTEE EL-052

DR 08170

(Project ID: 8326)

Draft for Public Comment


Australian/New Zealand Standard
LIABLE TO ALTERATIONDO NOT USE AS A STANDARD

BEGINNING DATE 13 August 2008


FOR COMMENT:

CLOSING DATE 15 October 2008


FOR COMMENT:

Overhead line design


Part 1: Detailed procedures

COPYRIGHT
Draft for Public Comment
Australian/New Zealand Standard
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Draft for Public Comment

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND

Committee EL-052Electrical Energy Networks, Construction and Operation

Subcommittee EL-052-05 Design of Overhead Electrical Lines

DRAFT

Australian/New Zealand Standard

Overhead line design

Part 1: Detailed procedures

(To be AS/NZS XXXX:200X)

Comment on the draft is invited from people and organizations concerned with this subject.
It would be appreciated if those submitting comment would follow the guidelines given on
the inside front cover.
This document is a draft Australian/New Zealand Standard only and is liable to alteration in
the light of comment received. It is not to be regarded as an Australian/New Zealand
Standard until finally issued as such by Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand.
DRAFT ONLY 7 DRAFT ONLY

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand
Committee EL-052-05, Electrical Energy Networks, Construction and OperationDesign
of Overhead Electrical Lines.
The objective of this Standard is to provide Electricity Industry network owners, overhead
line maintenance service providers, design consultants, construction contractors, structure
designers, and pole manufacturers with an industry standard, that replaces all previously
used reference guidelines.
This Standard is Part 1 of a series of four document
Part 1: Overhead line design StandardDetailed procedures, which is a Standard that sets
the detailed design requirements for overhead lines.
Part 2: Overhead line design StandardSimplified procedure, which is a Standard that sets
simplified design requirements for overhead lines, which are typically at distribution
voltages and applying to commonly used pole construction.
Part 3: Application guide for the design of overhead lines, which is a Handbook providing
supporting information, commentary, worked examples and supporting software (where
applicable) for the design of overhead lines.
Part 4: ENA guidelines for the construction, maintenance and work practices of overhead
lines, which is an Electricity Industry guideline for the purpose of facilitation of standard
work practices throughout the electricity supply industry.

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CONTENTS

Page

SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL


1.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL .......................................................................................... 12
1.2 REFERENCED AND RELATED DOCUMENTS..................................................... 12
1.3 DEFINITIONS........................................................................................................... 12
1.4 NOTATION............................................................................................................... 21

SECTION 2 DESIGN PHILOSOPHIES


2.1 GENERAL................................................................................................................. 24
2.2 LIMIT STATE DESIGN............................................................................................ 24
2.3 DESIGN LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES ................................................................... 26
2.4 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN OVERHEAD LINE....................... 26
2.5 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES.................................. 26
2.6 RELIABILITY........................................................................................................... 26
2.7 COORDINATION OF STRENGTH.......................................................................... 26
2.8 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS............................................................... 27

SECTION 3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS


3.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................. 28
3.2 CURRENT CONSIDERATIONS .............................................................................. 28
3.3 INSULATION SYSTEM DESIGN ........................................................................... 28
3.4 LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES........................................ 28
3.5 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE DISTANCES TO AVOID FLASHOVER ................. 29
3.6 DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURE GEOMETRY............................................... 31
3.7 SPACING OF CONDUCTORS ................................................................................. 34
3.8 INSULATOR AND CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT AT STRUCTURE ................... 45
3.9 LIVE LINE CLEARANCES...................................................................................... 48
3.10 CLEARANCES TO GROUND AND AREASREMOTE FROM BUILDING,
ROADS, RAILWAYS AND NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS ................................... 48
3.11 POWER LINE EASEMENTS.................................................................................... 53
3.12 CORONA EFFECT ................................................................................................... 53
3.13 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS ................................................................... 54
3.14 SINGLE WIRE EARTH RETURN (SWER) POWERLINES.................................... 54

SECTION 4 CONDUCTORS AND OVERHEAD EARTHWIRES (GROUND WIRES)


WITH OR WITHOUT TELECOMMUNICATION CIRCUITS
4.1 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS ............................................................................ 56
4.2 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... 58
4.3 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS .................................................................. 63
4.4 CONDUCTOR CONSTRUCTIONS.......................................................................... 64
4.5 CONDUCTOR SELECTION .................................................................................... 64

SECTION 5 INSULATORS
5.1 INSULATION BASICS............................................................................................. 66
5.2 LINE AND SUBSTATION INSULATION COORDINATION ................................ 66
5.3 ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN ....................................................... 67
5.4 RELEVANT STANDARDS, TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF
INSULATORS........................................................................................................... 68

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Page

SECTION 6 BASIS OF STRUCTURAL DESIGN


6.1 GENERAL................................................................................................................. 69
6.2 REQUIREMENTS..................................................................................................... 69
6.3 LIMIT STATES......................................................................................................... 71
6.4 ACTIONS .................................................................................................................. 75
6.5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES....................................................................................... 76
6.6 MODELLING FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESISTANCE................... 76

SECTION 7 ACTION ON LINES


7.1 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................... 78
7.2 ACTIONS, GENERAL APPROACH ........................................................................ 78
7.3 LOAD CASES ........................................................................................................... 82

SECTION 8 SUPPORTS
8.1 INITIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS................................................................... 85
8.2 MATERIALS AND DESIGN .................................................................................... 85
8.3 CORROSION PROTECTION AND FINISHES........................................................ 86
8.4 MAINTENANCE FACILITIES................................................................................. 87
8.5 LOADING TESTS .................................................................................................... 87

SECTION 9 FOUNDATIONS
9.1 GENERAL................................................................................................................. 91
9.2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES.............................................................................................. 91
9.3 POLE AND TOWER FOUNDATIONS ................................................................... 92
9.4 SOIL INVESTIGATION ........................................................................................... 92
9.5 BACKFILLING OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS ................................................... 92
9.6 FOUNDATION DISPLACEMENTS......................................................................... 92
9.7 LOAD TESTING OF FOUNDATIONS .................................................................... 92
9.8 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION .............................................................. 93

SECTION 10 EARTHING SYSTEMS


10.1 GENERAL PURPOSE............................................................................................... 94
10.2 EARTHING MEASURES AGAINST LIGHTNING EFFECTS................................ 94
10.3 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO CORROSION AND MECHANICAL
STRENGTH ............................................................................................................. 94
10.4 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO THERMAL STRENGTH .......................... 95
10.5 RISK BASED EARTHING - PERMISSIBLE VALUES ........................................... 95
10.6 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF STAYWIRE DESIGN ............................................. 100
10.7 CHOICE OF EARTHING MATERIALS ................................................................ 101

SECTION 11 LINE EQUIPMENTOVERHEAD LINE FITTINGS


11.1 GENERAL............................................................................................................... 102
11.2 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... 102
11.3 RIV REQUIREMENTS AND CORONA EXTINCTION VOLTAGE..................... 102
11.4 SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND POWER ARC REQUIREMENTS ................ 102
11.5 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 102
11.6 DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................... 103
11.7 MATERIAL SELECTION AND SPECIFICATION................................................ 103
11.8 CHARACTERISTICS AND DIMENSIONS OF FITTINGS ................................... 103
11.9 TYPE TEST REQUIREMENTS.............................................................................. 105
11.10 SAMPLE TEST REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 105
11.11 ROUTINE TEST REQUIREMENTS....................................................................... 105

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Page

SECTION 12 LIFE EXTENSION (REFURBISHMENT, UPGRADING, UPRATING) OF


EXISTING OVERHEAD LINES
12.1 GENERAL............................................................................................................... 106
12.2 ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES ....................................................................... 106
12.3 COMPONENT CAPACITY .................................................................................... 107
12.4 PROOF LOADING.................................................................................................. 107
12.5 GUIDELINES FOR UPGRADING OF OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES.......... 107

SECTION 13 PROVISIONS FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS

SECTION 14 CO-USE OF OVERHEAD LINE SUPPORTS (SIGNAGE, BANNERS,


COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABLES, TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPEATERS)
14.1 SIGNS AND BANNERS AND TRAFFIC MIRRORS ......................................... 109
14.2 COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABLES ........................................................... 111
14.3 TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPEATERS EQUIPMENT ANDTRAFFIC
MIRRORS .............................................................................................................. 111

APPENDICES
A REFERENCE AND RELATED DOCUMENTS ..................................................... 113
B WIND LOADS ....................................................................................................... 120
C SPECIAL FORCES ................................................................................................. 137
D GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES................................. 145
E DESIGN FOR LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE ..................................................... 154
F TIMBER POLES ..................................................................................................... 156
G LATTICE STEEL TOWERS (SELF SUPPORTING AND GUYED MASTS)........ 162
H ELECTRICAL DESIGN ASPECTS ....................................................................... 167
I CONCRETE POLES ............................................................................................... 170
J COMPOSITE FIBRE POLES .................................................................................. 173
K STEEL POLES ........................................................................................................ 174
L STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN AND GUIDELINES FOR THE
GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS ............................... 177
M GUIDELINES ON APPLICATION OF STANDARDIZED WORK METHODS
FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS ................................................ 204
N GUIDELINES ON UPGRADING OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES ............... 209
O WATER ABSORPTION TEST ............................................................................... 218
P INSULATION GUIDELINES ................................................................................ 221
Q MID SPAN SEPARATION CALCULATIONS ..................................................... 224
R INSULATION SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS ............................................. 226
S CONDUCTOR SAG AND TENSION CALCULATIONS ...................................... 230
T CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND SAG
MEASUREMENT .................................................................................................. 240
U RISK BASED APPROACH TO EARTHING ......................................................... 243
V CONDUCTOR PERMANENT ELONGATION...................................................... 257
W CONDUCTOR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY ....................................................... 260
X CONDUCTOR COEFFICENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION................................ 263
Y CONDUCTOR DEGRADATION and SELECTION FOR DIFFERING
ENVIRONMENTS .................................................................................................. 264
Z CONDUCTOR STRESS AND FATIGUE ............................................................... 268

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Page
AA CONDUCTOR TENSION CHANGE OF STATE EQUATION .............................. 274
BB CONDUCTOR SHORT TIME AND SHORT-CIRCUIT RATING ......................... 277
CC CONDUCTOR ANNEALING................................................................................. 280
DD MECHANICAL DESIGN OF INSULATOR - LIMIT STATES.............................. 284
EE EASEMENT WIDTH .............................................................................................. 285
FF SNOW AND ICE LOADS....................................................................................... 286

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STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND


Overhead line design
Part 1: Detailed procedures

SECTI ON 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL

1.1 SCOPE AND GENERAL


This Standard specifies the general requirements that shall be met for the design and
construction of new overhead lines to ensure that the line is suitable for its intended
purpose, and provide acceptable levels of safety for construction, maintenance, operation,
and meets requirements for other environmental considerations.
This Standard is only applicable to new overhead lines and is not intended to be
retrospectively applied to the routine maintenance, and ongoing life extension of existing
overhead lines constructed prior to the issue of this Standard. Such maintenance and life
extension work ensures that lines continue to comply with the original design standards and
remain safe and fit for purpose
However, where existing overhead lines are proposed to be upgraded or refurbished
including installation of larger conductors, modified to provide tee-offs, diversions or the
erection of additional communication cables and antennae, such that the original structure
design loadings are increased to a point that elements of the support structures may be
overloaded or overstressed; then the overhead line structures shall be required to be
structurally assessed by a competent person for compliance with the provisions of this
Standard.
This Standard is applicable to overhead lines supporting telecommunication systems or
where they are used on overhead lines either attached to the line conductor/earth wire
systems or as separate cables supported by the supports such as optical ground wires
(OPGWs) and optical conductors or all dielectric self supporting (ADSS) conductors.
It is also applicable to overhead line structures supporting telecommunications equipment.
This Standard does not apply to catenary systems of electrified railways.

1.2 REFERENCED AND RELATED DOCUMENTS


See Appendix A for a list of documents referenced in this Standard and for a list of related
documents.

1.3 DEFINITIONS
For the purpose of this Standard the definitions below apply.
1.3.1 Accidental action
Action, usually of short duration, which is unlikely to occur with a significant magnitude
during the design working life.
NOTE: An accidental action can be expected in many cases to cause severe consequences unless
special measures are taken.
1.3.2 Action
(a) Force (load) applied to the (mechanical) system (direct action).
NOTE: An action can be permanent, variable or accidental.

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(b) An imposed or constrained deformation or an imposed acceleration caused for


example, by temperature changes, moisture variation, uneven settlement or
earthquakes (indirect action).
1.3.3 Aerial bundled cable
Two or more cores twisted together into a single bundled cable assembly. Two types of
aerial bundled cable are used
(a) low voltage aerial bundled cable (LVABC) means a cable which meets the
requirements of either AS/NZS 3560.1 or AS/NZS 3560.2 as applicable; and
(b) high voltage aerial bundled cable (HVABC) means a cable which meets the
requirements of either AS/NZS 3599.1 or AS/NZS 3599.2 as applicable.
1.3.4 Aerial cable
Any insulated or covered conductor or assembly of cores with or without protective
covering, which is placed above ground, in the open air and is suspended between two or
more supports.
1.3.5 Aerial conductor
Any bare conductor which is placed above ground, in the open air and is suspended between
two or more supports.
1.3.6 Bonding conductor
Conductor providing equipotential bonding.
1.3.7 Calculated breaking load (CBL)
In relation to a conductor, means the calculated minimum breaking load determined in
accordance with the relevant Australian/New Zealand Standard.
1.3.8 Characteristic value of a material property
Value of a material property having a prescribed probability of not being attained in a
hypothetical unlimited test series. This value generally corresponds to a specified fraction
of the assumed statistical distribution of the particular property of the material. A nominal
value is used as the characteristic value in some circumstances.
1.3.9 Clearance
Distance between two conductive parts along a string stretched the shortest way between
these conductive parts.
1.3.10 Coefficient of variation
Ratio of the standard deviation to the mean value.
1.3.11 Component
One of the different principle parts of the overhead electrical line system having a specified
purpose.
Typical components are supports, foundations, conductors, insulator strings and hardware.
1.3.12 Conductor temperature
Means the temperature assumed for the purpose of calculation, the temperature determined
by the use of ESAA document D(b)5 or other an appropriate Standard, or the temperature
measured at the surface of a conductor by means of a contact thermometer or similar,
whichever is applicable.

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1.3.13 Covered conductor


Means a conductor around which is applied a specified thickness of insulating material.
AS/NZS 3675 specifies two types of covered conductor
(a) CC where the nominal covering thickness is independent of working voltage; and
(b) CCT where the nominal covering thickness is dependent on the working voltage.
1.3.14 Conductor (of an overhead line)
A wire or combination of wires not insulated from one another, suitable for carrying an
electric current.
1.3.15 Corona
Luminous discharge due to ionisation of the air surrounding an electrode caused by a
voltage gradient exceeding a certain critical value.
NOTE: Electrodes may be conductors, hardware, accessories or insulators
1.3.16 Design working life or design life
Assumed period for which a structure is to be used for its intended purpose with anticipated
routine maintenance but without substantial repair being necessary.
1.3.17 Earth
Term for the earth as a location as well as for earth as a conductive mass, for example types
of soil, humus, loam sand, gravel and stone.
1.3.18 Earth current
Current flowing to earth via the impedance to earth.
1.3.19 Earth electrode
Conductor which is embedded in the earth and conductively connected to the earth, or a
conductor which is embedded in concrete, which is in contact with the earth via a large
surface (for example foundation earth electrode).
1.3.20 Earth fault
Conductive connection caused by a fault between a phase conductor of the main circuit and
earth or an earthed part. The conductive connection can also occur via an arc. Earth faults
of two or several phase conductors of the same electrical system at different locations are
designated as double or multiple earth faults.
1.3.21 Earth fault current
Current which flows from the main circuit to earth or earthed parts if there is only one earth
fault point at the fault location (earth fault location).
1.3.22 Earthing
All means and measures for making a proper conductive connection to earth.
1.3.23 Earthing conductor
Conductor which connects that part of the installation which has to be earthed to an earth
electrode as far as it is laid outside of the soil (earth wire) or buried in the soil.
1.3.24 Earthing system
Locally limited electrical system of conductively connected earth electrodes or earthing
conductors and of bonding conductors, [or metal parts effective in the same way, for
example tower footings, armourings, metal cable sheaths].

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1.3.25 Earth potential rise (EPR)


Voltage between an earthing system and reference earth.
1.3.26 Earth rod
Earth electrode which is generally buried or driven in vertically to a greater depth. For
example it can consist of a pipe, round bar or other profile material.
1.3.27 Earth surface potential
Voltage between a point on the earth surface and reference earth.
1.3.28 Earth wire
A conductor connected to earth at some or all supports, which is suspended usually but not
necessarily above the line conductors to provide a degree of protection against lightning
strokes.
NOTE: An earth wire may also contain metallic wires for telecommunication purposes.
1.3.29 Effective field strength
Square root of the sum of the squares of the three root mean square (r.m.s.) mutually
orthogonal components of the field.
1.3.30 Electrical power frequency clearance condition
A uniform wind pressure of 500 Pa applied to the projected area of the conductor without
any allowance for span reduction factors with the conductor at the every day temperature
plus 10C.
1.3.31 Electric field
The electric field created in the vicinity of a charged conductor is the vector quantified by
the electric field strength, E. This quantity is the force exerted by an electric field on a unit
charge and is measured in volts per metre (V/m).
1.3.32 Element
One of the different parts of a component. For example, the elements of a steel lattice tower
are steel angles, plates and bolts.
1.3.33 Equipotential bonding
Conductive connection between conductive parts, to reduce the potential differences
between these parts.
1.3.34 Every day temperature (EDT)
The average of the daily mean maximum temperature and the daily mean minimum
temperature.
1.3.35 Exclusion limit probability of a variable
Value of a variable taken from its distribution function and corresponding to an assigned
probability of not being exceeded.
1.3.36 Failure
State of a structure whose purpose is terminated, i.e. in which a component has failed by
excessive deformation, loss of stability, overturning, collapse, rupture, buckling, etc.
1.3.37 Highest system voltage
Highest (r.m.s.) value of voltage which occurs at any time and at any point of the overhead
line under normal operating conditions and for which the overhead electrical line shall be
designed.

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1.3.38 Horizontal earth electrode


Electrode which is generally buried at a low depth. For example it can consist of strip,
round bar or stranded conductor and can be carried out as radial, ring or mesh earth
electrode or as a combination of these.
1.3.39 Impedance to earth of an earthing system
Impedance between the earthing system and reference earth.
1.3.40 Insulated conductor
A conductor surrounded by a layer of insulation which provides resistance to the passage of
current, or to disruptive discharges through or over the surface of the substance at the
operating voltage, or injurious leakage of current. For clearance purposes a distinction is
made between insulated conductors with and without earthed screens operating at voltages
in excess of 1000 V.
1.3.41 Insulated with earthed screen
Includes aerial bundled cable (ABC) complying with either AS/NZS 3599.1 or
AS/NZS 3599.2 as applicable.
1.3.42 Insulated without earthed screen
Includes CCT cable complying with AS/NZS 3675.
1.3.43 Limit state (structural)
State beyond which the structure no longer satisfies the design performance requirements.
1.3.44 Load case
Compatible load arrangements, sets of deformations and imperfections considered
simultaneously with defined variable actions and permanent actions for a particular
structure analysis.
1.3.45 Low velocity every day wind
Wind velocity between approximately 0.5 m. s-1 and 7 m. s-1 which results in vortices
being detached from the top and bottom a conductor at regular and alternating intervals
inducing a vertical force in the conductor which is translated into vertical movement and
conductor vibration with varying frequency depending on the conductor diameter and the
wind velocity.
1.3.46 Maximum design temperature
The maximum steady state temperature under the influence of either steady state current or
short time current for a phase conductor or short circuit current for overhead earth wires.
1.3.47 Maximum load wind
Three second gust wind speed in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2 corresponding to the
overhead line design return period.
1.3.48 Maximum operating temperature
The overhead line maximum temperature
(a) based on the properties of the conductor shall not exceed
(i) the permissible temperature rating of the conductor with appropriate
consideration of differential expansion of dissimilar materials (known as
birdcaging); or
(ii) for covered and or insulated conductors the insulation temperature rating shall
be in accordance with the appropriate Australian or New Zealand Standard; or

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(iii) the temperature rating of fibre optic cores; or


(iv) the permissible loss of strength due to annealing as specified in Appendix CC;
or
(v) the drop point any grease applied to the conductor; and
(b) design shall not result in an infringement of the required electrical clearance specified
in Section 3.
1.3.49 Magnetic field
The magnetic field is a vector quantity. The magnetic field strength, H, is expressed in
amperes per metre (A/m).
1.3.50 Magnetic flux density
The magnetic flux density, also known as the magnetic induction, is the force exerted on a
charge moving in the field and has the unit tesla (T). One tesla is equal to 1 V.s/m2 or 1
weber per square metre (Wb/m2).
1.3.51 Maintenance
Total set of activities performed during the design working life of the system to maintain its
purpose.
1.3.52 Nominal voltage
Voltage by which the overhead electrical line is designated and to which certain operating
characteristics are referred.
1.3.53 Optical conductor (OPCON)
Conductor containing optical telecommunication fibres.
1.3.54 Optical groundwire (OPGW)
Optical conductor used solely as an earth wire. The conductor component may be stranded
or may be tubular or a combination of both.
1.3.55 Overhead ground wire (aerial earth conductor)
An aerial conductor which is grounded or earthed at multiple points.
1.3.56 Overhead line
Aerial conductors or cables together with associated supports, insulators and apparatus used
for the transmission or distribution of electrical energy.
1.3.57 Overhead service line
An overhead line operating at a voltage less than 1000 V owned by an electricity supply
authority and located or to be located between the electricity supply authoritys overhead
line and the point of connection to an electrical installation.
1.3.58 Permanent action
Means an action which is likely to act throughout a given design situation and for which the
variation in magnitude with time is negligible in relation to the mean value, or for which the
variation is always in the same direction (monotonic) until the action attains a certain limit
value.
1.3.59 Potential grading
Influencing of the earth potential, especially the earth surface potential, by means of earth
electrodes.

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1.3.60 Potential grading earth electrode


Conductor which due to shape and arrangement is principally used for potential grading
rather than for establishing a certain resistance to earth.
1.3.61 Pre-stressed concrete
Means concrete containing reinforcing steel, some or all of which has been tensioned prior
to the application of external working loads.
1.3.62 Prospective step voltage
Means the prospective or open circuit voltage that may appear between any two points on
the surface of the ground spaced one metre apart (measured with two driven electrodes and
a high impedance voltmeter).
1.3.63 Prospective touch voltage
Means the prospective or open circuit voltage (measured with a driven electrode and a high
impedance voltmeter) which may appear between any point of contact with uninsulated
metalwork located within 2.4 m of the ground and any point on the surface of the ground
within a horizontal distance of one metre from the vertical projection of the point of contact
with the uninsulated metalwork.
1.3.64 Radio interference
Any effect on the reception of a required radio signal due to an unwanted disturbance
within the radiofrequency spectrum. Radio interference is primarily of concern for
amplitude-modulated systems (AM radio and television video signals) since other forms of
modulation (such as frequency modulation (FM) used for VHF radio broadcasting and
television audio signals) are generally much less affected by disturbances that emanate from
overhead lines.
1.3.65 Reinforced concrete
Means concrete containing more than 0.6% by volume of reinforcing steel in the form of
bar, rod or mesh. Tensile forces within the concrete section are usually assumed to be
resisted by the reinforcement.
1.3.66 Reliability (electrical)
Ability of a system to meet its supply function under stated conditions for a given time
interval.
1.3.67 Reliability (structural)
Probability that a system performs a given purpose, under a set of conditions, during a
reference period.
Reliability is thus a measure of the success of a system in accomplishing its purpose.
1.3.68 Return period
Mean interval between successive recurrencies of a climatic action of at least defined
magnitude. The inverse of the return period gives the probability of exceeding the action in
one year.
1.3.69 Road
Means a public thoroughfare ordinarily used by motor vehicles.
1.3.70 Ruling span
Also known as the equivalent span or the mean effective span (MES), means that level
dead-end span in which the behaviour of the tension closely follows that of the tension in
every span of a series of suspension spans under the same loading conditions.

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1.3.71 Safety
Ability of a system not to cause human injuries or loss of lives during its construction,
operation and maintenance.
1.3.72 Security
Ability of a system to be protected from a major collapse (cascading effect) if a failure is
triggered in a given component. This may be caused by electrical or structural factors.
1.3.73 Serviceability limit state
State beyond which specified service criteria for a structure or structural element are no
longer met.
1.3.74 Soil resistivity
Specific electrical resistance of the earth.
1.3.75 Span length
Means the centre-line horizontal distance between two adjacent supports. (For short spans,
when determining the horizontal distance of the fixing points of a conductor, the angle of
the crossarm to the line should be considered accordingly.)
1.3.76 Step voltage
That part of the earth potential rise which can be picked up by a person with a step-width of
1 m, i.e. the current flowing through the human body from foot to foot.
1.3.77 Strength
Mechanical property of a material, usually given in units of stress.
1.3.78 Structure
Organized combination of connected elements designed to provide some measure of
rigidity.
1.3.79 Support
General term for different types of structure that support the conductors of the overhead
electrical line.
1.3.80 Support, suspension
Support equipped with suspension insulator sets.
1.3.81 Support, tangent
Suspension or tension support used in straight line.
1.3.82 Support, tension
Support equipped with tension insulator sets.
1.3.83 Support, terminal (dead-end)
Tension support capable of carrying the total conductor tensile forces in one direction.
1.3.84 System (electrical)
All items of equipment which are used in combination for the generation, transmission and
distribution ofelectricity.
1.3.85 System (mechanical and structural)
Set of components connected together to form an overhead electrical line.

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1.3.86 System with isolated neutral


System (electrical) in which the neutrals of transformers, generators and earthing
transformers are not intentionally connected to earth, except for high impedance
connections for signalling, measuring or protection purposes.
1.3.87 System with low-impedance neutral earthing
System (electrical) in which at least one neutral of a transformer, earthing transformer or
generator is earthed directly or via an impedance designed such that due to an earth fault at
any location the magnitude of the fault current leads to a reliable automatic tripping.
1.3.88 System with low-impedance neutral or phase earthing
System (electrical) with isolated neutral or resonant earthing, in which in case of a non-self-
extinguishing earth fault a neutral or phase conductor of the main circuit is earthed directly
or via low impedance a few seconds after the occurrence of an earth fault.
1.3.89 System with resonant earthing
System (electrical) in which at least one neutral of a transformer or earthing transformer is
earthed via an arc suppression coil and the combined inductance of all arc suppression coils
is essentially tuned to the capacitance of the system to earth for the operating frequency.
1.3.90 Television interference
Special case of radio interference for disturbances affecting the frequency ranges used for
television broadcasting.
1.3.91 Touch voltage
That part of the earth potential rise across the human body from hand to feet (assumed to be
at a horizontal distance of 1 m from the exposed part of the installation).
1.3.92 Transferred potential
Potential rise of an earthing system caused by a current to earth transferred by means of a
connected conductor (for example cable metal sheath, pipeline, rail) into areas with low or
no potential rise to reference earth.
1.3.93 Ultimate limit state
State associated with collapse, or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger
the safety of people.
It corresponds generally to the maximum load-carrying resistance of a structure or a
structural element.
1.3.94 Variable action
Action which is unlikely to act throughout a given design situation or for which the
variation in magnitude with time is neither negligible in relation to mean value nor
monotonic.
1.3.95 Voltage
Means nominal potential difference between conductors or the nominal potential difference
between a conductor and earth, whichever is applicable.
1.3.96 Weight span
For a support, means the equivalent span which gives the vertical component of the
conductor load and equals the span between the lowest points on the catenary curve of the
conductor on either side of that support.

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1.3.97 Wind span


For a support, means the equivalent span which gives the horizontal lateral component of
the conductor load caused by wind and equals one half of the sum of the spans on either
side of that support.

1.4 NOTATION
The quantity symbols used in this Standard shall have the meanings ascribed to them below.
Symbol Signification
= angle of wind to conductor
= the strength factor which takes into account variability of
material, workmanship etc.
= shielding factor
= solidity factor
= soil density (kN/m2)
s = soil angle of friction
x = load factors which take into account variability of loads,
importance of structure, safety implications etc.
x = load factors which take into account variability of loads,
importance of structure, safety implications etc.
A = is the projected area of one structure section (panel) under (m)
consideration in a vertical plane along the face for square towers
A* = is the projected area of the structure section under consideration (m)
in a plane normal to the wind direction
A1 , A3 = projected areas of the longitudinal faces on lattice structures in a (m)
vertical plane along the face
A2 , A4 = projected areas of transverse faces on lattice structures in a (m)
vertical plane along the face
C = drag coefficient of wire
c = soil cohesion (kPa)
Cd = drag force coefficient for member
COV = coefficient of variation
CRF = component reliability factor
d = conductor diameter (mm)
d = conductor diameter (mm)
D = effective diameter of foundation (m)
En Earthquake load corresponding to an appropriate return period (kN)
Fb = load on structure due to unbalanced conductor tensions
resulting from abnormal conditions e.g. a broken conductor
(kN)
Fc = conductor loads resulting from wind action on the projected
area of conductors (Area = Ld)

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Symbol Signification
Fc = conductor tension load (kN)
Fs = load on structures due to wind action
Fs = force on structural sections (panel) in the direction of the wind (kN)
Fs force on structural sections (whole tower) in the direction of the (kN)
wind
Ft = load on the structure due to the intact horizontal component of
conductor tension in the direction of the line for the appropriate
wind load
Ft = intact conductor tension loads for the appropriate wind load (kN)
FT Load on the structure due to intact conductor tension loads for (kN)
the appropriate wind load
G = vertical dead loads
Gc = vertical dead loads resulting from conductors
Gc Vertical dead load related to conductors (kN)
Gs = vertical dead loads resulting from non-conductor loads
Gs Vertical dead load not related to conductors (e.g. poles, cross (kN)
arms etc)
H = ground line lateral load (kN)
Hcalc = calculated value using recommended method (kN)
HL = nominal failure load (kN)
H max. = maximum lateral load (kN)
k = factor for angle of incidence of wind to frames (kN)
Ki = factor that is function of soil modulus of elasticity and
foundation geometry
Kq, Kc = factors that are a function of z/D and
Kx = represents factors accounting for aspect ratio, wind direction and
shielding of the member
L = conductor length under consideration for determining conductor
loads due to wind action e.g. the wind span for a structure
L = conductor length under consideration for determining conductor (m)
loads due to wind action e.g. the wind span for a structure
L = trial embedment depth (m)
LR = line reliability
M = bending moment at ground line (kNm)
Md = wind direction multiplier. Refer to AS/NZS 1170.2:2002,
Clause 3.3
Mrel Reliability based load multiplier
Mt = topographic multiplier for gust wind speed. Refer to
AS/NZS 1170.2:2002, Clause 4.4
Mz,cat = gust winds speed multiplier for terrain category at height z. Refer

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Symbol Signification
AS/NZS 1170.2:2002, Clause 4.2
p = ultimate soil pressure (kPa)
Pc conductor natural and forced convection cooling
Pj conductor joule heating due to the resistance of the conductor
Pr conductor radiation cooling.
Ps conductor solar heat gain
Q = maintenance loads
qz = dynamic wind pressure (kPa)
qz = vertical overburden pressure at depth z, qz = z (kPa)
Re = component design strength based on the nominal strength of the (kN)
component for the required exclusion limit e
Rm = mean strength of the component (kN)
Rn = the nominal strength of the component
Rn = nominal strength of the component (kN)
Rn The nominal strength of the component (kN)
RP = return period (years)
RP The return period of the storm event being considered
S = snow and ice loads (kN)
S = snow and ice loads corresponding to an appropriate return
period
SRF = span reduction factor to provide for spatial variation in wind
VR = regional wind speed. Refer AS/NZS 1170.2 (m/s)
Vx = design site wind velocity. Refer AS/NZS 1170., Clause 2.2 (m/s)
Wn = wind load acting on all structures and line components pertinent (kN)
to each loading condition based on the appropriate 3 second gust
site wind speed as defined in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 and
corresponding to the selected return period. This load may have
an influence on other loads for each specific load case under
consideration.
X = the applied loads pertinent to each loading condition (kN)
z = depth below the ground surface (m)
zr = point of rotation at an unknown depth below the surface (m)

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SECTI ON 2 DES I GN P HILOS OPHIE S

2.1 GENERAL
The design of overhead lines requires that the total system including supports, foundations,
conductors, insulators and fittings, has operational characteristics that provides for the safe
operation and insulation of the energized components, for a planned design service life, and
meets or exceeds design levels of reliability.
The overhead line design process is an iterative one and needs to apply principles in related
design fields (electrical, structural and mechanical) whilst incorporating regulatory,
environment and maintenance requirements.
The overhead line design shall achieve a number of objectives and some of these may be
competing between the related design fields. The objectives which need to be considered
are
(a) safety (designed to relevant regulatory, Australian and International Standards);
(b) security (minimal structural or component failures);
(c) reliablity (appropriate outage rates);
(d) meeting of environmental requirements (EMF, visual, RIV, TIV and audible noise);
(e) whole of life cost;
(f) practicality to construct;
(g) ablility to be maintained (provide for climbing corridors, access for Elevating Work
Platform vehicles, live line, helicopter maintenance);
(h) meeting of regulations and codes of practice; and
(i) satisfaction of power rating requirements.

2.2 LIMIT STATE DESIGN


The design of overhead lines shall be based on limit state principles for serviceability and
strength limit states for the various line components.
Limit state design uses a load and resistance format, which separates the effects of
component strengths and their variability from the effects of external loadings and their
uncertainty.
2.2.1 Limit states on line components
The overhead line is considered intact when its structure, insulators, conductors and fittings
are used at stresses below the damage limit.
2.2.1.1 Structure design limit states
Limit states to be considered in the design of overhead lines are
(a) ultimate strength limit state in which the structures or components design capacity
exceeds the design load; and
(b) serviceability limit state in which the performance of the structure or component
under commonly occurring loads or conditions will be satisfactory.

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Serviceability limit states include support deflections. Exceeding the serviceability design
load may cause damage to some components.
NOTE: A structure or part thereof or component may be designed to fail or undergo high
deflections under some loading situations in order to relieve loads on other parts of the structural
system. When this occurs, serviceability limit states may not be maintained.
2.2.1.2 Conductors (including earthwires) limit states
When the conductor is subjected to increasing loads, conductors may exhibit at some level a
permanent deformation particularly if the failure mode is ductile or may exhibit wire and or
whole conductor fracture when subjected to wind induced aeolian vibration.
These conditions are defined as the damage or serviceability limit state. If the load is
further increased, failure of the conductor and or tension fittings occurs at a level called the
failure or ultimate limit state.
Finally the conductors and or tension fittings are considered to have failed if the conductors
and or fittings have reached their failure limit.
The state of system and the damage and failure limits are illustrated in Figure 2.1.

state of system intact state damaged state failed state

conductor
 
  
strength limits

FIGURE 2.1 LIMIT STATES OF CONDUCTOR

2.2.1.3 Insulator limit states


There are three states for the mechanical design of insulators, these being the
(a) everyday load;
(b) serviceable wind load; and
(c) failure containment load.
The serviceable load is the maximum load that can be applied without causing damage to
the insulator or exceeding the desired deflection limit. The failure containment load is the
mechanical failure load of the conductor. For line post insulators, the everyday load is a
relevant consideration to determine long term deflection of the insulator.
2.2.1.4 Electrical structure clearances limit states
Three serviceability states shall be considered
Condition (a)Low or still wind
Under low wind conditions the clearance shall be sufficient for maintenance
activities. If provision is to be made for live line work, then the clearance shall also
be adequate to maintain safe working distances at a wind pressure of 100 Pa.
Condition (b)Moderate wind
Under moderate wind of 300 Pa the clearance shall be sufficient to withstand
lightning and switching over-voltages.

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Condition (c)High wind


Under high wind pressure of 500 Pa and at maximum swing position of the insulators,
the clearance shall withstand highest power frequency temporary (dynamic) voltages
which are normally taken as between 1.4 (solidly earthed) to 1.7 (non-effectively
earthed) times the per unit voltage.

2.3 DESIGN LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES


The design life, or target nominal service life expectancy, of a structure is dependent on its
exposure to a number of variable factors such as solar radiation, temperature, precipitation,
wind, ice, and seismic effects.
The service life of an overhead line is the period over which it will continue to serve its
intended purpose safely, without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate to its cost of
replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. This recognizes
that cumulative deterioration of the overhead line will occur over time. Therefore, due
maintenance and possible minor repairs will be required from time to time to maintain the
structure in a safe and useable condition over its service life.

2.4 OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF AN OVERHEAD LINE


Each overhead line shall be designed to be capable of transferring a prescribed electrical
load, at a selected maximum operating temperature, and with acceptable levels of electrical
effects of corona, radio and television interference and electric and magnetic fields. It shall
also be capable of safe operation at a serviceability limit states of minimum temperature, as
well as everyday temperature with wind.

2.5 OPERATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES


The operational performance of a line is dependant on each component of a line being able
to meet its assumed performance criteria and to achieve a target reliability level under the
serviceability and ultimate strength limit state conditions.

2.6 RELIABILITY
All overhead lines shall be designed for a selected reliability level relevant to the lines
importance to the system (including consideration of system redundancy), its location and
exposure to climatic conditions, and with due consideration for public safety.

2.7 COORDINATION OF STRENGTH


Overhead lines should be regarded as a total spatial structural system that requires
coordination of the relative strength of the components constituting the line as set out
below; e.g. this is a mechanism to establish a desired sequence of component failure to
minimize overall damage.
This approach provides a hierarchical control of the sequence of failure of components
within an overhead line system, thereby enables the designer to coordinate the relative
strengths of components and recognises the fact that an overhead line is a series of
components where the failure of any component could lead to the loss of power
transmission capability.
The four major components of the overhead line are shown in Table 2.1

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TABLE 2.1
OVERHEAD LINE SYSTEM, COMPONENTS AND ELEMENTS
Structural system Components Elements
Steel sections, wood poles cross arms etc.
Supports Plates, bolts etc.
Guys and fittings
Anchor bolts, piles, cleats etc.
Foundations Concrete footing
Soil
Overhead line
Wires
Conductors Joints
Hardware, shackles etc.
Insulator elements
Insulators Brackets, bolts etc.
Fittings

2.8 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS


All overhead lines should be designed and constructed with consideration of their
environmental impact.

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SECTI ON 3 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS

3.1 GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS


The electrical design for an overhead line covers the following:
(a) Design of conductor to minimize losses and meet required voltage drop, and RIV,
TVI and audible noise levels.
(b) Power frequency, switching and lightning overvoltages.
(c) Determination of current rating to meet power requirements.
(d) Electrical clearances.
(e) Selection of insulation.
(f) Lightning performance.
(g) Design of earthing system.
(h) Electric and magnetic fields.

3.2 CURRENT CONSIDERATIONS


The cross-section of the phase conductors shall be chosen so that the design maximum
temperature for the conductor material is not exceeded under operating conditions. Once a
conductor and its maximum operating temperature have been chosen, the conductor rating
can be calculated. Various methods of determining conductor rating are given in Section 4.
The overhead line and the earthing system (refer Section 10 ) shall be designed to withstand
without damage the mechanical and thermal effects due to the fault currents. It is important
to take into account the actual duration which is dependent on the tripping time of the
protection system for the overhead line.

3.3 INSULATION SYSTEM DESIGN


3.3.1 General
Overhead equipment will be subjected to the effects of lightning. The insulation system
comprises air gaps and insulators. All overhead lines shall be designed to coordinate
insulation protection schemes to protect sensitive plant and equipment, such as substations,
and to provide the desired outage performance rate. These issues are discussed further in
the following sections.
3.3.2 Coordination with substations
Precautions should be taken to ensure that lightning strikes close to the substation are
attenuated to levels which do not cause damage to substation equipment.
The principles and rules of insulation co-ordination are described in AS 1824. The
procedure for insulation co-ordination consists of the selection of a set of standard
withstand voltages which characterize the insulation.

3.4 LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES


Overhead lines are designed for a lightning performance outcome and recommended outage
rates for a range of voltage levels are given in Table 3.1
The recommended reliability in terms of outage rates need to be varied in accordance with
the importance of the line. In the far northern parts of Australia where there are high
lightning activity levels, it may not be practical to achieve the recommended rates.

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Computer programs developed by IEEE, CIGRE and EPRI are available for estimating the
lightning outage rates.

TABLE 3.1
RECOMMENDED LIGHTNING OUTAGE RATE
Voltage Recommended lightning outage rate
kV (per 100 km per year)
Less than 11 Not applicable
11 to 33 5 to 10
66 to 132 1 to 2
220 to 330 0.3 to 0.6
500 <0.3

NOTE: Ground flash density maps of Australia and New Zealand are given in AS/NZS 1768.
For detail procedure in assessing design for lightning performance refer to Appendix E.

3.5 ELECTRICAL CLEARANCE DISTANCES TO AVOID FLASHOVER


3.5.1 Introduction
Overhead lines shall be designed with electrical clearances from the energized conductor to
surrounding objects to provide safe and reliable operation. These objects can be other
energized conductors, structures, constructions, plant, vehicles or vessels (water craft). The
basic approach to electrical clearances is to combine an electrical air gap withstand
distance, (G w) with a safety margin (S m). Gw is dependent on the electrical breakdown
voltage of air (around 300 kV per metre), Relative air density (RAD), the air gap geometry.
S m is dependent on the type of object, the movement of the object and the exposure of
persons in the vicinity of the energized conductor.
The electrical clearances which are outlined in this Standard set the minimum acceptable
standards for the safe operation and reliable electrical performance of the overhead line.
These clearances are classified as
(a) Internal, which include the following:
(i) Clearance at the structure
(ii) Clearance for inspection and maintenance
(iii) Mid span phase conductor to phase conductor
(iv) Phase conductor to earthwire
(b) External, which include the following:
(i) Phase conductor to ground.
(ii) Phase conductor to objects.
(iii) Circuit to circuit (attached to same structure or unattached).
3.5.2 Clearances to objects and ground
The designer shall have regard for state based Electricity Safety Regulations which may
specify additional or more onerous clearances.
Where regulations set line design clearances above road pavement these will typically be
based on a minimum electrical clearance (flashover clearance plus margin) plus provision
for the maximum likely vehicle height.

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The designer should consider the requirement for any over-dimensional vehicle or
machinery and make provision, where necessary, for construction of future subsidiary
circuits or under crossings of distribution/sub-transmission lines. The resulting clearance
will be above the clearance normally accepted for road purposes.
3.5.3 Inspection and maintenance clearances
The designer needs to be aware of the different methods used for line maintenance and the
impact this may have on circuit availability, particularly for multi-circuit construction.
Inspection and maintenance activities include
(a) deadline inspection and/or maintenancewith the line de-energized or earthed for
safe access;
(b) live line inspectionby provision of a safe access corridor on the structure to inspect
components. The designer should have regard, in selecting corridor width, to the
available freedom or constraint on body movement and the consequence of
inadvertent movement in managing risk; and
(c) live line maintenancethis could include stick or bare hand work either from the
structure or insulated elevated work platform or helicopter (in-span if clearances are
appropriate).
For safe approach and live line clearances refer to Electricity Networks Association
(Australia) publications, Electricity Engineers Association (New Zealand) publications,
Australian Standards and New Zealand Codes of Practice.
3.5.4 Live access clearance
During tower structure access, there is a greater risk of lapse of control than with deliberate
approach which may be applied at a working position. Climbing corridors should be
dimensioned to
(a) accommodate the natural climbing action without requiring the constrained movement
by the climber to maintain safe electrical distances (refer climbing space test in
Figure 3.1); and
(b) maintain at least power frequency flashover distance in the event of a momentary
lapse of controlled movement by the climber. (refer full reach test in Figure 3.1).

Power frequency flashover distance

Safe approach distance


      

FIGURE 3.1 ACCESS CLEARANCE TEST

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3.5.5 General considerations and cases


3.5.5.1 States for calculation of clearances
3.5.5.1.1 Maximum design temperature
Based on the properties of the conductor the maximum design temperature shall not
exceed
(a) the permissible temperature rating of the conductor with appropriate consideration of
differential expansion of similar materials (known as birdcaging); and/or
(b) for covered and or insulated conductors the insulation temperature rating shall be in
accordance with the appropriate Standard; or
(c) the temperature rating of fibre optic cores; and/or
(d) the permissible loss of strength due to annealing as specified in Clause CC; and/or
(e) the drop point any grease applied to the conductor.
The design temperature shall not result in an infringement of the required electrical
clearance specified in Section 3.
3.5.5.2 Ice load for determination of electrical clearance
The characteristic ice load to be applied shall be specified directly based on regional
experience.
3.5.5.3 Combined wind and snow/ice loads
Combined wind and snow/ice loads should be considered in certain regions of Australia and
New Zealand, based on regional experience.
3.5.6 Clearances at the structure
The three serviceability clearance states which shall be considered are given in Section 2
and include
(a) low or still wind;
(b) moderate wind; and
(c) high wind.

3.6 DETERMINATION OF STRUCTURE GEOMETRY


Structures shall be designed with adequate air clearances to provide a reliable performance
and to allow maintenance to be performed safely. The electrical design determines the
structure geometry and shall be coordinated with the structural design.
3.6.1 High wind serviceability state
The power frequency clearance is the distance between the structure and the conductor
when the conductor is subjected to the high wind serviceability wind pressure. Any
insulator swing shall be taken into account when determining the structure geometry.
3.6.2 Moderate wind serviceability state
Switching and lightning impulse clearances shall be provided for moderate wind pressure.
Any insulator swing shall be taken into account when determining the structure geometry.

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3.6.3 Low wind serviceability state


The method of access to the structure needs to be considered and then climbing corridors
and work positions defined. The structures shall be designed with consideration given to the
types of maintenance activities used, such as climbing patrols, helicopter patrols and live
line and bare hand working crews. Adequate clearances between the workers and live
equipment shall be provided for the various maintenance activities to be performed safely.
For inspection and maintenance activities, a maintenance approach distance between
personnel and live parts shall be provided under light winds, typically in range 60 Pa to
100 Pa wind pressure.
Clearances are required to be considered for the following cases:
(a) Maintenance approach distance for climbing and inspection.
(b) Live line working.
(c) Hand reach clearance.
For maintenance approach distances refer to ENA NENS 04.
Refer to the following documents for live working distances:
(i) ENA LLM 03 for glove and barrier.
(ii) ENA LLM 02 for live line sticks.
(iii) ENA LLM 01 for barehand.
In New Zealand the relevant references are
1 EEA SM-EI
2 NZECP 34
Figure 3.2 shows how the working distances and wind speeds are used to establish an
example 110 kV structure geometry. The wind pressure assumed for maintenance and live
line working is
(A) 100 Pa for power frequency flashover
(B) 300 Pa for switching and lightning impulse flashover
(C) 500 Pa for the maximum working wind for a non-cyclonic area.

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3 4.5

250 0

16 0 0

35

16 6 8
( 9 fo g t y p e i ns u l ato r s )
20 140 0
1592 Impulse clearance
( 9 n o r m a l i n s u l ato r s )
10 0 Pa

1400 normal maintenance


370 0
9 0 0 m i n. approach limit
l i ve l i n e a i r g a p
L i ve l i n e
m a i nte n a n c e
e q u i p m e nt
i n ex tre m e
p o s i ti o n
9 52 1020
23
35

50 0 - 50 Hz
50 0 Pa a n d 6 6 0 Pa W i thsta n d

5.5 70

0 Pa

Po l e c e ntre l i n e

140 0 L i ve l i n e
wo r k i n g d i s t a n c e

70 0 L i ve l i n e
wo r k i n g c o r r i d o r
10 0 0 sq u a re 50 0 50 0
climbing corridor Climbing corridor
AC C ES S O N T R AV ER S E FAC E SUS PENSIO N ST RUCT U R E

FIGURE 3.2 STRUCTURE GEOMETRY SHOWING ELECTRICAL CLEARANCES

Hand reach clearancefor a typical tower where the climbing corridor is 700 mm from the
face the recommended hand reach clearance is 1.7 metre from the tower face. For a pole ,
the hand reach clearance is 100 mm from the pole centre line.

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3.7 SPACING OF CONDUCTORS


3.7.1 Conductors of different circuits on different supports (unattached crossing)
3.7.1.1 General
This clause provides the minimum requirements to prevent circuit to circuit flashover,
under both normal operating and fault conditions, between aerial conductors or cables of
different circuits that cross each other and are not attached to the same pole or support at
the point of crossing (see Figure 3.3)
(a) Where a circuit operates at a voltage below 1000 V it should be placed below any
other circuit operating at a higher voltage.
(b) The vertical separation any conductor or cable of the higher circuit and any conductor
or cable of the lower circuit should satisfy both of the following:
(i) Normal conditions clearanceThe vertical separation should be not less than that
specified in Table 3.2.
(ii) Dynamic loading clearanceRefer to Figure 3.4.
If conditions are such that it is likely that the lower circuit can flick up into the higher
circuit, the vertical separation at the crossing point should be twice the sag of the lower
circuit when both conductors or cables are at their maximum design temperature. (This is a
simplified calculation method).
NOTE: Dynamic load can be caused by vegetation falling on conductors or ice shedding

FIGURE 3.3 UNATTACHED CROSSING

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FIGURE 3.4 SIMPLIFIED UNATTACHED CROSSINGS FOR FAULT CONDITIONS


(DOUBLE ENVELOPE METHOD)

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TABLE 3.2

DRAFT ONLY
VERTICAL SEPARATION FOR UNATTACHED CROSSINGS (IN METRES)
UPPER CIRCUIT
U 33 kV U < 1000 V Other
U 500 kV U 330 kV U 275 kV U 132 kV U 66 kV U 33 kV
U > 1000 V Bare, Other cables cables
U > 330 kV U > 275 kV U >132 kV U > 66 kV U > 33 kV U > 1000 V
Bare or covered and (Conductive) (Non-
Bare Bare Bare Bare Bare Insulated
covered insulated conductive)
330 kV <U 500 kV No wind 5.2
Bare Wind 3.6
275 kV < U 330 kV No wind 5.2 3.8
Bare Wind 3.6 2.6
L 132 kV < U 275 kV No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8
O Bare Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2
W 66 kV < U 132 kV No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8 2.4
8326-PDR - 24/07/2008 14:25:50

E Bare Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.5


R 33 kV < U 66 kV No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8 2.4 1.8
Bare Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.5 0.8
C 1000 V < U 33 kV No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8 2.4 1.8 1.2

37
I Bare or covered Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.5 0.8 0.5
R 1000 V < U 33 kV No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8 2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6
C Insulated Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.5 0.8 0.5 0.4
U U 1000 V No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8 2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.6
I Bare, covered and insulated Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.5 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4
T Other cables No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8 2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.4
(Conductive) Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.5 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.2
Other cables No wind 5.2 3.8 2.8 2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.4
(Non conductive) Wind 3.6 2.6 2.2 1.5 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.2 0.2
NOTES:
1 The above clearances may need to be increased due to local factors such as in Note 7 of Clause 3.7.
2 The clearances in this table may need to be increased to account for safe approach distances required for construction, operation and maintenances and for conductor blow
out on large spans.
3 The above clearances are based on the top circuit being at maximum conductor temperature and the bottom circuit at ambient temperature.
4 These clearances apply to heights up to 1000 m.

DRAFT ONLY
DRAFT ONLY 38 DRAFT ONLY

3.7.1.2 Determination of conductor separation


Vertical separation between circuits is determined by establishing the conductor positions
with reference to
(a) conductor temperatures of each circuit; and
(b) wind conditions.
The following should be used as a guide for selecting appropriate conductor temperatures
and wind pressures:
3.7.1.3 Separation in still air
The conductor temperature of the higher circuit should be the maximum design
temperature.
In the case of a bearer wire supporting a conductor bundle (e.g. as in Aerial Control Cable
to AS/NZS 2373 or HVABC to AS/NZS 3599) the maximum design temperature would be
the maximum temperature the bearer wire may reach under the influence of ambient
temperature of the air, solar radiation and heat transferred to it from the phase conductors,
if applicable.
3.7.1.4 Separation under wind
The conductor temperature of higher circuit should be taken as tC with conductors hanging
in the vertical plane, i.e. the wind direction is along the span, e.g. conductors not displaced
by wind, and Temperature tC is the conductor temperature applicable to the wind load
conditions specified in Appendix B.
The conductor temperature of lower circuit should be taken as tC with conductors
displaced by P wind pressure, i.e. the wind direction is normal to the span, and Temperature
tC is the conductor temperature applicable to the wind load conditions specified in
Appendix B.
NOTE: This assumes that the conductor temperatures of both circuits are at the temperature at
which wind pressure occurs, e.g. conductors have cooled to the air temperature.
Table 3.3 gives the temperature and electrical conditions for determining the electrical
clearances

TABLE 3.3
AMBIENT CONDITIONS FOR DETERMINING CLEARANCES
Condition Top Conductor Bottom Conductor Clearance
No wind Ambient temp Ambient temp Impulse
High wind on lower Ambient temp Ambient temp Power frequency
conductor (500 Pa)

3.7.2 Conductors of different circuits on the same support (attached crossing)


This Clause provide the minimum requirements to prevent circuit to circuit flashover, under
operating conditions, between aerial conductors or cables that are attached to the same
support and cross each other (see Figure 3.5).
Where two circuits of different or similar voltage cross each other and are attached to the
same support, conductors of a higher voltage circuit should be placed above a lower voltage
circuit and the vertical separations between the different circuits at any point on the support
under normal working conditions should not be less than specified in Table 3.4.
NOTE: For voltages in excess of 132 kV separations should be determined by the designer.

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DRAFT ONLY 39 DRAFT ONLY

FIGURE 3.5 ATTACHED CROSSINGS

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TABLE 3.4

DRAFT ONLY
VERTICAL SEPARATION FOR ATTACHED CROSSINGS (IN METRES)

UPPER CIRCUIT
U 132 kV U 66 kV U 33 kV U 33 kV U < 1000 V U < 1000 V Other cables Other cables
U > 66 kV U > 33 kV U > 1000 V U > 1000 V Bare and Insulated (Conductive) (Non-
Bare Bare Bare or Insulated covered conductive)
covered
66 kV <U 132 kV
2.4
Bare
L 33 kV < U 66 kV
2.4 1.5
O Bare (Note 1)
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W 1000 kV < U 33 kV
2.4 1.5 0.9 0.9
E Bare or covered
R 1000 kV < U 33 kV

40
2.4 1.5 0.9 0.2
Insulated
C U < 1000 V
2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.3 0.3
I Bare and covered
R U < 1000 V
2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.3
C Insulated
U Other cables
2.4 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2
I (Conductive)
T Other cables
0.2 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2
(Non conductive)
NOTES:
1 The clearances in the table are based on the lower circuit conductors being attached to pin or post insulators. Additional clearance is required to allow for conductor
movement, if the lower circuit is attached by suspension or strain insulators.

DRAFT ONLY
2 The clearances in this table may need to be increased to account for safe approach distances required for construction, operation and maintenances.
DRAFT ONLY 41 DRAFT ONLY

3.7.3 Conductors on the same supports (same or different circuits and shared spans)
This Clause provides the minimum requirements between aerial conductors or cables
attached to the same support, and sharing the same span to prevent circuit to circuit or
phase to phase flashover under operating conditions.
Where aerial conductors or cables are carried on the same pole or support as those of a
higher voltage the lower voltage conductors should be placed below the higher voltage
conductors.
Any two bare aerial conductors having a difference in voltage with respect to each other
should have vertical, horizontal or angular separation from each other in accordance with
the values required by Clause 3.7.3.1 (refer to Figure 3.6), provided that the clearance at the
support or at any part in the span is not less than the separation nominated in Item (b) (refer
to Figure 3.7).
The separation given by Clause 3.7.3.1 is intended to cater for differential (out of phase and
in phase) movement of conductors under wind conditions with minimum turbulence. The
separation given by Clause3.7.3.2 is a minimum under any circumstances.
3.7.3.1 At mid span (Refer to Figure3.6)

FIGURE 3.6 CONDUCTOR SEPARATION AT MID SPAN (ONE CIRCUIT)

u
X 2 = (1.2Y ) 2 + k D = Ii . . .(3.1)
150
where
X is the projected horizontal distance in metres between the conductors at
mid span; (X = X1 + X2 )/2) where X1 is the projected horizontal distance in
metres between the conductors at one support and X2 is the projected
horizontal distance in metres between the conductors at the other support
in the same span
Y is the projected vertical distance in metres between the conductors at mid
span; (Y = (Y1 + Y2 )/2) where Y1 is the projected vertical distance in
metres between the conductors at one support and Y2 is the projected
vertical distance in metres between the conductors at the other support in
the same span

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DRAFT ONLY 42 DRAFT ONLY

U is the r.m.s. vector difference in potential (kV) between the two


conductors when each is operating at its nominal voltage. In determining
the potential between conductors of different circuits, regard should be
paid to any phase differences in the nominal voltages
k is a constant, normally equal to 0.4. Where experience has shown that
other values are appropriate, these may be applied. Refer also to Note 5
of this Clause
D is the greater of the two conductor sags in metres at the centre of an
equivalent level span and at a conductor operating temperature of 50C in
still air
li is the length in metres of any free swing suspension insulator associated
with either conductor.
For the purposes of this Clause an equivalent level span shall mean a span
(i) which has the same span length in the horizontal projection as the original span;
(ii) in which conductor attachments at supports are in the same horizontal plane;
and
(iii) in which the horizontal component of conductor tension is the same as in the
original span.
As this Equation 3.1 is intended to cater for out-of-phase movement of conductors
under wind conditions with minimum turbulence, the conductor sags are calculated at
50C and the effect of different load currents are ignored (because of the significant
cooling effect of the wind in these conditions). The wind is not sufficient to increase
the sag, and therefore sag can be calculated assuming still air.
U can be determined by using the formula

U = Va2 + Vb2 2 Va Vb Cos . . .3.2

where
Va = upper circuit nominal voltage phase to earth value (kV)
Vb = lower circuit nominal voltage phase to earth value (kV)
= phase angle difference between circuits (degrees)
3.7.3.2 At any point in the span
Where U 11 kV . . . . . . . . . . 0.38 m
. . .3.3
Where U > 11 kV . . . . . . . . . . (0.38 + 0.01 (U 11))

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DRAFT ONLY 43 DRAFT ONLY

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)
(b) (a)

(a) Mid span separation equation 3.1 applies


(b) Any point in span equation 3.3 applies

FIGURE 3.7 CONDUCTOR SEPARATIONATTACHED ON SAME STRUCTURE

NOTES:
1 When conductors of different circuits are located vertically one above the other, consideration
should be given to the need to prevent clashing of conductors of different circuits under the
influence of load current in one or both circuits. Refer to Figure 3.8.
2 This clause is not intended to apply to insulated conductors (with or without earthed screens)
of any voltage.
3 The spacing for covered conductors may be reduced providing the covering is adequate to
prevent electrical breakdown of the covering when the conductors clash and a risk
management strategy is in place to ensure that conductors do not remain entangled for periods
beyond that the covering can withstand.
4 Where spacers are used, spacing may be less than those specified. It is suggested that the
spacer be taken to be a conductor support for the purpose of calculating conductor spacing.
5 The above empirical formula is intended to minimize the risk of conductor clashing; however,
circumstances do arise where it is not practicable to give guidance or predict outcomes. Some
of these situations involve
(a) extremely turbulent wind conditions;
(b) the different amount of movement of conductors of different size and type under the
same wind conditions; and
(c) conductor movement under fault conditions (particularly with horizontal construction).
The following k factors are recommended for overhead power lines which have phase to
phase clearances at 1200 mm or less at midspan:
(i) Extremely turbulent wind conditionsk to be in range 0.4 to 0.6.
(ii) High to Extreme Bushfire prone areask to be in range 0.4 to 0.6
(iii) under high phase to phase fault conditionsk = 0.4 for fault currents up to 4,000 A, 0.5
for fault currents from 4,000 A to 6,000 A and 0.6 for fault currents above 6,000 A
(iv) Conductors of different mass/diameter ratios and at different heightsk = 0.4 to 0.6
In all other situations a k factor of 0.4 is recommended.
6 Mid span clearances will need to be increased in situations where the conductor transition
from horizontal to vertical or where the adjacent conductors are of different characteristics
(diameter, weight) which can cause out of phase movement..

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DRAFT ONLY 44 DRAFT ONLY

7 The following situations may also need to be taken into account when considering spacing of
conductors but it is not practicable to provide guidance in this document. Knowledge of local
conditions would be required to make design decisions.
(a) Aircraft warning devices.
(b) Large birds which may collide with conductors, causing them to come together, or
whose wingspan is such as to make contact between bare conductors and conducting
crossarms.
(c) Flocks of birds resting on conductors are known to lift off simultaneously, causing
violent conductor movement.
(d) Ice and snow loading and ice shedding.
(e) Terrain factors that may contribute to aerodynamic lift and/or random motion.
(f) Spray irrigators.
(g) Safety approach clearances for construction, operation and maintenance
8 Spacing may need to be increased in locations where bridging of the spacing by birds or
animals is experienced or probable.

FIGURE 3.8 CONDUCTOR SEPARATIONINFLUENCE OF LOAD CURRENT


ATTACHED ON SAME STRUCTURE

3.7.4 Clearance to inter-span poles


Poles may be installed in between spans to accommodate street lights or low voltage
services and electrical clearance needs to be provided for maintenance personnel. The
minimum separation between the circuit at maximum operating temperature and interspan
pole for 11 kV and 33 kV shall be 1.5 metres (as shown in Figure 3.9).

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DRAFT ONLY 45 DRAFT ONLY

Top circuit at max. Derivation of in span clearance


In span
design temp clearance Lowest superscript conductor ( up to 33kV )

0.7 m
A p p ro a c h l i m i t to
Botom circuit at 1.5 m c l o s e s t b a re l i ve
ambient temp c o n d u c to r
0.8 m
Wo r k i n g zo n e

Power DR
streetlight pole

FIGURE 3.9 CLEARANCE TO INTER-SPAN POLES

3.8 INSULATOR AND CONDUCTOR MOVEMENT AT STRUCTURE


3.8.1 General
This clause provides the minimum requirements for the separation between aerial
conductors or cables and any earthed structure to prevent flashover under operating
conditions.
This clause applies to all transmission and distribution lines using bare aerial conductors
and suspension insulators. It is intended to provide guidance in the selection of suitable air
gap clearances between conductors and the structure. Guidance in the selection of solid
insulation levels is not covered here and should be considered separately.
Insulation at the structure is provided by a combination of solid insulators such as
porcelain, glass or other composite materials and also by wood crossarms, air, or a
combination of these. This insulation is subjected to electrical stresses resulting from power
frequency voltages, switching surges and lightning impulse voltages.
The insulation levels and air gap clearances should be selected to withstand these over-
voltages so that the desired operational performance is achieved. A good design should also
provide for insulation coordination between the line insulation and terminal station
insulation so as to avoid damage to station equipment from over-voltages.
If provision is to be made for live line maintenance, or for access or inspection under live
conditions, then the physical distances to access and working positions should be adequate
for the safe conduct of this work and to meet any statutory requirements where specified.
To the extent practicable, hazards under live conditions should be mitigated by provision of
adequate air gap clearances in preference to reliance on procedural precautions. These
clearances should encompass the ergonomic and electrical distances necessary to safely
provide for both natural and inadvertent movements of persons, together with the movement
of conductors possible under the range of working conditions permitted.
With suspension insulator strings, the air gap clearances change as the insulator string
swings from its position at rest, due to wind action. Consequently the insulation strength of
the air gap also changes. The air breakdown strength at any moment will depend on the
physical gap, the shape of the electrodes, atmospheric conditions and altitude. Hence the
ability to withstand different over-voltages resulting from power frequency, lightning
impulse and switching surges constantly changes.

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DRAFT ONLY 46 DRAFT ONLY

Thus for a freely suspended conductor, both the air gap and the over-voltages are random
variables and probabilistic processes need to be used to determine the optimum
coordination. Statistical considerations indicate that lightning or switching impulses
combined with high swing angles of the insulator string (i.e. smaller air gaps to the
structure) have a very low probability of occurrence. The angle of swing itself depends on
several variables such as wind velocity, time and space distribution of wind, wind direction,
topography and ratio of the wind to weight span.
3.8.2 Structure clearances
Based on operational experience and probabilistic considerations discussed in Clause 3.8.1,
a simplified approach consisting of a three envelope system is recommended for the
determination of conductor clearances on structures.
Condition (a)Low wind
Condition (b)Moderate wind
Condition (c)High wind
Table 3.5 provides recommended structure and conductor clearances for conditions (b) and
(c) for different system and impulse withstand voltages. These are suitable for most
applications. Where unusual or extreme weather and climatic conditions exist, local
knowledge and experience should be used to modify the clearances.

C ro s s a r m

R efe r R efe r
Ta b l e 3.5 Ta b l e 3.5

A n g l e of sw i n g

C l e a r a n c e zo n e C l e a r a n c e zo n e

FIGURE 3.10 CLEARANCE TO STRUCTURES SWING ANGLECONDITION (B)

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DRAFT ONLY 47 DRAFT ONLY

TABLE 3.5
CLEARANCES TO EARTHED STRUCTURES (IN METRES)
Lightning/switching
Clearance to earthed structure in metres for
Nominal system voltage impulse withstand
altitudes up to 1000 m
voltage
High wind or maximum
Moderate wind
kV (r.m.s.) kV (peak) swing
Condition (b) Condition (c)

11
95 0.16 0.10

22
150 0.28 0.13

33
200 0.38 0.18

66
350 0.69 0.28

110
550 1.1 0.40

132
650 1.3 0.50

220
950 1.9 0.75

275
1050 2.2 0.90

330
1175 2.6 1.10

400
1250 2.8 1.5
1300 3.1 1.75
500
1550 4.2 1.75
NOTES:
1 For structures with line post or pin insulators, the moderate wind distances recommended can be used to
establish structure clearances.
2 For voltages up to 66 kV, clearances may need to be increased in locations where bridging of insulators
by birds or animals is experienced or probable.
3 For altitudes in excess of 1000 m refer to altitude table (BS EN 50341-1).
4 Condition (b) relates to lighting impulse distance and conditions (c) to power frequency flashover
distance.

3.8.3 Calculation of swing angles


The conductor tension H for insulator swing angle should be based on the relevant reference
wind pressure and temperature.
The estimation of swing angles may be made using a simplified deterministic approach or a
detailed procedure using meteorological data. The latter method should be used when
greater precision is required or where unusual and/or extreme local conditions prevail.

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DRAFT ONLY 48 DRAFT ONLY

There are other alternative insulator assemblies and appropriate clearances and line actions
need to be considered. These alternative types include
(a) bridging insulators;
(b) strain insulators;
(c) line post insulators;
(d) vee strings; and
(e) horizontal vee assemblies.
The swing angles of suspension insulator strings for both low and high wind conditions can
be estimated using the approach in Appendix R.

3.9 LIVE LINE CLEARANCES


Structures shall be designed to provide for live line maintenance. Relevant minimum live
line approach clearances are provided in Table 3.6
Reference should also be made to the provisions set out in Clause 3.6.3
Relevant NZ references include NZECP 46 and EEA Guide to Use of Helicopters in Power
Company Work.

TABLE 3.6
HVAC LIVE LINE APPROACH DISTANCES
Nominal phase to Phase to earth Phase to earth Phase to phase Phase to phase
phase a.c. voltage selected distance selected distance selected distance selected distance
A/R on A/R off A/R on A/R. off
kV mm mm mm mm
11 500 500 600 600
22 500 500 600 600
33 500 500 600 600
50 600 550 750 700
66 700 600 900 800
88 850 700 1100 1000
110 950 800 1300 1200
132 1100 900 1500 1300
220 1600 1300 2300 2000
275 2100 1600 3100 2400
330 2700 1900 3900 3000
400 3000 2400 4600 3900
500 3500 2400 5600 3900

3.10 CLEARANCES TO GROUND AND AREASREMOTE FROM BUILDING,


ROADS, RAILWAYS AND NAVIGABLE WATERWAYS
3.10.1 Clearances to ground
3.10.1.1 Lines other than insulated service lines
This clause covers all overhead lines except insulated conductors of an overhead service
line and facade mounted insulated cable systems.

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DRAFT ONLY 49 DRAFT ONLY

The aerial conductors or cables of an overhead line should be located so that the distances
to level or sloping ground in any direction from any position to which any part of such
conductors may either sag at maximum design temperature or move as a result of wind
pressure, should not be less than the distances specified in Table 3.7.
Departures from these specified distances are permissible where a comprehensive risk
management assessment has been carried out using the methodology outlined in
Appendix U or similar.

TABLE 3.7
CLEARANCE FROM GROUND, LINES OTHER
THAN INSULATED SERVICE LINES

Distance to ground in any direction


m
Nominal system voltage Over land which due to its
Over land other
Over the steepness or swampiness is
U than the
carriageway of not traversable by
carriageway of
roads vehicles more than 3 m in
roads
height
Bare or insulated conductor or any
other cable U 1000 V
OR
5.5 5.5 4.5
Insulated conductor with earthed
screen
U > 1000 V
Insulated conductor without earthed
6.0 5.5 4.5
screen U > 1000 V
Bare or covered conductor
1000 V <U 33 kV 6.7 5.5 4.5
33 V <U 132 kV 6.7 6.7 5.5
132 kV <U 275 kV 7.5 7.5 6.0
275 kV <U 330 kV 8.0 8.0 6.7
330 kV <U 400 kV 9.0 9.0 7.5
400 kV <U 500 kV 9.0 9.0 7.5

NOTES:
1 For the purpose of this Clause, the term ground includes any unroofed elevated area
accessible to plant or vehicles.
2 In the case of cliff faces or cuttings the clearances specified in the column headed Over land
which due to its steepness or swampiness is not traversable by vehicles shall apply.
3 In the case of waterways, flood plains and snowfields, the clearances should be determined
having regard to local conditions and requirements.
4 Where the usage of land is such that vehicles of unusual height are likely to pass under an
overhead line, the clearances given in this clause may need to be increased.
5 The distances specified are final conditions for conductors which have settled in. When
conductors are first erected, an allowance should be made for settling in and conductor
creep. Refer to Appendix S.
6 The distances specified in are designed to protect supports from damage from impact loads on
conductors as well as protecting vehicles from contact with conductors
7 The above values are based on vehicles with a maximum height of 4.6 m.

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DRAFT ONLY 50 DRAFT ONLY

3.10.1.2 Insulated service lines


Insulated conductors of an overhead service line should be located so that the distance to
level or sloping ground in any direction from any position to which any part of such
conductors may either sag at maximum design temperature or move as a result of wind
pressure, should not be less than the distances specified in Table 3.8.

TABLE 3.7
CLEARANCE FROM GROUND, INSULATED LV SERVICE LINES
Service line location Distance to ground in any direction
m
Over the centre of a road 5.5
Over any other part of a road 4.6
Over a footway or land which is likely to be 3.0
used by vehicles

Elsewhere 2.7

NOTES:
1 For the purpose of this Clause, the term ground includes any unroofed elevated area
accessible to plant or vehicles.
2 In the case of waterways, flood plains and snow fields, the clearances should be determined
having regard to local conditions and requirements.
3 Where the usage of land is such that vehicles of unusual height are likely to pass under an
insulated overhead service line, the clearances given in this clause may need to be increased.
4 The clearances specified in Table 3.8 are final conditions for conductors which have settled
in. When conductors are first erected, an allowance should be made for settling in and
conductor creep. Refer to Appendix S.
3.10.2 Clearances to buildings, traffic routes, other lines and recreational areas
3.10.2.1 Structures and buildings
This clause specifies the minimum clearance from any structure, building, post or line
support (other than a support to which the line under consideration is attached or a support
of another overhead line which crosses the line under consideration) to any position to
which a conductor in an overhead line may swing under the influence of wind as defined in
Appendix B or sag under the influence of load current and solar radiation, should be as
specified in Appendix S.
NOTES:
1 The clearances to be maintained at the outer extremities of those parts on any structure on
which a person can stand are defined by an arc of radius A or B as appropriate. This arc has
its centre at the outer extremity of the structure and extends outward from a point vertically
above its centre to its intersection with a vertical line that is located at a horizontal distance
specified in C, from the outer extremities of those parts of any structure on which a person
can stand.
2 Table 3.8 does not apply to cable systems supported along the facade of a building.
3 Figure 3.12 illustrates the application of Table 3.8 to a particular building. The letters A to D
refer to distances A to D as set out in Table 3.8. The letter G refers to distance to ground.
3.10.2.2 Easements
When considering the width of an easement to provide clearance from structures, the
position of the conductors or cables under the influence of wind at any point along the span
should be taken into account. A safety clearance should also be included. (Refer to
Figure 3.13).

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DRAFT ONLY 51 DRAFT ONLY

FIGURE 3.11 STRUCTURE CLEARANCES FOR TABLE 3.9

3.9 3.9

FIGURE 3.12 EASEMENT CLEARANCES

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DRAFT ONLY
TABLE 3.8
CLEARANCES FROM STRUCTURES

1000 V 33 kV 132 kV 275 kV 330 kV


U 1000 V U > 1000 V <U <U <U <U <U
33 kV 132 kV 275 kV 30 kV 500 kV
Clearance
Bare Bare Insulated with Insulated without Bare or
Insulated Bare Bare Bare Bare
neutral active earthed screen earthed screen covered

m m M m m m m m m m
A
(1)
Vertically above those parts of any 2.7 2.7 3.7 2.7 3.7 4.5 5.0 6.5 7.0 8.0
structure normally accessible to persons
8326-PDR - 24/07/2008 14:25:50

B
(1)
Vertically above those parts of any 0.1 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.7 4.5 6.0 6.5 7.5
structure not normally accessible to
persons but on which a person can stand

52
C
In any direction (other than vertically
above) from those parts of any structure 0.1 0.9 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.1 3.0 4.5 5.0 6.0
normally accessible to persons, or from
any part not normally accessible to
persons but on which a person can stand
D
In any direction from those parts of any 0.1 (2) 0.3 (2) 0.6 (2) 0.1 0.6 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.0 5.0
structure not normally accessible to
persons
G
Refer to Table 3.8 Refer to Table 3.8 Refer to Table 3.8
In any direction from ground
(1)
This should not be taken as meaning only the literal vertical. The actual clearance may also extend outwards in an arc until it intersects with the relevant C dimension
clearance, as indicated on Figure 3.12. See also Note 1 in Clause 3.10.2.1.
(2)
This clearance can be further reduced to allow for termination at the point of attachment.

DRAFT ONLY
NOTE: The interpretation/confirmation of clearances that apply for different situations outlined in this Table may in some instances only be made following reference to
Figure 3.12 to determine an actual clearance that is relevant for a particular application.
DRAFT ONLY 53 DRAFT ONLY

3.11 POWER LINE EASEMENTS


An easement is legally described as an encumbrance on the title of land limited in width
and height above or below the land conferring a right to construct, operate and maintain an
electricity power line, cable, or apparatus.
Easements are usually obtained or created to ensure electricity utilities can gain ready
access to assets for maintenance, repair and upgrading the power lines and for the safety of
persons living, working or playing near overhead lines.
An easement width can be established to accommodate an overhead energized line asset
which ensures adequate safe electrical and mechanical spatial clearances are provided.
The easement width may be influenced by other factors such as audible noise, radio and
television interference, or electric and magnetic fields.
3.11.1 Typical easement widths
Appendix EE provides typical easement widths for a range of voltages.

3.12 CORONA EFFECT


The surface voltage gradient on the conductor should be limited to less than 16 kV/cm to
limit the generation of corona discharges. For higher surface voltage gradients, all surfaces
on hardware should be smooth and the corners rounded. At the higher voltage levels, the
use of corona rings should be considered around the hardware to reduce corona.
3.12.1 Radio and television interference
Corona generates interference over a wide band of frequencies.
The degree of annoyance caused by radio and television interference is determined by the
so-called signal-to-noise ratio at the receiving installation. When establishing limits for
the emission of radio noise, the radio and television signal strengths to be protected have to
be determined.
The allowable levels of Radio Interference Voltage (RIV) and Television Interference (TVI)
are given in AS/NZS 2344. For New Zealand, the applicable standard is NZS 6869.
3.12.2 Audible noise
The most common form of audible noise is a hissing or frying sound (broadband crackle)
audible in wet weather. During fair weather a constant low frequency (100 Hz) hum may
also be heard.
Designers need to ensure that audible noise levels comply with relevant EPA or local
council regulations. The total random audible noise consisting of both broadband and
100 Hz hum need to be addressed in the design process.
3.12.3 Corona loss
In cases where the surface voltage gradient is very high there can be a power loss along the
conductor due to corona emission. On overhead power lines, corona loss is expressed in
watts per metre (W/m) or kilowatts per kilometre (kW/km). The power loss due to corona is
typically less than a few kilowatts/kilometre in fair weather but, it can amount to tens of
kilowatts/kilometre during heavy rain and up to one hundred kilowatts/kilometre during
frost.
In general if the surface voltage gradient is kept below 16 kV/cm, corona loss will be
negligible compared to joule losses.

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3.13 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS


3.13.1 Electric and magnetic fields under a line
The design of overhead lines can be influenced by the necessity to limit power frequency
electric and magnetic fields produced by energized conductors.
Limit values for electric and magnetic fields are not provided in this Standard. For such
limits, reference shall be made where relevant to
(a) for Australiato ARPANSA, Draft Radiation Protection Standard for Exposure
Limits to Electrical and Magnetic Fields 0 Hz3 kHz; and
(b) for New Zealandto ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying
Electric, Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (Up To 300 Ghz).
3.13.2 Electric and magnetic field induction
Electric and magnetic fields near an overhead line may induce currents in and voltages on
adjacent conductive objects such as long metal structures (e.g. communication installations,
fences, lines or pipes) or bulky objects (e.g. conductive roofs, tanks or large vehicles) in
proximity to power lines.
Mitigation measures should be considered to reduce these effects to acceptable levels
contained in relevant Standards and Codes. Relevant Standards and Codes are HB 102
(CJC 6 ), and AS/NZS 4853.
3.13.3 Interference with telecommunication circuits
Telecommunication circuits can suffer electrical interference from power lines.
For interference calculations and measures to be taken to eliminate the effects or reduce
them to acceptable levels, reference shall be made to relevant International and National
Standards and/or to qualified Codes of Practice (i.e. ITU Directives (CCITT) Vol. VI and/or
to particular agreements between the parties concerned. . Relevant standards and codes are
HB 102 ( CJC 6 ).
3.13.4 Electrostatic induction
Electrostatic induction is caused by the electric field surrounding the powerline and these
fields can induce charges on nearby metallic objects. This effect is generally only
significant at voltages above 200 kV and may influence the minimum ground clearance over
parking areas.
For a person the thresholds for perception is given in Appendix H.

3.14 SINGLE WIRE EARTH RETURN (SWER) POWERLINES


3.14.1 General
Single wire earth return (SWER) are distribution powerlines that utilize the earth as a return
circuit instead of a conventional conductor.
These distribution lines are economical to construct in lightly loaded rural areas where long
spans can be constructed.
A more detailed discussion on SWER distribution systems is found in The Electricity
Authority of New South Wales document, High Voltage Earth Return for Rural Areas.

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3.14.2 Types of SWER distribution systems


The isolated single wire system is the most common form. This type of SWER
distribution system consists of an isolating supply transformer with the secondary winding
connected to a medium voltage single wire pole line and earth. Local customer supply pole-
type transformers are connected between the single conductor line and earth. The primary
winding of the isolating transformer is connected to a conventional medium voltage
distribution system.
SWER distribution systems are utilized in the following arrangements:
(a) The isolated single wire system as described above. This is the most common
SWER distribution system.
(b) The duplex system that uses an isolating transformer with the secondary earthed at
the centre tap. The transformer supplies a two-wire backbone line to which single
phase tee-offs are connected and
(c) The un-isolated system that uses a conventional 3-phase backbone from which
single wire tee-off lines emanate.
The design issues to be considered for SWER systems are
(i) earthing systems need to be designed to take into account broken or poor earth
conductor connections;
(ii) limited capacity due to the low conductivity of the conductor commonly used as well
as the limited sizes of isolating and customer transformers;
(iii) interference with Telecommunications Circuitsthere is a limit of 8 A earth current
as stipulated in various Codes of Practice for Telecommunications including New
Zealand Code of Practice for SWER Systems and NZECP 41;
(iv) interference with railway telecommunications and signalling circuits;
(v) harmonics caused by customers equipment overloading SWER system and some
3-phase converting devices; and
(vi) reduced visibility to low flying aircraft (which may be involved in crop dusting or fire
fighting).

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SECTI ON 4 CONDUC TORS AND OVER HEAD


E A R T H WI R E S ( G R O U N D WI R ES) WI TH O R
WI THOUT TELECOMMUNICATION CIRCUITS

4.1 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS


4.1.1 DC resistance
The conductor DC resistance is a function of the conductor construction and stranding,
material properties and temperature. The resistance shall be determined from either
(a) a mathematical determination using the known properties of the conductor materials
and construction as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on
conductors; or
(b) published values in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on conductors.
4.1.2 AC resistance
The conductor AC resistance is a function of the conductor DC resistance, construction and
stranding, material properties, temperature, frequency and magnitude of the current. The
resistance shall be determined from mathematical determination using the known properties
of the conductor materials and construction as described in relevant Australian and New
Zealand Standards on conductors. A recommended method and guidance to determine the
AC resistance is given in IEC TR 61597.
Appendices BB and CC provide guidance on conductor maximum operating temperature.
4.1.3 Steady state thermal current rating
The steady state thermal current rating of a conductor is the maximum current inducing the
maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient condition and is based on conductor
heat gain equals conductor heat loss that is
Pj + Ps = Pr+ Pc
where the heat gain terms are Pj which is the joule heating due to the resistance of the
conductor and Ps is the solar heat gain The heat loss terms are Pc which is natural and
forced convection cooling and Pr is the radiation cooling. The terms for heat gain for cyclic
magnetic flux which is causes by eddy currents, hysteresis and magnetic viscosity; and
corona heat gain are not considered. The evaporative cooling heat loss term is also not
considered.
A recommended methodology to establish the steady state thermal ratings for bare
conductors is given in IEC TR 61597. For insulated conductors, the steady state thermal
rating shall be in accordance with the appropriate Australian and New Zealand Standards.
The steady state thermal current rating shall be determined for coinciding wind velocity and
incident angle, daily solar radiation, ambient temperature and conductor surface condition.
4.1.4 Short time thermal current rating
The short time thermal current rating of a conductor is the maximum current inducing the
maximum steady state temperature for a given ambient condition and occurs when a step
change in current flow results in a short term conductor temperature change and the
conductor stored heat = heat gain heat loss

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The time constant for short time ratings is generally less than 20 min and meteorological
conditions other than solar heat gain will generally not have a significant influence on final
conductor temperature. Initial conductor conditions shall be assumed and include initial
conductor operating temperature. Short time current and associated conductor temperature
rise is illustrated in Figure 4.1.

T EM PER AT U R E
final

initial
C U R R EN T

I2
I1

TIME

FIGURE 4.1 SHORT TIME CURRENT RATING AND TEMPERATURE

The final conductor temperature shall not exceed the maximum operating temperature.
Appendix BB provides guidance on establishing the short time thermal current rrating for
bare conductors. For covered and insulated conductor the maximum short term thermal
rating shall be in accordance with the relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards.
4.1.5 Short-circuit thermal current rating
The short-circuit thermal current rating shall be based on adiabatic heating, that is due to
the transient nature of the current flow the conductor heat gain and loss at the surface of the
conductor shall be ignored. The rating is a function of the conductor cross sectional area,
the thermal conductivity of the conductor, the specific heat capacity of the conductor, the
conductor resistivity, the conductor temperature coefficient of resistance, the duration of
the transient current, the conductor initial temperature, the magnitude of the current and
maximum permissible temperature.
In determining the rating for circuits where
(a) the reactance to resistance ratio is greater than 10 then the d.c. asymmetrical heating
component of the current shall be taken into account; and
(b) auto reclose protection is employed then the short-circuit duration shall be the sum of
the initial fault duration and the successive auto reclose fault durations and the
combined conductor heating shall be cumulative.
The conductor short-circuit thermal rating shall not result in exceeding
i) any specified permissible temperature rating of the conductor including appropriate
consideration of short time differential expansion of dissimilar materials (known as
birdcaging);
ii) for covered and or insulated conductors the insulation temperature rating as specified
in the appropriate Australian and New Zealand Standards;

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iii) the temperature rating of fibre optic cores;


iv) the permissible loss of strength due to annealing as specified in Appendix CC;
v) 0.5 times, 0.3 times and 0.2 times the melting point of zinc, aluminium and copper
respectively; and/or
vi) the drop point of any grease applied to the conductor.
Appendix BB provides guidance on establishing the short time thermal current rating for
bare conductors. For covered and insulated conductor the maximum short term thermal
rating shall be in accordance with the relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards.

4.2 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS


4.2.1 Limit states
The overhead line is considered intact when its conductors and or tension fittings are used
at stresses below their damage limit.
When subjected to increasing loads, conductors and or tension fittings may exhibit at some
level, permanent deformation particularly if the failure mode is ductile; or for wind induced
aeolian vibration, conductors may exhibit wire and or whole conductor fracture. This level
is called the damage limit and conductors and or tension fittings will be in damaged state if
the conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the damage limit.
If the load is further increased, failure of the conductor and or tension fittings occurs at a
level called the failure limit. The conductors and or tension fittings will be in a failed state
if the conductors and or tension fittings have exceeded the failure limit.
The state of system and the damage and failure limits are illustrated in Figure 4.2.

s t a te of sy s te m i n t a c t s t a te d a m a g e d s t a te f a i l e d s t a te

conductor
damage limit fa i l u r e l i m i t
strength limits

FIGURE 4.2 LIMIT STATES OF CONDUCTOR DESIGN

Indicative damage and failure limits of conductors and tension fittings are illustrated in a
typical conductor stress strain characteristic illustrated in Figure 4.3.

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Calculated breaking load


Te n s i o n f i t t i n g f a i l u r e r e g i o n
  
   












Pe r m a n e nt e l o n g at i o n
region
     
    


 



 
     
  
E l a st i c e l o n g at i o n r e g i o n

S t r a i n (% e l o n g a t i o n)

FIGURE 4.3 LIMIT STATES OF CONDUCTOR DESIGN

The damage and failure limits of conductors and tension fittings shall be in accordance with
Table 4.2 for the direct applied variable action consisting of the imposed loads specified in
Clause 7.2.2 plus the everday low velocity wind condition (defined in Clause 1.35).

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TABLE 4.2
DAMAGE AND FAILURE LIMITS OF CONDUCTORS
Conductors and tension fittings Damage limit Failure limit
Lowest of
Bare vibration limit (see Note 1); or 0.7 conductor CBL (see Note 3)
0.5 conductor CBL (see Note 2)
Not greater than the specified
maximum working tension as
ABC and CC 0.7 conductor CBL (see Note 3)
described in relevant Australian
and New Zealand Standards
Lowest of
vibration limit (see Note 1); or
optical fibre failure (rupture)
OPGW 0.5 conductor CBL (see Note 2)
0.7 conductor CBL (see Note 3)
maximum tension
corresponding to the optical
fibre strain free condition
Lowest of
as agreed with the
manufacturer; or optical fibre failure (rupture)
ADSS
maximum tension optical tensile stress (rupture)
corresponding to the optical
figure strain free condition
NOTES:
1 Long term wind induced aeolian vibration causes permanent conductor damage, wire fatigue and in some
cases complete conductor fracture. Conductor vibration limit is a function of wind velocity and direction,
temperature, terrain, conductor construction, the type of conductor fittings, conductor tension and
conductor vibration control. The conductor vibration limit shall be based on determining maximum static
conductor tension with or without any dynamic stress control that will result in fatigue free endurance for
the design life of the overhead line. The maximum static conductor tension shall be determined for the low
velocity every day wind direct applied variable action condition defined in Clause 1.35. Consideration
shall be given in determining the damage limit state to any prestressing, over tensioning or temperature
allowances to compensate for initial radial wire movement and longer term metallurgical creep of the
conductor material. In most situations the governing criteria for conductor tension will be the vibration
limit state. Appendix S provides guidance on conductor sag and tension calculations.
2 Damage strength limit state is 0.5CBL for the linear model and shall not be exceeded for the maximum
wind direct applied variable action condition specified in Section 7. The factor of 0.5 may be increased to
0.7 by application of a non linear stress strain model. Additional allowance for loss of strength due to
conductor annealing is not required. Damage limit may be the governing criteria for a small diameter
conductor subject to ice and or high wind loadings.
3 The 0.7 factor is based on the failure performance of tensions fittings. Factors greater than 0.7 may be
used based on statistical analysis of tension fitting rupture tests and considerations of installation quality
control. Additional allowance for loss of strength due to conductor annealing is not required.

4.2.2 Conductor tension


Conductor tension change behaviour for any given span length and or equivalent span, is a
function of the conductor mass, initial conductor tension, conductor cross sectional area,
conductor modulus of elasticity and coefficient of thermal expansion, permanent elongation
and loading conditions such as temperature, wind loading, and or ice loading. Conductor
tension changes shall be determined in accordance with Table 4.3.

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TABLE 4.3
CONDUCTOR TENSION DETERMINATION MODELS
Model Application
conductors with maximum operating temperatures greater than 120C
Non linear stress strain
ultimate design tensions exceeding the damage limit
conductors with maximum operating temperatures less than 120C
ultimate design tensions not exceeding the damage limit
Linear stress strain
steel conductors
aerial bundled conductors

Conductor creep shall be taken into account in the determination of conductor tension
change for conductors under every day conditions with catenary constants greater than
1000 m.
Appendix AA provides guidance on conductor change of state determination.
4.2.3 Conductor stress and fatigue
Conductor stress is a combination of the static stress and dynamic stress. Static stress is a
function of conductor tension, bending stress over conductor support fittings and
compressive stress caused by conductor fittings. Dynamic stress is a function of conductor
vibration amplitude and frequency.
Elevated conductor static stresses combined with elevated dynamic stress caused by wind
induced aeolian vibration will result in permanent conductor fatigue damage, wire fracture
and in some cases complete conductor fracture. Fatigue damage generally occurs at points
where the conductor is secured to fittings and the combined static and dynamic stresses are
a maximum.
The conductor vibration limit shall be based on limiting the static and dynamic stresses to
less than conductor fatigue endurance limit for the design life of the overhead line. Proven
performance of overhead lines with conductor damage free endurance based on a service
history with similar conductors, conductor fittings, vibration control, terrain and climates
may be used to validate the conductor vibration limit.
Appendix S provides guidance on determining conductor static tensions.
4.2.4 Conductor permanent elongation
Conductor permanent elongation consists of strand settling and metallurgical creep.
Permanent elongation begins at the instant of applied axial tensile load and continues at a
decreasing rate providing tension and temperature remain constant. Conductors operating at
continuous elevated temperatures and or tensions are subject to elevated levels of
metallurgical creep.
Metallurgical creep is plastic deformation that is a logarithmic in behaviour and a function
of the conductor type, conductor construction, conductor stress, conductor temperature and
time. Conductor constants used to predict creep for the specific conductors shall be
determined in accordance with AS 3822 or equivalent Standards.
Conductor creep will result in changes in conductor sag and tension with time. Conductor
creep shall as a minimum be determined for the average conductor temperature and tension
for the design life of the overhead line. For multiple predicted load cases conductor creep
shall be considered cumulative.

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Allowance shall be made for permanent elongation to ensure that the required electrical
clearance specified in Section 3 is maintained for the design life of the overhead line. The
allowance shall consider independently, strand settling at the damage limit and cumulative
metallurgical creep.
Appendix V provides guidance on conductor permanent elongation.
4.2.5 Conductor annealing
Annealing damage is caused by the heating excursions of the conductor. During the
annealing process the conductor material experiences a change in its microstructure which
results in a loss of tensile strength, an increase in conductivity and an improvement in
material ductility. Annealing damage is cumulative and shall be determined by summing the
loss of tensile strength for temperatures arising from the steady state, short time and short-
circuit thermal ratings and associated durations for the design life of the overhead line.
The permissible conductor cumulative annealing damage shall not exceed 15% of the CBL
for the design life of the overhead line. No allowance is made in the conductor capacity
factor for annealing.
Annealing shall be considered for copper, aluminium and steel conductors operating at
termpeatures greater than 70, 80 and 200C respectively.
Appendix CC provide guidance on conductor annealing.
4.2.6 Conductor final modulus of elasticity
The final modulus of elasticity of a conductor is a function of a number of factors including
the conductor construction and stranding and material properties. The final modulus of
elasticity shall be determined from either
(a) a stress strain test carried out in accordance with AS 3822 or equivalent by which a
complete understanding of the conductor stress strain behaviour may be derived; or
(b) mathematical determination using the known properties of the conductor materials
and construction as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on
bare conductors; or
(c) published values in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on insulated
conductors.
Appendix W provides guidance on the determination of conductor final modulus of
elasticity.
4.2.7 Conductor coefficient of thermal expansion
The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of a conductor is a function of the conductor
construction and stranding and material properties. The CTE shall be determined from
either
(a) a thermal elongation test carried out in accordance with AS 3822 or equivalent; or
(b) a mathematical determination using the known properties of the conductor materials
and construction as described in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on
conductors; or
(c) published values in relevant Australian and New Zealand Standards on insulated
conductors.
Appendix X provides guidance on the determination of conductor coefficient of thermal
expansion.
4.2.8 Conductor cross sectional area
The conductor cross sectional area shall be the total area of the mechanical load bearing
wires.
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4.2.9 Conductor diameter


The mean of two measurements at right angles is taken at one cross section. For non-
symmetrical sections, the largest section shall be one of the two measurements.
4.2.10 Conductor drag coefficient
For uniform round wires symmetrically stranded and wind velocities less than 60 m. s1 the
conductor drag coefficient shall be equal to 1.0. For other than uniform round wires,
symmetrically stranded and or wind velocities greater than 60 m. s1 the conductor drag
coefficient shall be shall be either measured of calculated.
4.2.11 Conductor calculated breaking load
The calculated breaking load (CBL) of a conductor shall be determined from the relevant
Australian and New Zealand Standards for bare conductors and or insulated conductors.
4.2.12 Conductor vertical and horizontal sag
Conductor vertical sag, Sy is a function of the conductor tension, conductor equivalent mass
and span length. Conductor equivalent mass is a function of the conductor mass, aerial
warning markers, conductor spacers and any contributing ice load. Conductor vertical sag
for low tension spans is also influenced by the length and mass of supporting insulators. In
addition, over time conductor vertical sag changes and is a function of conductor permanent
elongation. Conductor permanent elongation and ice load shall be determined in accordance
with Clauses 4.2.4 and 7.2.3 respectively.
Conductor vertical sag shall be determined for the maximum operating temperature of the
overhead line to ensure that the required electrical clearance specified in Section 3 is
maintained.
Conductor horizontal sag, Sz or blow out is a function of the conductor tension, conductor
equivalent diameter, aerial warning markers, direct applied action and span length.
Conductor equivalent diameter is a function of the conductor diameter and any increase in
diameter from deposited ice.
Conductor horizontal sag inclusive of any insulator swing component shall be determined
for the electrical power frequency clearance condition specified in Section 3.
Conductor inclined sag inclusive of any insulator swing component shall be determined
using the same applied action for the vertical and horizontal sag to ensure that the required
electrical clearance specified in Section 3 is maintained.
Appendix S provides guidance on conductor sag determination.

4.3 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS


4.3.1 Conductor damage risks
Consideration shall be given to the potential damage arising from bushfires, sugar cane
fires, lightning impact and cyclones, which may result in conductor being in a damaged or
failure limit. The conductor selection shall consider the risk and damage arising from
exceeding the damage limit of the conductor.
4.3.2 Conductor degradation
Consideration shall be given to conductor degradation arising from surface pit corrosion of
wires and in the case of non-homogeneous conductors and or conductors in contact with
dissimilar metal fittings, galvanic corrosion. Pit corrosion particularly for aluminium wires
may arise in atmospheres of elevated chloride and sulphur. Copper wires are also
susceptible to pit corrosion in the presence of elevated levels of atmospheric ammonia or
where aerial crop dusting is common.

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Conductors shall be selected to minimize pit and or galvanic corrosion and where
considered appropriate conductor protective coatings such as partly or fully greased
conductors shall be used.
Appendix Y provides guidance on the selection for various environments.

4.4 CONDUCTOR CONSTRUCTIONS


4.4.1 Conductor types and standards
Conductors shall be designed, selected and tested to meet the electrical, mechanical,
environmental and telecommunication requirements of the overhead line.
4.4.1.1 Bare conductors
Bare conductors shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance with AS/NZS 1222.1,
AS/NZS 1222.2, AS/NZS 1531, AS/NZS 1746, AS/NZS 3607 or an equivalent International
Standard.
4.4.1.2 Insulated conductors and cable systems
Insulated conductors and cable systems shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance
with AS/NZS 3560.1, AS/NZS 3560.2, AS/NZS 3599.1, AS/NZS 3599.2 or an equivalent
International Standard.
4.4.1.3 Covered conductors
Covered conductors shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance with the
AS/NZS 3675 or an equivalent International Standard.
4.4.1.4 Optical fibres
Optical fibre conductors shall be supplied and manufactured in accordance with
international standard description and numbers IEC 60794-4.
4.4.1.5 Low-voltage aerial bundled cables (LVABC)
The following considerations apply:
(a) The tangential tension in the cable should not exceed 28% CBL. This is based on
maximum working conductor stress of 40 MPa on 95 mm2 LVABC. This is the limit
for transferring the conductor tension through the insulation to the strain clamp and is
based on French experience with heavily filled XLPE compound.
(b) The highest horizontal tension used for the everday load should take into account the
working ratings of cable tensioning equipment such as lugalls, comealongs, etc. Also
for 3 or 4 core cables experience has shown that the cores are difficult to separate to
fit insulation piercing connectors at cable tensions exceeding 4.5 kN.

4.5 CONDUCTOR SELECTION


Conductor selection consists of consideration of wire size and material, electrical,
mechanical, environmental and economic factors. Conductor selection shall satisfy the
(a) electrical requirements for steady state and transient current ratings, corona
discharge, audible noise and radio and televisions interference, I2R losses;
(b) mechanical requirements annealing, drag coefficient, operating temperature,
constructability (no birdcaging or unravelling), permanent elongation fatigue
endurance, conductor diameter, sag and strength relationship;
(c) environmental requirements for corrosion and lightning damage; and

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(d) economic requirements for cost of losses, capital costs, load profile, interest rate, load
growth, inventory costs and construction costs (ratio of tension to suspension
structures)
Factors to be considered in the selection are wire materials, wire shape, wire sizes and
conductor constructions.

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SECTI ON 5 INSULATORS

5.1 INSULATION BASICS


Insulation is required to withstand the electrical and mechanical stresses applied to it during
its lifetime. The electrical stresses include power frequency, switching and lightning
overvoltages and the mechanical stresses include the tensile, compressive or cantilever
loadings from conductor tension and weight.
When assessing the ability of insulation to withstand power frequency voltages,
consideration is given to the contamination of the insulator surfaces. Contamination will
build up on insulator surfaces over time and when the surfaces are lightly wetted as a result
of high humidity, light rain, fog or dew, the leakage current increases and can result in the
following undesirable outcomes:
(a) Visual sparking, audible noise; RIV and TIV interference causing annoyance to the
public.
(b) Degradation of the insulator surface, thereby reducing its life expectancy.
(c) Power frequency flashover and subsequent outage.
The flashover performance of an overhead line is dependent on the electrical withstand of
the insulator and the air gap distances. Proper co-ordination is required to ensure acceptable
flashover performance, in particular the arc distance on the insulator should be comparable
to the air gap distance.

5.2 LINE AND SUBSTATION INSULATION COORDINATION


Substation insulation incorporates paper, oil and solid dielectric systems where any
flashover may be destructive. This is termed non self restoring insulation and must be
protected from over voltages. Substation plant is available in standardized impulse
insulation levels.
Line insulation is self restoring and is designed for some low probability of flashover, not
zero probability of flashover. Often line insulation levels exceed that of the substation
equipment connected at either end. Lightning impulses and switching surges exceeding the
capability of the substation plant can be conducted into the substation.
A lightning backflashover or direct strike close to the substation can create a large voltage
transient that may damage insulation in substation plant, particularly transformers. It should
be noted that lightning causes corona around the conductor, up to around 1 m in diameter.
This corona envelope dissipates energy and reduces the rise time and peak voltage as the
transient travels along the conductor.
In high lightning areas or for high reliability lines, precautions should be taken to ensure
that lightning strikes close to the substation are attenuated to levels which do not cause
damage to substation equipment (close to the substation is in the range 800 m to 5 km).
Lightning protection for transmission lines may include one or more overhead earthwires
and low structure earthing values, say below 5 ohms, for the first 2.5 km of any line from a
substation to prevent back flashovers.
To ensure protection of the substation plant, a transient impulse study including line entry
is required to determine the placement and number of surge arresters required to protect
substation plant from lightning and switching overvoltages.

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5.3 ELECTRICAL AND MECHANICAL DESIGN


5.3.1 General
The insulators shall be designed to meet the general requirements for reliability and life for
the overhead line. In particular, the design shall consider the relevant electrical and
mechanical requirements as follows:
(a) Pollution.
(b) Power frequency voltage.
(c) Switching surge voltage.
(d) Lightning performance.
(e) Mechanical strength.
5.3.2 Design for pollution
When determining the insulation requirements for an overhead power line or an outdoor
substation in a contaminated environment, the following criteria need to be considered:
(a) Creepage (or leakage) distance.
(b) The ability of the material to endure the electrical activity without being degraded.
(c) The shape of the insulator to assist in reducing the likelihood of contamination
collection and facilitate washing.
AS 4436 provides guidance on the selection of insulators for polluted conditions. The basic
concept is to increase the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a
pollution flashover across the surface.
5.3.3 Design for power frequency voltages (wet withstand requirement)
The line insulation should withstand the maximum voltage expected on the line. Overhead
powerlines can operate continuously up to 1.1 per unit voltage and up to 1.4 per unit for
effectively earthed systems during system disturbances, such as faults and load rejection.
This voltage is regarded as the maximum dynamic overvoltage. The wet power frequency
withstand voltage of the line insulation should be selected to exceed this maximum dynamic
overvoltage.
5.3.4 Design for switching surge voltages
Switching surge overvoltages up to 3 per unit peak voltage can arise when overhead lines
are switched. The extent of this overvoltage is dependent on
(a) the point of voltage wave when the line is switched;
(b) the capacitance or amount of trapped charges on the line; and
(c) other equipment connected to the line.
When high speed autoreclosing is installed, overvoltage can exceed 3 per unit voltage,
particularly on transmission lines. In these cases, it would be common to install surge
arresters on the line to limit the overvoltages to the designed line insulation.
5.3.5 Insulator mechanical design
The loads on an insulator shall be calculated using the limit state methodology outlined in
Section 6. The recommendations for the insulator strength factor are given in Table 6.5.
A simplified approach to the design of insulators is given in Appendix DD.

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5.4 RELEVANT STANDARDS, TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF


INSULATORS
The Standards which are used to specify the various types of insulators in usage in
Australia are shown in Table 5.2.

TABLE 5.2
STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN, MANUFACTURE AND TESTING OF
INSULATORS
STANDARD TITLE
AS
1154 Insulator and conductor fittings for overhead power lines
3608 InsulatorsPorcelain and glass, pin and shackle typeVoltages not exceeding 1000 V
a.c.
3609 InsulatorsPorcelain stay typeVoltages greater than 1000 a.c.
4398 InsulatorsCeramic or glassStation post for indoor and outdoor useVoltages
greater than 1000 V a.c.
4435.1 InsulatorsComposite for overhead linesVoltages greater than 1000 V a.c
Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria for string insulatr units
4436 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions. (Identical to the
IEC 60815 standard).
AS/NZS
2947 InsulatorsPorcelain and glass for overhead power linesVoltages greater than
1000 V a.c.
4435.2 InsulatorsComposite for overhead linesVoltages greater than 1000 V a.c
Standard strength classes and end fittings for string insulator units
IEC
60305 Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 VCeramic or glass
insulator units for a.c. systemsCharacteristics of insulator units of the cap and pin
type
60433 Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 VCeramic or glass
insulator units for a.c. systemsCharacteristics of insulator units of the long rod type
60575 Thermal-mechanical performance test and mechanical performance test on string
insulator units
60720 Characteristics of line post insulators
61466-2 Composite string insulator units for overhead lines with a nominal voltage greater than
1000 V Part 2: Dimensional and electrical characteristics

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SECTI ON 6 BAS I S OF STRUCTUR AL DE SIGN

6.1 GENERAL
This Section of the Standard provides the basis and the general principles for the structural,
geotechnical and mechanical design of overhead lines.
This clause should be read in conjunction with the relevant Australian and New Zealand
Standards where applicable. The general principles of structural design are based on the
limit state concept used in conjunction with a load and material strength factor appropriate
to the reference limit state.
The values of the factors for actions and material properties depend on the degree of
uncertainty for the loads, resistances, material properties, geotechnical parameters,
geometrical quantities, design model, the type of structure and the type of limit state. These
factors can also depend on the strength co-ordination principles envisaged for the line.
The structural design methods are based on limit state concepts. Any element of an
overhead line which carries structural load, or is a secondary structural or framing element
should be considered as a structural element of the line support structure in the context of
this clause.
Structures and components should be designed using a reliability-based (risk of failure)
approach. The selection of load factors, in particular for weather related loads, and
component strength factors are based on achieving an acceptable risk of failure and
operational performance for the line.
The performance of the structural system shall be evaluated for an appropriate combination
of serviceability and strength limit states as set out in the following clauses.
In practice supporting structures and foundations designed to their ultimate strength limit,
will be governed to a major extent by conductors, insulators and fittings serviceability
requirements.
NOTE: Some states and territories of Australia and New Zealand may have Acts and Regulations
which may have requirements in excess of this Standard

6.2 REQUIREMENTS
6.2.1 Basic requirements
An overhead electrical line shall be designed to withstand the ultimate load case
combinations for the selected security level as defined below, based on the lines importance
to the system (including system redundancy), its location and exposure to climatic
conditions, and public safety and design working life.
6.2.2 Security levels
Security levels shall be distinguished as follows:
Level I Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line may be tolerable
with respect to social and economic consequences. (Normal distribution
lines)
Level II Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause
negligible danger to life and property and alternative arrangements can
be provided if loss of support services occurs. (Higher security
distribution lines and normal transmission lines)

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Level III Applicable to overhead lines where collapse of the line would cause
unacceptable danger to life or significant economic loss to the
community and sever vital post disaster services. (Higher security
transmission lines)
6.2.3 Reliability load multiplier and security requirements
Reliability load multipliers for an expected design working life and security levels are
provided in Table 6.1.
The design loads for an overhead line shall be based on 50-year return period wind speeds
as defined in AS/NZ 1170.2. The calculated loads shall be then multiplied by an appropriate
reliability load multiplier based on the required security level and reliability load multiplier
as selected from Table 6.1

TABLE 6.1
RELIABILITY MULTIPLIER FOR DESIGN WORKING LIFE AND
LINE SECURITY LEVELS
Minimum reliability load multiplier M rel
Line security level
Design working life Level I Level II Level III
Temporary construction and construction 0.67 0.67 0.77
equipment, e.g. hurdles, scaffolding and
temporary line diversions with design life of
less than 6 months
< 5 years 0.77 0.9 1.0
25 years 0.9 1.0 1.2
50 years 1.0 1.2 1.4
100 years 1.2 1.4 1.4
NOTES:
1 When selecting the appropriate security level, additional factors such as the line length, number of
circuits and proximity to other lines or infrastructure should be considered.
2 For special exposed locations such as long span water or valley crossings, or difficult to access
locations (where time and cost to restore the construction can be high), a higher security level may
be adopted for a particular structure or short sections of the line.

6.2.4 Security requirements


Security requirements shall be provided in all designs to prevent or limit progressive or
cascading structure failures in the event of collapse or failure of a support structure
resulting from any external cause.
In general longitudinal design loads relevant to withholding loads for broken or terminated
phase conductor are provided to meet this requirement.
On distribution overhead pole lines, pole deflection combined with partial foundation
failure may provide adequate containment.
6.2.5 Safety requirements during construction and maintenance
Safety requirements are intended to ensure that construction and maintenance operations do
not pose safety hazards to people. The safety requirements in this Standard consist of
special loads, as defined in Clauses 6.2.6 and 7.2.6 for which line components have to be
designed.

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6.2.6 Additional considerations


6.2.6.1 Dynamic load effectsSeismic loads
In general, transmission/distribution lines are largely unresponsive to the dynamic forces
associated with seismic activity, however, due consideration should be given to structures
where the normal dynamic response is altered; e.g. ancillary devices such as pole mounted
transformers, etc.
6.2.6.2 Environmental considerations
Consideration shall be given to any environmental and legal requirements that may exist.
Safety of human beings and protection of wild life and livestock, for example birds, cattle,
etc. shall be properly considered.
This may require the installation of special deterrent devices for birds and reptiles: aerial
markers for aircraft and ground based vehicle warning and deflection devices.
Structure loading for such devices shall be considered in design.
Vehicle impact, and the effects of falling trees and airborne vegetation during high winds
are accidental loads beyond the scope of this Standard. Their effects can however be
mitigated by care in placement of support structures and the ongoing management of the
overhead line corridor.
6.2.7 Design working life
The design working life is the assumed period for which an overhead line could be expected
to be used for its intended purpose with anticipated maintenance but without substantial
repair being necessary.
NOTE: The operating life of an overhead line can be normally be expected be in the range of 30
to 80 years, depending on a number of factors including the level of preventative and corrective
maintenance carried out on the total asset during its life.
Appendix D provides guidance on the service life of overhead lines.
6.2.8 Durability
The durability of an overhead line support or part of it in its environmental exposure shall
be such that it remains fit for use during the design working life given an appropriate level
of maintenance.
The environmental, atmospheric and climatic conditions shall be appraised at the design
stage to assess their significance in relation to durability and to enable adequate provisions
to be made for protection of the materials for the target design life.

6.3 LIMIT STATES


6.3.1 General
The structural design methods provided by this Standard are based on limit state concepts.
Structures and components shall be designed using a reliability-based (risk of failure)
approach, and the selection of load factors, in particular for weather related loads, and
component strength factors are based on achieving an acceptable risk of failure for the
loading condition being considered.

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The performance of the structural system can be evaluated for different circumstances,
known as limit states with the following general limit state design equation for overhead
lines:
Rn > effect of loads (x Wn + xX)
where
X = the applied loads pertinent to each loading condition
x = are load factors which take into account variability of loads, importance
of structure, stringing, maintenance and safety considerations etc.
Wn = wind load based on a 50 year return period scaled by the appropriate
reliability load factor or specified design wind pressure
= the strength factor which takes into account variability of material,
workmanship etc.
Rn = the nominal strength of the component
Limit states are states beyond which the overhead line no longer satisfies the design
performance requirements.
All support structures shall be designed for both ultimate limit states and serviceability
limit states.
6.3.2 Strength limit states
Ultimate strength limit states are those associated with collapse or with other similar forms
of structural failure due to excessive deformation, loss of stability, overturning, rupture,
buckling, or localized failure.
Damage states prior to structural collapse, such as plastic deformation or local buckling of
redundant structural elements, which, for simplicity, are considered in place of the
structural collapse itself, are also to be treated as ultimate limit states.
Ultimate strength limit states concern
(a) the reliability and security of supports, foundations, conductors and equipment; and
(b) the safety of people.
Structural elements that fail essentially in buckling, or brittle fracture with little warning of
impending failure, should be designed to withstand the design load without permanent
distortion.
Structural elements that fail essentially by ductile yielding may, in accordance with the
appropriate standard, at the discretion of the designer, be allowed to exhibit elastic-plastic
yielding prior to failure, in accordance with the relevant Standard.
6.3.3 Serviceability limit states
Serviceability limit states shall provide for the following defined conditions beyond which
specified service requirements for an overhead line are no longer met:
(a) Mechanical and structural functioning of supports, foundations, conductors and
equipment.
(b) Maintaining prescribed electrical clearances.
In addition, serviceability limit states which require consideration include
(i) deformations and displacements which affect the appearance or effective use of the
support;
(ii) a reduction of critical electrical clearances;

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(iii) vibrations which cause damage to conductors, supports or equipment or which limit
their functional effectiveness;
(iv) damage (including cracking) which is likely to affect the durability or the function of
the supports; and
(v) conductors, insulators and line accessories adversely affected.
6.3.4 Limit state design
Limit state design shall be carried out by
(a) setting up structural and load models for the relevant ultimate and serviceability limit
states to be considered in the various design situations and load cases; and
(b) verifying that the limit states are not exceeded when design values for actions,
material properties and geometrical data are used in the models.
Design values are generally obtained by using characteristic or combination values (as
defined in this Standard) in conjunction with strength and load factors as defined in this
Standard and other Australian and New Zealand Standards.
6.3.4.2 Strength factors ( )
Table 6.5 provides strength factors () which takes into account variability of material and
workmanship for structural components used in overhead lines. These values reflect
accepted industry practice.

TABLE 6.5
STRENGTH FACTOR FOR COMPONENT STRENGTH
Part of overhead line Component Strength factor Reference Standard
Limit state
(R n )
Lattice steel towers Steel angle member ASCE 10-97
Strength Refer Appendix G
elements AS/NZS 3995
Tubular steel structures AS/NZS 4600
Tubular structure Refer Appendix K ASCE 48-05
EN 50341
Fasteners 0.9 AS4100
Bolts nuts and washers
Strength Unless otherwise AS/NZS 1559
specified ASCE 10-97
Reinforced or
AS 3600
prestressed concrete
Poles AS/NZS 4065
structures and members. Strength Refer Appendix I
Cross arms NZS 3101
Design based on design
AS/NZS 4676
Standards
Concrete or steel
AS 3600
structures and members.
Poles 0.9 AS/NZS 4065
Design based primarily Strength
Cross arms (max) NZS 3101
on testing, e.g. concrete
AS/NZS 4676
poles (see Note 2)
Wood structures, poles
or members (not
Poles AS 2209
preserved by full length Strength 0.3 to 0.9
Cross arms AS 1720
treatment) (see Note 3
and Appendix F)
(continued)

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TABLE 6.5 (continued)


Part of overhead line Component Strength factor Reference Standard
Limit state
(R n )
Wood structures, poles
or members (not Poles AS 2209
Serviceability 0.3
preserved by full length Cross arms AS1720
treatment)
Wood structures, poles
or members (preserved
Poles AS 2209
by full length treatment) Strength 0.6 to 0.8
Cross arms AS 1720
(see Note 3 and
Appendix F)
Wood structures, poles
Poles 0.4 AS 2209
or members (preserved Serviceability
Cross arms (see Note 3) AS 1720
by full length treatment)
Fibre reinforced
composite poles. Design
based primarily on Poles
testing Strength 0.9
Cross arms
(see Note 7 and
Appendix J)
Fittings and pins, forged
Strength 0.8 AS 1154
or fabricated
Fittings, cast Strength 0.7 AS 1154
Porcelain or glass cap 0.8
and pin string insulator Strength (electro-mechanical AS 3608
units strength)
Porcelain or glass
insulators other than cap
Strength 0.8 AS 3608
and pin string insulator
units
Synthetic composite
0.5
suspension or strain
Strength (one minute AS 4435.1
insulators
mechanical strength)
(See Note 2)
Synthetic composite line 0.9
post insulators Strength (maximum design AS 4435.4
(See Note 2) cantilever load)
Other synthetic Subject to further
Strength
composite insulators research
Foundations relying on
0.4 to 0.7
strength of soil (with Strength AS 2159
Refer Appendix L
conventional soil testing)
Foundations relying on AS 2159
0.4 to 0.6
strength of soil based on Strength and
Refer Appendix L
empirical assessment AS1726
Foundations relying on 0.8
Strength
weight of soil Refer Appendix L
Conductors Strength 0.7
Conductors Serviceability Refer Section 4
Stay or guy and AS 1222
termination (cable) Strength 0.7 AS 3995
members ASCE 10-97

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NOTES TO TABLE 6.5


1 Design Standards based on limit state formats (usually) take into account exclusion limits and the
coefficient of variation of structural members. When the factor is part of the codes design equations it
should not be applied again.
2 Where design Standards are used that do not employ similar strength factors, designers should decide
where further application of relevant factors from the above table is appropriate to achieve the desired
reliability level. If sufficient material or product data is available to support variation of these tabulated
values then alternative values may be adopted.
3 For laminated timber cross-arms, refer to AS/NZS 1328.
4 Where there are sufficient material property tests of components to provide reasonable statistical data, the
factor may be based on statistical analysis. All data from testing of similar designs should be included in
the statistical analysis.
5 Where component manufacturers have included appropriate strength factors in their designs, the factor
should not be applied again.
6 Where the design of wood structures is based on AS 1720.1, the strength factor may be based on the
requirements of that code, however the following should also be taken into account:
(a) The recommended conductor wind loads in this document incorporate a span reduction factor that has
the effect of increasing the duration of the wind load being considered.
(b) Tests of poles and cross-arms that have been in service for long periods show a wide variation in the
ratio of calculated to actual strength. Due to this uncertainty it is recommended that a strength factor at
the lower end of the range be used in the absence of specific data suggesting high confidence
7 Composite fibre poles are highly flexible and serviceability limit due to deflection at working load may be
limiting factor.

6.4 ACTIONS
6.4.1 Principal classifications
An action F, can be either
(a) a direct action, i.e. force (load) applied to the supports, conductors, foundations, and
other line components; or
(b) an indirect action, i.e. an imposed or constrained deformation, caused, for example,
by temperature changes, ground water variation or uneven settlement.
Actions are classified by their variation in time
(i) Permanent action (G), i.e. self-weight of supports including foundations, fittings and
fixed equipment
Self-weight of conductors and the effects of the applicable conductor tension at the
reference temperature, as well as uneven settlements of supports are regarded as
permanent actions.
NOTE: The vertical reaction from self-weight of the conductor at the support (in other words
the weight span) is affected by deviations from the reference state of the conductor tension
due to conductor creep temperature variations and wind action. Where critical for the design,
especially if no other climatic conditions are present, the uncertainty in such a variation,
unfavourable or favourable, should be considered by use of a factor on the self-weight (or on
the weight span).
(ii) Imposed actions (Q), i.e. wind loads, ice loads or other imposed loads
Wind loads and ice loads as well as applicable temperatures are climatic conditions
which can be assessed by probabilistic methods (reliability concept) or on a
deterministic basis.
Conductor tension effects due to wind and ice and temperature deviations from the
reference temperature are variable actions.

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Imposed loads arising from conductor stringing, climbing on the structures, etc. are
assessed on a deterministic basis and refer to the safety aspect.
(iii) Accidental actions (A), i.e. failure containment loads, flood debris loads, avalanches,
etc. These relate to the security aspect of the overhead line
Exceptional ice loads in alpine/sub-alpine regions including unbalanced ice loads can
be treated as accidental actions by their nature and/or the structural response
(A) static actions, which do not cause significant acceleration of the components or
elements; and
(B) dynamic actions, which cause significant acceleration of the components or
elements
It is usually sufficient to consider the equivalent static effect of quasi-static actions, such as
wind loads, in the design of overhead line supports (including foundations). Special
attention should be paid to extraordinarily high and/or slender supports.

6.5 MATERIAL PROPERTIES


As general principle, a material property is represented by a characteristic value, which
corresponds to that value of the material property having a prescribed probability of not
being attained in a hypothetical unlimited test series. It generally corresponds to a specified
exclusion limit of the assumed statistical distribution of that property of the material. These
values are used to determine the nominal strengths of the components (Rn ) values discussed
in Clause 6.3.1.
A material property value shall normally be determined from standardized tests performed
under specified conditions. A conversion factor shall be applied where it is necessary to
convert the test results into values, which can be assumed to represent the behaviour of the
material in the overhead line.
NOTE: Material properties specified in other Australian/New Zealand Standards and in particular
standards referred to herein may generally be applied if not determined otherwise in this
Standard.

6.6 MODELLING FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS AND RESISTANCE


6.6.1 General
Calculations shall be performed using appropriate design models for the type of structure
being analysed.
In the case of three dimensional space frames, such as lattice steel towers, it is normal
practice to create geometrical models for the full range of heights and base leg
combinations. These models normally simulate a fixed or pinned nodal base and should
include the effects of settlement of foundations, and any vertical eccentricities that may be
applied.
Full scale load testing may be applied to verify experimentally, the structural capacity, or
assumed force distribution and adequacy of structural element connectivity for a given
structural geometry in the case of space frame structures; and to verify flexural bending,
axial load and shear capacity strengths for pole elements. (Refer also to Clause 8.5).
It should be understood that such tests constitute a sample test for a particular height tower
or length of a particular batch of pole. Different configuration of towers and poles may not
necessarily perform to the same characteristics.

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6.6.2 Interactions between support foundations and soil


Special attention shall be paid to the interaction of the following:
(a) Loads deriving from the support.
(b) Loads resulting from active soil pressures and the permanent weight of foundation
and soil.
(c) Buoyancy effects of ground water on soil and foundation.
These, together with the reaction forces of the soil strata shall be taken into account in the
calculation of the support foundations.
In the limit state the following criteria shall be taken into consideration:
(i) Acceptable/unacceptable settlement of the foundation including differential
settlement.
(ii) Imposed deformations on the support or support members.
(iii) Inclinations of the support.
(iv) Load duration.
Provisions regarding the interaction of loads and recommendations on limit state criteria are
given in Sections 7 and 8.

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SECTI ON 7 AC TION ON LI NES

7.1 INTRODUCTION
The following clauses are based on well established principles supported by experience and
long-term operation of overhead lines within Australia and New Zealand.

7.2 ACTIONS, GENERAL APPROACH


7.2.1 Permanent loads
Self-weight of structures, insulator sets, other fixed equipment and conductors resulting
from the adjacent spans act as permanent loads. Aircraft warning spheres and similar
elements are to be considered as permanent dead loads. These vertical loads are designated
as Gs and Gc
Gs represents the vertical loads on poles, towers, foundations, crossarms, insulators and
fittings and shall be the vertical force due to their own mass plus the mass of all ancillaries
and attachments.
Gc represents the vertical loads of conductors/cables and attachments such as marker balls,
spacers and dampers and forms the design weight span.
These are loads on the structural system with a conductor temperature equivalent to the
mean of the winter season temperatures with negligible wind loads, i.e. in still air.
This temperature generally varies between 0C and +15C depending on the location within
Australia and New Zealand. In tropical areas, while there may be only small seasonal
variations in temperatures, the daily variation may be appreciable between night and day
and the mean of the night temperature may be more suitable.
This condition may be the limiting serviceability condition on conductors and insulators
and may set the lower limit on cracking criteria for pre-stressed concrete poles.
7.2.2 Imposed loads
7.2.2.1 Wind loads
Wind loadings shall be applied to all elements of an overhead line as determined in
accordance with Appendix B
Consideration shall be given to the design of structures for wind attack for a range of
directions and shall include transverse, longitudinal and oblique directions.
7.2.3 Snow and ice loads (S)
Snow and ice loadings shall be applied to all elements of an overhead line in appropriate
regions, as determined in accordance with Appendix FF.
7.2.4 Conductor tensions
7.2.4.1 General
The horizontal component of the conductor tensions Ft used for design shall be based on the
lowest temperature likely to coexist with the design wind pressure as provided in the
following conditions. Unless otherwise required by the climatic zone under consideration
and proven utility practice, a temperature of 15C shall be used.
7.2.4.2 Maximum wind condition Ftw
Ftw is the horizontal component of the conductor tensions int eh direction of the line when
subject to wind

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Due to the spatial variation of wind velocities within a wind storm, an extreme 3 s peak
wind gust, will not affect all spans between tension structures simultaneously.
7.2.4.3 Maintenance condition Ft m
Ft m is the horizontal component of the conductor tensions in the direction of the line when
subject got maintenance conditions.
This condition provides the maximum conductor tension under which it can be reasonably
expected for workmen to be expected to work transferring loads of conductors during
construction or maintenance activities. This tension is calculated based on a maximum
transverse wind pressure of 100 Pa.
7.2.4.4 Everyday condition Fte
Fte is the horizontal component of the conductor tension in the direction of the line under
no wind.
This condition provides the nominal tension that can be expected to occur at the everyday
temperature (Te) for the line location. This tension is calculated in still air and an average
ambient temperature for the region.
7.2.5 Coincident temperatures
Temperature effects for the following conditions shall be considered in the design of
overhead lines:
(a) T mA minimum temperature condition to be considered with no other climatic action
for the particular regional location, if relevant. Particular attention is to be given for
short spans cases and minimum overnight winter temperatures
(b) TeThe everyday temperature assumed for the ultimate wind speed condition.
(c) TwA reduced wind speed combined with a minimum temperature condition to be
considered, if relevant. Particular attention is to be given in sub-alpine and alpine
regions.
(d) TiA temperature to be assumed with icing. For both of the main types of icing a
temperature of 0C may be used, if not otherwise specified. A lower temperature
should be taken into account in regions where the temperature often drops
significantly after a snowfall.
(e) TcA maximum conductor temperature to be assumed for the calculation of electrical
clearances.
7.2.6 Construction and maintenance loads
7.2.6.1 General
The supports shall be able to withstand all construction and maintenance loads, Q m, which
are likely to be imposed on them with an appropriate load factor, taking into account
working procedures, temporary guying, lifting arrangement, etc. Overstressing of the
support should be prevented by specification of allowable procedures and/or load
capacities.
The conditions should be based on the worst weather conditions (wind and temperature)
under which maintenance will be carried out. The limiting design wind pressure for general
maintenance work shall be 100 Pa. The designer needs to consider all potential aspects that
may arise from maintenance practices affecting Gc, e.g. lowering the conductor at the
adjacent structure may result in the doubling of the weight span on the structure under
consideration.

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7.2.6.2 Loads related to line maintenance/construction personnel


The vertical maintenance load to be applied to a structure for a single person shall be
1.0 kN acting together with the permanent loads and other imposed loads resulting from the
maintenance work method.
For lattice steel structures, these forces shall act at any point of structural elements.
For pole type structures these forces shall act at any point on the superstructure to which it
could be reasonably expected that construction or maintenance loading may be applied.
In particular the following minimum loading allowances shall be made:
(a) Transmission structures ( including lattice steel towers and steel and concrete
poles)
(i) Earthwire peaksprovision for two persons plus 100 kg of tools and equipment
(ii) Crossarmsprovision for 4 persons plus 500 kg of tools and equipment
(b) Distribution structures (including wood and concrete pole structure if climbing
provision is required)
(i) Pole head and crossarmprovision for two persons plus 100 kg of tools and
equipment.
(ii) Polecomponent load of ladder with one person climbing
In addition, provision is to be considered for all structures required to be climbed for the
provision of anchorage from any structural node point for the attachment of fall arrest
system anchorage with a load capacity of 21 kN. Under this condition structural elements
must be able to restrain this load in an elastic or plastic deformed state without release of
the attached tackle system.
Where walkways or working platforms are installed, they shall be designed for the
maximum loads required under the relevant code but provide not less than the provision for
two men at any point; i.e. 2.8 kN point load.
For all structural elements that can be climbed and are inclined with an angle less than 30 to
the horizontal, a characteristic load of 1.4 kN acting vertically in the centre of the member
shall be assumed without any other co-existent loads.
Climbing steps (of any kind) shall be capable of supporting a concentrated load of 1.4 kN
acting vertically at a position 50 mm horizontally from the underside of the extended step
bolt head or step iron end slip restraint.
7.2.7 Security loads
Security loads in this Standard are specified to give minimum requirements on the torsional
and longitudinal resistance of the supports by defining failure containment loads. The loads
considered are the one-sided release of static tension in a conductor and unbalanced
longitudinal loads.
7.2.7.1 Torsional loads
Where temporary termination or single termination conditions can be expected to occur
during the service life of the overhead line, a loading assumption shall be applied to the
design.
Loads and conductor tensions shall be calculated at the normal ambient reference
temperature and serviceability maintenance wind loading.
7.2.7.2 Longitudinal conductor loads
Longitudinal loads from terminated conductors equivalent to a particular load condition
shall be applied simultaneously at all attachment points.

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Where double circuit towers are designed to be strung single circuit only, provision shall be
made for the termination of any one circuit as well as all circuits.
For maintenance load cases the longitudinal conductor loads shall be calculated at the
normal ambient reference temperature with a serviceability maintenance wind load.
Consideration shall be given to differential longitudinal loads on the structure. These are
caused by the spatial variation in wind velocities across adjacent spans on either side of a
support structure.
Where adjacent spans have considerably different span lengths (generally 3:1 or greater )
the effects of winds and/or temperature change will produce differential tensions across the
supporting structure. If the insulator type does not allow equalization of conductor tensions
across the structures in these situations, allowance for differential conductor tension loads
shall be provided in designs.
7.2.7.3 Failure containment loads Fb
The loads on a structure arising from the failure of an adjacent structure are unpredictable.
Consequently, the design approaches to failure containment are largely based on empirical
observations and on reducing the effects of longitudinal loads. If the initial (primary)
failure is caused by extreme winds, the structures adjacent to the collapsing structure may
be subjected to both longitudinal loads and high winds.
In the case of direct buried pole type structures, sufficient rotational release from applied
torsional loads, and translational deformation of the supporting soil can occur in most cases
at the structure directly impacted by overload conditions; such that the load impacts are
dissipated and contained within 1 or 2 structures.
The possibility of a structure failure initiating conductor breakages should also be
considered. This is particularly relevant to AAC and AAAC type conductors when used on
high voltage transmission where conductors may be severed by falling sharp edged metal
structure components.
For the failure containment condition, supports shall be designed for the equivalent
longitudinal loads resulting from conductors on the structure being broken with a minimum
coincident wind pressure of 0.25 times the ultimate design wind.
The unbalance tension (Fb ) resulting from these broken conductors is the residual static load
(RSL) in the phase conductor after severance of a conductor, or the collapse of a conductor
support system.
Intact conductor tensions (Ft) shall be used for all other conductors.
Fb and Ft tensions for conductors shall be based on the temperature corresponding to the
everyday load condition with a minimum nominal wind pressure of 0.25 times the ultimate
design wind pressure.
In distribution systems using pin or post insulators with wire ties or equivalent fixing, and
relatively flexible structures and their foundations, it is not necessary to design suspension
(tangent) structures for the RSL .
Tension and terminal distribution pole structures however, shall be designed for the RSL.
In absence of a more detailed assessment an RSL factor of 0.70 should be adopted for phase
conductors supported by suspension strings. The RSL load applies to all sub conductors in a
phase.
NOTE: While the equivalent span may be used to calculate tensions in a section of line, designers
should be aware that if the span lengths in a line section have considerable variation, a RSL based
on the equivalent span may underestimate broken conductor tensions for some spans.

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7.2.8 Forces due to short-circuit currents


Consideration should be given to the effects of the forces imposed on those overhead lines
forming part of an overhead line system with very high short-circuit characteristics,
typically within 1 span of a substation. These fault currents generally occur for very short
durations. Appendix C provides guidance on forces caused by short-circuit currents.
7.2.9 Other special forces
7.2.9.1 Avalanches and creeping snow loads
When overhead lines are to be routed in or through mountainous regions where they may be
exposed to avalanches or creeping snow on hill slopes consideration shall be given to the
possible additional loads which may act on the supports, foundations and/or conductors.
Guidance information on this subject is given in Appendix C.
7.2.9.2 Earthquakes
When overhead lines are to be constructed in seismically active regions, consideration shall
be given to forces on lines due to earthquakes and/or seismic tremors. Guidance information
on this subject is given in Appendix C.

7.3 LOAD CASES


7.3.1 General
In the design of an overhead line, a range of loading conditions shall be considered that will
provide due consideration for all possible service conditions that the line may be subjected
to through out its service life.

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7.3.1.1 Limit states loading conditions

TABLE 7.3
LOAD COMBINATIONS AND LOAD FACTORS
Loading Load factor and application
condition
Wn S Gs Gc Ft m Ft w Ft e Fb Q
Maximum wind 1.0 (see 1.1 1.25 1.25
Note 2)
Maximum wind 1.0 +1.0 or 0.5 1.25
and uplift (see Note 1)
Everyday 0.9 1.25 1.1
condition
(sustained loads)
Snow and ice 1.0 1.0 1.1 1.25 1.25
Failure 1.0 1.1 1.25 1.25 1.25
containment
Serviceability 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.1
deflection limit
Serviceability 1.0 1.1 1.1 1.0
damage limit
Maintenance 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.5 2.0
Seismic 1.3 (see 1.3 1.25
Note 3)
NOTES:
1 Adequate allowance shall be made for differential loadings that can occur between adjoining spans at a
structure, particularly in mountainous terrain to allow for uplift loads under normal service conditions
including low temperature effects.
2 Wind loads from opposite directions shall be considered.
3 Due considerations for vertical load effects, range from 0.8 to 1.3.

Ultimate and derviceability limit state loads are to be considered in determining structure
deflections and conductor, insulator and fitting strength ratings.
The serviceability deflection limit loading condition is to be used for setting deflection
limits of structures, such as poles, in situations where the electrical clearances will not be
infringed. This condition may also be used as an upper limit for cracking criteria in pre-
stressed concrete poles.
The serviceability damage limit loading condition shall be used where the damage is of a
ductile nature.
7.3.2 Loading combinations
7.3.2.1 General
All overhead line support structures shall be designed for loading conditions that reflect the
construction, operational service and maintenance conditions to ensure reliability of supply
and the safety of personnel constructing and maintaining the line and the public.
The following provisions shall be made in the application of the loading conditions
summarized in Clause 7.3.1.1.

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7.3.2.2 Loading combinations for all supports


(a) Synoptic and downdraft wind
(i) Transverse direction
Apply full transverse wind load on the conductors, insulators and fittings and
support, together with deviation loads at maximum wind tension and all
relevant vertical loads.
(ii) Longitudinal direction
Apply full longitudinal wind load on the support and insulators and fittings
together with every day deviation loads and all relevant vertical loads.
(iii) Oblique (or yawed) windRefer Appendix B)
Apply full oblique wind at an angle to the transverse axis on the conductors.
insulators, fittings and support, together with deviation loads at maximum wind
tension and all relevant vertical loads.
(b) Tornado wind (applicable to high security linesRefer Appendix B
(i) Apply maximum wind load to the structure only to act from any direction,
together with every day deviation loads and all relevant vertical loads.
(ii) Torsional (for wide transverse structures, e.g. horizontal single circuit towers)
Apply maximum wind torsion with rotation about the support centre. Each
tower body face is subjected to in-plane wind, and each crossarm face to
projected perpendicular wind in a consistent rotational direction, together with
every day deviation loads and all relevant vertical loads.
(c) Failure containment
Apply broken conductor loadings to the following conductor attachment positions
with the remaining conductors intact. This out of balance load is to be applied
together with 0.25 times the full transverse wind load on the conductors, insulators
and fittings and support, and deviation loads at the corresponding wind conductor
tension and all relevant vertical loads. For a single circuit line the number of
conductors to be considered is one phase (with allowance for bundles) or the
earthwire. For a double circuit line, the number of conductors to be considered is the
worst loading combination of either any two phases, or any phase and the earthwire.
For structure types having limited longitudinal strength alternative failure
containment methods need to be applied (e.g. use of guys).
In addition for termination structures apply longitudinal loads for the termination of
one or two earthwires together with any one or all circuits.
(d) Maintenance and construction
Apply 100 Pa wind loadings, every day deviation loads, and vertical loads from
conductors, insulators and fittings. In addition allowance is to be made for men and
equipment as provided in Clause 7.2.6.2, and for the increase in vertical and
longitudinal load from lowering conductors.
In addition for deviation and strain structures, apply longitudinal loads for the termination
of one earthwire any one circuit with no other phase conductors attached.

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SECTI ON 8 SUP PORTS

8.1 INITIAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS


Designs of overhead line structures shall be carried out in accordance with this Standard
and referenced Standards Australian/Standards New Zealand, IEC and ASCE documents.
Materials used in the fabrication of overhead line supports should comply with the
requirements of the relevant Australian and New Zealand material Standard or equivalent
International Standards.

8.2 MATERIALS AND DESIGN


8.2.1 Lattice steel towers and guyed masts.
Lattice steel tower designs shall be carried out in accordance with AS 3995, AS 4100,
ASCE 10-97and Appendix G.
8.2.2 Steel poles
Steel poles shall be designed in accordance with AS/NZS 4677, AS 4600, AS 4100, ASCE
48-05 and Appendix K.
8.2.3 Concrete poles
Concrete poles shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of AS/NZS 3600,
AS/NZS 4065 and Appendix I.
8.2.4 Timber poles
Timber poles shall be designed in accordance with the requirements of AS 1720.1,
AS/NZS 1328 or AS 2209 and Appendix F.
8.2.5 Other materials
For all other materials, the material characteristics should be in accordance with the
performance requirements of the finished product and shall also meet the functional
requirements regarding both strength and serviceability (deformation, durability and
aesthetics) and be in accordance with the relevant Australian, New Zealand, IEC or
equivalent International Standard.
Where composite materials are used in pole elements, such as fibre reinforced resin or
polymer, fibre reinforced concrete, using fibreglass, carbon or steel microfilament fibres;
the design and performance characteristics of the pole element shall be supported by load
tests.
8.2.6 Guyed structures
8.2.6.1 General
A guyed support can be any type of structure that is supported by guy wires for stability .
Various types of configurations exist such as V-tower, portal, column, catenary, guyed
timber poles, double guyed timber leg structures, multi-level guyed tubular leg structures,
etc.
The following additional requirements shall apply.
8.2.6.2 Second order analysis
In larger more complex guyed structures where a second order analysis is justified the
following aspects shall be taken into account:
(a) An initial out of straightness shall be assumed for sections hinged at both ends (tower
legs), a normal design value of L/1000 shall be considered.
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(b) The slackening of one or more guys at different loading conditions shall be taken into
consideration.
8.2.6.3 Design details for guys
The characteristic resistance of the guy shall be the nominal value for ultimate breaking
strength specified in appropriate standards with due consideration of the method of
termination. The effective elastic modulus of the guy determined from a Standard,
manufacturer or test may be used in analysis.
For guyed tower structures, galvanised steel wire strands or steel ropes with steel core shall
be used for the guys , and shall be equipped with devices for retightening during the service
life of the structure.
The connection between the guy rope and the anchor device shall be readily accessible, and
the connections and tightening devices shall be secured against loosening in service.
On guyed tower structures, the guys shall be pre-tensioned to an appropriate force (5-10%
CBL) after the erection of the structure, in order to reduce the deformation at extreme loads.
The angle or termination structures shall be vertical after the stringing of the conductors at
the every day temperature.
Special attention shall be paid to preventing possible vibration, galloping and fluttering
phenomena if this is a known characteristic of the region. Regions with constant low
velocity prevailing winds and low temperatures need investigation.
Where cast steel sockets or cast wedge sockets are used in the guy terminations, freedom
from defects in the casting should be ensured by an acceptable non-destructive test or
manufacturer's certificate.
For a multi-level guyed support, instructions for the erection work are needed because the
structure is sensitive to the pre-tensioning of the guys.
Due care shall be taken for protection of the guy in populated areas for possible galvanic
corrosion and flashover.
Insulation of the guy above a point accessible from the ground by the public should be
provided if a risk of failure of the energized conductors may exist, such that a guy wire
could become energized.
Where no insulation in guy wires is used, appropriate step and touch potential mitigating
systems shall be adopted.
In order to minimize the possibility of aerodynamic guy vibrations in stabilizing guy wires
the pretension should be less than 10%.
For permanently loaded structural load carrying guy wires this requirement is not
applicable, however if service experience indicates that aerodynamic vibrations are
significant, then vibration damping protection should be considered.

8.3 CORROSION PROTECTION AND FINISHES


8.3.1 General
Metallic components of supports shall be protected against corrosion in order to meet their
design service life, taking into account the planned maintenance regime. The following
clauses set minimum requirements that should be provided. Refer to AS/NZS 2312.
8.3.2 Galvanizing
All galvanized steel material and fastenings used in support structures shall be hot-dip
galvanized and tested in accordance with AS/NZS 4680 or equivalent International
Standard unless an alternative anti-corrosion coating system is utilized.

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8.3.3 Metal spraying


Where required by design considerations or where steel materials are too large or difficult
to galvanize, they may be protected against corrosion by thermal spraying a zinc or
zinc/aluminum coating over the base metal, performed in accordance with ISO 14713 to
provide zinc deposit thickness not less than 200 m. When this system is used, the inside
surface of hollow sections shall also be protected against corrosion.
8.3.4 Paint over galvanizing (duplex system )
When an enhanced coloured cosmetic surface treatment paint coating is to be applied after
hot-dip galvanizing of steel structures, this coating shall be applied in accordance with a
coating manufacturers recommendations.
8.3.5 Use of weather-resistant steels
The use of weather resistance steels requires special design considerations and full-scale
experience.
They should be used with caution in environmentally sensitive areas or in areas where
excessive corrosion is likely.

8.4 MAINTENANCE FACILITIES


8.4.1 Climbing and working at heights
Where climbing and working at heights from the structure is required, by authorized
personnel, suitable facilities shall be incorporated in the designs of supports.
Reference should be made to Appendix M for guidance on industry standards.
8.4.2 Maintainability
In addition to climbing attachments, the provision of rigging and load transfer attachments,
holes or fittings for the installation and use of maintenance equipment shall be provided in
designs.
Reference should be made to Appendix M for guidance on industry standards.
8.4.3 Safety requirements
Provision shall be made on all climbable structures for the fixing of signage and devices to
ensure the protection of the public from hazards associated with access to electrical works,
and to provide public awareness of operational safety issues.
This may include
(a) provision of safety information for the general public (e.g. warning signs, telephone
number for emergency contact);
(b) prevention of unauthorized climbing;
(c) provision of aids to authorized personnel to enable them to correctly identify
energized and de-energized conductors (e.g. circuit identification markings);
(d) provision for bonding of earthwire and earthing of the support structure; and
(e) equipotental bonding.

8.5 LOADING TESTS


Full scale loading tests on overhead lines supports, when carried out, shall be generally in
accordance with IEC 60652 and the following provisions.

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8.5.1 Tower structures


Full scale load testing may be carried out to verify experimentally, the force distribution
and efficiency of structural element connectivity for a given structural geometry, and for
confirming force distribution in redundant bracing elements.
It should be understood that such tests are a sample test for a particular height tower. Taller
or shorter towers of the same structure type, may not have identical performance
characteristics.
8.5.2 Pole type structures
Load testing of prototype poles may be used as an acceptable alternative to strength
calculations to verify flexural bending and shear capacity strengths for pole type elements.
Routine sample poles shall be tested to determine whether structurally similar poles are
deemed to comply with the requirements for strength and serviceability of this Standard.
Deflection characteristics of repetitive sample pole tests compared to prototype test
deflections provides a useful tool for monitoring quality of pole product manufacture.
8.5.2.1 Test specimens
Specimen poles for prototype testing shall be manufactured, as a group for a normal
production run, in sufficient numbers so that each required test can be carried out on a pole
that is unaffected by any previous testing. However, serviceability and strength testing may
be carried out sequentially, in that order, on the same pole.
The manufacture of the test specimens shall take into account the intended production
procedures and the quality of materials and workmanship to be used during normal
production.
The specimens shall be chosen to represent poles of similar structural design and may
include poles of different nominal sizes.
8.5.2.2 Test requirements
Test loads shall be determined to reflect as close as possible design loadings. Loading
devices shall be properly calibrated and care exercised to ensure that no artificial restraints
to pole deformations are imposed by the loading systems. Test loads shall be applied to the
test specimen at a rate that is as uniform as practicable.
Test loading and support conditions shall simulate the relevant design conditions as closely
as is practicable.
Test arrangements depend on whether the pole elements are tested horizontally or in a
vertical mode.
Performance indicators shall be measured and recorded, as a minimum, at least at the
following times:
(a) Immediately before the application of the test load.
(b) When the test load is reached.
(c) Immediately after the entire test load has been removed.
8.5.2.3 Testing and acceptance
Test loads shall reproduce at critical cross-sections not less than the design action effect at
the relevant limit state, multiplied by the appropriate factor given in Table 8.1, unless a
reliability analysis shows that a smaller factor can be adopted safely.
The value of the coefficient of variation to be used in Table 8.1 shall be obtained from
historical test data for the material, manufacturing method and action effect being
considered. In the absence of such data the values given in Table 8.2 may be adopted.

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Load testing of prototype poles may be used as an acceptable alternative to strength


calculations to verify flexural bending and shear capacity strengths for pole types. Regular
full scale load testing may be applied to verify the structural capacity, in the case of poles
to verify strengths and quality of materials and workmanship.
Where routine samples of poles are load tested to determine their quality and strength
conformance, the lowest test result shall be divided by the COV factor in Table 8.1. All
previously tested poles of similar types and lengths shall be included in the numbers of
poles tested to select the correct COV factor. Deflection characteristics of repetitive sample
pole tests compared to prototype test deflections provides a useful tool for monitoring
quality of pole product manufacture.
TABLE 8.1
VALUES OF MULTIPLIER FOR TEST LOAD FOR ESTIMATED COEFFICIENT
OF VARIATION

No. of similar Coefficient of variation of structural characteristics


units tested(1) 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30%
1 1.20 1.46 1.79 2.21 2.75 3.45
2 1.17 1.38 1.64 1.96 2.36 2.86
3 1.15 1.33 1.56 1.83 2.16 2.56
4 1.14 1.30 1.50 1.74 2.03 2.37
5 1.13 1.28 1.46 1.67 1.93 2.23
10 1.10 1.21 1.34 1.49 1.66 1.85
30 1.07 1.15 1.24 1.34 1.46 1.60
50 1.05 1.10 1.17 1.24 1.33 1.42
100 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

NOTES:
1 The cumulative number of tested poles having the same characteristics, not per batch.
2 The coefficient of variation is equal to the standard deviation divided by the mean and usually
expressed as a percentage.
3 Design strength by testing = lowest test result divided by the multiplier.

TABLE 8.2
MINIMUM VALUES OF COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION (COV) FOR DIFFERENT
MATERIALS AND ACTION EFFECTS
Minimum COV%
Material
Steel Concrete Timber
Method of manufacture
All welded Spun or cast Stress graded Visually graded
or assembly
Bending 5 5 25 30

NOTE: For on-site welded connections, a higher coefficient of variation may be appropriate.

8.5.3 Acceptance criteria


The acceptance criteria for strength and serviceability shall be as follows:
(a) For serviceability, the test specimen shall be deemed to comply with the
serviceability requirements of this Standard if, under the serviceability limit-state test
load, the measured serviceability indicators are within the specified limits appropriate
to the pole application.

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(b) For strength, the test specimens shall be deemed to comply with the strength
requirements of this Standard if the specimens are able to withstand the strength
limit-state test load for not less than 2 min.
8.5.4 Test reports
The results of the tests on each test specimen shall be recorded in a report. The report shall
contain at least the following information:
(a) A clear statement of the conditions of testing, including the methods of supporting
and loading the specimen and the methods of measuring serviceability indicators.
(b) Identification of the test specimen.
(c) The values of the relevant test loads and, where appropriate, measured performance
indicators.
(d) A statement as to whether or not the specimen satisfied the acceptance criteria.
If a specimen fails to satisfy an acceptance criterion, the load at which such failure occurred
shall be recorded and reported.

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SECTI ON 9 FOUNDATIONS

9.1 GENERAL
Foundations for supports may take the form of single foundations in the case of pole type
structures and guy anchors or separate footings for each leg of towers.
The loading on single footings is predominantly in the form of overturning moment, which
is usually resisted by lateral soil pressure, together with additional shear and vertical forces
resisted by upwards soil pressure.
Common types of single foundations are direct buried poles, bored caissons, mono-bloc
footings, pad or raft footings, bored pier foundations, and single pile or pile group
foundations.
When separate footings are provided for each leg the predominant loadings are compression
and uplift forces, however, shear forces should be considered.
Uplift and compression forces are usually resisted by combinations of dead weight of the
foundation bulk, earth surcharges, shear forces and bearing in the soil. This also applies to
guy foundations.
Common types of separate footing foundations are (stepped) block footings with or without
undercut (pad and chimney, spread footings); auger bored footings with or without
expanded base; pier or caisson foundations; grillage foundations; and vertical or raked pile
foundations.

9.2 DESIGN PRINCIPLES


Foundations for structures and the anchor of any stays or guy wires shall be capable of
withstanding loads specified for the ultimate strength limit state and serviceability limit
states conditions.
Foundation design should be based on appropriate engineering soil properties. Where soil
test information is not available an estimate of soil parameters should be made based on an
appraisal of site conditions, soil types and geological structure.
Construction personnel shall be made aware of the assumed parameters and guidelines
should be issued that will allow recognition of soils not conforming to the adopted design
parameters.
In calculating the strength of foundations, recognition should be given for the different
strength characteristics of soil under short-term and long term loads, and the difference in
saturated and dry properties of the soil.
Failing the availability of soil tests, Appendix L provides guidance on various soil
properties.
As a general principle, the foundation should not have component reliability less than that
of the structure. The consequences of foundation failure (excessive movement or
differential settlement) on rigid structures may induce high stress levels in the structure.
The values provided in Table 6.5 are based on a component reliability factor of 1.0, and
take into account the normal high coefficient of variation (COV) of soil generally.

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The consequences of partial foundation failure for pole structures or flexible guyed
structures are not normally as severe. Designers should assess the cost of providing
foundations that will remain elastic for all design loads versus the cost of straightening
poles (or re-tensioning stays) that have been subjected to extreme weather events. It should
be noted that the deflection of foundations of deviation structures most likely will reduce
conductor tension loadings. Pole head offsets provide a convenient means of negating this
effect.
Permanent deflections due to extreme windstorm or floodwater events and long term creep
of materials will increase stresses in the structure and its foundation due to the eccentricity
of the structure vertical loads relative to the foundation centre (p effect). This can cause
foundation failure.

9.3 POLE AND TOWER FOUNDATIONS


Structure foundation design methods together with typical soil parameters are provided in
Appendix L.

9.4 SOIL INVESTIGATION


Where carried out, soil investigations shall be to a depth that include all layers which
significantly influence the foundation strength.
The type, condition, extent, stratification and depth of the soil layers as well as ground-
water conditions can be examined by boring and/or testing such as cone penetration test
(CPT), standard penetration test (SPT), penetrometer, trial pits or other standardized tests,
if available knowledge base does not provide sufficient information. The results of the soil
investigations shall be recorded, in accordance with relevant standards or codes of practice.
In the absence of better information from soil investigations, the soil parameters provided
in Appendix L may be used as a guideline for design. However it should be confirmed by
inspection or testing, during construction, that the soil parameters used are appropriate.

9.5 BACKFILLING OF EXCAVATED MATERIALS


When backfilling is used, sufficient compaction shall be carried out to ensured foundation
actions can be developed as designed. In certain circumstances a possible reduction of
consistency of cohesive soils should be taken into account in the calculations if compaction
standards are to be relaxed.
When backfilling with granular soil in cohesive soil, the tendency of water to accumulate in
the backfill shall be considered or lower values shall be used.

9.6 FOUNDATION DISPLACEMENTS


The design values for the limiting displacement of foundations will depend on the type of
foundations, the type of structure, and the serviceably criteria assumed.
NOTE: As a guide, damage and failure limits given in IEC 60826 may be adopted.

9.7 LOAD TESTING OF FOUNDATIONS


Loading tests or tests on experimental models form a valuable method for justifying the
design of foundations or to test the strengths of individual foundations, whether test or
production foundations.
There are two categories of tests normally performed, i.e. proof tests, or design and
research tests.

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9.7.1 Proof tests


These tests are undertaken on production foundations and they shall successfully pass the
test at a percentage of the design load (nominally 85%) such that they remain fully
serviceable after testing.
9.7.2 Design and research tests
These tests are carried out on specially installed foundations typically up to failure and are
intended to verify specific design approaches or assumptions for the geotechnical
parameters.
Such tests require efforts for ensuring accuracy of installation and monitoring the test.
Provision for the following factors should be included:
(a) Design loading conditions.
(b) Difference in the ground conditions between the test and the actual construction.
(c) Duration of test loading.
(d) Scale effects, especially if smaller models are used.
(e) Climatic effects.
Details concerning the preparation of the tests, the testing arrangement, the test procedure
and evaluation of results are given in AS 2159.

9.8 CONSTRUCTION AND INSTALLATION


Details of the proposed method of interconnection between the support and the foundation
shall be incorporated in the design.
Designs of foundations should include consideration of the method of construction and
installation of foundations to ensure the assumed or designed geotechnical parameters are
able to be realised.

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SECTI ON 10 EARTHING SYSTEMS

10.1 GENERAL PURPOSE


An earthing system of overhead earthwires, earth down leads, grading rings and
counterpoise earthing addresses the following objectives:
(a) Ensure protective equipment will operate in faulted situations.
(b) Provide acceptable reliability (lightning performance) on the line.
(c) Control touch and step potentials around the base of the structure.
(d) Provide a conductive path for fault current.
(e) Avoid damage to properties and equipment.
The dimensioning of earthing systems shall consider the following requirements:
(i) To ensure mechanical strength and corrosion resistance.
(ii) To withstand, from a thermal point of view, the highest fault current as determined by
calculation
(iii) Limit lightning induced voltages on earth down leads
The transfer of potential by nearby metallic objects may occur due to fault currents flowing
in the earth system.
Guidelines on individual cases should be determined by the utility.
These effects shall be reduced to acceptable levels contained in AS/NZS 3835 and
HB 101(CJC5).

10.2 EARTHING MEASURES AGAINST LIGHTNING EFFECTS


The footing resistance values have an influence on the backflashover rate of the line and
therefore affect the reliability. A low resistance provides good lightning performance and
recommended values for high reliability lines are an average of 10 ohms in middle of the
line and 5 ohms close to the substation.

10.3 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO CORROSION AND MECHANICAL


STRENGTH
10.3.1 Earth electrodes
The electrodes, being directly in contact with the soil, shall be of materials capable of
withstanding corrosion (chemical or biological attack, oxidation, formation of an
electrolytic couple, electrolysis, etc.).
They shall resist the mechanical influences during their installation as well as those
occurring during normal service.
Mechanical strength and corrosion considerations dictate the minimum dimensions for earth
electrodes given in EN 50341. If a different material, for example stainless steel, is used,
this material and its dimensions shall meet the requirements of (a) and (b) in Clause 10.1.
NOTE: It is acceptable to use steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete foundations and steel
piles as a part of the earthing system.
10.3.2 Earthing and bonding conductors
For mechanical and electrical reasons, the minimum cross-sections shall be
(a) copper 16 mm2 .

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(b) aluminium 35 mm2 .


(c) steel 50 mm2 .
NOTE: Composite conductors can also be used for earthing provided that their resistance is
equivalent to the examples given. For aluminium conductors corrosion affects should be
considered. Earthing and bonding conductors made of steel require protection against corrosion.

10.4 DIMENSIONING WITH RESPECT TO THERMAL STRENGTH


10.4.1 General
Because fault current levels are governed by the electrical system rather than the overhead
line the values should be provided by the network utility.
4 In some cases steady-state zero-sequence currents should be taken into account for the
dimensioning of the relevant earthing system.
5 For design purposes, the currents used to calculate the conductor size should take into account
the possibility of future growth.
The fault current is often subdivided in the earth electrode system; it is, therefore, possible
to dimension each electrode for only a fraction of the fault current.
The final temperatures involved in the design and to which reference is made in the
following subclause shall be chosen in order to avoid reduction of the material strength and
to avoid damage to the surrounding materials, for example concrete or insulating materials.
No permissible temperature rise of the soil surrounding the earth electrodes is given in this
Standard because experience shows that soil temperature rise is usually not significant.
10.4.2 Current rating calculation
The calculation of the cross-section of the earthing conductors or earth electrodes
depending on the value and the duration of the fault current is given in EN 50341. There is
a discrimination between fault duration lower than 5 s (adiabatic temperature rise) and
greater than 5 s. The final temperature shall be chosen with regard to the material and the
surroundings.
Nevertheless, the minimum cross-sections in Clause 10.3.2 shall be observed.

10.5 RISK BASED EARTHING - PERMISSIBLE VALUES


Overhead lines shall comply with the respective touch voltage curves shown in Figures 10.1
and Figure 10.2 or be based on a risk based approach.

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100,000
Prospective touch voltages ( V )

10,000 Asphalt

Crushed
rock

1000 -m

500 -m

1,000 200 -m

50 -m

100

10
10 100 1,000 10,000
Fault duration (ms)

NOTE: For the curves in Figure 10 1 and Figure 10. 2, a resistivity value of 3,000 -m has been used for crushed rock
and 10,000 -m for asphalt.

FIGURE 10 1 PROSPECTIVE TOUCH VOLTAGE CURVES EXCLUDING


FOOTWEAR RESISTANCE

100,000
Prospective touch voltages (V)

Asphalt
10,000
Crushed
rock

1000 -m
500 -m

200 -m
1,000 50 -m

100

10
10 100 1,000 10,000
Fault duration (ms)

NOTE: For the curves in Figure 10 1 and Figure 10. 2, a resistivity value of 3,000 -m has been used for crushed rock
and 10,000 -m for asphalt.

FIGURE 10. 2 PROSPECTIVE TOUCH VOLTAGE CURVES


INCLUDING 2,000 FOOTWEAR RESISTANCE

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10.5.1 Risk based approach to earthing


10.5.1.1 Introduction
Risks associated with earthing include the possibility of human and livestock fatalities,
equipment damage and property loss. All these risks shall be assessed on the basis of cost
and benefit. For human fatalities a probability based approach is recommended.
10.5.1.2 Risk of fatality approach
Design of an earthing system based on a risk approach to human fatalities can be
accomplished by the process outlined in Figure 10.3 and described in the points following:
(a) Identify the scenarios and the risks (e.g. a person touching a substation fence at the
time of a fault).
(b) Based on the likely proportion of total earth fault currents flowing into the local
earthing system and durations), determine the minimum earthing system that could
meet the functional requirement. Detailed design is necessary to ensure that all
exposed conductive parts, are earthed. Extraneous conductive parts shall be earthed,
if appropriate. Any structural earth electrodes associated with the installation shall be
bonded and form part of the earthing system. If not bonded, verification is necessary
to ensure that all safety requirements are met.
(c) Determine the zone of interest. If it cannot be demonstrated that interconnection via
either the primary or secondary supply systems is sufficient, then determine the soil
characteristics of the zone of interest, taking into account the seasonal variation of the
soil parameters.
(d) Based on soil characteristics and the estimated fault current discharged into the soil
by the earthing system of the installation site, determine earth potention rise (EPR).
(e) Determine the tolerable step and touch voltages (see Appendix U).
(f) If the EPR is below the tolerable step and touch voltages, the design is completed.
(g) If not, determine if step and touch voltages inside and in the vicinity of the earthing
system are below the tolerable limits.
(h) If not, assess the risk as detailed in Appendix U and as summarized below
(i) estimate the frequency and duration of the fault events;
(ii) estimate the extent of hazard areas or zones;
(iii) estimate the total length of time per year that individuals are within hazardous
areas or zones;
(iv) calculate the probability of individuals being at risk through exposure to
hazardous voltages; and
(v) compare the level of probability of an event against the risk criteria and
establish the cost benefit of reducing the level of probability to below
acceptable levels (if required). Refer to Appendix U for definitions of the High,
Intermediate and Low risk categories and associated actions required.
(i) Identify and implement appropriate risk treatment measures (if required) and then re
calculate the residual risk level following treatment. Typical treatment measures are
discussed in Appendix U.
(j) Determine if transferred potentials present a hazard outside or inside the high voltage
installation. If yes, proceed with risk treatment at exposed location.
(k) Determine if low voltage equipment is exposed to excessive stress voltage. If yes,
proceed with mitigation measures, which can include separation of HV and LV
earthing systems.
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(l) Determine if the circulating transformer neutral current can lead to excessive
potential differences between different parts of the earthing system. If yes, proceed
with mitigation measures.
(m) Assess and manage any inductive and conductive interference with other utility plant
and personnel (e.g. telecommunications, pipelines, rail).
(n) Consider the need to implement any particular precautions against lightning and other
transients.
(o) Once the above criteria have been met, the design can be refined, if necessary, by
repeating the above steps.
(p) Provide installation support as necessary to ensure design requirements fulfilled and
staff safety risk effectively managed.
(q) Review installation for physical and safety compliance following the commissioning
programme.
(r) Documentation to include physical installation description, e.g. drawing, as well as
electrical assumptions, design decisions, commissioning, data and supervision and
maintenance requirements.
The risk assessment can also be formulated as, given a tolerable level of risk of fatalities,
what is the maximum allowable number of contact events by people per unit time?

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1. Refer to Appendix U for definitions of the high, intermediate and low risk outcome categories and
associated actions required.
2. For low risk category, the risk is generally acceptable. However, risk treatment should be applied if the
cost of the risk treatment was small compared to the overall project cost. A cost benefit analysis may be
required to assess the cost of the risk treatment against the overall project cost.

FIGURE 10.3 EARTHING SYSTEM DESIGN FLOW CHART

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10.6 ELECTRICAL ASPECTS OF STAYWIRE DESIGN


Important electrical considerations to be incorporated into the design for structure staywires
consist of
(a) corrosion of staywires and foundation steelwork due to leakage currents; and
(b) control of touch potentials on structure staywires.
10.6.1 Corrosion and leakage currents
The net flow of leakage current off a staywire will lead to eventual corrosion of the
staywire, or the reinforcing steel in the staywire foundation. For most transmission and
distribution applications, the provision of a stay insulator in the stay wire assembly will
mitigate corrosion issues related to leakage current flow.
Typical examples of staywire insulators are outlined in AS 3609.
However, corrosion at the ground line interfaces between stay rods, soil and concrete
encasement interfaces may still be an issue even with stay insulator fitted and these aspects
should be considered in the structural design aspects of the stay assembly foundation.
There may be applications were a stay type insulator cannot be used. One example may be
the use of high tensile stay wires with loads in excess of the specified mechanical rating of
stay type insulators. For these instances, the structural design of the stay will need to
account for corrosion, possible degradation and reduction in mechanical rating of the stay
over the design lifetime of the staywire.
10.6.2 Stay earthing for control of touch potentials
10.6.2.1 Distribution and sub transmission lines
The addition of the stay insulator for leakage current, can also mitigate touch voltage
hazards on stay wires. Common examples that can cause hazards in stay wires consist of
power follow currents flowing to earth via the stay on a conductive structure, which are not
sufficient to operate protection systems, or a dropped conductor directly onto the structure
stay.
Stay insulators should be positioned such that the staywire on the structure side of the stay
insulator cannot be accessed from the ground by the general public when intact or when in a
broken stay wire state and also positioned such to maximise the ability to insulate the stay
to ground in the event of a fallen conductor directly onto the stay.
10.6.2.2 Transmission lines
The addition of the stay insulator for leakage current, may only partly address touch voltage
hazards on stay wires for transmission applications. There may be some situations, due to
high prospective fault currents, that the stay insulator is insufficient to control touch
voltages in the event of a fault occurring at this structure. Therefore, additional safety
measures in the form of stay earthing, and installation of buried grading control conductors
may need consideration by the designer.
Stay insulators should be positioned such that the staywire on the structure side of the stay
insulator cannot be accessed from the ground by the general public.
Stay wires which do not utilize insulators shall require by default additional safety
measures in the form of stay earthing, and installation of buried grading control conductors
to control touch voltages.
In addition to the specified mechanical requirements for the stay, an evaluation of electrical
capability of the stay wire should also be considered. Fault currents shall be allowed to
flow to earth via the structure and its associated stay wires, without damage being caused to
the stay wire due to flow of fault current.

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10.7 CHOICE OF EARTHING MATERIALS


Where additional earthing and installation of buried grading conductors are used ,
consideration should be given to the suitability of the various earthing materials. The
performance of earthing materials when bonded and installed in proximity to stay wires and
their foundations shall be considered. Problems with dissimilar metals and galvanic
corrosion should be avoided.

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SECTI ON 11 LINE EQUIPMENTOVERHE AD


LINE FITTINGS

11.1 GENERAL
Overhead line fittings shall be designed, manufactured and erected in such a way as to meet
the overall performance requirement for the operation and maintenance for the line.
The design life of fittings and components shall be 50 years or as otherwise determined.

11.2 ELECTRICAL REQUIREMENTS


11.2.1 Requirements applicable to all fittings
The design of all fittings shall be such that they are compatible with the specified electrical
requirements for the overhead line. Grading rings or similar devices shall be used where
necessary to reduce the electric field intensity at the line end of insulator sets, including the
compression terminations of composite insulators.
11.2.2 Requirements applicable to current carrying fittings
Conductor fittings intended to carry the operating current of the conductor shall not, when
subjected to the maximum continuous current in the conductor or to short-circuit currents,
exhibit corresponding temperature rises greater than those of the associated conductor. Also
the voltage drop across current carrying conductor fittings shall not be greater than the
voltage drop across an equivalent length of conductor.

11.3 RIV REQUIREMENTS AND CORONA EXTINCTION VOLTAGE


Fittings, including spacers and vibration dampers, for overhead lines shall be designed such
that under test conditions the levels of radio interference are consistent with the overall
level specified for the installation.

11.4 SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND POWER ARC REQUIREMENTS


Fittings shall, when required, comply with the specified short-circuit current or power arc
requirements.
In particular insulator set fittings shall be such that if a short-circuit current or power arc
test is required they retain, at least 80 % of their specified mechanical failing load on
completion of the test.
Arcing horns shall be capable of safely carrying the anticipated fault level current for the
anticipated duration of the fault without adverse effect on the safety aspects of overhead
line maintenance.

11.5 MECHANICAL REQUIREMENTS


Conductor termination fitting and all component fittings in insulator string assemblies shall
be capable of transferring the structure design failure containment load Fb to the structure
termination point, for the complete design service life of the fittings.
Where accelerated corrosion due to electrical effects exists, or if there is a high potential for
mechanical abrasion and wear of fittings, due allowance shall be made in the design or in
the planned maintenance of the line to ensure the integrity of the line reliability.

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11.6 DURABILITY REQUIREMENTS


All materials used in the construction of overhead line fittings shall be inherently resistant
to atmospheric corrosion which may affect their performance. The choice of materials
and/or the design of fittings shall be such that bimetallic corrosion of fittings or conductor
is minimized.
All ferrous materials, other than stainless steels, used in the construction of fittings shall be
protected against atmospheric corrosion by hot dip galvanizing or other methods specified
in the project specification or agreed by the purchaser with the supplier.
Fittings subjected to articulation or wear shall be designed, including material selection,
and manufactured to ensure maximum wear resistant properties.

11.7 MATERIAL SELECTION AND SPECIFICATION


Materials used in the manufacture of overhead line fittings shall be selected having regard
to their relevant characteristics. The manufacturer shall ensure that the specification and
quality control of materials is sufficient to ensure continuous achievement of the specified
characteristics and performance requirements.
Locking devices used in the assembly of fittings with socket connectors shall comply with
the requirements of IEC 60372.
NOTE: When selecting metals or alloys for line fittings the possible effects of low temperature
should, where relevant, be considered. When selecting non-metallic materials their possible
reaction to temperature extremes, UV radiation, ozone and atmospheric pollution should be
considered.

11.8 CHARACTERISTICS AND DIMENSIONS OF FITTINGS


The mechanical characteristics of insulator set fittings shall comply with the mechanical
strength requirements of AS 1154.1 or IEC 60471.
11.8.1 Termination fittings
Termination fittings include deadends and joints. Termination fittings shall be generally
designed and manufactured in accordance with AS 1154.1 or AS 1154.3 for helical fittings
or equivalent International Standards. Termination fittings shall be designed to hold the
strength nominated in the relevant standard. Terminations shall be designed to carry the
steady state thermal conductor current rating, short time thermal current rating and short-
circuit current rating for the design life of the overhead line.
11.8.2 Suspension and support fittings
Suspension and support fittings include bolted suspension clamps, armour grip suspensions
and wire ties. Suspension and support fittings shall be designed and manufactured in
accordance AS 1154.1 or AS 1154.3 for helical fittings or equivalent International
standards. Suspension and support fittings shall be designed to
(a) achieve the mechanical strength nominated by the manufacturer or required by the
purchaser;
(b) hold the slip strength nominated by the manufacturer or required by the purchaser;
and
(c) be undamaged by the passage of the steady state thermal conductor current rating,
short time thermal current rating and short-circuit current rating for the design life of
the overhead line.

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11.8.3 Repair fittings


Repair fittings shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with AS 1154.3 or
equivalent International Standards. Repair fittings shall be designed to make good
conductors of which not more than half of the wires in the outermost layer have been
fractured or have other equivalent damage to that outermost layer. Repair fittings shall not
be used to make good damaged steel wires.
11.8.4 Spacers and spacer dampers
Spacers and Spacer Dampers shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with
AS 1154.1 or equivalent International Standards. Spacers and spacer dampers shall
(a) be designed to maintain the nominated sub-conductor separation;
(b) be designed to minimize damage caused to the conductors by the action of the wind;
(c) withstand the compressive forces associated with short-circuit currents;
(d) withstand the fatigue loads imparted by the conductors as a result of the action of the
wind; and
(e) be installed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturers.
11.8.5 Vibration dampers
Vibration dampers shall be designed and manufactured in accordance with AS 1154.1 or
equivalent International Standards. Vibration dampers shall be installed on all conductors in
accordance with Appendix Z. Vibration dampers shall be designed to minimize damage to
the conductors, suspension clamps and other hardware cause by wind induced aeolian
vibration. Vibration dampers shall be installed in accordance with the recommendations of
the manufacturers.
11.8.6 Conductor fittings for use at elevated temperatures
Conductor fittings for high temperature conductors shall be selected to meet the steady state
thermal conductor current rating, short time thermal current rating and short-circuit current
rating for the design life of the overhead line. In particular, fittings such as armour grip
types of suspension clamps which use rubber inserts shall be selected to ensure the rubber
components shall withstand the steady state current rating.
Fittings to be used for high temperature conductors manufactured from aluminium or
aluminium alloys should be designed so that any parts of the fittings subject to mechanical
stresses including fittings for support or suspension as well as termination or jointing will
experience a maximum temperature of approximately 100C when the conductor is at the
steady state thermal current rating.
The fittings shall be designed so the fitting is not prone to loosening as a result of thermal
ratcheting.
NOTE: Thermal ratcheting can occur when dissimilar metals are used together such as a steel bolt
in an aluminium clamp where the expansion coefficient of the aluminium is much higher than the
steel and loosening of the bolt can occur as a result of the differential movement of each material
during heating and cooling.
11.8.7 Conductor fittings used at near freezing temperatures
Conductor fitting shall be designed and manufactured to ensure the ingress of moisture and
subsequent freezing does not compromise mechanical performance.
NOTE: Should moisture ingress occur in enclosed fittings such as termination fittings, the
moisture may freeze and expand and cause the fitting to loosen on the conductor or fracture of the
fitting.

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11.9 TYPE TEST REQUIREMENTS


11.9.1 Standard type tests
When required type tests on overhead line fittings shall be carried out in accordance with
the requirements of AS 1154 and IEC 60471.
11.9.2 Optional type tests
Type tests may be carried out to confirm the performance of insulator set fittings under
power arc conditions.
Information relating to such tests is given in IEC 61467.

11.10 SAMPLE TEST REQUIREMENTS


Sample tests shall be carried out in accordance with AS 1154 and IEC 60471.

11.11 ROUTINE TEST REQUIREMENTS


Routine tests shall be carried out in accordance with AS 1154 and IEC 60471.

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SECTI ON 12 LIFE EXT ENSION


(REFURBISHMENT, UPGR ADING, UP RATING)
OF EXISTING OVE RHEAD LINES

12.1 GENERAL
All overhead lines shall have ongoing planned maintenance to ensure they remain in an
operationally serviceable condition without jeopardizing public safety.
If it is identified that an overhead line is no longer meeting its operational performance
standard; or has exhibited degradation to a level that raises question concerning any
component of the overall lines serviceability, or safety to the public or ongoing
maintenance - it shall be subjected to a complete engineering assessment.
This assessment shall consider the following:
(a) Whether the support structures are no longer safe to the public or their ongoing
maintenance as determined by further structural analysis and detailed assessment.
(b) Whether the support structures are able to economically be refurbished.
(c) Whether the overall line performance can be improved to an acceptable level by
modification or replacement of line components.
(d) Whether the line should be taken out of service and decommissioned.
Where the line is to be refurbished by modification of the support structures, replacement of
conductors and insulation, it shall be subjected to a complete engineering assessment.

12.2 ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES


Current design requirements provide a useful bench mark for existing construction, but it
is often appropriate to adopt a lower standard consistent with the fitness for purpose for
the overall network.
The reasons for a lower standard being appropriate are
(a) most asset owners have overhead lines which have undergone piecemeal
replacement of individual supports since original construction;
(b) legislation has changed since original construction (i.e. the design requirements have
increased over time); or
(c) this approach will achieve a more favourable network assessment outcome.
This reduced standard could be achieved using one or a combination of factors mentioned
below.
12.2.2 Line importance
Asset owners often adopt a uniform risk profile throughout the network, hence allowing
reduced loads to reflect the reduced remaining life of the assets. This ensures that all assets
have the same likelihood of failure during their remaining lives.
However there is a minimum limit required to provide adequate safety to both the public
and line personnel working on the structure. This reliability level is not related to remaining
life, functional or economic loss, but protection of life.
12.2.3 Inspection
An inspection of the complete line shall be carried out as part of the evaluation process.

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It shall involve at least the following:


(a) An assessment of the condition of materials and elements including extent and
significance of any deterioration found by physical measurement.
(b) Material sampling, if required.
(c) Verification of dimensional information.
(d) Assessment of design loads.
(e) Identification of any defective and unsafe components.
12.2.4 Material properties
The material properties assumed for analysis shall be based on one of the following
methods:
(a) From drawings, specifications or other construction records.
(b) From nominal historical values.
(c) From cores or samples removed from the pole or component.
In order to obtain the characteristic value for calculation purposes, the results of the testing
need to be adjusted using statistical methods. Any sampling shall be representative of the
structure or entire group of similar components.
The statistical adjustment factor is usually based on
(i) The number of units
(ii) The coefficient of variation (COV) of structural property
(iii) The minimum structural property value (R min)

12.3 COMPONENT CAPACITY


Each component strength capacity shall be based on the appropriate material standard and
take into account the observed condition including effects of deterioration and reduction in
gross section properties. It shall also allow for any deterioration likely to take place before
the next inspection or modification or replacement.

12.4 PROOF LOADING


Proof loading may be undertaken to either verify the calculations and assumptions made or
to increase the load limit.
Proof loading shall be carried out in accordance with this Standard or the relevant material
Standard.

12.5 GUIDELINES FOR UPGRADING OF OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES


Reference should be made to Appendix N for guidelines on the upgrading of structures for
service life extension.

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SECTI ON 13 PROVISIONS FOR CLI M BING


AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS
All overhead line structures shall be designed from a whole of life concept and where
necessary the provision shall be made in the design to provide facilities for climbing and
working at heights from the support structure.
Where a design decision has been taken to provide no climbing facilities, then information
to this extent should be clearly identified on the design documents.
In addition provision should be made in the line layout design to provide means for access
of mobile plant to maintain the facility.
Reference should be made to Appendix M for guidelines on climbing and working at
heights on overhead lines.

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SECTI ON 14 CO-USE OF OVE RHEAD LINE


SUPP ORTS (SIGNAGE, B ANNE RS,
COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABL ES,
TELECOMMUNICATIONS RE PE A T E R S)

14.1 SIGNS AND BANNERS AND TRAFFIC MIRRORS


While the design of flagpoles is outside the scope of this Standard, the attachment of
banners to roadside poles is not uncommon for the purpose of promoting special civic or
community activities. As the presence of banners may add appreciable lateral loads to these
poles under wind conditions, designers should make allowance for increased loadings,
where it is likely to occur. eg along main thoroughfares and selected streets. In order to
make this practicable, it is incumbent on the designer to place limitations on the location,
size and duration of banner attachments to these poles.
14.1.1 Location
(a) The positioning of a banner on a pole should be not greater than 6 m above ground
level.
(b) Double banners should be located diametrically opposite one another and in a vertical
plane, which minimizes torsion effects with respect to any outreach arms.
14.1.2 Attachments
Where banners are attached at top and bottom to their mounting arms, the bottom
attachment should be designed to release as soon as the design serviceability wind pressure
is exceeded.
The attachment of all banners should be capable of retaining the banner on its top-mounting
arm at the ultimate design wind pressure.
14.1.3 Size of banners
The area of one face of any single banner should not exceed 0.8 m2 and the total face area
of banners on any single pole should not exceed 2.0 m2 .
14.1.4 Duration of attachment
Banners or flags attached to poles may induce an undue aerodynamic response in the
structure. This could result in the development of excessive stresses or fatigue stresses
which could lead to catastrophic failure.
Unless pole structures are specifically designed for banner loadings, the risk of premature
failure should be minimized by limiting the duration of the banner attachment. For example,
attachment for 10 to 15 weeks in any 12 consecutive months may provide an acceptable
level of control.
14.1.5 Wind loads on signs and banners
14.1.5.1 Strength limit state
At the strength limit state, all banners are assumed to be attached only to the top mounting
arm and almost horizontal. In these circumstances they resemble flags in a strong wind for
which the total wind force on the flag may be determined from the following equation:
C + Cdf G
Fwf = ff pd Af . . .14.1
b
where
Fwf = total force on the banner ( N)
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Cff = a friction factor


= 0.024
Cdf = a drag factor determined from Table 14.1
G = unit mass of wet banner material (kg/m2 )
b = dimension of banner at right angles to wind direction (m)
= density of air, taken as 1.23 kg/m3
pd = design wind pressure at the strength limit state (Pa)
Af = area of (one) banner face (m2 )
The mass per unit area of cloth materials, in a similar manner to paper, is usually quoted in
grams per square metre (g/m2 ). Making this substitution, substituting the numerical values
for Cff and , and pu Kz for pd , and converting to units consistent with Clause 1.4, Equation
14.1 becomes
0.008Cdf wg
Fwf = 0.024 + pd K Z K T Af . . .14.2
b
where
Fwf = total force on the banner (kN)
Cdf = a drag factor obtained from Table 14.1
wg = mass per unit area of wet flag material (g/m2)
b = Dimension of banner at right angles to wind direction (m)
Af = area of one face of the banner
and pd, Kz and KT are obtained from Appendix B for the strength limit state.
It is assumed that Fwf acts horizontally at the level of the support arm where the arm
intersects a vertical plane through the centroid of area of the banner.

TABLE 14.1
DRAG FACTORS FOR BANNERS
A f /b 2 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.6 1.0 2.0 4.0 6.0
C df 10 4.6 2.2 1.4 0.8 0.36 0.17 0.11
NOTE:See Figure 14.1.

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FIGURE 14.1 BANNER DIMENSIONS

14.1.5.2 Serviceability limit state


14.1.5.2.1 General
For the serviceability limit state, there is a need to differentiate between banners attached at
the top only and those attached at the top and bottom to mounting arms.
14.1.5.2.2 Top attached banners
For top attached banners, Fwf is calculated from Equation 14.2 by substituting ps for pu,
when pd is obtained from Appendix B for the serviceability limit state.
14.1.5.2.3 Top and bottom attached banners
For banners attached at both the top and bottom, each banner can be treated for wind load in
a manner similar to any other attachment to the pole. The total force (Fwf ) is calculated from
the following equation:
Fwf = 1.6 pd Kz KT Af . . .14.3
where 1.6 is the drag factor for a sharp-edged flat surface.

14.2 COMMUNICATIONS CARRIER CABLES


14.2.1 General
Where it is a likely requirement that an overhead line may be required to support aerial
communications carrier cables that are owned by third parties, provision shall be made for
their safe placement on the supports preferably in an under built mode.
These cables may be of an insulated self supporting type (ADSS ) or as a catenary cable
supported system.
On existing overhead lines, where such cables are to be installed the structure designs shall
be subject to a full engineering assessment.

14.3 TELECOMMUNICATIONS REPEATERS EQUIPMENT AND TRAFFIC


MIRRORS
14.3.1 General
Telecommunications repeater installations on overhead line supports normally require the
installation of microwave dishes, multiple cellular telephone antennae, antennae mounting
support steelwork, and cables to a ground level relay station.
Traffic mirrors are installed to aid motorists in viewing around visually obstructed
locations. The size of these mirrors can vary significantly.

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All overhead line structures to be fitted with these devices shall be subject to a full
engineering assessment.
In the case of telecommunication repeater sites the performance of the telecommunications
facility may be sensitive to rotational deflection limits, and these should be checked.
14.3.2 Safety considerations
Radiation effects from antennae are an operational and maintenance issue that must
considered and appropriate safety measures deployed.

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APPENDIX A
REFERENCE AND RELATED DOCUMENTS
(Informative)

A1 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
This Standard incorporates, by either normative or informative reference, provisions from
other publications. These references are cited at the appropriate places in the text together
with a statement indicating whether the reference is normative in this Standard or
informative. All references are undated and the latest edition of the publication referred to
applies.
AS
1154 Insulator and conductor fittings for overhead power lines
1154.1 Part 1: Performance, material, general requirements and dimensions
1154.3 Part 3: Performance and general requirements for helical fittings
1222 Steel conductors and stays
1222.1 Part 1: Bare overheadGalvanized (SC/GZ)
1222.2 Part 2: Aluminium clad (SC/AC)
1604 Specification for preservative treatment - Sawn and round timber
1531 ConductorsBare overheadAluminium and aluminium alloy
1720 Timber structures
1720.1 Part 1: Design methods
1720.2 Part 2: Timber properties
1726 Geotechnical site investigations
1746 ConductorsBare overheadHard-drawn copper
1824 Insulation coordination
1824.2 Insulation coordination (phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase, above
1 kV)Application guide
2067 Switchgear assemblies and ancillary equipment for alternating
voltages above 1 kV
2159 PilingDesign and installation
2209 TimberPoles for overhead lines
3600 Concrete structures
3607 ConductorsBare overhead, aluminium and aluminium alloySteel
reinforced
3608 InsulatorsPorcelain and glass, pin and shackle typeVoltages not
exceeding 1000 V a.c.
3609 InsulatorsPorcelain stay typeVoltages greater than 1000 V a.c.
3822 Test methods for bare overhead conductors
3995 Design of steel lattice towers and masts
4058 Precast concrete pipes (pressure and non-pressure)
4100 Steel structures

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AS
4398 InsulatorsCeramic or glassStation post for indoor and outdoor
useVoltages greater than 1000 V a.c.
4435 InsulatorsComposite for overhead power linesVoltages greater
than 1000 V a.c.
4435.1 Part 1: Definitions, test methods and acceptance criteria for string
insulator units
4435.4 Part 4: Definitions, test methods, acceptance criteria for post
insulator units
4436 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions
60305 Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above 1000 V
Ceramic or glass insulator units for a.c. systemsCharacteristics of
insulator units of the cap and pin type
AS/NZS
1170 Structural design actions
1170.2 Part 2: Wind actions
1170.3 Part 3: Snow and ice actions
1170.5 Part 5: Earthquake actions in Australia
1252 High strength steel bolts with associated nuts and washers for
structural engineering
1328 Glued laminated structural timber
1768 Lightning protection
1891 Industrial fall arrest-systems and devices
1891.1 Part 1: Harnesses and ancillary equipment
1891.2 Part 2: Horizontal lifeline and rail systems
1891.3 Part 3: Fall-arrest devices
1891.4 Part 4: Selection, use and maintenance
2312 Guide to the protection of structural steel against atmospheric
corrosion by the use of protective coatings
2344 Limits of electromagnetic interference from overhead a.c. powerlines
and high voltage equipment installations in the frequency range 0.15
to 1000 MHz
2373 Electric cables Twisted pair for control and protection circuits
2947 InsulatorsPorcelain and glass for overhead power linesVoltages
greater than 1000 V a.c
3675 ConductorsCovered overheadFor working voltages
6.35/11(12) kV up to and including 19/33(36) kV
3560 Electric cablesCross-linked polyethylene insulatedAerial
bundledFor working voltages up to and including 0.6/1(1.2) kV
3560.1 Part 1: Aluminium conductors
3560.2 Part 2: Copper conductors
3599 Electric cablesAerial bundledPolymeric insulatedVoltages
6.35/11(12) kV and 12.7/22(24) kV
3599.1 Part 1: Metallic screened
3599.2 Part 2: Non-metallic screened
3675 ConductorsCovered overheadFor working voltages
6.35/11(12) kV up to and including 19/33(36) kV

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AS/NZS
3835 Earth potential riseProtection of telecommunications network
users, personnel and plant
4065 Concrete utility services poles
4435 InsulatorsComposite for overhead power linesVoltages greater
than 1000 V a.c.
4435.2 Part 2: InsulatorsComposite for overhead power linesVoltages
greater than 1000 V a.c.Standard strength classes and end fittings
for string insulator units
4600 Cold-formed steel structures
4676 Structural design requirements for utility services poles
4677 Steel utility services poles
4680 Hot-dip galvanized (zinc) coatings on fabricated ferrous articles
4853 Electrical hazards on metallic pipelines
HB
101 (CJC5) Coordination of power and telecommunicationsLow frequency
induction (LFI): Code of practice
NZS
1170.5 Structural design actionsEarthquake actionsNew Zealand
3101 Concrete structures
3101.1 Part 1: The design of concrete structures
3404 Steel structures standard
3404.1 Part 1: Steel structures standard
3603 Timber structures standard
6869 Limits and measurement methods of electromagnetic noise from high
voltage a.c. power systems, 0.15
NZECP
34 New Zealand Electrical Code of Practice for Electrical Safe
Distances
41 New Zealand Electrical Code of Practice for Single Wire Earth
Return Systems
46 New Zealand Electrical Code of Practice for High Voltage Live Line
Work
EEA\NZ
SM-EI Industry Safety Rules
Guide to Use of Helicopters in Power Company Work
Use of Personal Fall Arrest Systems
ENA
LLM 01 Guidelines for live line barehand work
LLM 02 Guidelines for live line stick work
LLM 03 Guidelines for live line glove and barrier work

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ENA
NENS 04 National guidelines for safe approach distances to electrical and
mechanical apparatus
NENS 05 National fall protection guidelines for the electricity industry
ESAA
D(b)5* Current rating of bare overhead line conductors
EANSW
* High Voltage Earth Return for Rural Areas
IEC
60372 Locking devices for ball and socket couplings of string insulator
unitsDimensions and tests
60433 Insulators for overhead lines with a nominal voltage above
1 000 VCeramic insulators for a.c. systemsCharacteristics of
insulator units of the long rod type
60471 Dimensions of clevis and tongue couplings of string insulator units
TR 60479 Guide to effects of current on human beings and livestock
TR 60479-1 Part 1: General aspects
60652 Loading tests on overhead line towers
60720 Characteristics of line post insulators
60794 Optical fibre cables
60794-4-1 Part 4-1: Aerial optical cables for high voltage power lines
TR 60815 Guide for the selection of insulators in respect of polluted conditions
TR 60826 Loading and strength of overhead transmission lines
60865-1 Short-circuit currentsCalculation of effects
61467 Insulators for overhead lines with nominal voltage over 1 000 V
AC power arc tests on insulator sets
TR 61597 Overhead electrical conductorsCalculation methods for stranded
bare conductors
ISO
14713 Protection against corrosion of iron and steel in structures - Zinc and
aluminium coatings - Guidelines
12494 Atmospheric icing of structures
EN
50341 Overhead Electrical Lines Exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1: General
Requirements Common Specifications
BS
BS EN 50341-1 Overhead Electrical Lines Exceeding AC 45 kV Part 1: General
Requirements Common Specifications
ASCE
10-97 Design of Latticed Steel Transmission Structures
48-05 Design of Steel Transmission Pole Structures
CIGRE
TB196 Diaphragms for lattice steel supports

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IEEE
691 Guide for Transmission Structure Foundation Design and Testing
ARPANSA Draft Radiation Protection Standard for Exposure Limits to Electric
and Magnetic Fields 0 Hz 3 kHz
ICNIRP Guidelines for Limiting Exposure to Time-Varying Electric,
Magnetic, and Electromagnetic Fields (Up To 300 Ghz)
* Available to members though Energy Networks Australia (ENA)

A2 RELATED DOCUMENTS
Attention is drawn to the following related documents:
AS
1289 Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes
1289.6.3.1 Method 6.3.1: Determination of the penetration resistance of a
soilStandard penetration test (SPT)
1657 Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and laddersDesign,
construction and installation
1798 Lighting poles and bracket armsPreferred dimensions
2560 Guide to sports lighting
2979 Traffic signal mast arms
AS/NZS
1158 Road lighting
1158.1.3 Part 1.3: Vehicular traffic (Category V) LightingGuide to design,
installation, operation and maintenance
1170 Minimum design loads on structures
1170.1 Dead and live loads and load combination
1170.4 Earthquake loads
1891 Industrial fall arrest-systems and devices
1891.4 Part 3: Fall-arrest devices
NZS
3115 Specification for concrete poles for electrical transmission and
distribution
4203 Code of practice for general structural design and design loadings for
buildingsVol 1
IEC
60038 IEC standard voltages
60050 International Electrotechnical Vocabulary
60050-441 Chapter 441: Switchgear, controlgear and fuses
60050-466 Chapter 466: Overhead lines
60050-471 Chapter 471: Insulators
60050-601 Chapter 601: Generation, transmission and distribution of
electricityGeneral
60050-604 Chapter 604: Generation, transmission and distribution of
electricityOperation
60287 Electric cablesCalculation of the current rating
60287-3-1 Part 3-1: Sections on operating conditionsReference operating
conditions and selection of cable type

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IEC
TR 60479 Guide to effects of current on human beings and livestock
TR 60479-1 Part 1: General aspects
TR 60575 Thermal-mechanical performance test and mechanical performance
test on string insulator units
60724 Short-circuit temperature limits of electric cables with rated voltages
of 1 kV (Um = 1,2 kV) and 3 kV (Um = 3,6 kV)
60797 Residual strength of string insulator units of glass or ceramic
material for overhead lines after mechanical damage of the dielectric
60909 Short-circuit current calculation in three-phase a.c. systems
61109 Composite insulators for a.c. overhead lines with a nominal voltage
greater than 1 000 VDefinitions, test methods and acceptance
criteria
TR 61211 Insulators of ceramic material or glass for overhead lines with a
nominal voltage greater than 1 000 VPuncture testing
TR 61774 Overhead linesMeteorological data for assessing climatic loads
62219 Formed wire concentric lay overhead electrical stranded conductors1
EN
EN ISO 1461 Hot dip galvanised coatings on fabricated ferrous products
Specifications and test methods
EN ISO 9001 Quality systems. Model for quality assurance in design,
development, production

A3 REFERENCES
1 BURGESS, S., SALINGER, J., TURNER, R. and REID, S., 2007. Climate Hazards
and extremes Taranaki region. High winds and tornadoes. NIWA report WLG2007-
048, 84 pp.
2 CARMAN, W.D. and BAXTER, B. Transmission Structure Hazard Mitigation
Strategies. 11th CEPSI Conference, Kuala Lumpur, October 1996.
3 CIGRE STUDY COMMITTEE 23 1996, Brochure 105, The Mechanical Effects Of
Short-Circuit Currents in Open Air Substations (Rigid and Flexible Bus-Bars),
Volume 1.
4 CIGRE STUDY COMMITTEE 23 (Substations) Working Group 23-03, The
Mechanical Effects Of Short-Circuit Currents in Open Air Substations (Rigid and
Flexible Bus-Bars), Volume 2
5 CIGRE STUDY COMMITTEE 231996, Companion Book Of CIGRE Brochure 105
(Part II)
6 DURAONA, V., STERLING, M. and BAKER, C., 2007. An analysis of extreme
non-synoptic winds. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, 95,
1000-1027
7 ESAA EG-1(1997) ESAA Substation Earthing Guide.
8 GIBBS, H. Inquiry into Community Needs and High Voltage Transmission Line
Development. Published by New South Wales Government, 1991.
9 Guidelines for the Management of Electricity Easements. EC20, Electricity Council
of NSW, February 1992.

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10 HOWAT, C. and COOK, J. An Assessment of the Hazards Associated with Siting


Swimming Pools Near Substations and Transmission Lines. ESEA Conference,
Sydney, August 1991.
11 KIESSLING, NEFZGER, NOLASCO and KAINTZY, K. Overhead Power Lines
(planning design construction). ISBN 3-540-00297-9, pp. 162-163.
12 MORGAN, V.T. Thermal Behaviour of Electrical Conductors, Steady, Dynamic and
Fault-Current Ratings. Published in Brisbane by John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1991.
13 RAD, F.N., GARG, V.K. and COURTS, A.L. Study of Distribution of Ground Fault
Currents in Below Grade Swimming Pools Located Near Transmission Lines. IEEE
Transactions on Power Delivery, 1980.
14 REESE, S., REVELL, M., TURNER, R., THURSTON, S., REID, S., UMA, S.R. and
SCHROEDER, S., 2007. Taranaki Tornadoes of 4-5 July 2007: Post event damage
survey. NIWA report WLG2007-71, 43 pp.Reid, S.J., 1987. Wind speeds for
engineering design. New Zealand Engineering, March 1, 1987, pp 15-18.
15 REID, S. and TURNER, R., 2008. Gust speeds for downslope sites using 2D
modelling. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics. Submitted.
16 ROSS H.E. et al, Recommended procedures for the safety performance evaluation of
highway safety features, NCHRP Report 350, National Cooperative Highway
Research Program, National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1993
17 SMOOT, A.W. and BENTEL, C.A. Electric Shock Hazard of Underwater Swimming
Pool Lighting Fixtures. IEE Transactions of Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. 83,
September 1964, pp.945-964.
18 TAIT, A., and REID, S., 2007. An analysis of extreme high winds in the Gisborne
district. NIWA report WLG2007-25. 30pp
19 WOODHOUSE, D.J., NEWLAND, K.D, and CARMAN, W.D. Development of a Risk
Management Policy for Transmission Line Easements. Distribution 2000, 4th
International Distribution Utility Conference, November 1997, Sydney.
20 HOLMES, J.D., Physical modelling of thunderstorms downdrafts by wind tunnel jet.
2nd AWES Workshop 20-21 February 1992. Monash University, Clayton, Victoria.
21 LETCHFORD, C.W. and ILLIDGE, Topographical effects in simulated thunderstorm
downdrafts by wind tunnel jet. 7th AWES Workshop, 28-29 September 1998.
Auckland, New Zealand.
22 PANEER R., SELVAM and HOLMES, J.D., Thunderstorm downdrafts from a point
of view of building design. 1st AWES Workshop, 7-8 February 1991. Pokolbin, New
South Wales.
23 DAVENPORT, A.G., SURRY, D., GEORGIOU, P.N and LYTHE,G., The response of
transmission towers in hilly terrain to typhoon winds. The University of Western
Ontario, Faculty of Engineering Sciences, London, Ontario.
24 GEORGIOU, P.N., SURRY, D. and DAVENPORT, A.G., Codification of wind
loading in a region with typhoons and hills. Proc. of the Fourth Int. Conference on
Tall Buildings, Hong Kong and Shanghai, April/May 1988. CHENG, Y.K. and LEE,
P.K.K. Eds. Organizing Committee of the Conference, Hong Kong, 1988. Vol. 1, 252-
258.

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APPENDIX B
WIND LOADS
(Normative)

B1 AUSTRALIA
In Australia, transmission lines and their supporting towers and poles are vulnerable to
extreme wind loads from both convective downdrafts (downbursts, microbursts) and
synoptic winds (e.g. gales from East Coast lows in NSW, tropical cyclones in Queensland
and WA).
Analysis of all extreme winds in Australia has shown that coastal stations experience many
more high gusts per annum than do inland stations, although the number of extreme
convective downdraft gusts from small thunderstorms are similar.
Generally it is clear that large gusts at inland stations within Australia are all generated by
convective downdrafts. At coastal locations in the non-tropical regions, large gusts can be
produced by both large-scale synoptic events or by convective downdrafts.
Figure 1 shows a zoning map to determine which storm type should be considered in design
for wind. On the mainland, the regions on this map are delineated by a boundary
200 kilometres from the smoothed coastline.
Zone Ishown in blue in Figure B1, designs are to provide only for winds from synoptic
events (including tropical cyclones in Northern Australia), using multipliers from
AS/NZS 1170.2, together with conventional span reduction factors as provided in the
following sections.
Zone IIshown in beige, (i.e. inland Australia) designs are to provide only for convective
downdrafts. Wind multipliers for terrain-height, and topography and span reduction factors
for these events are as provided in the following sections.
Zone IIIshown in green in Figure B1, both events can occur, with approximately equal
probability, and designs are to provide for both types of events.
NOTE: Figure 1 is not intended to show the zoning system for the magnitude of the wind gust
speed just the types of event producing the extreme gusts required to be considered for
structural design. Reference should be made to AS/NZS 1170.2 for the relevant wind velocities
relevant to the line for the selected security level and design life as defined in Section 6.

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M c D o n n e l C re e k
DA RWIN We i pa M o reto n
Zo n e I - S y n o pti c
winds only
C o o k tow n
Ca ir ns
B ro o m e 20 0 k m
20 0 k m Tow nsv i l l e
B owe n
C royd o n M a c k ay
Ro c k h a m pto n
O ns l ow B u n d a b e rg
Zo n e II - C o nve c ti ve d ow n d raf ts o n l y
M a r y b o ro u g h
Ca r n a r vo n 25
B R I S BA N E
G raf to n
G e ra l d to n C of f s H a r b o u r
PERT H
125 SY D N E Y
20 0 k m

Zo n e III - S y n o pti c a n d c o nve c ti ve

Zo n e I - S y n o pti c w i n d s o n l y HOBART

FIGURE B1 WIND REGIONS FOR AUSTRALIAN DESIGN WIND GUST TYPES

B2 NEW ZEALAND
In New Zealand, transmission lines and their supporting towers and poles are vulnerable to
extreme wind loads from both convective downdrafts (downbursts and micro-bursts) and
synoptic winds (e.g., gales associated with mid-latitude cyclones throughout the country
and high winds from ex-tropical cyclones over the North Island). In addition there are
regions in the leeward zones close to high mountain ranges where katabatic or downslope
high velocity winds occur in which these structures are also vulnerable. Generally it is clear
that large gusts at inland stations outside of leeward zones are generated by convective
downdrafts.
Wind zones for the North and South Islands of New Zealand are shown in Figure B2

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FIGURE B2 WIND REGIONS FOR NEW ZEALAND

B3 SYNOPTIC WIND REGIONS (AUSTRALIA ZONE I AND ZONE III AND NEW
ZEALAND ZONES REGIONS W, A6 AND A7 )
All structures shall be designed for a 3 s gust regional wind speeds for various return
periods as defined in AS/NZS 1170.2. The basic site design velocity shall be determined by
selecting an appropriate return period for the line (See Section 6) and applying formula
variables from AS/NZS 1170.2.

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Cyclonic wind amplification factors Fc and Fd provided in AS/NZS 1170 shall be taken as
1.0 for all overhead lines, based on performance of overhead lines in cyclonic areas over
time.
The calculation of wind forces on structural elements is based on the wind pressure on the
structural element and the net drag coefficient for the element. AS/NZS 1170.2 deals with
the calculation of wind velocities (for synoptic conditions) and drag coefficients for the
more common structural shapes. The equations presented here are intended to provide a
context for the drag (or force) coefficients that are of particular relevance to overhead lines.
Designers are referred to AS/NZS 1170.2 as appropriate.
The selection of the regional wind speed should be based on the lines location. Where an
overhead line is of significant length, variations in wind loading may be required. The site
design wind speed is the basic regional wind speed modified for the effects of the
topography and terrain that the line traverses. Vdes, shall be taken as Vsit, for the purpose of
determining wind actions on structures, conductors and elements of structures.
where
Vdes,(z) = building orthogonal design wind speeds as a function of height z
Vsit, = wind speeds for a site, varying according to compass direction
AS/NZS 1170.2 provides regional wind speeds for each of the range of return periods.
The design site wind speed shall be taken as
Vz = VRMdMz,catMsMt
where
Mz,cat = gust winds speed multiplier for terrain category at height z. Refer
AS/NZS 1170.2
Md = wind direction multiplier. Refer to AS/NZS 1170.2.
NOTE: For all overhead lines this shall be taken as 1.00.
Ms = shielding multiplier. Refer to AS/NZS 1170.2
Mt = topographic multiplier for gust wind speed. Refer to AS/NZS 1170.2
VR = basic regional wind velocity for the region corresponding to the selected
return period. Refer AS/NZS 1170.2
Designers should be aware that changing land usage may alter the terrain category.
z for the conductors may be taken as the mean height of the conductors at EDT
above the terrain.
z for structures under 50m may be taken at the 2/3 structure height or at the
centre of each panel in lattice towers.
Md < 1.0 may be applied when determining design loads for sections of lines.
Ms is normally taken as 1.0.

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B4 DOWNDRAFT WIND REGIONS REGIONS (AUSTRALIA ZONE II AND


ZONEIII AND NEW ZEALAND ZONES REGION A 7)
Convective downdraft wind gust sometimes referred to as high intensity winds (HIW) are
generated by severe thunderstorms and are the dominant design winds that occur across
most regions of Australia and New Zealand. They take the form of downdrafts associated
with cold air and hail columns, mesocyclonic cells and tornadoes within storm front
systems or mature subtropical thunderstorm cells. Evidence from the damage of many
severe storms across Australia and New Zealand suggests that these events are responsible
for many of the wind-related failures on overhead lines.
They occur in both coastal and inland regions and are associated with, and embedded in
many severe thunderstorms. They can also occur within tropical cyclone storm cells.
B4.1 Downdraft winds
Downdraft winds, more commonly referred to as downbursts, macrobursts, or microbursts;
are high velocity wind columns of cold air that can form within a thunderstorm cell, usually
but not always associated with a hail column. The cold air column falls vertically from
great height and strikes the ground, and due to the translation of the storm cell the wind
draft radiates from the impact site. The resulting gust widths can vary in width from
typically a hundred metres to a kilometre.
These gusts create damage swaths in vegetation at ground level and the wind can envelop
one or more spans simultaneously and renders the application of the synoptic wind based
span reduction factors inappropriate..
A span reduction factor shall be applied as provided in Figure B6
Studies have indicated that downdraft winds can have significant variability in direction due
to their association with hail and cold air downdrafts and are also influenced by large scale
topographical features. The maximum velocity also has been observed in recent failures to
be generally above a plane at approximately 15 m above ground as a result of the localized
influence of vegetation and ground surface roughness.
Downdraft gust wind speeds are provided in AS/NZS 1170.2 for each region and for the
range of return periods.
Wind pressures are to be calculated as for synoptic winds except for modification to Mz and
Mt factors as provided below.
Terrain -Height Multiplier Mz,cat has been found from laboratory and field tests to vary with
height as shown in Figure B3 and according to the following rules:
Height (m) Mz,cat
050 1.0
50100 1.00.5*(H50)/50
Above 100 0.5

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D ow n d r a f t M z ,c a t

140

120

10 0
H e i g h t [m]

80

60

40

20

0
0. 2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
M z ,c a t

FIGURE B3 TERRAIN-HEIGHT MULTIPLIER FOR CONVECTIVE DOWNDRAFTS

Topographic multiplier Mt,downdraft has also been found from research to be half of the values
provided in AS/NZS 1170.2 or synoptic winds. Mt,downdraft values shall be calculated in
accordance with the following:
Mt,downdraft = 1 + 0.5 (Mt,synoptic 1)
B4.2 Tornadoes (applies to all high security/high reliability overhead lines only such
as regional transmission interconnectors)
B4.2.1 General
Evidence exists of the occurrence of Tornadoes in several regions around Australia and
New Zealand of an intensity <EF3 (Enhanced Fujita Tornado Scale) classification with
maximum velocities in the 4574 m/s range. Most are either EF0 or EF1, i.e. maximum
velocities <50 m/s. No evidence currently exists of either EF4 or EF5 tornadoes having
occurred in Australia or New Zealand. Tornadoes can be considered to be very rare events
at particular locations and should not be considered in normal range of overhead line
designs. However, two regions of New Zealand (the coastal zones near New Plymouth and
Greymouth) are known to experience on average 1 tornado a year.
B4.2.2 High security and high reliability overhead lines
The following provision should be made for tornado wind loads on long high security and
high reliability lines, in particular, important long lines.
Tornadoes are small rotational (50100 m diameter) cells usually embedded within and
traversing at the same speed and direction as the thunderstorm. The thunderstorm
translational speed could be in the order of 1020 m/s and the tornado circumferential speed
of 50 m/s or higher. Combining the two speeds gives a resultant gust speed of the order of
60+m/s

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Tornadoes crossing lines between supports are unlikely to cause any structural damage but
may cause aerial conductors to clash resulting in feeder trips. Tornadoes intercepting with
supports have caused isolated known lattice structure failures in recent decades in Australia
and with a higher frequency in overseas countries.
Adopting the 60 m/s as the ultimate regional tornado wind speed (for all but the high
importance lines), and taking all the wind (M) multipliers as 1.0 gives a design dynamic
wind pressure of 2.2 kPa.
This shall be applied as a uniform pressure (ie unmodified for height) to the support and
insulators from any direction.
In addition wide tower structures shall be also designed for a torsion wind (of the same
pressure) rotating abut the support centre. Each tower body face be subjected to in plane
wind, and each crossarm face to projected perpendicular wind in a consistent rotational
direction as indicated in Figure B4 .1 and Figure B4.2.
No wind is applied to the conductors in either case.

FIGURE B4.1 SQUARE BASED FIGURE B4.2 RECTANGULAR BASED OR


TOWERS WIDE TOWERS

B5 WIND PRESSURES
The dynamic pressure qz shall be calculated as follows:
qz = 0.6Vz2 103 kPa . . .B1
B5.1 Wind pressures on lattice steel towers
For each panel in the tower, the force on structural sections in the direction of the wind
shall be calculated as follows:
Fx = qzKx Cd A* . . .B2
where
Kx represents factors accounting for aspect ratio, wind direction and shielding of
the member. Refer to AS/NZS 1170.2 for specific values.
Cd is the drag force coefficient of the member.
A* is the projected area of the structure section under consideration in a plane
normal to the wind direction.

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For lattice towers that are essentially square in plan the force in the direction of the wind on
the whole tower section under consideration shall be calculated as follows:
Fs = qzCdA
where
A = is the projected area of one face of the structure section under
consideration in a vertical plane along the face.
Cd = drag force coefficient in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2

TABLE B2
LATTICE TOWER PANEL DRAG COEFFICIENTS FOR
MULTIPLE FRAMES AND SINGLE FRAMES
Solidity Square tower Single frames
C d 0 C d 45 CD Shielding
0.1 3.4 3.9 1.9 0.8
0.2 2.9 3.3 1.8 0.7
0.3 2.5 3.0 1.7 0.5
0.4 2.2 2.7 1.6 0.4
0.5 2.0 2.5 1.6 0.3
0.6 1.8 2.2 1.6 0.2

Solidity is the ratio of solid projected area to total enclosed area.


For rectangular towers which are symmetrical about each axis
Fs = qz [Cd1 (A1 + A3 ) kcos2 + Cd2 (A2 + A4) ksin2 ] . . .B3
where
A1 , A3 and A2 , A4 are projected areas on longitudinal and transverse faces respectively
Cd = drag force coefficient for single frames (panels) (refer Table B2)
= shielding factor (refer Table B2)
k = factor for angle of incidence of wind to frames
(calculated by the equation)
k = 1 + k1 k2 sin2(2), . . .B4
where
k1 = 0.55
k2 = 0.2 for 0.2
k2 = for 0.2 < 0.5
k2 = 1 for 0.5 < 0.8
k2 = 0.2 for 0.8 < 1.0
Where ancillaries such as antennae, mounting frames, cable runways, signage and banners
are attached to a tower that have significant area, they should be included in the calculated
force using the appropriate Cd , area and shading factor from Australian Standards and
component manufacturers information. The interference factor (Kin) shall be taken as 1.0 in
all cases for lattice towers. Refer to AS/NZS 1170.2.

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There is some variation in recommended Cd factors for single and multiple frames between
the various national codes. The approach used in BS 8100 Part 1 provides detailed
procedures for calculation of drag coefficients for rectangular (in plan) towers for different
angle of incidence of wind. The BS 8100 Part 1 approach has been used here.
Alternatively computational techniques may be used that provide for the automatic
calculation of wind effects on individual structural elements of tower structures,
particularly for some towers of less common geometry where the wind on face method can
be difficult to implement. An example of such tower geometry is a flat configuration single
circuit tower with 4 longitudinal faces in the upper body and a large cross beam with a
small longitudinal face area.
The alternative method is to load all members of the tower based on fluid dynamic
principles, an average drag factor and simplified member area calculations. This method
would be difficult to implement using hand calculations but very simple to implement in a
computer program. The results are generally conservative in comparison to the face method.
The resulting force on each member is perpendicular to the member longitudinal axis and in
the plane formed by the wind velocity vector and the member axis.

T
Wind
Fm
W D
=

FIGURE B5 FORCES ON A MEMBER

The force is determined by the following equation:


F m = CfqzA mcos2 ()
where
Fm = resultant force on the member
qz = dynamic pressure at the member mid height
Am = simplified member area length x width
Cf = drag force factor
angle members Cf = 1.6
round members Cf = 1.0
= angle between wind velocity vector and the normal to the member axes
From 3D geometry the resultant force direction vector can be determined using the vector
products:
T = WM

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D = TM
W wind velocity vector
M member axis vector
T vector perpendicular to the wind-member plane
D resultant force direction vector
Angle a can be calculated form scalar product of the wind direction and resultant force
direction vectors:
WD
cos(a) = . . .B5
W D

The resultant force components in the global coordinate directions (X, Y, Z) can be finally
calculated by multiplying the resultant force value by the normalized direction vector.
B5.2 Wind pressure on poles
Due consideration shall be taken on the affect on the aerodynamic shape factor Cfig for
poles due to the attachment of all ancillaries
Significant attachments to circulate cross-sections such as ladders, pipes etc will induce
aerodynamic separation and in these case is Cd = 1.2.
The aerodynamic shape factor Cfig shall be determined for specific elements, surfaces or
parts of surfaces in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2
For timber poles a minimum Cd of 0.9 applies.
For other poles of circular or polygonal cross section
(a) the determination of the appropriate forces can be taken as the sum of the forces for
the components of the pole and the ancillaries attached to the pole; or
(b) a detailed approach can be adopted by considering the height of the structure as a
series of sections. A minimum of 5 sections should be considered and the section
should be of similar construction. Each section shall in turn be assessed to determine
the proportion of projected area of the ancillaries to that of the pole to determine the
appropriate Cfig/Cd and the appropriate Az. as follows:
(i) if the pole surface is smooth and the projected area of the ancillaries is less than
0.01 of the projected area of the pole section under consideration, then the total
force on the section shall use the Cfig/Cd of the smooth pole only and Az shall be
the projected area of the pole only.
(ii) if the pole surface is smooth and the projected area of the ancillaries is between
0.01 and 0.05 of the projected area of the pole section under consideration, then
the total force on the section shall use the Cfig/Cd of the non smooth pole only
and Az shall be the projected area of the pole only.
(iii) if the pole surface is smooth and the projected area of the ancillaries is greater
than 0.05 of the projected area of the pole section under consideration, then the
total force on the section shall use the Cfig/Cd of the non smooth pole and the
appropriate Cfig/Cd of the ancillary and Az shall be determined for both the
projected area of the pole and the ancillary.
(iv) if the pole is not smooth then the same procedure as i), ii) and iii) shall be
adopted with the Cfig/Cd of the pole being that for a non smooth section.

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B5.3 Wind forces on conductors


Wind force perpendicular to conductors shall be calculated as follows:
Fc = qzCLdSRFcos2 (N)
where
C = drag coefficient of conductor . This is assumed to be equal to 1 in the
absence of more accurate information.
NOTE: This value may vary between 1.2 and 0.8 dependent on conductor
diameter outer surface roughness, and wind velocity. Smooth profile
conductors are available that specifically provide even lower wind drag.
L = conductor length under consideration (m)
d = conductor diameter (m)
SRF = span reduction factor (see below)
= angle between wind direction and the normal to the conductor (deg)
The span reduction factor takes account of the spatial characteristics of wind gusts and
inertia of conductors.
B5.3.1 Span reduction factor (SRF) for synoptic wind regions
For regions governed by synoptic winds Figure B6 applies. The curve in Figure B6 is based
on the following relationship:
L

SRF = 0.59 + 0.41e 210

S p a n R e d u c t i o n Fa c to r

1.10

1.00

0.90

0.80
SRF

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

S p a n [m]

FIGURE B6 SRF FOR SYNOPTIC WIND REGIONS

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B5.3.2 Span reduction factor (SRF) for cyclonic wind


For cyclonic wind Figure B7 applies. The curve of Figure B7 is based on the following
relationship:
L

SRF = 0.59 + 0.5e 140

Cyclonic Wind Span Reduction Factor

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6
SRF

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
S p a n [m]

FIGURE B7 SRF FOR CYCLONIC WIND REGION

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B5.3.3 Span reduction factor (SRF) for downdraft wind regions


For regions governed by downdraft wind Figure B8 applies. The curve of Figure B8 is
based on the following expressions:
For spans 200 m SRF = 1.0
For spans >200 m ( L 200
SRT = 1.0 0.3125
1000
For tension calculations on tension sections greater than 1000 m, the synoptic wind should
be used instead of the downdraft wind.

S p a n R e d u c t i o n Fa c to r

1.10

1.0 0

0.9 0

0.80
SRF

0.70

0.6 0

0.50

0.40
0 20 0 40 0 600 80 0 10 0 0

S p a n [m]

FIGURE B8 SRF FOR DOWNDRAFT WIND REGIONS

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B5.4 Wind forces on insulators and fittings


Force on insulators and fitting assemblies shall be considered and is given by the following
expression:
Fi = qz.CdA
where
C = 1.2
A = projected area of insulators and fittings in true length normal to
wind (m) (See Figure B9)
These forces shall be considered to act on the attachment point on the support in the wind
direction.

Attachment point

F i = q z .C d A
True length

View along line

Projected area is shaded


View transverse to line

FIGURE B9 PROJECTED AREA OF INSULATOR STRINGS

B6 TOPOGRAPHICAL EFFECTS
The following information is provided for guidance in the design layout of overhead lines.
Reference should be made to CIGRE TB 256 for detailed design methods where required.
AS/NZS 1170.2 provides general rules for speed-up of winds over hills and escarpments.
There are however limitations for the application of these general rules for treating extreme
terrain roughness, predominate hill forms and high mountainous escarpments, that can be
encountered in the siting of an overhead line route.
In particular closer attention needs to be given to the effects on wind speeds in more
varying terrain where the roughness characteristics change significantly over short
distances, down to the scale of an overhead line span; topographic generated features such
as corner effects along the foot of mountains and hills; funnelling effects in valleys or in
between hills; vortex formation behind steep terrain as well as other effects that may cause
significantly increased wind speeds in the local terrain.
Such topographic features may have length scales ranging from a hundred metres up to
several kilometres.
Experiences from overhead line collapses and damage to buildings and other structures
during the last fifty years, have revealed that many of these effects were neither known of at
that time nor taken into account by designers.

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Local wind speeds can be reduced or increased due to the topography.


It is a matter of fact in hydrodynamics that when the wind is reduced in some places, it shall
likewise be increased in other places in order to comply with the equation of continuity.
Such increases are often found in places like
(a) over hill crests;
(b) near sharp edges (escarpments) exposed to high level winds over surrounding terrain;
(c) on the side of hills and mountains corner effect;
(d) in valleys or fjords where the airflow may be compressed locally funnelling effect;
(e) rotor formation behind a mountain; and
(f) behind steep mountain sides (or edges) where particular turbulence may be formed
vortex streets.
B6.2 Turbulence generation behind steep hills and ridges
In complex terrain it is often experienced that wind speeds on the leeward side of a steep
mountain or hill may be significantly higher than they are on the windward side. This may
occur both on
(a) the leeward side of a rounded mountain ridge perpendicular to the wind; and
(b) behind singular hills with steep slopes on the windward side.
Typical areas for such phenomena are within and on the downwind side of high mountain
ranges.
The same effects are also frequently found on the downwind side of major mountain or
isolated hill ridges of even smaller scale.
The occurrence of the second phenomenon b) is not as well known as the first, mainly
because of more limited extensions of each hill, and the possible lack of recent reported
wind damage. Effects of this kind are generally known as rotors and vortex streets.
The distribution of wind velocity with height is known to be significantly different in
narrow windstorms such as severe thunderstorms than in fully developed gales or cyclones.
Physical and numerical modelling of thunderstorm downdrafts by Holmes, (See Paragraph
A3, reference [20]), Letchford, (See Paragraph A3, reference [21]), Selvam and Holmes,
(See Paragraph A3, reference [22]) have shown that there is a maximum wind speed
developed between 0.3 and 0.6 delta above ground. Where delta is the height at which the
velocity reaches half its maximum value. Above this height the velocity has been found to
drop off markedly.
These studies indicate that a structure approximating a 5070 m tower will be fully loaded
over its height if impacted by these high wind gusts.
These studies have also examined the speed up effect that occurs over hills and ridges. This
speed up is usually referred to as a topographical multiplier Mt, which is the ratio of speed
at a height over the feature to the speed at the same height in flat terrain. Holmes, (See
Paragraph A3, reference [20]) investigated a single hill of slope 0.25 and found that the
speedup on the crest was a maximum of 1.2 near ground and decreased linearly to an
effective height of 100 m above the crest of the hill.
Studies by Letchford, (See Paragraph A3, reference [21]) on embankments from 0.2 to 0.6
found similar results with a slight increase for the steeper ridges. This later work
recommends, in the absence of further data, a value of Mt = 1 + slope to be adopted and be
applied at a height of 10 m above the ridge where the slope exceeds 0.10.

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B6.3 Escarpments
Observations of high wind damage during tropical cyclones in Northern Queensland
indicate that speed up effects can also occur during high winds on the upper slopes of
coastal mountain range escarpments, crest of escarpments. Analysis of damage patterns
suggest a speed up of 1.2 basic gust wind velocities can frequently occur. The upper level
of amplification of this speedup is dependent on the escarpment slope profile, height and
basic wind velocity. AS/NZS 1170. provides for values up to 1.5.
Overhead lines traversing an escarpment need to be carefully evaluated and have structures
position to avoid as far as possible, these potential extreme gust zones immediately below
the escarpment edge, and in the zone immediately behind the crest. If siting cannot be
avoided then stronger structure types should be assessed.
Structures located on the slopes of escarpments and subject to the speed up effects also
need to accommodate the potential for resonance caused to the structure by localised wake
turbulence from terrain variations. Tower failure investigations carried out by Prof A.
Davenport, (See Paragraph A3, references [23] and [24]) in Hong Kong confirmed that
earthwork benching to enable towers to be constructed, created vortex shedding during a
Typhoon wind storm that resulted in severe resonance of tower members and resultant
fatigue failure of towers.
B6.4 Local effects
B6.4.1 Channelling effects
Where wind storms have the potential to track within frontal weather system over relatively
flat to undulating land, they normally travel in a predominate direction.
However, thunderstorm winds generated from such systems occur as outflow winds or as
isolated wind phenomena such as down bursts or severe downdrafts, are normally
characterized by narrow damage paths with widths up to 2000 m at ground level.
When these high intensity wind gusts with velocities ranging from 3060 m/s approach
local mountains, the wind flow patterns may be significantly modified and can be
channelled and redirected.
Placement of structures within predominate features such as gaps between mountain ridges,
in narrow river valleys through mountainous zones, and on low ridges and plateaus within
higher mountain zones can be severely effected.
Velocity speedup, local turbulence and wind eddies can have complex effects on structure
wind loadings.
Evidence from transmission line tower failures within a narrow valley between 500 m high
mountain ridges in Queensland, during a severe thunderstorm downburst has indicated
speedup effects of 30% at 10m reference wind velocities and possible high turbulent effects
30m height above the valley floor as they impacted on a 54 m high structure. Wind gust
directional changes of 45 were also observed.
B6.4.2 Funneling effects
High intensity wind flows along valleys provide directional control of wind flow patterns.
Where there is a narrowing of these valleys, such as towards and at the valley head, there is
the potential for wind speed up effects to occur. Studies for wind turbine sites indicate
velocity speeds can increase typically up to 20% above the crest.
In a similar way to the channelling effects of valleys, converging mountain ranges and
passes have a similar effect on wind velocities. Structure sites located within narrow passes
need to be carefully considered.

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B6.4.3 Katabatic wind effects


In many high mountainous regions, down drafts of cold air from high plateaus, ice and
snow regions, and from high altitude air flows as a result of large scale temperature
inversion or draw down effects from weather systems, can occur.
These are sometimes more pronounced in some falling valleys from these mountainous
regions and wind velocities up to 60 m/s have been recorded.
These valley areas are in most cases denuded of vegetation and have normally never been
used for residential purposes. Where vegetation has survived over time evidence usually
exists of wind effects to plant growth.
As a general rule this type of wind occurs for extended periods with the potential to
significantly damage any structure placed within its path.
B6.4.4 Extensive fetch distances
Overhead line structure placement often needs to occur on elevated positions where the line
route passes over low ranges or around other significant topographical features.
Such positions are more exposed to any approaching significant wind storm and in some
cases the terrain at the elevated site may be Category 1 even though the immediate local
terrain could appear to be Category 4. (reference AS/NZS 1170.2 )
Consideration should be given to providing increased structure design wind loadings, or
strength for such situations.
B6.4.5 Air turbulence near airports
Overhead lines located in close proximity to the flight paths of major airport runways may
be subject to the effects of wind turbulence effects from some types of aircraft during take
off. Rotating vortexes have been found to spin off the wingtip zones of the aircraft and
cause clashing of conductors as these turbulent effects impact lines. Under grounding of
overhead lines should be adopted if these effects are experienced.

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APPENDIX C
SPECIAL FORCES
(Normative)

C1 GENERAL
This Appendix sets out requirements to be considered in overhead line design regarding
special forces that may be encountered on some lines.

C2 FORCES DUE TO SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS


In flexible conductor systems, such as, landing spans to the substation gantries from
towers/poles and spans within close proximity to the substation, the mechanical effects due
to short-circuit effects produce conductor tensile forces resulting from the swing-out of
elastically and thermally expanded conductors, which in turn can be the cause of secondary
short-circuits. These conductor tensile forces when compared in magnitude with the
maximum wind tensions can be significantly high and require the designers to take these
into account when designing the supporting structures.
The systems of equations required to represent the mechanical response of the supporting
systems are non-linear. In the IEC 60865-1 a simplified method is stated for calculation of
maximum values of the following:

Effect Force 1 at time Force 2 at time Force 3 at time Horizontal


t1 t2 t3 displacement
Short-circuit Short-circuit
Pinch force, Fpi
tensile force, Ft drop force, Ff
(tensile force in
due to swing- (tensile force in Horizontal
At short-circuit the conductor)
out in the the conductor) displacement,
inception when the sub-
conductor when the span bh, during
* bundled conductors
bundle during falls down from swing-out of the
conductors clash or reduce
or at the end of the highest span
their distance
the short-circuit point of
without clashing
current flow movement
Short-circuit Short-circuit
tensile force, Ft drop force, Ff
due to swing- (tensile force in Horizontal
At short-circuit
out in the the conductor) displacement,
inception
conductor when the span bh, during
*single
during or at the falls down from swing-out of the
conductor
end of the short- the highest span
circuit current point of
flow movement
*The times t1, t2 and t3 are derived from the total short-circuit duration.
*The above forces, Fpi, Ft and Ff are related to the initial static tension existing within the
span. Therefore the initial static tension or everyday tension is an important parameter in
the calculation of the above forces.

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The simplified approach depends on general data such as span length, everyday tension, and
distance between phases, structure stiffness, conductor data, short-circuit current and
duration. In particular this may involve the following:
(a) A short-circuit level should be specified with reference to the levels specified for
switchgear rating. For information, the short-circuit level (short-circuit 3-phase
current, ISC_3) in a substation may exceed the following specified levels;
(i) 40 kA for 420 kV highest system voltage;
(ii) 31.5 kA for 245 kV highest system voltage;
(iii) 20 kA for lower voltages.
(b) The short-circuit current used for checking is the maximum level allowed by the
substation equipment (even if it is not attained in the present stage of development of
the transmission system) in order to facilitate further evolution of the system.
(c) The supports close to the substation should be checked taking into account the
reduction of the short-circuit current due to line impedance.
(d) The support check ceases where the short-circuit current decreases to less than the
above specified levels.
(e) This rule should be applied to check 5 to 10 spans from the substation. Usually, only
1 span is affected by the excessive swinging and 1 or 2 supports adjacent to the
substation are subjected to the mechanical overloads from short-circuits.
(f) Only the 2-phase short-circuit current, SC2, should be checked as the most
restrictive. As an approximation
3
ISC 2 = ISC 3 . . .C1
2
The reduction of short-circuit current with time should also be taken into account according
to the electrical characteristics to the system. The fault time should be considered in
accordance with the type of protection relays used and the possibility of covering breaker
failure or not (breaker tripping time without failure estimated at 80 to 200 ms usually with
solid state relaying).
The load combinations required to assess and design structures able to withstand short-
circuit forces is of considerable interest, in addition the safety factors taken into account on
the generated tensile forces due to short-circuit is important so as not to over-estimate this
effect.
Wind load and short-circuit load both vary in time, independently of each other. In addition,
the direction of wind varies. There are no mathematical procedures available or standards
for a true or reasonable combination of short-circuit and wind loads. Therefore it would be
sufficient to consider a 25% utlimate wind effect in the load combination related to short-
circuit loadings.
In practice short circuit loadings are treated as dynamic loadings due to their short time
evolution. In the simplified approach this load is treated as an exceptional load and a
safety factor of 1.25 is recommended. In the case of short impulsive loads for which large
stress rates occur, structural steels experience a delayed plastic flow phenomenon that
results in a temporary increase in strength (yield point).

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Based on the above, the following load combinations are to be considered for the landing
gantries to the first span from poles/towers under short-circuit loadings
Short-circuit load Rn > 0.25Wn + 1.5Ft + 1.1Gs + 1.25Gc + 1.3Fsc* . . .C2
Ft tensions for conductors not in short-circuit on one of the 3-phases shall be based on
temperature corresponding to everyday load condition with a nominal wind pressure of 0.25
times the ultimate design wind pressure.
Fsc* short-circuit tensions are the maximum of the Ft, Ff and Fpi tensions from the
calculation methods described above.
Design of foundations under short-circuit loadings is not practical due to the short duration
of the forces and the response of the heavy and inert foundations. Therefore the reactions
resulting from the short-circuit loadings can be considered for the steel anchor bolts and the
steel structure itself, whereas the normal load conditions are suitable for the foundation
design.
A detailed and comprehensive method of analysis based on IEC 60865-1 is presented below
for the estimation of the short-circuit loads, Fsc* described above.

C3 CREEPING SNOW
Creeping snow is to be considered with regard to the potential for additional loadings on
foundations and lower parts of supports (especially bracing members).
Principles of calculation of loadings caused by creeping snow cannot be fully defined and
local experience is important.
Appropriate loading assumptions or protective measures should be adopted to reduce the
risk of failures of supports.
Protection measures should be taken where possible to deflect or restrain by means of an
independent structure any potential creeping snow accumulations

C4 EARTHQUAKES
Wind loadings are usually the more determining factor in the design of overhead line
towers, however seismic loads may lead to additional loading forces that should be
considered in known very active seismic zones.
In these locations consideration needs to be given to the natural period of vibration of the
structure, the site-structure resonance factor (depending on the soil conditions), and the
height, weight and mass distribution of the support structure.
Since the frequency of the support is higher than that of conductors, the dynamic load from
conductors obviously is not significant. For the same reasons no important effects from the
support on conductors should be expected.
However, the ground acceleration due to earthquakes may influence the design of rigid and
heavy concrete pole structures, particularly pole mounted transformer supports.
Reference should be made to AS/NZS 1170.4 and NZS 1170.5 for appropriate general
design provisions. In addition the following specific provisions for overhead lines should be
considered.
C4.1 General principles relating to overhead lines
The design of any overhead line near a known active fault or in an area susceptible to
earthquake induced liquifaction, shall recognise the large movements which may result
from settlement, rotation and translation of foundations. In this case, consideration should
be given to the social and economic consequences of failure in developing mitigation
options.

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In general pole and tower structures have proven not to be susceptible to damage from
earthquake shaking motions.
Structures of the following types however, shall be designed to resist earthquake loads:
(a) Pole structures supporting heavy equipment (i.e. transformers).
(b) Pole structures in alpine areas subject to high ice loads (as defined in
AS/NZS 1170.3) where at least 50% of the contributing mass (including ice) is
located in the top third of the structure height.
(c) Pole structures supporting a short span attached to a rigid termination structure (e.g.
substation termination).
Pole structures with a longer fundamental period (T1 ) and located in deep alluvial soils are
often sensitive to the amplification effects of ground motion. This should be taken into
account as appropriate.
C4.2 Seismic mass
The seismic mass of the pole/tower structure shall include
(a) the dead load arising from all permanent parts of the structure including hardware,
equipment, the self weight of tower and any maintenance platforms, ladders and
climbing facilities; and
(b) the mass of conductors and stays.
If the pole structure is located in an alpine area, the additional weight of snow/ice on the
conductors and towers shall be considered in determining the seismic weight.
C4.3 Fundamental period of structure (T1 )
The fundamental period can determined using the Rayleigh method in NZS 1170.5 or by
computer analysis. Alternative calculation methods can be found in ANSI/TIA-222G.
The typical fundamental frequency of power structures is typically
(a) Single pole 0.5 to 1.5 Hz;
(b) H-frames 1 to 3 Hz; and
(c) Lattice structures 2 to 6 Hz.
C4.4 Ductility factor
The maximum ductility factor () used for design of any structure is limited to
Structure type Maximum ductility factor ()
Timber 1
Free standing pole Steel 2
Concrete 1.25
Free standing lattice tower 3
Guyed tower 3
C4.5 Modelling of cables and conductors
The conductors and cables may be modelled as linear spring (with due allowance for sag of
the cable) by adjusting the modulus of elasticity as follows:
Ec
Eeff =
( L) 2 . . .C3
1+ Ec
12 3

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If this is to be modelled as a horizontal spring, then the horizontal component of cable


tension should be taken as
Ac E ff
K eff , h = cos 2 . . .C4
L
where
Ac is the cross sectional area of the conductor or cable (mm2 )
Ec = the modulus of elasticity of the conductor or cable
Eeff = the effective modulus of elasticity (MPa)
= the tensile stress in the conductor or cable (MPa)
L = the cable length (m)
= the cable unit weight (N/m)
= the angle of the cable to the horizontal (degrees)
If the horizontal distance between the structure base and stay anchor point exceeds 300 m,
out-of-phase excitation of the anchor point shall be included in the analysis.
C4.6 Methods of analysis
C4.6.1 Equivalent static force method
The equivalent static force method may be used provided all of the following conditions are
met:
(a) The plan stiffness and mass distribution should be approximately symmetrical in both
orthogonal directions, i.e. the eccentricity between the centre of mass and centre of
stiffness is less than 30% of the smallest plan dimension of the structure.
(b) The vertical regularity should be also constant with no abrupt changes of stiffness,
i.e. the stiffness does vary by more than 50% between adjacent sections.
(c) The mass regularity of a section (mass per unit length) should not vary by more than
200% from an adjacent section. Concentrated masses within the top third of the
structure which contribute less than 50% to the total base overturning moment are
acceptable.
(d) The structure height is less than
(i) Poles 15 m
(ii) Lattice towers 30 m
(iii) Guyed structures no limit
NOTES
1 On a lattice tower, a section shall be considered the distance between vertical leg
connections but not exceeding 15 m.
2 The mass of stays is excluded from determining mass irregularities.
3 Antenna mounts, platforms, torque arms and cross arms shall not be considered a stiffness
irregularity.
C4.6.2 Modal response spectrum analysis
A modal analysis is required when the structure does not meet the requirements of
Equivalent Static Force Method (i.e. significant mass or stiffness irregularities exist) and
the height is less than
(a) Poles 60 m
(b) Lattice towers 180 m

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A modal analysis should be undertaken where the relative displacement between points on
the structure is important. (The lateral force method underestimates the magnitude of
differential displacement between points on a structure due to the contribution of higher
modes).
C4.6.3 Time history analysis
A time history analysis is required when the relative displacement between points on the
structure is important or where the horizontal distance between the structure base and stay
anchor point exceeds 300 m (out of plane movements are included in the analysis) or
exceeds the height requirements for a modal analysis.
C4.7 Combination of effects
A combination of effects of orthogonal actions shall be applied to the structure to account
for the simultaneous effects of shaking in the two perpendicular directions using either
(a) combination of effects from two orthogonal directions for a static analysis
(i) CASE 1: 100% from direction X plus 30% from direction Y
(ii) CASE 2: 100% from direction Y plus 30% from direction X;
(b) the square root of sum of the squares (SRSS) or CQC methods for a modal analysis;
or
(c) 3D time history analysis using the Z orthogonal earthquake component.
C4.8 Second order effect analysis (P)
Second order effects (P) need not be considered when M/Mo < 0.10 where M is the
overturning effect due to second order effects and Mo is the first order overturning moment.
Second order effects shall be considered for all guyed structures.
C4.9 P- Effects
Second order effects (P) need not be considered when at least one of the following
conditions is met:
(a) Fundamental period is less than 0.45 s.
(b) Structure height less than 15 m and the fundamental period is less than 0.8 s.
(c) The ductility factor is less than 1.5.
(d) Lattice towers less than 140 m height where height (h/W) to face ratio is less than 10.
A rational analysis method which takes into account the post elastic deflections of the
structure shall be used to determine the P effects.
C4.10 Vertical seismic response
The structures shall be designed to remain elastic under both positive and negative vertical
acceleration. This shall be considered to act non-concurrently with the horizontal seismic
response.

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C4.11 Seismic displacements


Where the structural system can be simulated as a single degree of freedom structure, the
seismic displacement at the centre of mass can be taken as follows, unless a more detailed
study is undertaken:
C (T ) gZRS pT12
= . . .C5
4 2
where
= the seismic displacement at centre of mass (m)
g = 9.81 ms2
T1 = the fundamental period of the structure (s)
C(T), Z, R, Sp are factors in NZS 1170.5
C4.12 Liquefaction
Liquefaction of loose saturated, cohesion-less soils (sands, silts and loose sandy gravels)
during strong seismic tremors shall be taken into consideration in the route selection of
lines.
The consequences of liquefaction shall be considered, including
(a) foundation failure in saturated sands and sandy clays;
(b) loss of pole or pile lateral or vertical capacity;
(c) subsidence; and
(d) lateral spreading of slopes, embankments and ground towards river banks.
The risk of liquefaction shall be consistent with the other performance requirements for the
pole or line section.
C4.13 Holding-down bolts
Where base plate mounting of structures are used, holding-down bolts shall provide a
minimum net vertical uplift reaction under design earthquake conditions not less than 50%
of the dead load reaction.

C5 MINING SUBSIDENCE
Where overhead lines are located in areas subject to underground coal mining the impact of
ground subsidence and horizontal displacement of soil strata shall be considered in design.
This type of mining is generally carried out in softer sedimentary rock strata.
In the case of other mineral mining they are normally in hard rock formations and the
impact on overhead lines can be ignored.
C5.1 General design provisions
Pole lines at lower voltage are not sensitive to mining subsidence unless electrical clearance
are breached.
Transmission line towers however, can be effected due primarily to the spread of the tower
base.
In general bore and pillar mining techniques provide columns of rock that safely support
the mine overburden, and it has been common practice to locate tower structures over these
columns where mine workings are within 100 m of the surface. Mine workings at greater
depths normally have no impact at the ground surface.

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However in the case of older coal mines, these pillars weather over time and can collapse
and cause general subsidence at the surface. This effect can normally be expected to occur
over a period of time and to have limited or no damage to tower lines.
Long wall coal mining techniques, however progressively remove all material and allow
the overburden to settle behind the advancing working face. This has the effect of
translating rapid subsidence to the surface and to progressively bend the surface strata as
the earth mass settles. These bends cause stretching effects and horizontal displacement will
occur. Horizontal displacements over a 10 m base spread, have been observed to be in the
range of 100300 mm.
If the tower bases in these locations are tied together with reinforced concrete or steel tie
beams, damage to the above ground structure can be limited or avoided. Consideration
needs to be given however to the horizontal forces applied to the structure foundation in
these situations.

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APPENDIX D
GUIDELINES ON SERVICE LIFE OF OVERHEAD LINES
(Normative)

D1 GENERAL
The service life of a structure is the period (generally in years) over which it will continue
to serve its intended purpose safely, without undue maintenance or repair disproportionate
to its cost of replacement and without exceeding any specified serviceability criteria. This
recognizes that cumulative deterioration of the structure over time will occur, due to wear
and tear or environmental effects. Therefore, due maintenance and possible minor repairs
will be required from time to time to maintain the structure in a safe and useable condition
over its service life.
The design life, or target nominal service life expectancy, of a structure is dependent on a
number of variable factors. The information contained in this Appendix is given as a
reasonable basis for the economic evaluation of alternative support systems; the selection of
a particular structure type for given site conditions; the detail design of a particular
structure; or the selection of suitable materials or protective treatment.
It is generally considered that structures and fittings located within 1.0 km of the sea will be
subjected to more severe exposure and would normally require either special protection or a
shorter service life.

D2 SUGGESTED NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE


Based on the above-ground exposure classes defined in Table D1 and Figures D2 and D3
the nominal service lives given in Table D2 are suggested.

D3 ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
D3.1 Soil type
Support structures and their foundations constructed or embedded in aggressive soils should
have suitable protective barriers or preventative measures incorporated in their
construction. Alternatively, a significantly reduced service life should be considered. The
presence of landscaped gardens and lawn and the associated effects of water and fertilizers
should be considered.
D3.2 High water tables
Poles embedded in sites prone to high water tables should be suitably treated to maintain
consistent performance above and below ground.
D3.3 Accumulation of condensation
When assessing the life of a hollow steel or concrete pole structure, consideration should be
given to the potential effects of condensation entrapment due to pumping action due to
temperature variations, if the internal void does not have adequate venting or drainage.
D3.4 Regions of low humidity
In regions of low humidity, an extended service life is usually expected when compared to
regions of more humid conditions.

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D3.5 Accidental damage


Accidental damage, such as vehicle impact or falling trees, can cause substantial overloads
and even complete structure failure. Wind speeds in excess of the design wind speeds can
similarly create substantial overloads. Many such accidents can occur and thus reduce the
service life.
D3.6 Fire
In regions susceptible to uncontrolled fires, consideration should be given to the use of fire-
resistant materials. The post-fire strength and durability of poles should be assessed by a
competent person.
D3.7 Concrete poles
Concrete poles, like other concrete structures, are typified by minimal maintenance, long
service life and good aesthetics. Service life considerations include the following:
(a) Environmental High quality concrete exposed to normal arid or temperate
conditions would be regarded as having an indeterminate service lifea life beyond
100 years. Studies have shown that the depth of carbonation in spun concrete has
been immeasurable (less than 1 mm) after a period of typically 30 years. This
Standard recognizes this fact and specifies a minimum cover of 9 mm, provided that
the concrete is proven to be high quality by achieving a water absorption value less
than 5.5%.
The existence of chlorides in the environment is much more damaging. Poles being
vertical structures have an inherent ability to shed surface contaminants, such as
airborne sea spray, to a certain extent but the in-ground portion can be highly
exposed. Except in marine splash conditions it is generally the below-ground portion
of a pole that needs the most attention to cope with chlorides.
(b) Cracking Excessive cracks will reduce the service life. The commonly accepted
crack-width criteria for different exposures are as follows:
(i) Width <0.3 mm Exposure Classifications A1, A2, B1 (see Table D1).
(ii) Width <0.2 mm Exposure Classification B2.
(iii) Width <0.1 mm Exposure Classification C.
Generally, cracks are barely measurable in most concrete poles. The self-healing process
(autogenous healing) normally seals cracks after some time.
D3.8 Timber poles
The values of design life given in Table D4 assume that the poles are subject to a
systematic program of inspection, at least as rigorous as that recommended in Table D3,
and that appropriate maintenance is promptly carried out when an inspection indicates a
need for it.
The primary hazard agencies that need to be considered with respect to timber poles are
decay, termites and weathering. Allowance for this has been made in the design provisions
of Appendix F by the use of pole degradation (kd ) factors.
Where supplementary maintenance such as the provision of diffusion preservatives (boron
rods) or specific protection systems for termites are provided, the service life of poles will
be shorter.
The exposure classifications in Table D1 refer to generalized conditions, and it should be
kept in mind that timber poles are susceptible to localized microclimatic effects.
Aggressive termites can be found in most parts of Australia and the following termite
hazard map Figure D1 provides a general guide to the extent of the potential problem.

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While New Zealand has three known native termites species they do not pose a concern to
timber poles. There are however potential imports of Australian termites that need to be
monitored and eradicated if identified.

DA RWIN

Ca ir ns

B ro o m e Tow nsv i l l e

Po r t H e d l a n d Mount Isa
Alice Springs
R o c k h a m pto n

C h a r l ev i l l e
B R I S BA N E
N a r ra b i m
G e ra l d to n Kalgoorlie
Dubbo

Mildura N ewc a s tl e
PERT H
SY D N E Y
Albur y
CA N B ER R A
A l ba ny A D EL A ID E
M o u nt G a m b i e r Bega
M EL B O U R N E
L EG EN D :
= Ve r y h i g h
= High H O BA R T
= M o d e rate
= Low
= Ve r y l ow
= Negligible

FIGURE D1 TERMITE HAZARD MAP OF AUSTRALIA

D3.9 Steel poles and lattice steel towers


D3.9.1 General
Steel materials are normally used with zinc coating applied by a hot-dip galvanizing process
to extend the service life.
The use of untreated mild steel in normal arid conditions may provide a service life in
excess of 75 years.
D3.9.2 Environmental
The protective life of metallic zinc coatings on steel is roughly proportional to the mass of
zinc per unit of surface area, regardless of method of application. Hot-dip galvanizing
provides a minimum average coating mass of 350 g/m2 on steel less than 2 mm thick,
450 g/m2 on steel between 2 mm and 5 mm thickness and 600 g/m2 on steel over 5 mm
thick. The expected life for a given coating mass (years) in different atmospheric
environments is shown in Table D2.

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TABLE D1
ABOVE-GROUND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE CLASSIFICATION
(AUSTRALIA)
Climatic zone
Geographic region (1) Industrial proximity (2) Exposure class (3)
(see Figure D2)
Non-industrial A1
Inland
Arid Industrial B1
Near-coastal B1
Coastal B2
Non-industrial A2
Inland
Temperate (4) Industrial B1
Near-coastal B1
Coastal B2
Non-industrial B1
Inland
Tropical Industrial B2
Near-coastal B1
Coastal B2
(See Note 4) Any C
NOTES:
1 The boundaries of the regions are related to the distance from the coastline to which prevailing
onshore winds carry salt-laden air. The boundaries will be affected by both latitude and local
topography and, therefore will vary from place to place. However, for exposure classification
purposes the regions are defined in Australia as follows:
(a) Inland greater than 50 km from coast.
(b) Near-coastal between 1 km and 50 km from coast.
(c) Coast less than 1 km from coast.
In general, for coastal locations, exposure classification B2 applies, except where it can be
shown that there is an absence of airborne chlorides, e.g. due to the nature of the coastal
topography, the lesser exposure classification B1 applies.
2 Industrial proximity is classed as non-industrial if it is greater than 3.0 km from industrial
plants that discharge air pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and
sulphur trioxide (SO 3 ), which form acids with airborne moisture. It is only appropriate for
inland regions.
3 Classes A1 to C represent increasing degrees of severity of exposure.
4 The New Zealand climate is classified as temperate throughout, and the regions to which the
Exposure Class A2 applies is taken directly from Figure D3. The coastal region for application
of Exposure Class B2 extends shorewards for 500 m from the high-tide mark. The near-coastal
region to which Exposure Class B1 applies extends from there to the boundary of the A2
region. Active volcanic/geothermal areas may be regarded as Exposure Class C.

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FIGURE D2 CLIMATIC ZONES FOR AUSTRALIA

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FIGURE D3 (in part) NEW ZEALAND REGIONS FOR EXPOSURE CLASSES A2 and B1

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FIGURE D3 (in part) NEW ZEALAND REGIONS FOR EXPOSURE CLASSES A2 and B1

D3.10 Composite fibre poles (fibre reinforced resin composite material )


There is limited service history of composite fibre poles in Australia and the world. The
longest experience is in North America where a service life of 40 years has been
experienced.
Composite fibre poles should have a UV protective coating or additives applied during
manufacture to extend the service life of the pole.
Moisture ingress into the fibre cores will cause fibre blooming and lead to failure if the
pole is not maintained.

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TABLE D2
SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF STEEL
STRUCTURES AND CONCRETE POLES
Suggested nominal service life (years)
Exposure class Galvanized steel(5) Concrete
2(1) 2(1) 2(1)
200 g/m 400 g/m 600 g/m C (2)
A1 60100+ 100+ 100++ 100+

A2 2560 60100 75100+ 80100

B1 1225 2550 3575 6080

B2 825 1550 3575 5060


(3) (6) (6) (6) (4)
C 312 625 935 50

NOTES:
1 Preservative treatment is hot-dip galvanized, for the mass/square metre as noted, with no
additional coatings such as chromate, paint or plastic. These figures are indicative only and
make no allowance for any corrosion of the underlying steel.
2 Cover to reinforcement, C = 9 mm, or 19 mm.
3 It should be noted that above-ground conditions may differ from below-ground conditions.
Aggressive below-ground environments may be regarded as a Class C exposure.
4 Past experience has shown that uncoated steel can have a reasonable service life in arid
conditions.

TABLE D3
RECOMMENDED INSPECTION PERIODS FOR TIMBER POLES
Recommended inspection periods (years)
Species and class Preservative treatment
First Subsequent
Hardwood (Euc.Spp) Nil 10 every 3 to 6
Durability Class 1
Hardwood (Euc.Spp) H5 to sapwood 20 every 3 to 6
Durability Class 1
Hardwood (Euc.Spp) Nil 10 every 3 to 6
Durability Class 2
Hardwood (Euc.Spp) H5 to sapwood 20 every 3 to 6
Durability Class 2
Softwood (Australian) H5 20 every 3 to 6
Softwood (New Zealand) H5 20 every 3 to 6

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FIGURE D4 NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE ZONES FOR TIMBER POLES


NOTE: Criteria for Zone 2 applies to all parts of New Zealand.

TABLE D4
SUGGESTED RANGE OF NOMINAL SERVICE LIFE OF TIMBER POLES
Service life expectancy (years)
Zone
(see H5 treated timber to AS 1604 Desapped untreated timber
Figure D4)
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 1 Class 2
1 4555 3545 2535 4050 2535 1525
2 50+ 50+ 3040 50+ 3040 2535
3 50+ 50+ 4050 50+ 50+ 3040

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APPENDIX E
DESIGN FOR LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE
(Normative)

E1 DESIGN FOR LIGHTNING PERFORMANCE


Lightning induced outages are one of the major cause of outages on overhead lines in areas
of moderate to high ceraunic activity. A moderate ceraunic level is between 30 and 50
thunderdays per year, and high level above 50 thunderdays per year.
The acceptable outage rate due to lightning is therefore one of the most dominant design
parameters for an overhead line. In a low to moderate ceraunic activity area, an acceptable
outage rate from lightning for overhead lines with overhead earthwires is typically 2 to 5
outages per 100 km per year.
E1.1 Estimation of line outages due to lightning
The prediction of lightning outages is not an exact science and the methods adopted in one
Authority may not be appropriate in others. It has been found that the parameters which can
be varied to achieve the largest influence on the lightning performance of overhead lines
are
(a) installation of earthwire;
(b) having wood in the flashover circuit (crossarm or pole);
(c) critical flashover voltage (CFO) of the insulators; and
(d) pole footing resistance.
Overhead earthwires are used to shield the line from lightning strikes and are usually
installed on high reliability lines operating at sub-transmission and transmission voltage
levels. They are also installed on overhead distribution lines for short distances (typically
800 m) out of a substation to protect the substation equipment from damaging overvoltages.
One earthwire is usually sufficient to cater for shielding flashovers on structures below
20 m, but higher structures will need two earthwires to achieve effective shielding. With a
single earthwire, the shielding angle is usually in the range of 30 to 40.
The arc quenching property of wood has been used by Authorities to reduce lightning
induced outages on the network. When wood is added to the insulation path, the combined
insulation strength of the insulator and wood is increased. The higher the impulse strength
of the insulator/wood combination, the higher the resistance to flashover (see reference at
the end of this Appendix) for the electrical properties of wood. The effective impulse
strength of a series wood and insulator path can be calculated as follows:
Itotal = [Iwood 2 + Iinsulator2 ]1/2 . . .E1
where
Iwood = Impulse strength of wood
Iinsulator = Impulse strength of insulator
When an overhead earthwire is installed on powerlines, generally a down lead is run to
earth to provide a low resistance path to ground. A low pole footing resistance not only
reduces the probability of lightning induced backflashovers but also offers the following
advantages:
(i) Reduces risk of injury to persons or animals due to rises in earth potential at the
structure and the surrounding soil.

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(ii) Provides a low impedance path for earth faults to ensure there is sufficient fault
current to operate protection relays.
E1.2 Measures to improve lightning performance
An improvement in lightning outage time on transmission lines can be achieved by
installing auto-reclosing schemes.
An improvement in lightning outage rates, particularly for distribution lines can be
achieved by using wood in the crossarms or poles. The wood increases the impulse strength
of the line to ground and can quench the lightning arcs thereby avoiding a power frequency
fault.
This performance can be described by the shielding failure flashover rate, Rsf, and by the
backflashover rate, Rb . It is fixed by operational considerations and depends on the
insulation strength of the line and on the following parameters:
(a) The lightning ground flash density.
(b) The height of the overhead line.
(c) The conductor configuration.
(d) The protection by shield wire (s).
(e) The tower earthing.
(f) The installation of surge arresters on the overhead line.
Reference: DARVENIZA, M. Electrical Properties of Wood and Line Design published by
University of Queensland, 1978.

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APPENDIX F
TIMBER POLES
(Normative)

F1 GENERAL
Design properties and design methods for timber utility poles and components shall be in
accordance with AS 1720.1 or AS/NZS 1328. Where specifically defined for round timbers,
they shall be in accordance with Paragraphs F1.2 to F1.4.
F1.1 Characteristic strengths and elastic moduli
The characteristic strengths and elastic moduli for untrimmed poles that conform in quality
to the grade requirements specified in AS 2209 shall be as specified in Tables F1 and F2,
unless verified by ingrade testing.
Strength groups and joint group classifications shall be assigned to species in accordance
with AS 1720.2.

TABLE F1
POLE TIMBERS GRADED TO AS 2209RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STRENGTH
GROUPS AND CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES (MPa)

Tension parallel to Short


Compression
grain (f t ) (3) duration
Strength Stress Bending Shear parallel to
modulus-of
group grade (f b ) (3) (f s ) (3) grain
Hardwood Softwood elasticity
(f c ) (3)
(E)
S1 F34 100 60 7.2 75 21500
S2 F27 80 50 6.1 60 18500
S3 F22 65 40 5.0 50 16000
S4 F17 50 30 26 4.3 40 14000
S5 F14 40 25 21 3.7 30 12000
S6 F11 35 20 17 3.1 25 10500
S7 F8 25 15 13 2.5 20 9100
NOTES:
8 The equivalence expressed in the table above is based upon the assumption that the poles are cut from
mature trees.
9 The modulus of elasticity includes an allowance of about 5% for shear deformation.
10 See Paragraph F2.1.

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TABLE F2
CHARACTERISTIC STRENGTH PROPERTIES (MPa) FOR BEARING AND
SHEAR AT JOINTS
Bearing
Shear at joint details
Strength group Perpendicular to grain Parallel to grain (f t ) (f s ) (see Note)
(f n ) (see Note) (see Note)
S1 60 7.2
S2 50 6.1
S3 40 5.0
S4 30 26 4.3
S5 25 21 3.7
S6 20 17 3.1
S7 15 13 2.5
NOTE:See Paragraph F2.1.

F1.2 Design factorsMaterial


F1.2.1 Capacity factor
Values for the capacity factor (), for calculating the design capacity of poles (R), shall be
determined using Table F3.

TABLE F3
CAPACITY FACTORS FOR TIMBER POLES
Basis for determining characteristic strength properties Characteristic design
property to which the
value of shall apply
for calculating the
design capacity
Poles graded to AS 2209 All properties 0.90
Poles graded using proof grading in accordance with Section 7 (f b ) (see Note) 0.95
of draft code
All other properties 0.90
Poles with bending properties established from in grade (f b ) (see Note) 0.95
evaluation and subject to periodic testing/monitoring of
All other properties 0.90
properties
NOTE:See Paragraph F2.1.

F1.2.2 Duration of load effects (strength)


The effect of duration of load on strength of timber poles and components is given by the
modification factor k1 , as defined in Table F4. The effective duration of load refers to the
cumulative duration for which the peak load occurs. Guidelines for determination of the
effective duration of load are detailed in AS 1720.1.
F1.2.3 Duration of load effects (stiffness)
For timber poles subject to sustained bending, creep effects should be considered. The
effect of duration of load on stiffness of timber poles and components shall be determined
in accordance with AS 1720.1 or NZS 3603. For other timber components, the short-term
deflection shall be multiplied by the appropriate creep factor j2 or j3 , as given in AS 1720.1
or NZS 3603

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TABLE F4
DURATION OF LOAD FACTOR FOR STRENGTH
Type of load Effective Modification factor (k 1) Modification factor (k 1)
duration of for strength of poles and (see Note) for strength
peak load timber components (see of timber connections
Note) using laterally loaded
fasteners
Instantaneous (e.g. ultimate wind and 3 seconds 1.00 1.14
earthquake)
Short term (e.g. construction 3 hours 0.97 0.86
maintenance)
Medium term (e.g. snow/ice in sub- 3 days 0.94 0.77
alpine areas)
Long term (e.g. snow/ice in alpine 3 months 0.80 0.69
areas)
Permanent >1 year 0.57 0.57
NOTE:See Paragraph F2.1.

F1.2.4 Pole degradation factors


For all timber poles, the design shall allow for loss of strength and stiffness associated with
degradation of the critical section of the pole at and below the ground line over its expected
design life. The degradation factor (kd ) shall be determined from Table F5, unless more
accurate durability information is available.
The values of kd given in Table F5 are based upon expected loss of effective section. In
cases where the local environment in which the pole will be located is known to be of high
hazard (e.g. due to excessive moisture or high probability of insect attack) more
conservative values may be appropriate.
NOTE: Where a systematic inspection and maintenance program is in place and where any
evidence of degradation is effectively preservative treated (e.g. using diffusion preservatives),
then the values of kd given in Table F5 for untreated timbers will be conservative and higher
values may be appropriate.

TABLE F5
POLE DEGRADATION FACTORS
Type of pole Design Pole diameter Pole diameter Pole diameter
life d <250 mm 250 d d >400 mm
(years) 400 mm
kd kd kd

Full length preservative-treated solftwood 20 1.0 1.0 1.0


in accordance with As 2209 50 0.80 0.85 0.90

Full length preservative-treated hardwood 20 1.0 1.0 1.0


in accordance with AS 2209 50 0.80 0.85 0.90

Durability Class 1 untreated hardwood in 20 0.80 0.90 1.0


accordance with AS 2209 50 0.50 0.55 0.60

Durability Class 2 untreated hardwood in 20 0.70 0.80 0.90


accordance with AS 2209 50 0.30 0.40 0.45

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F1.2.5 Factor for immaturity


For poles having mid-length diameters less than 250 mm, due allowance shall be made for
the properties of immature timber, using the modification factors k20 and j9 from Table F6,
for strength and stiffness respectively.

TABLE F6
IMMATURITY FACTORS k 20 FOR DESIGN CAPACITY AND IMMATURITY
FACTORS j 9 FOR STIFFNESS

Immaturity factor k 20/j 9


Species
d = 100 m d = 125 m d = 150 m d = 175 m d = 200 m d = 225 m d = 250 m
Eucalypt and 0.90 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Corymbia
Softwoods 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.00

F1.2.6 Shaving factor


For timber members, the design characteristic strength properties shall be reduced if the
poles have been shaved, when modified from the natural pole form. The shaving factor for
strength k21 shall be determined as specified in Table F7. In addition to this modification for
strength, the values specified for stiffness in Table F1 shall be reduced by 5% for shaved
poles.

TABLE F7
SHAVING FACTOR k 21
Characteristic property Eucalypt and Corymbia Softwood species k 21
species k 21
Bending 0.85 0.75
Compression parallel to grain 0.95 0.90
Compression perpendicular to grain 1.00 1.00
Tension 0.85 0.75

F1.2.7 Processing factor


Where poles are steamed as a part of the manufacturing and fabrication process, the
characteristic strength properties shall be reduced using k22.
For poles that are steamed, k22 = 0.85, otherwise k22 = 1.0

F2 DESIGN CAPACITY
F2.1 Notation
The following notation is used in this Clause:
k1 = the duration of load factor
k12 = the stability factor for compression, determined in accordance with Section 3
of AS 1720.1, except that the slenderness coefficient (S) shall equal 1.15 L/dp
where
L = the distance between effective restraints in any plane and;
dp = the nominal mid length diameter between the points of restraint
k20 = the immaturity factor
k21 = the shaving factor

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k22 = the processing factor


kd = the degradation factor
f t = the characteristic strength in tension
f c = the characteristic strength in compression parallel to grain
f n = the characteristic strength of timber in bearing perpendicular to grain
f b = the characteristic strength in bending
f s = the characteristic strength in shear
Ac = the cross-sectional area at the critical section
d p2
=
4
As = the shear plane area
3 d p3
=
16
Z = the section modulus
d p3
=
32
dp = the pole diameter at the critical section
ZT = torsional section modulus
d p3
=
16

F2.2 Bending strength


The design capacity of poles in bending (M) for the strength limit state, shall satisfy the
following:
M M* . . .F1
M = k1 k20 k21 k22 kd [f b Z] . . .F2
F2.3 Shear strength
The design capacity of poles in shear ( V) for the strength limit state, shall satisfy the
following:
V V* . . .F3
V = k1 k20 k22 kd [fs As] . . .F4
F2.4 Compressive strength
The design capacity of poles in axial compression (Nc) for the strength limit state, shall
satisfy the following:
Nc N* . . .F5
Nc = k1 k12 k20 k21 k22 kd [f c Ac ] . . .F6

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F2.5 Combined bending and compression strength


Where a pole is subjected to combined bending and compression load effects, the diameter
shall be such that the following is satisfied:
M * N c*
+ 1 . . .F7
M Nc
F2.6 Torsional strength
The design capacity of poles under torsion about the pole axis (T) for the strength limit
state shall satisfy the following equations:
T T* . . .F8
T = k1 k20 k22 kd [fs ZT] . . .F9
NOTE: The torsional rigidity of timber poles is normally very high, with the result that in most
situations the pole will rotate in the ground rather that induce resultant torsional forces in the
wood. As such, torsional strength is only considered in exceptional circumstances where the pole
is embedded rigidly into a foundation.
F2.7 Pole top deflection
Designers shall note that the modulus of elasticity (or stiffness) of poles in the green state,
or re-wetted by waterborne CCA preservative, can be significantly less than that of dry or
seasoned poles. The values of modulus of elasticity (MOE) specified in Appendix F and in
AS 1720.1 are average values for unseasoned timber.
For situations where pole deflection is critical, designers shall use 5th percentile values of
MOE. For poles, an approximation of the 5th percentile MOE is obtained by multiplying the
average MOE by 0.5. Specific guidance on design for serviceability limit states is presented
in AS 1720.1.
It is recommended that poles subjected to sustained resultant loads be considered deflection
sensitive. For example, a service, street light fitting or slight angle, may result in the
structure developing a pronounced permanent bend as it undergoes in-situ drying.

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APPENDIX G
LATTICE STEEL TOWERS (SELF SUPPORTING AND GUYED MASTS)
(Normative)

G1 GENERAL
Lattice steel tower designs shall comply with the requirements of AS 3995 or ASCE 10-97
and the following special provisions:

G2 CALCULATION OF INTERNAL FORCES AND MOMENTS


G2.1 Method of analysis of lattice steel towers
In most cases, a single tower type can be used in various configurations with a number of
different body extensions and leg combinations. Each of these configurations will result in a
unique force distribution.
To capture the most unfavourable forces in the tower members, it is recommended to model
all the likely configurations and select the member sizes to satisfy each of these
configurations.
As many of the tower models will have a non-symmetrical leg combination it is important
to consider loading from all possible directions.
Primarily latticed towers are analyzed as ideal elastic three dimensional trusses pinned
connected at joints. Such elastic analyzes produce only joint displacements tension, and
compression in tower members and tension in guy stays.
Moments from normal framing eccentricities are not calculated in the analysis. However,
bending moments in members because of framing eccentricities, eccentric loads, distributed
wind load on members can affect the member selection.
First-order linear elastic truss analysis treats all members as linearly elastic (capable of
carrying compression as well as tension), and assumes that the loaded configuration of the
structure is identical to its unloaded configuration consequently ignoring the secondary
effects of the deflected structure stipulating that the forces in the redundant members are
equal to zero.
This type of analysis is generally used for conventional, relatively rigid, self-supporting
structures. In a second-order (geometrically nonlinear) elastic analysis, structure
displacements under loads create member forces and these additional member forces are
called the P effects. A second-order elastic analysis may show that redundant members
carry some load.
Flexible self-supporting structures and guyed structures normally require a second-order
analysis.
When performing a computer analysis of an existing structure, careful attention shall be
given to the method of analysis employed when the structure was originally designed by
manual algebraic or graphical methods. A three-dimensional computer analysis may
indicate forces in the members that are different from those used by manual methods.
Bending moments caused by wind loads on individual member are generally negligible, but
they may need to be considered in the design of slender bracings or horizontal edge
members.
It is normally unnecessary to consider deflections or vibration of lattice towers.

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G2.2 Guyed structures


Guys produce uplift loads on the guy foundation or anchor and compression loads on the
structure and its foundation. The guys shall be adjustable in length to permit plumbing of
the structure during construction and to account for elastic shortening of the mast, creep in
the guy and any initial movement of the uplift anchor.
Externally guyed supports (i.e. guyed masts) utilizing multiple stay arrangements are
sensitive to inaccurate amount of pretension in the guys.
The initial and final modulus of elasticity of the guys, creep of the guys together with the
flexibility of the tower shall be used to compute the forces in tower members and
foundation reactions.

G3 EMBEDMENT OF STEEL MEMBERS INTO CONCRETE BY MEAN OF


ANCHORING ELEMENTS
The total tensile or compression load of steel leg members anchored in concrete is
transferred to the concrete by two methods
(a) steel angle stubs with anchoring elements such as angle cleats or studs These shall
be checked for shear due to the compression stresses between the element and the
concrete. No bending moment in cleats or studs should be considered; and
(b) base plate and holding-down bolts The holding-down bolts shall be checked for
shear, axial load as well as possible bending moments due to lateral displacement of
the bolts.

G4 CRANKED K BRACING
For large tower widths, a bend may be introduced into the main diagonals. This has the
effect of reducing the length and size of the redundant members but produces high stresses
in the members meeting at the bend and necessitates transverse support at the joint.
Diagonals and horizontals should be designed as for K bracing, effective lengths of
diagonals being related to the lengths to the knee joint.

G5 PORTAL FRAMES
A horizontal member is sometimes introduced at the bend to turn a braced panel into a
portal frame. The main disadvantage of this is the lack of articulation present in the K
brace.
This system is sensitive to foundation settlement or movement and special consideration
should be given to this possibility.

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G6 SECONDARY (REDUNDANT) MEMBERS


The following rules should be applied to the nominal bracing design:
(a) Face bracing
(i) All members inclined 10 are considered horizontal
2.5%
Load = = 1.77% of main member force
2
(ii) Members inclined >10 and connected to the main leg
2.5%
Load = = 1.25% of main member force
2
(iii) Members inclined >10 and not connected to the main leg
Force to balance vertical component of the connected inclined members
(iv) Members inclined 30 to be checked for bending with 1.8 kN load in the
middle of member. Bending check is independent from the axial load check.
(b) Hip bracing
(i) All members inclined 10 are considered horizontal
Load = 2.5% main member force
(ii) Members inclined >10
2.5%
Load = = 1.77% of main member force
2

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1.0 % of th e m a i n l e g l o ad
ba l a n c i n g 1.25% f ro m th e
B rac e l o ad c o n n e c te d b r a c e Inclined brace
2.5% P/ 2 e ac h 2.5% P/2
H o r i zo nta l b r a c e
2.5% P

R e s tr a i nt
2.5% P/2

L EG EN D :
P = M a x i m u m m a i n m e m b e r c o m p re s s i o n fo rc e

B1 B2

Inclined braces a1 a2
Force balancing ver tical
2.5% P/ 2 component of member
connected to the main leg
B1= B2* sin ( a2) / sin ( a1)

H o r i zo nta l b r a c e s
2.5% P/2 e ac h

In case of cranked K bracing with an angle between the diagonal and main leg close to 15,
secondary effects should be taken into consideration (global instability, main leg
shortening, bolt slip).

G7 SECURITY OF FASTENERS
G7.1 General application
All bolt nuts on lattice steel towers shall be locked in their tightened position against
loosing by aerodynamic induced vibration by the use of heavy duty spring washers or
locking pins.
G7.2 Bolts in tension
Where bolts on major loaded connection points are in permanent tension or have nuts in a
downward position they shall be fitted with lock nuts.
G7.3 Deterrent to vandalism
All bolts within 3000 mm of the ground shall be secured to prevent or significantly deter
their removal by vandalism.
This can be achieved by welding the nuts to the thread projection or the use of driven lock
pins or similar devices that make it difficult to be removed.

G8 ANTI CLIMBING DEVICES


Unauthorised climbing of structures supporting energized overhead lines is a significant
public safety issue, that requires a national uniform standard of approach.
All structures that can be easily climbed shall have anti climbing devices or barriers
positioned within 4.0 m of the ground to prevent or significantly deter unauthorised
climbing.

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G9 PLAN BRACING
Horizontal plan bracing should be installed on all lattice steel towers at
(a) the first horizontal structural member above ground;
(b) changes of leg slope; at the lower face of all crossarms; and
(c) vertical intervals not exceeding 15.0 m in the tower body.
Reference should be made to CIGRE TB 196 for guidance on choice of an appropriate
bracing panel arrangement.

G10 STRENGTH FACTORS ( )


Strength factors ( ) which takes into account variability of material and workmanship for
structural components used in lattice steel towers shall be taken as 0.9 unless otherwise
provided in the reference standard being used.

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APPENDIX H
ELECTRICAL DESIGN ASPECTS
(Normative)

H1 CORONA
Corona occurs when air is ionized. The most important corona effect for overhead lines is
around the conductors. When the electric field on the surface of a conductor exceeds the
corona inception voltage, the corona discharges in the form of arcs and streamers can
generate radio interference, television interference and audible noise.
Corona discharges usually occur during inclement weather (i.e. rain, fog ) when the surface
voltage gradient on the conductor exceeds 16 kV/cm. During dry weather there is almost
negligible corona generated.
Other possible sources of corona are hardware surfaces and insulators. Polluted insulators
may have significant surface leakage current activity which can also cause corona.
Another related effect is spark discharges which may occur between discs of bridging
strings that are lightly loaded, mechanically. Spark discharges can generate radio
interference, television interference and audible noise.
H1.1 Design
The radial electric field at the conductor surface is known as the surface voltage gradient. It
is influenced by voltage, number of conductors per phase bundle, size of conductors, phase
spacing, and to a lesser extent, line configuration, line phasing, line height, and line
proximity to other lines or wires.
Conductor surface finish also has an effect. Care is required during stringing to ensure there
is no damage to conductor surfaces. Any high points due to scratches on the conductor will
have a high electric field and may act as a source for corona generation. In the first few
months of energized operation, conductor surfaces are not yet weathered, and corona levels
can be above expectations. Over time, the high points are burnt off and the corona activity
reduces.
At voltages above 110 kV, it is often the requirement to meet the RIV, TVI and audible
noise levels which decide the conductor to install on the overhead line rather than thermal
rating requirements. Avoiding corona is the main reason that conductors are bundled on
lines at the higher voltage levels. Bundling has the effect of reducing the electric field on
the surface of the conductors.
The recommended design approach to control corona is to limit the surface voltage gradient
to less than 16 kV/cm. The secondary effects of radio interference, television interference
and audible noise can be estimated based on empirical formulae using conductor surface
voltage gradient as an input.
H1.2 Radio interference voltage
H1.2.1 Design influences
The most important design influence on the corona-generated radio noise levels produced
by any high voltage line is the electric field very close to the conductors. This field is
influenced by voltage, number of conductors per phase bundle, size of conductors, phase
spacing, and to a lesser extent, line configuration, line phasing, line height, and line
proximity to other lines or wires. Radio noise levels are also influenced by the local earth
conductivity and the relative smoothness of conductor and hardware surfaces.

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Generally, corona generated radio-noise levels become a significant design concern only for
lines operating at voltages of 110 kV or above. For these high voltages, noise-level
prediction methods assume that line hardware is designed or shielded so that only the
corona on conductors will be responsible for observed radio noise levels, and that
conductors are installed taking care not to damage their surface. In the first few months of
energized operation, conductor surfaces are not yet weathered, and radio noise levels can be
a few decibels above ultimate expectations.
H1.3 Audible noise
The principal source of foul weather acoustic noise is water drops. Whether hanging from a
wet line or on insulators, arriving at the line as rain drops, or streaming from the line, water
can give rise to various types of discharge. Snow and ice rime on conductors may also give
rise to noise.
H1.3.1 Design influences
The most important design influence on the audible noise levels produced by a high-voltage
line is the electric field very close to the conductors (surface electric gradient). This field is
influenced by voltage, number of conductors per phase bundle, size of conductors, phase
spacing, and to a lesser extent, line configuration, line phasing, line height, and line
proximity to other lines or wires. Audible noise levels are further influenced by the relative
smoothness of conductor and hardware surfaces and contamination due to hydrophobic
materials.
In general, audible noise levels become a significant design concern only for lines operating
at voltages of 110 kV or above. For these high voltages, noise-level prediction methods
assume that line hardware is designed or shielded so that only the corona on conductors will
be responsible for observed audible noise levels in wet weather, and that conductors are
installed taking care not to damage their surfaces.
As with radio noise, audible noise levels may be a little above ultimate expectations during
an initial weathering period.
H1.4 Corona loss
In cases where the surface voltage gradient is very high there can be a power loss along the
conductor due to corona emission. On overhead power lines, corona loss is expressed in
watts per metre (W/m) or kilowatts per kilometre (kW/km). The power loss due to corona is
typically less than a few kilowatts/kilometre in fair weather but, it can amount to tens of
kilowatts/kilometre during heavy rain and up to one hundred kilowatts/kilometre during
frost.
The magnitude of fair-weather corona loss is insignificant in comparison with foul-weather
loss (maximum corona loss). However, fair weather losses occur for a large percentage of
time and affect the value of the total energy consumed by the line (yearly average corona
loss).

H2 ELECTROSTATIC INDUCTION
Electrostatic induction is caused by the electric field surrounding the powerline and these
fields can induce charges on nearby metallic objects. Unless these charges are addressed
properly by proper earthing, they can cause shock to the public. These shocks can range
from finger tip touch perceptible to hand grab annoyance. The thresholds for these
sensations are given in Table H1.

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TABLE H1
REACTION TO SPARK DISCHARGES
Reaction/sensation Threshold
Energy (milliJoules Charge (Coulombs)
Fingertip touch perception 0.14 0.30
Hand grab perception 0.50 0.50
Fingertip touch annoyance 1.30 0.90
Hand grab annoyance 4.00 1.60

The charge induced to the metallic object is dependent on the surface area of the object and
the overhead lines electric field strength. The charge can safely be discharged to earth by
installing earth leads to the metallic object.
On extra high voltage lines (above 345 kV) the electric field strength on the power line can
be quite high and lead to high charges on large vehicles parked under the line. The high
discharge currents can be a hazard to the public in proximity to the vehicle.

H3 ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
Electromagnetic induction is caused by the load and/or fault currents flowing in the
overhead line. These currents can generate high voltages in parallel metallic circuits. For
telecommunication coordination, the limits are set out in ENA HB 102 For pipelines, the
levels are outlined in AS/NZS 4853.
These high induced voltages into nearby circuits or objects can be mitigated by the
following methods:
(a) Earthing the circuit or object at regular intervals.
(b) The installation of insulators to sectionalize the circuit.
(c) Installing a shield wire on the overhead line.
(d) Increase the separation between the circuit or object and the overhead line.

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APPENDIX I
CONCRETE POLES
(Normative)

I1 GENERAL
Design properties for concrete, reinforcement and tendons shall be as given in AS 3600 or
NZS 3101.1, or as may be otherwise specified.

I2 STRENGTH
I2.1 Characteristic or specified compressive strength
The characteristic or specified compressive strength at 28 days (fNc ), shall be not less than
40 MPa.
I2.2 ICharacteristic flexural tensile strength or modulus of rupture
The characteristic flexural tensile strength or modulus of rupture after 28 days of standard
curing may be taken as one of the following values as appropriate:
(a) For pole elements subject to sustained tensile stresses, 0.6fNc.
(b) For pole elements subject to transient tensile stresses, 0.8 fNc.

I3 STRENGTH CAPACITY FACTOR


For poles designed by load testing in accordance with Section 8.5, the strength capacity
factor ( ) should not be taken as greater than 1.0.
For poles designed by calculation, shall be taken as not greater than the following values,
as appropriate for the type of action effect being considered:
(a) Bending, 0.9.
(b) Compression, shear, or torsion, or any of these in combination, 0.8.
(c) Bearing, 0.7.
(d) Combined bending and compression 0.9

I4 SERVICEABILITY
I4.1 General
Concrete poles shall meet the serviceability criteria, appropriate to the use of the pole, set
out in Paragraphs I4.2 to I4.3.
I4.2 Deflection and rotation
For electromotive transport poles, communication equipment poles, and some floodlighting
poles, deflection and rotation parameter shall be determined by the operating system
constraints. For most other uses, deflection and rotation shall not be considered a
serviceability constraint unless specified by the purchaser.
I4.3 Crack width
Crack widths at the serviceability limit state shall not exceed 0.25 mm unless otherwise
provided in design calculations. For sustained dead loads or cable tension loads, the long-
term effects of creep and shrinkage shall be considered.
NOTE: For further information on concrete crack width see Appendix D.

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I5 CONCRETE COVER
I5.1 Exposure classifications
The exposure classification for poles shall be determined in accordance with AS 3600 or
NZS 3101.1 as appropriate.
I5.2 Exposure classifications other than C, or U more severe than C
For all exposure classification other than C, or other than U more severe than C, the clear
cover to reinforcement (including tie wires) and tendons shall be not less than the greatest
of
(a) the maximum nominal aggregate size;
(b) three-quarters of the nominal diameter of the bar, wire or tendon to which the cover is
measured; or
(c) when tested in accordance with Appendix O, if
(i) absorption 5.5%, cover = 9 mm;
(ii) 5.5% < absorption 6.5%, cover = 19 mm;
(iii) absorption >6.5%, cover as per AS 3600/NZS 3101.1; or
(iv) other methods of providing suitable durability.
I5.3 Exposure classification C, or U more severe than C
For exposure classification C, or U more severe than C, or for poles within 1 km from a
coastline with prevailing onshore winds, one or more of the following additional protective
actions should be adopted to achieve the required design life:
(a) Increase the thickness of concrete cover.
(b) Increase the specified strength grade, or otherwise reduce the permeability of the
concrete.
(c) Apply a protective coating to exposed surfaces.
(d) Apply a corrosion-resistant coating to the reinforcement or tendons.
(e) Provide cathodic protection to the reinforcement or tendons.
(f) Seal the base of spun concrete poles.
(g) Any other appropriate action.

I6 REINFORCEMENT AND TENDONS


I6.1 General
All reinforcement and tendons shall be effectively maintained in their correct position
during manufacture of the pole. All supports used for this purpose shall be made from
durable and stable materials that are not deleterious to the concrete or the reinforcement.
I6.2 Poles designed by load testing
For poles designed by load testing in accordance with Section 8, the following exceptions
apply to the requirements for reinforcement and tendons specified in AS 3600 or
NZS 3101.1:
(a) The minimum clear distances between parallel bars and tendons may be waived.
(b) Lateral restraint of compression reinforcement by ties, or similar fitments, may be
omitted.

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(c) Enclosure of bundled bars, or bundled tendons, within ties or similar fitments may be
omitted.
(d) Shear reinforcement may be omitted if the tested prototypes contain no shear
reinforcement and the tests demonstrate that the design strength can be achieved
without failure.
I6.3 Poles designed by calculation
For poles designed by calculation, shear reinforcement may be omitted if the calculated
shear strength provided by the concrete alone is not less than the minimum levels specified
in AS 3600 or NZS 3101.1 for the omission of shear reinforcement in beams.

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APPENDIX J
COMPOSITE FIBRE POLES
(Normative)

J1 GENERAL
Poles made from composite materials shall be designed in accordance with the appropriate
and relevant Australian or New Zealand Standard or by theories supported by rigorous
prototype testing.
The materials used shall be suitable for the exposure and design service conditions without
jeopardising operational security of the line.
Special attention shall be given to use of fire resistant materials in rural/semi rural
applications.

J2 STRENGTH
Composite fibre poles are thin walled structures and typically fail due to buckling.
Pull through strength on the wall of the pole applied by bolts may be limited with standard
washers and large curved plates may be required for surface bearing.
Crushing torque is limited and is typically less than 150 Nm.

J3 SERVICABILITY LIMITS
Composite fibre poles typically exhibit large deflection limits and these limits must be
considered in the design. Manufacturer test data will provide deflection limits at appropriate
loads for use in design of the pole.

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APPENDIX K
STEEL POLES
(Normative)

K1 GENERAL
Steel pole structure designs shall comply with the requirements of AS 4100, NZS 3404.1 or
AS/NZS 4600 , or ASCE 48-05 as appropriate, and the following provisions.

K2 STRENGTH FACTORS ( )
Strength factors ( ) which takes into account variability of material and workmanship for
steel pole components used shall be taken as 0.9 unless otherwise provided in the reference
standard being used.
Loading considered in design shall include combined bending and axial loading of the pole
element.

K3 MINIMUM THICKNESS
The thickness of steel plate used in any structural pole elements shall be not less than
1.6 mm.

K4 REQUIREMENTS FOR PLATE THICKNESS LESS THAN 3MM


Where the thickness of steel plate used in a pole is less than 3 mm, the following
requirements apply:
(a) Welding Special attention shall be given to weld quality in thin-walled elements and
in particular to the avoidance of weld undercut.
(b) Fatigue Structural detailing shall avoid stress concentrations and connections
subject to cyclic loading which rely on the localized bending resistance of thin-walled
components.
(c) Handling Consideration should be given to the need for special handling of thin-
walled elements to avoid localized distortion.
(d) Durability Due consideration should be given to the potential for accelerated
corrosion at and below ground level where pole elements are direct buried into soil or
where special backfill is used around the embedded pole element.

K5 LOW TEMPERATURE REQUIREMENTS


Steel grades for poles subject to low temperature conditions shall be chosen in accordance
with the requirements for brittle fracture resistance given in AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1 as
appropriate.

K6 WELDING PROCEDURE FOR THICK BASE PLATES


Care should be applied in the use of thick base plates that have been cut from thick steel
blooms that may contain string inclusions that have the potential to open and delaminate
after cutting, welding and during galvanizing due to release of locked in stresses.

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K7 HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT ISSUES WITH HOT DIP GALVANIZING


AFTER INCREMENTAL BENDING
Where incremental bending techniques or pressing is employed to form thick plates
generally greater than 16 mm and the finished product is acid de-scaled and hot dip
galvanized, care needs to be applied to avoid hydrogen embrittlement of cold worked
materials.

K8 INTERNAL TREATMENT OF STEEL POLES


All closed steel sections will have the potential to accumulate and trap condensation from
the air due to temperature variations. This has the potential to accelerate corrosion of the
internal surfaces if the internal space cannot vent to the atmosphere. Consideration shall be
included in designs for the appropriate treatment of the internal surface to eliminate
corrosion; to minimize corrosion effects; or to provide for limited corrosion of the internal
surfaces over its intended design service life.

K9 SLIP JOINTING
Where joints in segmented construction make use of overlapping close tolerance slip joints
they shall be detailed such as to provide a minimum overlap of 1.3 times the largest
inscribed circle of the components being joined.
Designs shall nominate required dimensional tolerances of fitted sections together with
recommended jacking forces for lap joints to ensure full load transfer can be achieved
between sections being joined.

K10 ANCHOR BOLTS


Pole footing base plate holding-down bolts shall be proportioned to comply with Table K1.

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TABLE K1
DESIGN OF HOLDING-DOWN BOLTS
Straight anchor Anchor with bend Anchor with plate

D = 4 v = m i n ( l,d1) Io
Lb I1
t > 0,3 r

D
t D d1
l2
Fa,Rd = Lb fbd Fa,Rd = Lb fbd Fa,Rd = Lb fbd
with with
Lb = (l1 + 3.2D + 3.5l2 ) f cd r2 r
Lb = 2.45 2 0.25 1 + l0
fbd v
Fbd = bonding stress of steel into concrete
0.36 f ck 2.25 f c t k 0.05
with: f bd = for plain bars and f bd = for deformed bars
c c
with: fck = 0.7 fctm and fctm = 0.3fck2/3
where
fck = characteristic strength of concrete in compression
fctm = average strength of concrete in tension
fctk0.05 = characteristic strength of concrete in tension
c = partial safety factor on bonding 1.50
=
for example
with C20/25 concrete
fck = 20 N/mm2;
fctm = 2.2 N/mm2;
fctk0.05 = 1.55 N/mm2; and
fbd = 1.1 N/mm2 for plain bars; or
fbd = 2.3 N/mm2 for deformed bars
The anchoring length shall be such that
Fa,Rd = Lb fbd Ft,Sd
where
Ft,Sd = design tensile force per bolt for the ultimate limit state
The size of the bolt shall be such that
Ft,SD Ft,Rd = 0.9 fub As Mb
where
fub = ultimate tensile strength of holding-down bolt
As = tensile stress area of holding-down bolt
Mb = partial safety factor on resistance of holding-down bolt = 1.25
NOTE: According to Clause 6.6.5(6) of ENV 1993-1-1, when threads are cut by a non-specialist bolt
manufacturer, the relevant value of T r,Rd shall be reduced by multiplying it by a factor of 0.85.

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APPENDIX L
STRUCTURE FOOTING DESIGN AND GUIDELINES FOR THE
GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS
(Informative)

L1 GENERAL PRINCIPLES
This Standard addresses fundamental performance criteria and the design methods
associated with overhead line footings and their foundations, and are not to be considered
as a rigid set of rules. The principles of this design standard are equally aimed at the design
of new and existing foundations. If the foundations are upgraded to meet new loading
requirements, care must be taken to assure the structural adequacy of the foundation.
Many alternative approaches can be used for the design of footings and the interpretation of
the foundation conditions, and the designer should exercise sound engineering judgment in
determining which method is most appropriate for the situation.
When designing overhead line foundations, the designer has the option to design each
footing for site-specific loadings and subsurface conditions or to develop standard designs
that can be used at predetermined similar sites.
In addition, the relative distribution of the loads between the guys and the support (lattice
tower or pole) depends on the guy pretension and the potential creep of the foundation. The
flexibility of the guy, together with the flexibility of the structure is needed to compute the
ultimate footing reactions and anchor loads. The initial and final modulus of elasticity of
the guys, together with the creep of the guys, should be considered.
Reference should be made to IEEE Standard 691.

L2 GEOTECHNICAL PARAMETERS OF SOILS AND ROCKS


Geotechnical investigation should be carried out along the easement of transmission line to
obtain geotechnical parameters required to design the transmission structure footings. As a
minimum, the investigation should provide geotechnical parameters required to establish
the ultimate load-bearing capacity of the subsurface foundation material and the overlying
material properties. At the completion of a geotechnical site investigation a report should be
prepared.
Generally, to determine the foundation ultimate load carrying capacity the shear strength of
soil is required.
s = c + n tan . . .L1
where
s = shear strength
c = cohesion
n = normal stress
= angle of internal friction

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A cohesive soil can generally be expected to resist design loads for a short duration of time
without experiencing significant movements; however when the design loads are applied
over the service life of the structure, they may result in excessive displacements. The
foundation design for long duration loads should be based on the effective stresses and
drained properties of the soil. Soils that have cohesive properties in short term loading
usually exhibit no cohesion under long term loads, though the angle of internal friction will
increase to typically between 20 and 40.
Granular soils have similar properties under short and long term conditions and this
standard recommends that for granular soils the same properties are to be used under both
long and short term loads. Dense saturated granular materials typically show a reduction in
internal friction of 1 to 2 from the dense dry values
L2.1 Typical soil properties
Geotechnical parameters for soil strata may be taken from Tables L1, L2, and L4. The
values in Table L3 are based on research data and pull out tests on test piles, and their use
should be assessed against any known properties from soil tests where these are available.
The reduction in shear strength may occur when the soil is partially saturated (see below).
In addition, soft clay (or even firm clay) may become very soft clay when it is partially
saturated.

TABLE L1
TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF COHESIVE SOILS
Weight Shear strength, C u (kPa)
Term Field guide to consistency
(kN/m 3 ) Unsaturated Saturated
Very soft 1619 0 to 10 6 Exudes between fingers when squeezed
in hand
Soft 1720 10 to 25 6 to 12 Can be moulded by light finger pressure
Firm 17.521 25 to 50 12 to 25 Can be moulded by strong finger
pressure
Stiff 1822 50 to 100 25 to 50 Cannot be moulded by fingers. Can be
indented by thumb
Very stiff 2122 100 to 200 50 to 100 Can be indented by thumb nail
Hard 2023 200 100 Can be indented with difficulty by thumb
nail
NOTE: Saturated means that all voids are filled with water. The saturated weight is not necessarily buoyant
weight, though there is minimal increase in the degree of saturation required to produce a buoyant condition.
Soils may be partially saturated. At optimum moisture content this produces the maximum dry density.
Typically OMC range is 10% to 20%. Exceeding that figure will progressively reduce density.

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TABLE L2
TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF NON-COHESIVE SOILS
Soil type Unit weight Angle of friction,
(kN/m3) (degrees)
Loose gravel with sand content 1619 2830
Medium dense gravel with low sand content 1820 3036
Dense to very dense gravel with low sand content 1921 3645
Loose well graded sandy gravel 1820 2830
Medium dense clayey sandy gravel 1921 3035
Dense to very dense clayey sandy gravel 2122 3540
Loose, coarse to fine sand 1722 2830
Medium dense, coarse to fine sand 2021 3035
Dense to very dense, coarse to fine sand 2122 3540
Loose, fine and silty sand 1517 200220
Medium dense, fine and silty sand 1719 2530
Dense to very dense, fine and silty sand 1921 3540

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TABLE L3
TYPICAL PROPERTIES OF ROCK
Ultimate design values Dry
Type/classification density
Shear (kPa) Bearing (kPa) (kg/m 3 )

Hard

Igneous

Basalt 1200 6000 27

Granite

Granodiorites

Metamorphic

Greywacke

Hornfelds

Quartzite
1000 2500 24
Limestone

Schists

Sedimentary

Hard sandstone

Medium rock

Highly fractured hard rocks

Medium sandstones

Hard shale 750 1500 24

Conglomerates

Weathered Granite

Rhyolites

Soft rock

Soft sandstone

Mudstone 275 450 22

Medium shale

Phyllite

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It should be acknowledge that the engineering properties of rock cannot be predicted with
the accuracy typical in a soil investigation. The rock properties are related to rock defects
i.e. weathering, joints, faults, shear and bedding zones etc. In addition, during an
investigation (or construction works) when the core hole penetrates a fault zone additional
breaks in rock may occur. These breaks promoted/produced by these activities should be
included in the estimated rock quality.

L3 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR POLES


L3.1 Foundation types
Common types of pole footings are bored piers in soil, bored and socketed piers into rock,
large diameter bored or driven caissons (normally with permanent liners), buried slab or raft
footings, anchored footings (in soil or rock), and single pile or pile group foundations (in
soils unable to support loads in surface formations)
This section concentrates on the design requirements for lateral loads and moments only.
When there are special requirement for compression loading the footings should be checked
using established principles.
L3.2 Bored Piers
The Brinch Hansen method presented here is considered to be appropriate to the
dimensional range and characteristics of poles in transmission and distribution line
structures. Other design methods may be used.
This method is applicable to a wide variety of soil types and provides consistent results.
Typically, the correlation between predicted and observed test results has been:
(b) undrained conditions: HL = 1.01 Hcalc with COV = 0.36
(c) drained conditions: HL = 0.60 Hcalc with COV = 0.37
where
HL = nominal failure load
Hcalc = calculated value using recommended method
COV = coefficient of variation
It should be borne in mind that the accuracy of any solution will be limited by the accuracy
of the input data. The appropriate component strength factor (Table 6.5) should be applied
to HL.
The Brinch Hansen method does not provide an indication of the pole rotation at the HL
load. This should be calculated separately using methods recommended in AS 2159 or
another suitable source. (As a general indication, ground line rotational displacements of 1
2 may be expected at HL, though the centre of rotation is dependent on the foundation
geometry and soil parameters.) If the load displacement plot is assumed to be hyperbolic
and the initial slope and Hmax. value are known, then values along the curve may be
calculated. The initial slope is dependent on the modulus of elasticity for the soil and the
foundation geometry.

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L3.3 Analytical procedure for determination of failure load/moment


The mathematical model of the pole/soil system is shown in Figure L1.

M G ro u n d s u r fac e
H

Z
Rigid body Z1
rotati o n
Zr F2
Z2
Backfill
L P2
C e ntre
of rotati o n
F2

D S o i l p re s s u re d i s tr i b u ti o n

FIGURE L1 MODEL OF THE POLE/SOIL SYSTEM

The system is subjected to a ground line lateral load, H, and bending moment, M. The
effective diameter, D, can be taken as the average pole diameter below ground for soil
backfill situations and the auger diameters for situations where concrete or soil/cement
backfill is used.
The pole is assumed to rotate as a rigid body under the applied loads about a point of
rotation at an unknown depth, zr, below the surface. At the point of failure this rotation
produces a soil stress distribution as depicted in Figure B2 with the ultimate soil pressure,
p, varying with depth below the ground surface, z.
The ultimate lateral soil resistance at any depth, z, below the surface can be expressed as
Pz = qzKq + cuKc . . .L2
where
qz = vertical overburden pressure at depth z = z
= soil density (see Table L4)
cu = soil cohesion (see Table L1)
Kq, Kc = factors that are a function of z/D and the soil angle of friction, (see
Table L2)
Values of Kq are given in Table L5, and those of Kc are plotted in Table L6.

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TABLE L4
TYPICAL SOIL DENSITIES
Density (kN/m3 )
Soil type
Unsaturated Saturated
Cohesive soils 1618 911
Non-cohesive soils:
Gravel 1620 9.512.5
Coarse and medium sands 1721 9.512.5
Fine and silty sands 17.521.5 9.512.5
Rock/soil mixGranite and shales 17.521 9.512.5
Rock/soil mixBasalts and dolerites 17.522.5 1116
Rock/soil mixLimestones and sandstones 1319 6.512.5
NOTE: The saturated densities given above result from the presence of ground water and soil porosity
for the different soil types.

The limiting combination of H and M to cause failure may be obtained by considering the
equilibrium of horizontal forces and moments, and solving the resulting simultaneous
equations for the unknown depth of the centre of rotation, zr. In general form the equations
are
(a) Horizontal equilibrium
H = F1 F2 . . .L3
where
zr
F2 = 0
pz Ddz
. . .L4
L
F2 = zr
pz Ddz

(b) Moment equilibrium


M = F 2 z2 F 1 z1 . . .L5
where
z1 = distance to resultant load F1
z2 = distance to resultant load F2
It is usually more convenient to solve the resulting equations by trial and error. That is, for
a given horizontal load, H, and a trial embedment depth, L, the unknown depth of rotation,
zr, and moment, M, can be determined. The process is repeated by varying L until the
required M is obtained.
For non-cohesive soils, e.g. dry sand, the depth of rotation is typically 2/3 of the total
depth. For cohesive soils, e.g. clayey sands, the depth of rotation is typically slightly more
than half depth. As the eccentricity of load increases zr converges to either 2/3 or 1/2 of the
total depth.
Where a bed log is used the calculated soil forces F1 and F2 may be based on the Brinch
Hansen method. The forces should be based on soil pressure pz and the areas of the bed log
and the pole foundation.

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TABLE L5
EARTH PRESSURE COEFFICIENT FOR OVERBURDEN PRESSURE, Kq
Angle of friction
z/D 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
1.0 0 0.50 1.10 1.85 2.81 4.12 5.99 8.85 13.50 21.81
1.5 0 0.52 1.16 1.97 3.02 4.46 6.53 9.67 14.75 23.72
2.0 0 0.53 1.21 2.07 3.21 4.76 7.02 10.44 15.96 25.59
2.5 0 0.55 1.26 2.16 3.37 5.04 7.46 11.17 17.12 27.43
3.0 0 0.56 1.30 2.24 3.51 5.28 7.88 11.86 18.24 29.23
3.5 0 0.57 1.33 2.32 3.64 5.50 8.26 12.50 19.32 31.00
4.0 0 0.58 1.36 2.38 3.75 5.70 8.61 13.12 20.37 32.74
4.5 0 0.59 1.39 2.44 3.86 5.88 8.93 13.70 21.38 34.45
5.0 0 0.60 1.42 2.49 3.95 6.05 9.24 14.25 22.36 36.13
6.0 0 0.62 1.46 2.58 4.11 6.35 9.79 15.27 24.23 39.39
7.0 0 0.63 1.50 2.65 4.25 6.60 10.27 16.20 25.98 42.55
8.0 0 0.64 1.53 2.71 4.37 6.82 10.69 17.05 27.63 45.59
9.0 0 0.65 1.56 2.77 4.47 7.02 11.07 17.82 29.18 48.54
10.0 0 0.66 1.58 2.82 4.56 7.19 11.41 18.53 30.64 51.39
12.0 0 0.68 1.62 2.89 4.71 7.47 12.00 19.79 33.34 56.81
14.0 0 0.69 1.65 2.96 4.82 7.70 12.49 20.88 35.77 61.90
16.0 0 0.70 1.68 3.01 4.92 7.89 12.90 21.82 37.96 66.69
18.0 0 0.71 1.70 3.05 5.00 8.05 13.25 22.65 39.95 71.20
20.0 0 0.72 1.72 3.08 5.07 8.19 13.55 23.38 41.77 75.46

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TABLE L6
EARTH PRESSURE COEFFICIENT FOR COHESION, KC
Angle of friction

z/D ~0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
1.0 4.8 5.7 6.8 8.2 10.2 12.9 16.9 22.8 31.9 47.2
1.5 5.3 6.4 7.7 9.5 11.9 15.4 20.6 28.4 40.8 61.3
2.0 5.7 6.9 8.4 10.5 13.3 17.4 23.7 33.5 49.1 75.0
2.5 6.0 7.3 9.0 11.2 14.4 19.1 26.4 38.0 56.8 88.1
3.0 6.2 7.6 9.4 11.8 15.3 20.5 28.7 42.0 63.9 100.7
3.5 6.4 7.9 9.8 12.4 16.1 21.7 30.8 45.7 70.6 112.8
4.0 6.6 8.1 10.1 12.8 16.7 22.7 32.6 49.0 76.9 124.5
4.5 6.7 8.3 10.3 13.1 17.3 23.6 34.2 52.1 82.8 135.8
5.0 6.8 8.4 10.5 13.4 17.7 24.4 35.6 54.8 88.4 146.7
6.0 7.0 8.7 10.9 13.9 18.5 25.8 38.0 59.8 98.6 167.4
7.0 7.1 8.8 11.1 14.3 19.1 26.8 40.1 64.0 107.7 186.7
8.0 7.2 9.0 11.3 14.7 19.7 27.7 41.8 67.6 115.9 204.8
9.0 7.3 9.1 11.5 14.9 20.1 28.5 43.2 70.8 123.3 221.8
10.0 7.4 9.2 11.7 15.1 20.4 29.1 44.5 73.6 130.1 237.8
12.0 7.5 9.4 11.9 15.5 21.0 30.1 46.5 78.3 141.9 267.1
14.0 7.6 9.5 12.0 15.7 21.4 30.9 48.1 82.1 151.9 293.3
16.0 7.6 9.6 12.2 15.9 21.7 31.5 49.4 85.3 160.4 316.8
18.0 7.7 9.6 12.3 16.1 22.0 32.0 50.5 87.9 167.8 338.0
20.0 7.7 9.7 12.4 16.2 22.2 32.4 51.3 90.2 174.3 357.3

The over burden pressure and earth pressure coefficients, K qz , K cz at depth z as given in the
table above can be calculated from the formulae below.
NOTE: For more information on these formulas refer to the original Brinch Hansen paper (see
reference at the end of this Appendix).
K0 = 1sin . . .L6
d c = 1.58 + 4.09tan 4 . . .L7

tan 1 1
Nc = e tan 2 + 1 cot . . .L8
4 2
1 1
+ tan 1 1 tan 1 1
K q0 = e 2
cos tan + e 2 cos tan . . .L9
4 2 4 2

K q = N c d c K o tan . . .L10

K q0 K o sin
q =
(K K ) 1 0
1 . . .L11
q
sin +
q

4 2
z
K q0 + K q q
K z
= D
q . . .L12
z
1+ q
D

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1
+ tan 1 1
K 0
c = e 2
cos tan + 1 cot . . .L13
4 2
K c = N c d c . . .L14

K c0 1 1
c =
2 sin + . . .L15
( Kc Kc )
0
4 2
z
K c0 + K c c
K z
= D
c . . .L16
z
1+ c
D
where
z depth (metres)
D pile diameter (metres)
soil friction angle (degrees)
L3.3.1.1 Shear design for bored piers
While several theories are available to assist in the analysis of forces developed in bored
piers, the following approach is recommended. Soil pressures are assumed to be developed
as indicated in Figure L2.

 




  


FIGURE L2 THEORETICAL SOIL PRESSURE DIAGRAM

The maximum shear value to be used in design calculations is as indicated in Figure L3.

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Shear design values

FIGURE L3 EQUIVALENT PILE SHEAR DIAGRAM

L3.3.1.2 Design of shear reinforcement


Basic requirements for calculation shall be based on provisions of AS 3600, and as set out
below:

A bd

d do

2a

FIGURE L4 CALCULATION OF SHEAR REINFORCEMENT

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V* = V u = (Vuc + Vus) . . .L17

Concrete and longitudinal reinforcement contribution


1
Ast f c 3 . . .L18
Vuc = 123Abd
Abd
where
1as per AS 3600
2 as per AS 3600
3 = 1.0
Ast = half of the longitudinal reinforcement area
Abd = concrete area equivalent to AS3600 bvdo to be calculated as follows:
2
d2 d
Abd = ( ) + c tan( ) . . .L189
4 2
d 2c
= arccos
d
do = dc
bv = Abd/do
Remaining symbols are as per AS 3600
Shear reinforcement contribution
Asv f sv.f d o
Vus = cot . . .L20
4 s
The minimum shear reinforcement shall be provided as per AS 3600 and the shear strength
of a column with minimum reinforcement is given by the following:

Vu.min = Vuc + 0.6Abd . . .L21
4

L4 FOUNDATION DESIGN FOR LATTICE STEEL TOWERS


L4.1 Foundation types
Lattice tower footings typically are designed for vertical forces (uplift or compression)
combined with horizontal shear forces. The affect of footing movements due to differential
settlement and variation in material types at the same site, should be included in the design.
There are many footing types used for transmission lines. This Standard recommends
design principles for the common types only i.e.
(a) bored straight-sided (and undercut (belled)) piers in clays and sands;
(b) bored piers socketed in soft to medium strength rock;
(c) guy anchors; and
(d) excavated footings.

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Common types of tower footings are bored piers in soil, bored and socketed piers into rock,
large diameter bored or driven caissons (normally with permanent liners), buried slab or raft
footings, grillage footings (constructed on older lines or where access for plant is difficult),
anchored footings (in soil or rock), and single pile or pile group foundations (in soils unable
to support loads in surface formations)
Refer to Figure L5 for typical details.

3 0 0 N o r m a l va r i a b l e 3 0 0 N o r m a l va r i a b l e 3 0 0 N o r m a l va r i a b l e
u p to 150 0 u p to 150 0 u p to 150 0

G ro u n d l eve l G ro u n d l eve l G ro u n d l eve l

Column
Va r i a b l e re i nfo rc i n g
Column Shear Column
d e pth to tra nsfe r
re i nfo rc i n g c o n n e c to r s re i nfo rc i n g
to ro c k l o ad
Ro c k l eve l S h o r t s tu b

Ro c k 4 50 -10 0 0 D e pth
S o c ket 20 0 0 - 6 0 0 0

4 50 -10 0 0 A LT ER N AT I V E C O LU M N 4 50 -10 0 0
A R R A NG EM EN T
Le g stu b Le g stu b
a n c h o rag e a n c h o rag e

C o n s tr u c ti o n
ex te ns i o n
BO R ED SO C K E T ED PIER BO R ED
U N D ER R E A M ED PIER 20 0 -20 0 0

3 0 0 N o r m a l va r i a b l e 3 0 0 N o r m a l va r i a b l e
u p to 150 0 u p to 150 0

G ro u n d l eve l G ro u n d l eve l

C o m pac te d O ve r th e
C o m p a c te d backfill m ate r i a l s
backfill 20 0 0 - 6 0 0 0 C o m pac te d 20 0 0
backfill m a x. t y p.

4 50 -10 0 0 Ro c k l eve l
Column
re i nfo rc i n g
Le g stu b 10 0 0 t y p.
a n c h o rag e Le g stu b
a n c h o rag e
C e m e nt o r
chemical
g ro u te d
20 0 0 - 40 0 0 te n d o ns
Base slab
50 0 - 150 0

BU R IED S L A B T Y PE RO C K A NC H O R T Y PE

T Y PICA L C L E AT A NC H O R AG E

FIGURE L5 TYPICAL TOWER FOOTING ARRANGEMENTS

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L4.2 Footing design


L4.2.1 Bored piers
Bored piers are formed by auguring a hole into soil (or soft rock), installing a full length
stub angle or shorter stub angle and a reinforcing cage, and then filling with concrete.
Transfer of force from the stub angle to the surrounding concrete is usually by cleats,
though stud bolts are occasionally used.
The base of the bored pier may be enlarged to form a bell using an under-reaming tool.
Belling a pier in such soil conditions provides enhanced uplift capacity but only for
shallow piers. Belled piers are not suitable for soils which may collapse due to water
inflow, or other causes, during construction.
Soil conditions with strong water inflows or weak soil strata may necessitate a permanent
liner/steel casing for at least part of the depth of the pier being installed. Installation of
permanent liner will reduce the piers side resistance which should be accounted for in the
analysis.
L4.2.2 Uplift analysis
The general ultimate pier uplift capacity is given as
QU = GP + GS + QS +QB . . .L22
where
QU = uplift capacity of foundation
GP = pier weight (dead load)
GS = soil weight (dead load)
QS = side resistance of pier or along cylinder of soil
QB = contribution of bearing on top of bell (where applicable)
Tip suction should not be used in the design of footings.
The failure mechanism depends significantly on the ratio of soil strength to soil stiffness.
Since reliable data on soil stiffness is seldom available, it is recommended that three
simplified failure models be used. The ultimate capacity should be taken for the model
giving the lowest value of QU.
The interaction between soil and the footing is complex. The relative stiffness, strength and
stress state of the soil, all of which vary with depth and are rarely known (outside the
laboratory) with the precision associated with engineered material has lead to the
development of simplified foundation failure models. It is recommended that three
simplified failure models be examined in the design of piers. The ultimate capacity should
be taken for the model giving the lowest value of QU. The pier capacity in uplift is
invariably less than that in compression because movement of the pier will create tension in
the soil mass and will tend to reduce of the lateral stress state in the soil.
L4.2.2.1 Pier pull-out by shear failure model
A pull-out capacity is calculated by assuming failure of shaft friction along the depth of
shaft plus the bearing on shoulder of the under-cut if present.
The shaft adhesion is a fraction of the soil cohesion. For low cohesion values the adhesion
is nearly equal to the cohesion. As the soil strength increases the fraction of cohesion that
can be relied upon for adhesion reduces.

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8.74 mm
Ground Level Qu

L0

DS
GP
L1
QS QS L

QB QB

DU

FIGURE L6 SHEAR FAILURE MODEL

QU = GP + QS +QB . . .L23
where
QU = uplift capacity of pier
GP = pier weight (dead load)
QS = side resistance of pier
QB = bearing on top of bell (where applicable)

QP = V C C . . .L24
where
VC = volume of concrete
C = concrete density
= capacity reduction factor typically 0.9 for concrete foundation (weights
and conductor vertical loads are known)

pDs L2
Qs = gfsDS(L1L0) + sKtan . . .L25
2
where
fs = shaft adhesion factor (refer to Figure L7)
L1 = length shaft
Ds = shaft diameter
L0 = ignore first 0.5 m or 0.5*DS whichever is greater
s = effective unit weight of soil
K = coefficient of horizontal soil stress
= friction angle between shaft material and surrounding soil
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5

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1.2

0.8
Reduction Factor,

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220
Undrained Shear Strength cu (kPa)

FIGURE L7 SHAFT ADHESION FACTOR

For undrained condition


g ( Du2 Ds2 )
QB = . . .L26
(4(7cB + po ))
For drained condition
( Du2 Ds2
QB = g v Nc . . .L27
4
where
CB = bell shear
DU = undercut (bell) diameter
Nc, Nq = bearing capacity factors
v = effective vertical stress = (L L1) .5 for uniform soil profile
= soil weight
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5
Nq = etan tan2 (45 + /2)
Nc = (Nq 1)cot
N = 2(Nq 1)tan
L4.2.2.2 Pier pull-out by cylinder failure model
This model of failure is based on failure of cohesion on the surface of an equivalent
cylinder which diameter equals to the effective diameter of the undercut DE. The effective
diameter of the undercut DE = Ds + (Du Ds)/ should be based on ultimate soil properties
and should be not less than shaft diameter

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The method uses soil cohesion i.e. soil-to-soil friction that is equal to cu in clays and s in
sands.
QU = GP + QC+QB . . .L28
where
QU = uplift capacity of pier
GP = pier weight (dead load)
QC = side resistance of cylinder of effective pier diameter

QC = g fcDE(L L0) . . .L29


where
fc = soil cohesion i.e. soil-to-soil friction that is equal to cu in clays and s in
sands
Ds + ( Du Ds )
DE = effective pier diameter =

= bell diameter reduction coefficient varies from 1.5 to 3
L0 = L minus (0.5 m or 0.5*DS) whichever is greater
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5

QP = g VCC . . .L30
where
VC = volume of concrete
C = concrete density
= capacity reduction factor typically 0.9 for concrete foundation as weight
and conductor vertical loads are known)

Gs = g Vss . . .L31
where
Gs = soil weight (dead load)
Vs = volume of soil
Cs = effective unit weight of soil
= capacity reduction factor typically 0.8

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FIGURE L8 CYLINDRICAL FAILURE MODEL

L4.2.2.3 The earth cone pull-out model


The earth cone pull-out assumes that the uplift resistance is given only by the weight of soil
and foundation within the cone. Theoretically, when the cone angle is zero, this method is a
lower limit to the uplift capacity because it disregards the soil stresses and strength.
Different soils characteristics require different cone angles, and there is no rational basis to
establish these angles in a general manner. In addition, reference should be made to
IEEE 691 for Kulhawys work regarding modification for cone breakout.
This method generally does not govern for deeper footings and tend to underestimate the
uplift capacity for shallow footings (depth 10 times shaft diameter) with soil of medium to
dense consistency and stress states corresponding to normally consolidated or lightly
overconsolidated. For deeper piers, the computed uplift resistance increases rapidly with
depth while the results of model and field tests show only 1/4 to 1/7 the increase expected
from computed values. This difference between observed and computed values suggests
that the method does not accurately model the influence of embedment depth on uplift
capacity.
For that portion of the failure cone or pyramid below the groundwater table, the submerged
weight of the footing and soil should be used to determine the uplift capacity.





 




FIGURE L9 CONE FAILURE MODEL

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QU = GP + GS . . .L31
where
QU = uplift capacity of pier
GP = pier weight (dead load)
GS = weight of soil

QP = VCC . . .L32
where
VC = volume of concrete
C = concrete density
= capacity reduction factor typically 0.8

GS = gVS . . .L33
where
VS = volume of soil
= soil density
S = varies between 10 to 30
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5
L4.2.3 Compression analysis
The failure model for compression loading involves a bearing failure in the soil below the
toe of the pier and a shear failure between the pier shaft and soil or within the soil close to
the soil/pier interface, allowing the pier to move downwards in relation to the surrounding
soil.
Piers loaded in compression do not reach a clearly defined ultimate capacity. Rather, load
tests demonstrate that pile capacity continues to increase indefinitely as pier settlement
increases. The side resistance of stiff piers (the usual case for transmission structure
foundations) has been shown to be fully developed at displacements of less than 20 mm,
whereas the development of bearing resistance under the toe of the pier is scale dependent.
For this design standard, ultimate capacity for compression loading of piers is defined as
the compression load reached at a settlement of 5% of the pier diameter (or bell diameter
for the case of belled piers), by which stage the side resistance is usually fully mobilized
together with a significant proportion of the end bearing resistance.

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FIGURE L10 COMPRESSION ANALYSIS MODEL

QC = GP + QS +QB . . .L34
where
QC = compression capacity of pier
GP = pier weight (dead load)
QS = side resistance of pier
QB = bearing under pier tip (bell where applicable)

GP = gVCC . . .L35
where
VC = volume of concrete
C = concrete density
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor typically 1.2

Qs = g fcD s(L1 L0) . . .L36


where
fs = shaft adhesion
L1 = length of shaft = L for straight-sided pier
Ds = shaft diameter
L0 = ignore first 0.5 m or 0.5*DS whichever is greater
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5

Du 2
. . .L37
(4(9CB + p0 ))
where
CB = bell shear

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DU = undercut (bell) diameter = DS for straight-sided pier


p0 = overburden pressure = L for uniform soil profile
= soil weight
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5
L4.2.4 Bored piers socketed into rock
In fractured rock the failure mechanism is complex and is dependent on strength of the
rock, bedding and fracture planes, and the depth to rock.
Rock can be treated as hard clay or as rock with substantially more stiffness/rigidity.
If rock is assumed to be sound i.e. no fractures bedding planes etc, then uplift capacity
should be based only on rock concrete shear strength. Soil friction adhesion is largely
irrelevant as the footing must move (i.e. fail in rock) before adhesion-friction is realised
(conservative assumptions).
If there is concern about fractures in rock, may assume a 45 fracture surface with weight
only. If heavily jointed or shattered rock a failure cone of 30 should be assumed. The
failure mode in rock is (nearly) the same as for pier in soil.
Two uplift cases (pier and cone pull-outs) shall be considered for piers socketed into rock,
the critical case shall be that giving the lowest capacity.
L4.2.4.1 Mobilization of rock mass






 




 



FIGURE L11 ROCK MOBILIZATION MODEL

The general ultimate pier pull-out capacity is similar to the straight-sided bored pier and is
given as
QU = 0.8GP + 0.8GS + 0.8GR + g QS + g QR . . .L38
where
QU = uplift capacity of foundation
GP = concrete density (dead load)
GS = soil density (dead load)
GR = rock density (dead load)
QS = side resistance of pier in soil

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QR = side resistance of pier in rock


R = cone angle in rock
= 35 for rock masses that are closely jointed and/or weathered
45 for other rock masses
S = cone angle in soil varies between 10 to 30
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5
L4.2.4.2 Pier pull-out by shear failure model
Refer to Paragraph L4.2.4.1.
L4.2.5 Guyed anchors
L4.2.5.1 Cast in-situ anchor blocks
Anchors for guys can be installed by boring or excavating a vertical shaft into which feeds
an inclined hole containing the below ground anchor tendon. The base section of the shaft is
then partially filled with concrete to form an anchor block.
The analysis of buried concrete guy anchors foundation subjected to uplift is complex and
consequently the following simplified approach may be adopted to enable the guy
foundation to be checked for uplift and sliding resistance.

QU
A Ground level

QS
GS QS DG
S1

GA
S2 S2 P DA
PP A
S3

B
* L

FIGURE L12 CAST IN-SITU ANCHOR BLOCK

The capacity reduction factor should be 0.5 and not less than the factor applicable to the
stay tension.
Anchor concrete blocks are frequently installed without any reliable knowledge of
geotechnical soil properties. The appropriate soil properties should be adopted based on the
weakest material in contact with the anchor block. In some cases this may be backfill
material.
Uplift resistance is
QV = 0.8GS + 0.8GA + gQS + gS2 . . .L39
where
QU = ultimate anchor tension force
K0 = coefficient of earth pressure at rest

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QV = vertical component of QU
= QU*sinA
GA = concrete density (dead load)
GS = soil density (dead load)
= angle of shearing resistance
DG = soil depth above anchor
B = anchor width
L = anchor length
DA = anchor depth
QS = side resistance along soil above anchor
= K0D2G (B + L)tan
S2 = shearing resistance on perimeter of anchor
= 2K0DA (DG + 0.5DA)(B + L)tan
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5

Sliding resistance is
QH = g (PP + PA + S1 + 2S3) . . .L40
where
QU = ultimate anchor tension force
QH = horizontal component of QU
= QUcos A
PA = active back pressure on back of anchor
= KP(DG +0.5DA)BL
PP = passive earth pressure on front of anchor
= KA(D G+0.5DA)BL
S1 = shearing resistance at top of anchor
= DGBLtan
S3 = shearing resistance on sides of anchor
= 2KDA(D G+0.5DA)BLtan
g = geotechnical capacity reduction factor varies from 0.8 to 0.5
L4.2.5.2 Bored pier anchors
Bored pier anchors or micropiles comprise a single small diameter inclined concrete filled
bored pier into which the anchor tendon has been inserted prior to pouring the concrete. The
load applied to the anchorage is transferred to the base of the footing by a centrally located
tension tendon.
The anchorage is only designed to withstand the applied guy tensile load.
The principles used in the design are similar to that for normal bored piers.

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L4.2.5.3 Rock anchors


Where firm drillable rock is encountered within 1000 mm of the ground surface small
diameter grouted rock anchors can provide an economical solution .
The diameter of the drilled holes for the rock anchors is dependent on the grout used.
If quick setting epoxy resin grout is used the hole diameter should be no larger than the
anchor rod diameter + 20 mm.
If cement grout is used, the hole diameter should be larger enough to enable the grout
column to be injected and compacted.
Adequate corrosion protection should be applied to the zone above the rock to 300 mm
above ground. Concrete encasement can provide a suitable means of corrosion protection.
Uplift capacity of the anchorage should be determined in accordance with AS 3600 and
AS 4100 using rocks ultimate bond stress and the capacity reduction factor determined by
the geotechnical investigation.
L4.2.5.4 Proprietary ground anchor systems
The analysis of proprietary ground anchors i.e. screw-in anchors and other forms of soil
anchor systems should comply with the manufactures recommendations and have the
capacity reduction factor of 0.5 applied.
Anchors should be designed and installed to eliminate in-service creep, (other than a small
amount of initial bedding in), so that guys loads are sustained without the need for
subsequent re-tensioning of the guy wire.
Where possible the installed anchors should be proof-tested to their designed load capacity.
L4.2.6 Spread footings
Spread footings consist of concrete shaft and an enlarged base of either of mass concrete or
a pad (slab) of reinforced concrete. Where the stub extends to base of the footing the shaft
may not be reinforced, particularly in the case of the thick mass concrete types.
Spread footings are formed by excavating square, rectangular or cylindrical holes in soil or
rock using machines or hand-operated tools. The base of spread footings may be straight
sided, which requires formwork, or cast against ground. When cast against ground an
undercut or bell may be formed depending on soil conditions and the construction methods
adopted.
Excavated footings are backfilled with the excavated soil, excavated soils improved by
cement or lime stabilisation, or imported backfill materials when the natural ground is
cannot be compacted to achieve the required uniform strength and/or density.
Grillage footings are also a type of spread footings which had common use in the past.
Their use is now restricted to sites where access is difficult. Typically grillage footings
consists of steel members forming the pyramid which are fixed to the tower stub. Backfill
requirements are essentially the same as concrete footings.
The design methodology is for these types of footings is similar to bored piers, with
appropriate modification for their geometry and the failure occurring in disturbed backfill
material, except for undercut footings where the failure may be in natural in situ materials.
The three types of failure mechanism considered in the design of spread footings are
(a) Shear failureThe backfill moves upward in relation to the natural soil, leaving a
vertically sided shear surface with plan dimensions equal to the base of the
foundation. Where an undercut is formed the shear surface will be in natural material,
which usually has superior strength properties to the backfill, provided that the
excavation and backfilling has not significantly affected the in situ materials.

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The uplift capacity Qu is


Qu = (W + Qsu + Qtu ) . . .L40
where
W = is foundation weight (Wf) and soil weight (Ws) within foundation
volume
Qsu = side resistance = 2(B + L) K tan
Qtu = tip resistance typically assumed to be zero
If the K tan over the foundation depth is greater than 1 and D/B is less than 6 a
cone/wedge breakout is possible. The Qsu term is modified as follows:
2+
Qsu modified = Qsu original
3
in which
is K tan
(b) Bearing failureThe backfill experiences a bearing failure just above the top of the
grillage or pad, and undercut, if formed. The material above the footing compresses
and flows around the bearing surface to the surround soil. The deformation required
to develop the ultimate bearing capacity is usually well in excess of acceptable
movement to ensure the towers structural integrity. It is a more likely mode of
failure in deep footings (depth: width ratios in the order of 4 or more) where the limit
on bearing capacity has reached or where the backfill compaction is inadequate.
Where an undercut is formed in natural ground, the incremental bearing capacity
should be based on the plan area of the undercut. The bearing capacity of the undercut
may be treated in a similar manner to the design of belled pier and should incorporate
the capacity reduction factor determined by the geotechnical investigation.
Grillage foundation foundations are more susceptible to bearing failure because the
high bearing stresses generated by relatively small surface area of the steel in contact
with the soil.
(c) Cone failureThe grillage or pad uplifts a wedge of soil in the form of a truncated,
inverted pyramid; uplift loads are resisted by the weight of the soil and grillage or
pad, with soil shear along the failure surface taken as zero. Cone failures are possible
because the spread footings are usually shallow and the horizontal soil stresses (such
as might be found in overconsolidated soils) are relatively high.
The design process should check all three proposed models. The strength of foundation is
highly dependent on the method of backfilling which should be factored into any
calculations. The critical case will be that with the lowest ultimate strength and acceptable
deformations.
L4.2.7 Rock or soil anchored footings
This type of footing is based on the applied load being transferred to the soil or foundation
material by a number of soil or rock anchors extending below a load transfer cap. The
normal design principle is for the transfer cap to transmit compression forces to the
foundation material and for the anchors to provide uplift capacity.
The progressive de-bonding of the anchor system employed with increasing load due to
elastic extension of the tension tendon should be considered.
Post-tensioned ground anchor systems can also be used to transfer tensile loads to the
ground and provide anchor tendons (bars or pre-stressing strands), connections to the pier
cap, corrosion protection, spacers, centralisers and grout.

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Ground anchors are active anchors i.e. they are post-tensioned after installation, and locked
off with an initial load so as to keep anchor extensions at the design load compatible with
pile cap displacements. Footings are restrained against uplift by post-tensioned ground
anchors, grouted into soil or rock, and connected to tower stubs by a pier cap.
Anchor tendons should not be designed to resist lateral (shear) loads that are not parallel to
the bar lengths. In these cases, pile caps or suitable bearing blocks should be used to
provide resistance to lateral loads.
L4.2.8 Deep piled footings
Where weaker foundation strata are encountered deep piled systems can be used. These may
take a variety of forms and could be based on cast in-situ systems, precast driven systems,
and steel and precast concrete pile systems.
Such systems should be designed to comply with the requirements of AS 2159.
L4.2.9 Raft footings
Where construction is required in difficult soft soil areas or where limited construction
access is available for heavy plant to install deep foundation systems, the use of shouldow
depth raft slab footings above or partially below ground may provide a design solution. The
concrete slab is normally designed to encompass the complete structure site and has
strengthening ribs extending above to also provide containment of soil or rock ballast to
resit vertical uplift loads.
The stability of the footing and structure is provided by the composite action of the mass of
the completed raft.
L4.2.10 Load transfer from tower leg to footings
Connections between tower leg stubs and concrete footings may be means of a base plate
and anchor bolt extending into the concrete of the footing , or by extending the stub into the
shaft and providing suitable means to transfer the stub forces to the concrete.
L4.2.10.1 Design of base plates
Base plate design should be generally based on ASCE 10-97 recommendations, except
when modified by AS 4100 (e.g. shear stress on bolts) and AS 3600 requirements for bolt
anchor length. Note friction of base plate is net friction dependent on degree of prestress in
anchor bolts. Concrete column shafts should be proportioned to resist axial, moment and
shears forces form tower and any localised effects from anchor bolts e.g. bursting.
Bending of base plates should be checked using yield line methods of analysis. Provided
that all possible yield lines patterns have been investigated, the lowest computed value for
the ultimate moment (assuming plastic section properties) is the ultimate capacity.
If bolt distribution or gusset plate geometry is non-symmetrical, a more conservative
capacity reduction factor should be used.
L4.2.10.2 Design of stubs
The transfer of force from the stub to the surrounding concrete is by a combination of steel-
concrete bond and by shear connectors on the stub which transfer force, in a bearing mode
to the concrete. In stubs which do not extend to the base of the footings, reinforcement in
the shaft transfers the stub forces to the base of the footing.
Bond between the stub and the surrounding concrete is adversely affected by the shape and
finish on galvanised steel stubs. It is recommended that only friction bond be considered
in the transfer of force above the studs or cleats. When the stub is tension assumed friction
bond should limited to 0.35 MPa if the stress in the stub is less than 300 MPa, or ignored in
the design calculations if the stress is greater than 300MPa. Assumed friction bond in
compression should not exceed 0.7 MPa.

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Most of the stub axial force is resisted by shear connections. The normal method is to
provide bolted or welded cleats or studs attached to the lower end of the leg stub in
sufficient number and spacing to transfer the force below the zone of bond development to
the surrounding concrete, and shaft reinforcement if applicable.
The design of the shear connectors is based on the bearing capacity of the concrete and load
capacity of the connectors as determined by their stiff bearing area and bending capacity of
the connector at its yields stress. It cannot be assumed that where multiple levels of
connectors are required that the loads will be shared equally between connectors. Strain
compatibility between the various elements (stub, connectors, concrete and reinforcement)
imperfect concrete construction methods and the tolerances in bolted cleat connector may
result in some connectors resisting a higher portion of the load. It is recommended that
connectors that are placed in several levels along the stub be designed to resist axial loads
not less than 25% greater than the stub design forces.
Minimizing the distance between cleat levels will result in a more equal distribution of load
between cleats. However, the spacing should be sufficient to not restrict the flow of
concrete around the stub and cleats and to ensure that a punching type shear failure in the
concrete between the cleats will not occur. A vertical spacing between the horizontal legs of
the cleats of twice the stub leg size will generally satisfy this requirement. Cropping of the
ineffective part of the horizontal cleat leg will assist the flow of concrete when space may
be limited, such as in reinforced concrete shafts.
Where the load transfer cleats are positioned at the base of the footing, the footing design
should also be checked for punching shear under both maximum compression and uplift
loads.
When the stub end is within the shaft, longitudinal reinforcement is required to transmit the
axial force to the concrete base. The forces transfer is usually assumed to be in a 45 cone
between the shear connectors and reinforcement. The length of the reinforcement above the
cone intersection should be sufficient for the development of full bond strength in the
reinforcement.
L4.3 Foundation testing
Foundation testing may be used as a means of determining the load capacity of the footing
or its components and its foundation materials to meet design requirements.
The method of testing should be appropriate to the types of footing, ground conditions,
loads and conditions the foundation will be subjected to while in service.
Tests should be generally in accordance to AS 2159.
L4.4 Cathodic protection
Consideration should be given in the design process to the inclusion of an appropriate
cathodic protection system where aggressive soil conditions may exist that could adversely
affect the design life of the footing. Such systems can be of the sacrificial anode or
impressed current types.
Reference
Bulletin No. 12 issued by the Geoteknisk Institut (The Danish Geotechnical Institute
Copenhagen 1961) Topics: BRINCH HANSEN, J., The ultimate resistance of rigid piles
against transversal forces, CHRISTENSEN, N.H., Model tests with transversally loaded
rigid piles in sand.

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APPENDIX M
GUIDELINES ON APPLICATION OF STANDARDIZED WORK METHODS
FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS
(Informative)

M1 GENERAL OVERVIEW
There have been significant changes in legislation and work practices in the building and
construction industries to make work sites safer and this has necessitated changes in work
practices.
The following sets out a standardized approach for construction and maintenance work
practices on overhead lines, in an effort to further reduce unnecessary hazards for personnel
moving between overhead line networks, and to provide uniform work practices around
Australia and New Zealand.

M2 REFERENCE STANDARDS FOR CLIMBING AND WORKING AT HEIGHTS


AS/NZS
1891 Industrial fall arrest systems and devices
1891.1 Part 1: Harnesses and anceillary equipment
1891.2 Part 2: Horizontal life line and rail systems
1891.3 Part 3: Fall arrest devices
1891.4 Part 4: Selection, use and maintenance
NENS 05 National fall protection guidelines for the electricity industry
EEA/NZ Use of Personal Fall Arrest Systems

M3 METHODS FOR ACCESSING WORK POSITIONS


M3.1 Use of elevating work platforms (EWP)
All line construction and maintenance work on both pole and steel tower overhead line
construction should be assessed on the basis of use of using EWPs as the first option to gain
access and work at heights.
If due to access constraints or the need to access poles and towers by climbing then attached
climbing is permissible provided that appropriate fall arrest systems are used.
This is coupled with an increasing need for all overhead line feeders to have greater
operational availability and increased use of live line maintenance techniques, work
methods should consider the use of EWPs to the maximum extent.
The use of man boxes attached to cranes may provide an alternative to use of EWPs .
M3.2 Climbing techniques
M3.2.1 Pole structures
Where access for the safe use of an EWP is not available, climbing access may be used only
if safe climbing work methods on the structure are possible.
Where structures are placed in difficult terrain and access for EWPs is not possible, the
structure should be designed for climbing access, and for safe work from the structure.
This will require the provision of fittings and devices to assist with the safe access and
positioning of workers on the structure.

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M3.2.2 Lattice steel tower structures


All lattice steel structures should be fitted with facilities to allow climbing access to any
work position to permit both de-energized and energized maintenance work.
Some live line maintenance techniques on high voltage lines require the placement of
workers on the structure as well as in the bucket of an EWP. This may require the transfer
of personnel from an EWP to a structure superstructure in order to provide the safest means
of access.

M4 FALL PREVENTION SYSTEMS


Where any climbing or working at height is likely to be required the structure is to be
designed to provide for linepersons to use a portable fall prevention system in accordance
with AS/NZS 1891.
For overhead line construction and maintenance activities this requires the provision of the
following to minimize risk of potential injury with attachment at all times to provide either
restrained fall or limited free fall restraint.
M4.1 M4.1 Restrianed fall fall arrest
M4.1.1 Provision and use of a line workers body belt or work positioning harness
This is a fullbody harness that also has inbuilt shock absorption characteristics.

A combination of anchorage placement and fixed length restraint line or pole strap length
which will permit only a restrained fall. This requires 6 kN ultimate strength anchorage for
restraint devices. Any structural element should be capable of supporting this load as a
single point load application, in a deformed state but without failure.

M4.2 Limited free fall fall arrest


M4.2.1 Provision and use of a Line workers body belt or work positioning harness.
This is a full body harness that also has inbuilt shock absorption characteristics.

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A combination of anchorage placement and fixed restraint line or length of pole strap which
will permit only a limited free fall to <600 mm
This requires the anchorage point to have a 12 kN ultimate strength anchorage.

M4.3 Use of static lines


Where multiple workers are required to ascend or descend a structure or to be able to move
from position to position on a horizontal plane, the use of a static line may be used as a
means of restraint.
Where static lines are to be used a maximum of two people may be attached to the line at
any one time and a top anchorage capacity of 21 kN is required.
This can be achieved by attachment of a fibre sling around a climbing leg-bracing node
point or other structural member node points.

M4.4 Double lanyard restraint


In order to provide for M4.2 and M4.3 above a double lanyard or double pole strap restrain
arrangement should be used to provide for the worker to be attached at all times while
climbing or while in a work position or moving while in a work area.
In all cases of restrained work the attachment/detachment of lanyard or pole strap is to be
always above the waist position.
Where the above is not possible due to the structural framing arrangement in relation to the
required work position then an alternative restraint technique should be used and considered
in the design with anchorage above the work position. This may require the provision of
anchorage points to support devices such as inertia reels and static lines.

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M5 SPECIFIC STRUCTURE DESIGN PROVISIONS


Where pole steps or step bolts are required they should be in accordance with the provision
of AS/NZS 1559.
NOTE: Where a tower or pole rescue is required, each pole step may need to support the weight
of two persons. For safety in climbing a step bolt size of 20 mm diameter and a clear shank length
of 180 mm may be considered.
Attachment to any bracing node points on a lattice steel tower in general will provide an
anchorage capacity of 15 kN.
Once a work position is reached the worker is required to use a work positioning restraint
pole strap, in a restrained fall position, and this requires the selection of anchorage points
with at least 6 kN capacity. Any structural load carrying or redundant brace member fixed
with a single 16 diameter bolt at each end can provide this load restraint capacity in a non
deformed or deformed state.
In general, attachment should be at bracing node points where ever possible in order to
provide containment of any potential lanyard movement, and afford more secure anchorage.
The following anchorage capacities are required to be provided by the structure design:
(a) Intertia Reel attachment points for work on cross-arm tips15 kN.
(b) Attachment to bracing node points for work on E/W peak15 kN.
(c) Attachment to bracing node points15 kN.
(d) Typical static line attachment point above climbing step bolts21 KN.
(e) Typical horizontal restraint of any member in a tower6 kN.
Refer to Figure M1 for typical arrangement of anchorage points on lattice steel structures.

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Ty p i c a l s t ati c l i n e Inte r tia Re e l at tachme nt


at t a c h m e nt p o i nt a b ove p o i nts fo r wo r k o n
c l i m b i n g s te p b o l ts 21 k N c ro s s a r m ti p s 15 k N

At tac h me nt to bracing
n o d e p o i nts fo r wo r k
o n E / W p e a k 15 k N
At tac h me nt to bracing
n o d e p o i nts 15 k N
At tac h m e nt to 20 m m
s te p b o l ts, o r a n c h o r
l o o p s, 6 k N
D O N OT AT TACH
TO 16 m m ST EP BO LTS
L i m i t of l a nya rd
at t a c h m e n t a n c h o r a g e
re stra int Ine r ti a re e l
m u s t b e u s e d b eyo n d
th i s p o i nt
L i m i t of l a nya rd at tac h m e nt
a n c h o rag e re stra i nt
at t a c h m e nt p o i nt m u s t b e
a b ove wa i s t p o s i ti o n ( exc e pt
fo r L i ve L i n e ac c e s s i n
c ro u c h e d p o s i ti o n
to C ro s s-a r m ti p b u t w i th
at t ac h m e nt a l ways a b ove wa i st )

FIGURE M1 TYPICAL STEEL TOWER CLIMBING ATTACHMENT POINTS AND


ANCHORAGE CAPACITIES

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APPENDIX N
GUIDELINES ON UPGRADING OVERHEAD LINE STRUCTURES
(Informative)

N1 SCOPE
This Appendix provides guidelines on the requirements to be fulfilled for the modifications
of existing structures and foundations to maintain structural integrity or upgrade structural
capacity. Structures should include transmission or distribution towers/poles supporting
high voltage electrical conductors or radio communication masts/poles and associated
foundations.
Criteria for condition assessment of existing structure, remedial work to repair corrosion
and third party damage or disrupted members due to overload conditions are excluded from
the scope of this Appendix.

N2 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
The following factors should be considered for the up-gradation of transmission structures:
(a) Structure upgrade designs should be prepared and authorised by a qualified structural
design engineer with appropriate experience in transmission/distribution structures or
radio communication structures.
(b) The structure as a whole and its component parts should comply with stability,
strength and serviceability limit states defined elsewhere in this Standard.
(c) The designer should select an appropriate structure model for analysis that provides
an accurate representation of the actual structure performance and justify assumptions
regarding load transfer between existing components and modified components and to
foundations.
(d) The designer should consider changes in OHS legislative requirements, work
practices or other directives related to construction safety and personnel access that
need to be accommodated in preparation of the scope of modifications.

N3 PURPOSE OF UPGRADE
Structural upgrade is defined as actions taken to improve structural and foundation
performance beyond the initial design specifications. This may be undertaken for a variety
of purposes including the following:
(a) Improve structure reliability.
(b) Change in structure load criteria or operational duty.
(c) Change in maintenance procedures.
(d) Modify structure geometry to accommodate increased electrical conductor operating
temperature or improve electrical/radiation clearances.
(e) Fixture of new components to comply with updated OHS criteria for personnel
access.
(f) Adding of new/larger telecommunication equipment.

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N4 STRUCTURAL ASSESMENT
The appropriate stress analysis of transmission tower requires calculation of the total forces
in each member of the tower under action of combination of loads externally applied, plus
the dead weight of the structure. These loads should have to be evaluated as per
requirements specified in this Standard for the changed operational condition.
When performing an analysis of an existing structure, careful attention should be given to
the method of analysis employed when the structure originally designed. If the steel
material property and member properties are not documented, material testing and careful
engineering assessment is required. The designer should have to prepare documents for
such material testing and engineering assessment which should form an integral part of the
structural up-gradation proposal.
Field inspection is a pre-requisite for the structural assessment of existing structures to
ensure that the structures are in good condition and/or to adjust the capacity of individual
structural member.
It is possible that the original structure capacity was not utilized fully for various reasons
such as unusual terrain conditions, site specific restrictions, availability of materials or
conservative 2-D method of analysis. In such cases, structure upgrade can possibly be
achieved with minimum effort. However, all original design assumptions should be re-
examined again and the designer should determine and document if there is any major
difference in the load distribution of the structure with new analysis. A correlation of past
model assumptions with new model assumptions should have to be performed for the entire
structure.

N5 WORKING ON LOADED STRUCTURES


The designer should carryout a comprehensive structural analysis of the transmission
structures considered for upgrading prior to any field work, personnel access, structure
and/or foundation modification. Existing conductor tensions, component dead weight and
resulting loads transferred onto structural supports should be carefully examined and taken
into account when developing work procedures and selecting required equipment.

N6 LOAD TEST ON STRUCTURES


Load testing can be used to verify that the performance of the structure or component is
consistent with the theoretical design or the trialing of options without design.
The number of tests and applied load to suit the required COV should be in accordance with
Australian Standard AS/NZS 1170.0 or an equivalent recognised standard. This should
reflect the accuracy of the calculations, the degree of difficulty in installation of the
reinforcement and the security required. Some subjective judgement may be required on the
part of the designer to establish loading and performance criteria.
Consideration should be given by the designer to any influence the test rig may have on the
performance of the structure or component.
Testing of components should account for actual stiffness and possible variations of the
surrounding structure. This should happen due to the modified stiffness matrix at a joint
and/or pre-loading on existing member.
Testing should preferably be continued maximum 150% of ultimate load or to destruction
(whichever occurs first) to verify the presence of any brittle failure close to ultimate load.
The tests should be carried out to a test plan which is prepared to demonstrate or test the
performance in sympathy with the design process.
The records of the test should include as a minimum
(a) test plan and purpose of each test;

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(b) load and deflection;


(c) localized deformation;
(d) any variations of the tested structure or component from the proposed final design
and what influence this may have on the test outcome; and
(e) conclusion.

N7 STRUCTURE UPGRADE
N7.1 Lattice steel structure upgrade
The main purpose to upgrade the existing structure is to keep the resistance of the structure
(including individual elements of a structure) within the limit of design resistance for the
modified loading conditions and/or line design criteria. A list of preferred modification
options is given in Paragraph N9.
N7.1.1 Tension member upgrade
Strength of tension member can be achieved by replacing existing member with higher
profile or by adding new member to the existing member.
The designer should have to propose the temporary load transfer arrangement as well as
sequential working procedure for the replacement of any existing member with new one.
Tensile strength can also be increased with the use of splice angles bolted with the existing
leg member and supplementing angle section to cruciform/T-section by an additional angle.
However, increase in wind area should have to be taken into consideration for re-
assessment of the structure with this arrangement. Strengthening within the nodes and
across the joint is not necessary if the net cross section multiplied by the yield strength of
the material is higher than the maximum force. If strengthening within the nodes and across
the joint is required, the supplemented angle should have to pass through the joints by
providing adequate distance to clear the bolt threads of existing joint by providing splice
angles with appropriate thickness. The splice angles should be arranged at least at one-third
distance of the total buckling length.
It is preferable to weld (or service level non slip bolted joint) the splice angle at the
circumference with fillet seams to the supplemented sections in the workshop and after
galvanizing the same adjust them to the existing members at site. However, Welding is not
desirable in many cases due to the poor fatigue performance of welded connections. Refer
to Paragraph N7.1.3 for connection details and Paragraph N7.1.4 for load transfer between
old and new members.
N7.1.2 Compression members upgrade
The strength of compression member can be increased by reducing its unsupported length
or end restrained condition.
Unsupported length can be reduced by inserting additional redundant members or changing
the redundant pattern.
Increasing the number of bolts at end of single bolted members should change the end
restrained condition of compression member which in turn should increase the compression
strength.
Addition of new member should also increase compression strength of members. Refer to
Paragraph N7.1.1 for the requirement of such modification. However, the sub-members
should have to be bolted in such a way so that the composite member can be treated as a
single member (i.e. fully composite section).

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T-section should have the improved slenderness ratio and hence, changing compression
member to that profile (especially to increase the diaphragm strength by providing T-shaped
horizontal edge member) should increase the compression strength.

Y 0.5 L

NOTE: Critical slenderness ratio should be the maximum of 0.51/rxx and L/ryy.

FIGURE N1 CRITICAL SLENDERNESS RATIO OF T-SECTION

However, improvement in buckling performance is the best way to increase the


compression strength of any member unless the modification in angle section yields an
efficient load transfer.
Please refer to Paragraph N7.1.3 for connection details and Paragraph N7.1.4 for load
transfer between old and new members.
N7.1.3 Connection upgrade and consideration in connection design
Connection can be upgraded by the use of high strength bolts confirming to specification
AS/NZS 1252. Use of additional bolts at joint should also increase the connection capacity.
Special attention should be given while designing connection between supplemented and
existing angle sections. The connection between old member and supplemented member
should have to be designed for a shear force equal to 2.5% of the composite member
compression force. At least two bolts should be used at each connection. The bolt spacing
should not be more than 6 xdb, where db is the diameter of hole. The connection between
existing member and the supplementing member may be designed as non-slip joint.
However, due care should be given to verify the bolt pretension and the faying surface
condition at site to ensure the requirements considered during design are properly
implemented. The slip factor should have to be assumed as per recommendation given in
AS 4100. The surface should be roughened by means of hand wire brushing (after hot dip
galvanization) and the treatment should be controlled to achieve visible roughening or
scoring (but not removing the coating). Power wire brushing is not permitted because it
may polish rather than roughen the surface, or remove the coating.
N7.1.4 Force distribution in newly formed composite section
Addition of an angle section (as described in Paragraphs N7.1.1 and N7.1.2) moves the
centroidal axis of the leg members outwards. However, since the existing member is pre-
loaded with external forces, the supplemented member will not carry the load
proportionately with respect to the relative stiffness. This initial loading condition causes a
higher proportionate axial load to the existing member and a lower one to the supplemented
section. Due care should have to be taken during design to account such effect arising from
the installation condition. It is essential to confirm minimum relative movement of sub-
members of the newly formed compound member to ensure balanced load distribution. In
such case, slip in the serviceability limit state is required to be limited and connections
should be designed for bolts serviceability limit state (see AS 4100).

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N7.1.5 Guying of structures


Guys can be used in various arrangements to reinforce structures. The design of the guy
system and supported structure should as a minimum account for
(a) possible variations in the effective stiffness of individual guys within the system
caused by variations in initial installed tension, foundation movement, variation in
structure stiffness compared to actual stiffness. As a minimum it is recommended that
combinations of guy stiffness varying to 150% and 50% of the proposed cable be
considered. Load testing of the guy anchors is recommended to ensure against
excessive slippage. Other considerations such as relaxation of individual guys should
be made;
(b) the flexibility of the guy, together with the flexibility of the tower, is needed to
compute the foundation reactions and anchor loads. Tower and anchors can be
designed for the maximum amount of specified anchor slippage. The initial and final
modulus of elasticity of the guys together with the creep should have to be
considered; and
(c) differential movement of the structure foundations relative to the guy anchor
foundations. This can be assessed by comparing the depth of embedment of the
foundation and likely soil heave or settlement. On narrow masts, small movements of
the footing may relieve load.
Selection of the guy cable should satisfy strength requirements in accordance with AS 3995.
Consideration should be given to the sizing of the cable for suitable stiffness.
The guy cable should be as a minimum earthed for fault currents.
The guy attachments should be designed for the full tensile capacity of the guy cable. The
guy anchor foundations may be designed for less than the full capacity of the anchor.
Consideration should be given to the termination fittings of the guy to allow coarse and fine
length adjustment, tension measurement of the installed guys (by vibration frequency,
mechanical tensiometer, measurement of sag), temporary removal of load to allow
adjustment of the length and attachment points on the anchors for temporary replacement of
the normal guys.
Because of the large elongation of non steel ropes, only steel cables should be used for
temporary or permanent guys.
Buried components of the guying system should be designed to allow for the extreme level
of corrosion for the type of installation.
Guying systems may be considered either as a continuation of the conductors (i) OR as
structural components (ii)
(i) if the guying system is designed as continuation of the conductors using conductor
hardware then allowance should be made for broken cables and attachments.
ii) If the guying system is designed as a structural components the guy fittings should
have suitable WLL markings and be selected in accordance with the WLL under EDT
and WLL*3 under ultimate loads. The designer should check that the selected
components have an ultimate capacity of at least 5*WLL.
(iii) (as alternate of (ii)) If the guying system is designed as a structural components,
usually the guy fittings will not be able to develop the full rated breaking strength
(RBS) of the guy but should have to be designed for 70% of RBS under weather loads
and 85% of RBS under failure containment conditions. The mechanical efficiency
should be marked on guy fittings which may be defined as the percent of the guy RBS
up to which the guy fitting is able to sustain.

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Pretension of guys should be at least 5% of CBL of the cable and preferably closer to 10%
of CBL (with maximum 10% tolerance).Depending on the procedure, the designer should
specify either
(A) pretension values; or
(B) a tensioning sequence controlled by the pole top displacement.
The minimum pretension should be such that the leeward guys do not go slack under
frequently occurring winds (e.g. yearly wind) or other everyday weather related load
combination. At the lower range the sag of the cable may be excessive for visual and
stiffness considerations.
Guy fittings should have split pins or double nuts for locking against vibration.
The guy attachment points on the structure should allow for possible variations in the
installation of the guy position causing changes in the force components at the attachment.
Pretensioning of the guy cable can be used to pre-load the foundations of the reinforced
structure.
Guy systems can be used to carry torsional load at a level in a tower but the effectiveness is
dependent on the stiffness of the structure.
N7.2 Structure upgrade
N7.2.1 Wooden pole structure upgrade
N7.2.1.1 Hardwood poles
Timber poles have been found to deteriorate over time in the ground line zone due to
termites attack or soft rot mechanisms and at height due to the long term exposure to the
natural elements.
Where soft rot is detected in its early stages, poles can be assessed for loss of strength and
limits set on the minimum permissible load factor to be provided before further
reinforcement of the pole element is required.
Pole nails provide a means of providing reinforcement of poles and extending their service
life.
Various strengths and types of pole nails or nail systems that are rigidly attached to the pole
are available to either temporarily reinforce or to replace completely the base section of
poles.
Where temporary reinforcing type systems are used careful consideration needs to be made
of the level of serviceable strength that is provided over time under conditions where the
wood pole butt suffers further deterioration.
N7.2.1.2 Softwood poles
In general CCA treated softwood poles should not require upgrading during their design
service life.
N7.2.2 Steel pole structure upgrade
N7.2.2.1 Direct embedded poles and socketed base type poles
Tubular form steel poles directly embedded into soil will normally have either a hot dip
galvanized finish or a duplex tar epoxy coating applied over the galvanized.
Galvanized steel in direct contact with soils will not have significant life unless in low
rainfall or semi arid areas, and replacement of the base section is likely during the life of
the structure.
Duplex coated poles should not require upgrading during its design service life unless the
coating system breaks down.

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Poles socketed into concrete base sockets will perform generally in accordance with the
above provisions. It should be assumed that any cast in situ socket will fill with water over
time. Due to capillary action on the pole/seal interface.
Accelerated loss of zinc coating will most likely occur to some extent, in the immediate
above ground zone due to the daily drying/wetting cycle with dew particularly in grassed
footpath areas.
N7.2.2.2 Base plate mounted poles
The weakest element in this type of construction is the corrosion protection of the holding
down bolts and any projections of bolt threads. Specific maintenance of the region is
required in order to extend the service life of the structure.
N7.2.2.3 Slip joints and internal surface protection
All cylindrical galvanized steel poles joined in the field with slip joints can be expected to
have some but limited corrosion of the mating surfaces of the joint without any significant
loss of strength, but needs to be checked over the life of the line.
Temperature effects can have a major effect on the ingress of moisture into the inner void
of steel poles due to the breathing/expansion of the pole drawing in moist air.
Condensation will then occur during low temperature cycles that will cause corrosion of the
inner zinc surfaces. To counteract this complete sealing of the inner void will limit
available oxygen.
Periodic internal boroscope inspection of the inner base section would be beneficial to
extending the service life of poles.
N7.2.3 Concrete pole structure upgrade
Most concrete poles are made from high strength concrete using a high compaction process.
Some are also prestressed.
Poles of this type have been in service for over 80 years without any degradation of the pole
element.
Limited scope exist to upgrade the design capacity of these structures unless by the use of
composite elements attached to the outer or inner surfaces of the pole.
N7.2.4 Composite pole structure upgrade
This type of pole has limited service experience at the time this Standard was prepared but
is seen to be similar to concrete poles.

N8 FOUNDATION UPGRADE
Increased reaction from super-structure for the purposes stated in Paragraph N3 should be
transferred safely to the existing foundation system. The designer should have to design an
appropriate anchoring system to satisfy this requirement.
Additional uplift force can be counter measured by increasing the dead weight of the
footing. However, due attention is required for the integrity between the new concrete
section to the old concrete section.
Lateral support can be achieved by methods as simple as modifying engineering properties
of soil adjacent to the footing member (compaction, soil stabilising). Other methods may
include enlarging the footing bearing area or installing tie beams between individual
footings.
New foundation can be installed to transfer higher load from super structure and after
completion of the new foundation construction, the structure can be re-positioned onto the
new foundation. In such case, the old foundation may be abounded or may be used as a part
of new foundation.

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The designer should have to prepare the temporary load transfer arrangement as well as
sequential working procedure required for safe strengthening of existing foundation
system/construction of new foundation or safe re-positioning of structure onto the new
foundation.
Appropriate geotechnical investigation is required prior to any foundation modification or
installation of new foundation for increased load transfer. The designer should have to carry
out appropriate investigation to predict any potential stability hazard that may arise to
existing foundation while constructing new foundation or modifying existing foundation
causing soil disturbance.

N9 MODIFICATION OF LATTICE STEEL STRUCTURE


Lattice steel structures can be strengthened by means of following measures:
(a) Adding new profile with existing structural element (e.g. adding back to back angle
with existing angle at horizontal edge members/bracing members/compression chord
of X-arm to enhance the buckling resistance).
(b) Introducing additional redundant members/modifying redundant pattern to increase
the compression strength of the structure component.
(c) Modifying tower geometry to optimize the load distribution pattern within the
structure (e.g. introducing additional diaphragm between panels).
(d) Replacement of angle sections with larger section members.
(e) Addition of guy (stay) wires.
(f) Addition of bolts/splice plates to enhance end restrained condition of compression
member or
(g) Up-gradation of bolts to higher grade and/or diameter.
(h) Modification in tower top geometry for thermal or voltage uprating of line.
(i) Install tower on new base and/or use of tower extension above waist to increase
height

N10 MODIFICATION OF POLE STRUCTURE


Pole structures can be strengthened by means of following measures:
(a) Adding stays.
(b) Pole nails for wooden poles.
(c) Doubling up concrete poles, some times even a small pole maybe added.
(d) Inserting the steel section on the base of a wooden pole to increase height.
(e) Use of fibre reinforced polymer to increase the flexural capacity of steel monopoles.

N11 SAFETY
N11.1 Construction and maintenance work procedures
The designer should have to confirm the following aspects:
(a) Production of construction and maintenance procedures complying the design
assumptions and requirements.
(b) All potential constraints are documented.

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However, review of working procedures for independent engineering assessment to ensure


the compliance with design assumptions and specified constraints should be required prior
to commencing the field work.
N11.2 Personnel access
Personnel access controls developed to comply with OHS legislative requirements and other
directives have seen the specification of significantly increased maintenance and fall-arrest
loads and fixing of more sophisticated climbing aids. The designer should consider whether
such scope for the upgrade work on structures installed prior to these requirements should
be inclusive of these requirements.

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APPENDIX O
WATER ABSORPTION TEST
(Normative)

O1 SCOPE
This Appendix sets out the method for the determination of the water absorptive property of
concrete poles, in a batch of poles.
NOTE: The test method is based on AS 4058.

O2 PRINCIPLE
The relative water absorption of the pole concrete is taken as a measure of the resistance of
the concrete to atmospheric moisture penetration. The relative water absorption is measured
as the difference in mass between an oven-dried specimen and the saturated surface-dry
mass of the specimen after a fixed period of immersion in boiling water, expressed as a
percentage of the oven-dried mass.

O3 APPARATUS
The apparatus consists of the following items:
(a) A ventilated drying oven of sufficient capacity to hold a test specimen and capable of
maintaining a temperature of 105 3C.
(b) A desiccator of sufficient capacity to hold the test specimen from Item (a).
(c) A water bath of sufficient plan area and depth for the test specimen to be completely
immersed in water and in which the water can be maintained continuously at boiling
point for at least 5 h.
(d) Cutting and grinding equipment for preparing the specimen.
(e) Drying cloths and implements for handling the specimen from oven to desiccator to
bath.
(f) A weighing mechanism capable of determining the mass of the test piece, during the
various stages, to an accuracy of 0.5 g.

O4 CONDITION OF SAMPLE POLES


The age of the sample pole(s), from the time of casting to the time of preparation of the test
specimens, shall not be less than 14 days nor greater than 28 days. The poles shall not have
been subjected to any previous testing, which would affect the absorptive properties of the
concrete. The area of the surface from which the test specimens are to be cut shall be free
from cracks visible by normal or corrected vision.

O5 PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN


From each sample pole, extract a radial core that extends through the entire thickness of the
wall, with end faces corresponding to the internal and external surfaces of the pole of area
between 1.0 104 mm2 and 1.5 104 mm2.
NOTE: A cylindrical specimen, made by cutting radially through the wall with a coring bit of
115 mm diameter, or 125 mm nominal diameter, would satisfy these area requirements.
The cut surfaces of the specimen shall be ground smooth and the specimen kept in a damp
condition until tested.

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O6 TEST PROCEDURES
O6.1 General
The test shall be carried out when the age of the concrete in the specimen is not greater than
28 days.
NOTE: The ability of concrete to absorb water diminishes with increasing time after casting and
with increasing duration and quality of curing. Absorption tests made on 28-day-old concrete
will, therefore, yield lower percentage values than tests on concrete less than 28 days old. Hence,
if an early-age value is less than the permissible limiting value, no further test will be required.
However, if this is not the case, a further test at 28 days would be required.
O6.2 Procedures
O6.2.1 Determination of dry mass (m1 )
The procedure is as follows:
(a) Weigh the damp specimen to the nearest gram and record the mass as m0.
(b) Dry the specimen at 105 3C in the drying oven until consecutive weight
measurements of the specimen, when made at intervals of not less than 4 h, show a
change in mass of not greater than 0.1% of m0. Record the lowest value, determined at
room temperature as the dry mass (m1) to the nearest gram.
Each consecutive weighing required may be carried out either
(i) by first allowing the specimen to cool from oven temperature to room temperature in
the desiccator and then weighing; or
(ii) by weighing the hot specimen within 1 min of its removal from the oven then, if no
further drying is required, cooling it to room temperature in the desiccator and
reweighing it as soon as possible, The latter reading is recorded as the dry mass (m1).
O6.2.2 Immersion procedure
Immediately following the determination of the dry mass, suspend the specimen in the bath
so that no part of the specimen is closer to a direct source of heat than 50 mm. Introduce
potable water into the bath at room temperature until all surfaces of the specimen are
covered by at least 25 mm of water.
Once the specimen has been covered to the required depth, heat the water rapidly to 100C
and maintain it at that temperature for 5 hours keeping the specimen covered with water
throughout. At the end of this period, cool the specimen uniformly over 2 h to 20 5C, by
gradually replacing the hot water with colder water.
O6.2.3 Determination of saturated surface-dry mass (m2 )
At the end of the immersion procedure, remove the specimen from the bath, allow it to
drain for not more than 1 min, then remove any remaining water from the surface with the
absorbent paper or cloth.
Weigh the specimen in this saturated surface-dry condition and record the mass as (m2), to
the nearest gram.
If the specimen contains reinforcement, remove it from the concrete and clean off any
adhering mortar. Weigh the reinforcement and record its mass as (m3), to the nearest gram.

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O7 CALCULATIONS
The absorption of each test specimen shall be calculated from the following equation:
(m2 m1 ) 100
k wj = . . .O1
( m1 m3 )
where
m1 = the dry mass, in grams
m2 = the saturated surface-dry mass, in grams
m3 = the mass of reinforcement, in grams

O8 RECORDS AND REPORTS


O8.1 Records
For each batch of poles for which water absorption tests are taken, the following records
shall be kept:
(a) A means of identifying the individual test specimens and the batch from which they
were taken.
(b) The date on which the test specimens were taken from the batch, or the age of the
concrete at that date.
(c) For each specimen tested from the batch
(i) the measured values of m1, m2 and m3;
(ii) the calculated value of kwj; and
(iii) the date on which m1 was determined.
O8.2 Reports
For each batch of poles for which water absorption tests have been carried out, a report
containing the following information shall be prepared:
(a) Identification of the test specimens and the batch from which they were taken.
(b) The date on which the first test specimen was taken from the batch or the age of the
concrete on that date.
(c) The calculated values of kwj for the batch.
(d) A statement as to whether or not these values satisfy the criteria given in
Paragraph I5.2.

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APPENDIX P
INSULATION GUIDELINES
(Informative)

P1 INSULATION COORDINATION BASICS


An overhead powerline should be designed to avoid a power frequency flashover because it
can result in permanent damage to the insulator. Even if the insulation can withstand the
initial flashover without damage, upon reclosure of the line there is everylikelihood of a
subsequent flashover should the wetting conditions continue.
Switching surges on overhead lines should also be considered and the appropriate amount
of insulation installed to avoid these surges. Switching surges can reach up to 3 times the
normal operating voltage and in the case when high speed autoreclosing is used, in the
presence of trapped charges, the surges can be up to 4 times normal operating voltage

P2 DESIGN FOR POLLUTION


Pollution design recommendations are given in AS 4436. The basic concept is to increase
the surface creepage distance so that it is long enough to prevent a pollution flashover
across the surface.

TABLE P1
GUIDE FOR SELECTING INSULATORS IN CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENTS
Contamination severity ESDD range (1) Minimum nominal specific
creepage distance (2)
g/m mm/kV
Light 0 to1.2 16
Medium 1.2 to 2.0 20
Heavy 2.0 to 3.0 25
Very heavy Above 3.0 31
(1)
ESDD is the equivalent salt deposit density.
(2)
Ratio of leakage distance measured between phase and earth over the r.m.s phase to phase voltage of the
highest voltage of the equipment.
(3)
Consideration should be given to increasing the creepage distances is areas where there are long periods
without rainfall or very close to the marine coast

Example:
Select a suitable disc insulator string for a 33 kV line subject to light contamination. Use
normal disc profiles where the creepage length is 300 mm.
Voltage of line = 33 kV
Minimum nominal specific creepage = 16 mm/kV for light contamination
distance
Required creepage distance for 33 kV = 528 mm
Number of discs = 528/300 = 1.76 2 discs
The pollution performance of insulators can also be improved with the use creepage
extenders or hydrophobic coatings such as Room Temperature Silicon Rubber (RTV).
These coatings have a finite life and will need to be replaced during the life of the insulator.

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Pole top fires may occur when high leakage currents from polluted insulators track across
interfaces between conductive to non-conductive material e.g.insulator to crossarm, and
crossarm to pole.

P3 DESIGN FOR SWITCHING SURGE DESIGN AND LIGHTNING


PERFORMANCE CONSIDERATIONS
A good coverage on the design for switching surge is given in AS 1824.2. When designing
for switching surges, one of the parameters which is difficult to obtain is the switching
surge impulse voltage. There are 2 main types of electrical tests conducted on insulators;
one being the lightning impulse and the other the power frequency flashover (wet and dry).
Switching tests have been conducted in laboratories and the flashover voltages have been
inconsistent and found to be dependent on the shape of the surge, the type of electrodes and
the presence of earth planes.
In lieu of adequate test data on switching surges a good approximation for the switching
surge flashover voltage is 0.8 times the lightning impulse flashover voltage.
The insulator parameter that determines the insulator impulse performance (i.e. switching
surge and lightning) is the arc distance across the insulator.
Line insulation is usually selected independent of substation insulation. It is necessary to
check substation insulation impulse performance and install surge arresters, especially when
the line insulation is longer than the substation insulation.

P4 SELECTION OF INSULATORS
The two main class of insulators are ceramic (glass and porcelain) and composite (EPDM,
silicon rubber and cycloaliphatic). Ceramic insulators have traditionally been installed on
overhead networks and have provided a reliable service in light to moderately contaminated
environments.
P4.1 Standard and fog profile disc insulators
A typical 254 mm 146 mm standard profile disc generally has a creepage length of
approximately 300 mm. The profiles are variable between manufacturers who have to
balance the requirements of having an aerodynamic shape to attract less pollutants, deeper
skirts to increase creepage length and greater distance between skirts to reduce arcing.
A typical 254 mm 146 mm fog profile disc has a creepage length around 400 mm. This is
a 40% improvement in leakage distance over the standard disc. The additional creepage
length is gained by having deeper skirts and this comes at a higher cost. It is common
practice to install fog profile insulators in heavy to extreme contamination areas. This is
acceptable for a marine or industrial environments which are exposed to regular rainfall, but
in desert environments, contaminants can be trapped under the skirts and build up to such
levels that they bridge the skirts. This then dramatically lowers the creepage length of the
insulator. For areas of extremely low rainfall, it is common for the aerodynamically dinner
plate shaped insulators to be used.
P4.2 Ceramic pin, shackle and posts
Ceramic pin, shackle and post insulators have been manufactured since the early years of
last century. These insulators come in various lengths and profiles to meet the electrical and
mechanical loads. The pin insulator is prone to puncture especially from steep fronted
lightning strikes because of the small amount of ceramic material between the top of the
insulator and the metallic bolt inserted in the bottom of the ceramic. Pin insulators usually
have less creepage length compared to the post types but can be designed with larger skirts
to handle heavy contaminated conditions.

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Shackle insulators are installed in positions where there are higher conductor loads, such as
angle or termination structures. These insulators have a disadvantage to the pin and post
types in contaminated environments because the conductor attachment in the centre of the
insulator reduces the creepage length of the insulator.
Post insulators have an advantage over pin insulators in withstanding electrical puncture
because there is a larger amount of ceramic material between the top of the insulator and
the metal base. Post insulators generally have the highest creepage lengths and can be
manufactured with wider skirts to handle increasing amounts of pollution. The advantages
of the post insulator come at a higher cost.
P4.3 Composite long rod and line post insulators
Composite insulators are made with a fibre glass core and either EPDM or silicon rubber
weathersheds. One major advantage of the composite insulators over the ceramic ones is
that they do not have intermediate metal parts between the end fittings. Hence they have a
superior creepage to dry arcing distance ratio.
Composites are generally regarded as being superior to ceramic for low to moderately
contaminated environments because of their ability to maintain hydrophobicity. One of the
polymers, EPDM, does lose hydrophobicity from the effects of UV radiation and arcing on
the surface whilst the other, Silicon Rubber, has the ability to maintain hydrophobicity for a
long period of time. This is due to the continuous migration of silicon oils from the bulk of
the material to the surface. Ageing performance is commensurate with price. Silicon Rubber
is slightly more expensive than EPDM. In heavy to extreme environments, both types of
polymers have shown significant evidence of ageing (erosion and cracks along the axis of
the polymer).
Polymeric insulators are increasingly being accepted and advantages over ceramic
insulators include the following:
(a) Lightweight (long rods are 10% of the weight of an equivalent ceramic string) making
it easier to install and maintain.
(b) Less visual impact.
(c) Vandal proof.
(d) Lower cost.
(e) Few couplings.
However, some disadvantages of polymeric insulators are as follows:
(i) Not yet proven to have a life span to match ceramics.
(ii) Low torsional strength.
(iii) Limited diagnostic testing available.
(iv) Risk of damage from bird attack, especially when de-energized.

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APPENDIX Q
MID SPAN SEPARATION CALCULATIONS
(Informative)

Q1 GENERAL
In Section 3 an equation was developed to determine mid span phase to phase separation.
The following example outlines the method of calculation.
MID SPAN SEPARATION
Example 1:
Single circuit 19/3.25 AAC at 33 kV 3-phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with
a span of 200 m. What is the mid span vertical separation required between phases if a
crossarm with a separation of 2.1 m between outer phases is used?
Sag at 50C is 6.07 m and sited in Region A.
Refer Figure 3.6.
where
X = 1.05
U = 33
k = 0.4
D = 6.07
li = 0
U
X 2 +(1.2Y ) 2 + k D + li . . .Q1
150
33
1.052 +(1.2Y ) 2 + 0.4 6.07 + 0 . . .Q2
150

1.052 +(1.2Y ) 2 0.22 + 0.985 . . .Q3

1.052 +(1.2Y ) 2 1.205 . . .Q4

0.591
Y . . .Q5
1.2
Y 0.493 . . .Q6
Therefore required minimum vertical separation for centre phase is 0.493 m.
Example 2:
Upper circuit 19/3.25 AAC at 33 kV 3-phase on pin insulators in a delta configuration with
a span of 200 m located directly above the lower circuit. The lower circuit conductor is
19/.064 copper at 11 kV. The lower circuit has a 120phase differential to the upper circuit.
What is the mid span vertical separation required between circuits if a crossarm with a
separation of 2.1 m between outer phases is used?
Sag at 50C is 6.07 m 19/3.25 AAC and 5.81 m for 19/.064 Copper sited in Region Type A.
Refer to Figure Q1.

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FIGURE Q1 CONDUCTOR SEPARATION AT MID SPAN (TWO CIRCUITS)

Because the circuits are located vertically above each other the horizontal component is
taken as zero and

U = Va2 + Vb2 2 VaVb Cos from U above


2 2
33 11 33 11
= + 2 Cos120
3 3 3 3
= 22.9 kV
X = 0
U = 22.9 (the difference in the vector r.m.s. potential of the circuit voltages)
k = 0.4 (Region A)
D = 6.07 (greater of the two sags)
li = 0 (Pin insulators)
U
X 2 +(1.2Y ) 2 + k D + li . . .Q8
150
22.9
0 +(1.2Y ) 2 + 0.4 6.07 + 0 . . .Q9
150
(1.2Y ) 2 0.153 + 0.985 . . .Q10

1.2Y 1.138 . . .Q11

1.2Y 1.2052 1.052 . . .Q12


1.138
Y . . .Q13
1.2
Y 0.948 . . .Q14

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APPENDIX R
INSULATION SWING ANGLE CALCULATIONS
(Informative)

R1 CALCULATION OF SWING ANGLES


The swing angles of suspension insulator strings for both low and high wind conditions can
be approximated using the following formula.
Fwi
WP * d * Sw + 2 + 2 H sin 2
Angle of insulator swing = tan1
. . .R1
W
Wc + i
2
where
WP = reference wind pressure in Pascals
d = conductor diameter in metres
Sw = wind span affecting the insulator string in metres
Fwi = wind load on insulator in Newtons = 1.2 projected area of insulators
wind pressure
Wc = effective conductor weight in Newtons (weight span weight per unit
length)
Wi = weight of insulator string in Newtons
H = horizontal component of conductor tension in Newtons appropriate to
the reference wind
= line deviation angle
The swing angle of a phase conductor catenary in a single span for both low and high wind
conditions can be approximated using the following formula.
WP * d * Sw
Angle of conductor swing (blowout) = tan1 . . .R2
Ws
where
WP = reference wind pressure in Pascals
d = conductor diameter in metres
S = span length in metres
Ws = effective conductor weight in Newtons (span length weight per unit
length)
NOTE: It is important to note that the insulator swing formula above may produce different swing
angles for suspension insulators at supports on either side of a line catenary where different wind
to weight span ratios may exist.

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The horizontal displacement of any point on the conductor in the span can be calculated
from the results produced by the two equations above by considering their combined effect
and is given by the following:

x1
horizontal displacement y1 = S g sin c + i1 sin i1 + (i2 sin i2 i1 sin i1 ) . . .R3
x
1 + x2

where
Sg = sag for point on conductor under consideration in metres
c = angle of conductor swing (blowout) in degrees
i1 = angle of first insulator swing in degrees
i2 = angle of second insulator in degrees
i1 = length of first insulator string in metres
i2 = length of second insulator string in metres
x1 = first span length fraction to point on conductor under consideration in
metres
x2 = second span length fraction to point on conductor under consideration in
metres
NOTE: At blowout wind speeds the conductor temperature for sag determination can be taken as
ambient air temperature.

l2

12

B l owo u t rotati o n a x i s

i1

11
Sg
c

x1 x2 y1

T R A NSV ER S E V IE W LO NG I T U D IN A L V IE W

FIGURE R1 HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT

The correction factor k takes into account the distribution of the wind along the span, drag
force coefficient and the averaging time for Vr . For the heights of conductors that are
normally encountered, k may be considered to be independent of height and terrain effects.

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The conductor tension H should be based on


(a) still air or low wind ............................... average temperature over the coldest month
(b) high wind .................................. average temperature over the coldest month + 10C
The estimation of swing angles may be made using a simplified deterministic approach or a
detailed procedure using meteorological data. The latter method should be used when
greater precision is required or where unusual and/or extreme local conditions prevail.
Part ASimplified procedure
For condition (a)Still air or low wind
Wind pressure .....................................60 to 100 Pa depending on local weather conditions
(replace the term 0.6 Vr2 in Equation B1 by the selected wind pressure)
Value for k .................................................................................................................... 1.0
For condition (b)High wind or maximum swing
Wind pressure (0.6 Vr2) ........................................................................................... 500 Pa
Value for k .................................................................................................................... 1.0
Part BDetailed procedure
The reference wind velocity Vr should be obtained from local weather records
corresponding to a suitable return period and an averaging time, and corrected for terrain
and height effects. The values for k should ideally be selected on the basis of studies and
local experience. However, for most applications a value selected from Figure R2 produces
satisfactory results. The selection of the wind return period should be based on the degree
of reliability required, and when directional effects are considered, the swing angle return
period is about twice that of the corresponding wind.
Thus for the high wind case, a 50 year return period and an averaging time of 5 min (5 min
gust) will provide a satisfactory operational performance for most applications with a
probability of exceeding the calculated swing angle of about 1%.
For the low wind condition, a wind return period of one year averaged over 5 min (5 min
gust) is recommended for similar reasons.
Table R1gives factors for converting wind velocities from one averaging time to another for
each terrain category.

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1.05

FAC TO R k
1.0 0

0.95

0.9 0

0.85

0.80
20 0 300 40 0 50 0 600
W I N D S PA N S w (m)

FIGURE R2 CORRECTION FACTOR K

TABLE R1
FACTORS FOR CONVERTING A 3 S GUST WIND SPEED
Gust period Terrain Terrain Terrain Terrain
Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Category 4
3s 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.000
1 min 0.735 0.797 0.844 0.878
2 min 0.680 0.749 0.807 0.847
5 min 0.614 0.658 0.764 0.808
10 min 0.553 0.646 0.727 0.784

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APPENDIX S
CONDUCTOR SAG AND TENSION CALCULATIONS
(Informative)

FIGURE S1 INCLINED SPAN GEOMETRY

S1 TERMINOLOGY
Level span The conductor supports are at the same level.
Inclined span The conductor supports are at different levels.
Suspension span Either or both conductor supports are free to swing
longitudinally (along the line).
Deadend span Both conductor supports are terminated.
Sag The maximum vertical departure of the catenary from a chord
joining the support points (approximately mid span).
Section That portion of an overhead line between strain structures
consisting solely of intermediate suspension structures for
which the ruling span concept is valid.
Ruling span A hypothetical level deadend span used to model the tension
behaviour of a section.
Tension constraint The maximum allowable conductor tension (independent of
the ruling span) for a given loading condition.

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Controlling constraint 1 The tension constraint which produces the largest sags at the
maximum operating temperature for a given ruling span.
Controlling constraint 2 The tension constraint which produces the longest unstressed
constraint 2 conductor length for a given ruling span.

S2 VARIABLES
= coefficient of linear expansion (C1 )
= conductor slack (m)
= total creep strain (mm/mm)strand settling and metallurgical
= take-off angle (from horizontal) at the conductor support
= 3.14159
= ice density (kg/m3)
= stress (MPa)
A = total conductor cross-sectional area (mm2)
Aa = cross-sectional area of the aluminium component of a conductor (mm2)
As = cross-sectional area of the steel component of a conductor (mm2)
C = resultant catenary constant (m)
Ch = catenary constant using Wh (m)
Cv = catenary constant using Wv (m)
d = conductor diameter (m)
D = conductor sag (m)
E = modulus of elasticity (MPa)
h = height difference between conductor supports ( = y2 y1) (m)
H = horizontal component of tension (N)
I = chord length between conductor supports ( = L +h )
2 2
(m)
L = span length ( = x2 x1) (m)
Lh = wind span for a structure (m)
Lr = ruling span of a section (m)
Lv = weight span for a structure (m)
m = conductor unit mass (kg/m)
P = transverse wind pressure (Pa)
r = radial ice thickness (m)
S = stressed conductor length (m)
S0 = unstressed conductor length at 0C (m)
t = average conductor temperature (C)
T = tangential or axial tension (N)
Ta = average axial tension (N)
V = vertical component of tension (N)
W = resultant distributed conductor load (N/m)
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Wh = transverse component of distributed conductor load (N/m)


Wv = vertical component of distributed conductor load (N/m)

S3 INTRODUCTION
A flexible, inelastic conductor with constant load (W) per unit of arc length suspended
between supports assumes the shape of a catenary
x H
y = C cosh 1 where the catenary constant C = . . .S1
C W
An approximation of the catenary is the parabola which uses a constant load (W) per
horizontal unit length.
x2
y = . . .S2
2C
For span lengths less than 0.7C, or sags less than 9% of the span length, the difference in
sag between the catenary and the parabola is less than 1%.
These mathematical models are adequate for describing inelastic conductors at any given
tension. To determine the tension at different loading conditions the equations should be
modified for temperature, elasticity, wind pressure, ice weight and age (creep).
For all steel reinforced conductors, the use of a constant E value may result in calculated
sags less than actual sags for temperatures greater than 90C. This is subject to further
research by CIGRE Study Committee 22/Working Group 12 and IEEE Subcommittee
Towers, Poles and Conductors/WG Thermal Aspects of Overhead Conductors/Task Force
Bare Conductor Sag at High Temperature.

S4 RULING SPAN
The ruling span, also known as the equivalent span or the mean effective span (MES), is
defined as that level dead-end span whose tension behaves identically to the tension in
every span of a series of suspension spans under the same loading conditions. Note that the
ruling span concept can only model a uniformly loaded section, e.g. where wind or ice on
one span exists but not on the other spans in the section, other more precise modeling
techniques are to be adopted.
It is assumed that the insulator is free to swing along the line and long enough to equalize
the tension in adjacent spans without transferring a longitudinal load onto the structure. In
general, spans shorter than the ruling span tend to sag more than predicted whilst spans
longer than the ruling span sag less than predicted at temperatures above the stringing
temperature (assuming that the tensions were equal at stringing).
The ruling span concept may not apply to fixed pin and post insulators because the
structures may not be flexible enough to equalize tensions. However, if the stringing
tension is low, or the spans are short, or the spans are approximately equal, then there is
little difference in tension across the insulator under identical loading conditions in each
span. Therefore the risk of conductor movement through the ties and associated fretting is
minimized, except for non-uniform span loading.
A value for the ruling span should be assumed before spotting structures because the actual
ruling span can only be calculated after the structure locations are determined. In most
cases the actual ruling span should be greater than or equal to the assumed ruling span to
ensure the design clearances. However, the situation sometimes arises (for large ruling
spans when the controlling constraint is associated with a heavy loading condition) where
the tension decreases with increasing ruling spans at the maximum operating temperature.

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Under these circumstances the actual ruling span should be less than or equal to the
assumed ruling span.
The ruling span is calculated using
n
L3i
i =1
Lr = n
for level spans . . .S3
Li
i =1

n
L4i
i =1
Lr = n
for inclined spans . . .S4
Li
i =1

where
Ii = L2i + hi2 = the chord length between the supports of span i

Li = the horizontal span length of span i


hi = the support height difference of span i

n = the number of spans between strain structures


For a single level, dead-end span the ruling span is Lr = L . . .S5
L2
However, for a single inclined dead-end span Lr = . . .S6
I
NOTE: Where rigid post or pin type insulators are used, the adoption of the ruling span concept
may not accurately reflect the real sag and tensions under varying conductor temperature and
wind loadings. Designers need to assess the magnitude of the errors produced by the ruling span
concept and consider adoption of appropriate techniques to predict more accurate results if
required.

S5 LOADING CONDITIONS
Longitudinal and yawed wind loading and point loads such as cable chairs, droppers, strain
insulator strings and aircraft warning spheres require analytical tools not covered by this
Standard.
Once the conductor is strung, its tension can be influenced by the following factors
considered by this Appendix:
(a) Conductor temperature (t).
(b) Wind pressure transverse to the conductor (P).
(c) Radial ice on the conductor (r).
(d) Age of conductor as measured by the creep strain ().
Wind and ice loading affect the horizontal and vertical component of distributed load
Wh = P(d + 2r) . . .S7
Wv = 9.81(m + r(d + r)) . . .S8
3
where ranges from about 300 kg/m3 for rime to 916 kg/m for ice.

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The resultant distributed load is the vector sum of Wh and Wv

W = Wh2 + Wv2 . . .S9

The catenary constants C, Ch and Cv are functions of W, Wh and Wv respectively. Ch is used


for conductor swing-out calculations, Cv is used to calculate sags and C is used for
calculating tension changes.
NOTE: The value of gravitational acceleration g is normally taken as 9.8067 m/s2.

S6 TENSION CONSTRAINTS
Tension constraints are used to limit the horizontal tensions for one or more of the
following reasons:
(a) To restrict fatigue damage caused by aeolian vibration. This constraint is frequently
referred to as the everyday tension (EDT) constraint. The tension limit is influenced
by the climate, terrain, extent of vibration protection, conductor material, conductor
self damping characteristics and type of conductor support. Refer to Section 7.
(b) To give a margin of structural safety under extreme weather conditions of wind and
ice.
(c) To limit the tension for short ruling spans under cold conditions. For short spans there
are large variations of tension with temperature changes.
(d) To give a margin of safety for personnel performing maintenance and stringing
operations which could be done under light wind conditions.
The age of the conductor at which a particular tension constraint applies should be
stipulated if the creep is significant. The tension reduces as the conductor creeps. An age of
10 years is usually applied since strand settling and metallurgical creep are virtually
completed in that period.
For a given ruling span only one tension constraint limits (or controls) the tensions for all
other loading conditions. The controlling constraint is the most restrictive tension
constraint, producing the largest sags and the least tensions for any given loading condition.
A tension constraint can alternatively be expressed as a support tension, sag, conductor
stress or catenary constant. Each of these alternatives can be converted to a horizontal
tension as follows:
(i) Tangential tension (T) at a support
2 2
T T (WLr )
H = + (based on the parabola and a level span) . . .S10
2 2 8
(ii) Sag (D)
Wv L2r
H = (based on the parabola) . . .S11
8D
(iii) Conductor stress ()
For an ACSR conductor with a steel to aluminium modulus ratio of three and with the
aluminium and steel in tension the aluminium stress can be converted to tension using
H (Aa + 3As) . . .S12
For a homogeneous conductor H = A
(iv) Catenary constant (C)
H = WC . . .S13

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For a given ruling span the tension constraint producing the shortest unstressed conductor
length as given by Equation S14 is the controlling constraint. The conductor length at 0C,
under no tension and at an age when the creep strain is zero is
S
S0 =
Ta . . .S14
1+ + t +
EA
where the stressed conductor length is
Lr
S = 2Csinh . . .S15
2c
L3r
S = Lr + for the parabola . . .S16
24C 2
It is common practice to assume that Ta H; however, Ta is evaluated more accurately in
Paragraph E9 for the catenary and the parabola.

S7 TENSION CHANGES
The tension change (or change-of-state) equation equates the unstressed conductor length
for two loading conditions. For one loading condition (i.e. the controlling tension
constraint) Hi is defined. For the other loading condition the tension Hf is desired.
The tension change equation is
Si Sf
S0 = =
Hi Hf . . .S17
1+ + ti + i 1+ + t f + f
EA EA
The value of S0 is known because by definition the controlling constraint is the tension
constraint producing the smallest value of S0 . Note that Sf is a function of Hf and can be
evaluated using either the catenary Equation S15 or the parabolic Equation S16.
Many references such as Overhead Electric Power Lines by G.C. Cracey, 1963 (page 68)
use the tension change equation based on the parabola because it reduces to a cubic
equation which is readily solved. With computers the catenary tension change equation can
be solved using numerical techniques such as the Newton-Raphson method.

S8 SAGGING TENSIONS
For the purpose of determining sagging tensions, the variables with subscript f shall refer
to the controlling constraint whilst variables with subscript i shall refer to loading
conditions at the time of sagging. Therefore f is the creep strain that has occurred up until
the age of the conductor when the controlling constraint applies (usually 10 years). The
creep strain i occurs prior to sagging.
The total creep strain is the sum of metallurgical creep and strand settling. Guidance on
metallurgical creep strain is given in Appendix V. The strand settling strain can be
approximated from the stress/strain curve by subtracting the elastic strain from the initial
composite strain. Allowance should be made for the conductor to reach its maximum stress
level during its lifetime. Therefore the strand settling associated with this level of stress
would apply to final sags and tensions but rarely to initial (stringing) sags and tensions.

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It is common practice to convert the difference in creep strain (f i) to an equivalent


thermal strain (tc) and overtension the conductor by using a temperature lower than that
which actually applies at the time of sagging. Therefore if the controlling constraint applies
at say 10 years, then the final sags and tensions are calculated using Equation S17 with
f = i = 0 and the initial sags and tensions are determined by applying a negative

temperature correction of Tc = f i to the final sags and tensions.

S9 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Once a conductor tension has been determined for a section of transmission line using its
ruling span in the tension change equation, the characteristics of each span in the section
may be determined using the inelastic catenary or parabolic equations.
Reference Figure S1 for the variables associated with the inclined span geometry.

S10 CATENARY EQUATIONS



1
h L 1
h L
x1 = C tanh = C sinh . . .S18
S 2 2C sinh L 2
2C

1
h L 1
h L
x2 = C tanh + = C sinh + . . .S19
S 2 2C sinh L 2
2C
2
L
+h
2
S = S1 + S2 = 2C sinh . . .S20
2C
x1
S1 = Csinh = weight span contribution to structure 1 . . .S21
C
x2
S2 = Csinh = weight span contribution to structure 2 . . .S22
C
S
= wind span contribution to structure 1 and structure 2 . . .S23
2
x1
V1 = H sinh = Wv S1 . . .S24
C
x
y1 = C cosh 1 1 . . .S25
C
x1
T1 = H cosh = H + Wy1 . . .S26
C
WS
T2 T1 = Wh T2 + T1 =
L . . .S27
tanh
2C
x1 S1
tan 1 = sinh = . . .S28
C C
x2
V2 = H sinh = Wv S 2 . . .S29
C

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x2
y2 = C cosh 1 . . .S30
C
x2
T2 = H cosh = H + Wy2 . . .S31
C
= S1 . . .S32
x2 S 2
tan 2 = sinh = . . .S33
C C
h
x3 = Csinh1 approximately mid span . . .S34
L
S L IC L
D C cosh 1 = cosh 1
L 2C L 2C . . .S35
2C sinh
2C
L
D = C cosh 1 (for a level span) . . .S36
2C

CH S 2 + h 2 L L
Ta = 2 sinh + . . .S37
2S S h 2
C C

T HL
Ta = + (for a level span where T1 = T2 = T) . . .S38
2 2S

S11 PARABOLIC EQUATIONS


Ch L
x1 = = weight span contribution to structure 1 . . .S39
L 2
Ch L
x2 = + = weight span contribution to structure 2 . . .S40
L 2
L
= wind span contribution to structure 1 and structure 2 . . .S41
2
The equation for calculating the arc length of a parabola is more complex than that of the
catenary, therefore a Maclaurins series approximation of the catenary equation is used
here.

L4
S = 1+ . . .S42
24C 2 I
Wv L Hh
V1 = Wvx1 = . . .S43
2 L
h2 h
y1 = D+ . . .S44
16 D 2
H
T1 = x12 + C 2 . . .S45
C
x1 h 4 D
tan 1 = = . . .S46
C L

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L4 8D 2
= S1= = . . .S47
24C 2 I 3I
Wv L Hh
V2 = Wvx2 = + . . .S48
2 L
h2 h
y2 = D+ + . . .S49
16 D 2
H
T2 = x22 + C 2 . . .S50
C
x2 h + 4 D
tan 2 = = . . .S51
C L
Ch
x3 = (mid span) . . .S52
L
L2
D = (independent of h) . . .S53
8C
H I2 L3
Ta = + . . .S54
S L 12C 2

S12 MULTIPLE SPAN CALCULATIONS


S12.1 Conductor loads

FIGURE S2 WIND AND WEIGHT SPANS (PARABOLA)

Static structure loads caused by the conductor are determined by the wind span and weight
span for that structure. The wind span gives the transverse component of load due to wind
and the weight span gives the vertical component of load.
For suspension structure B with no deviation angle
Transverse load = Lh Wh
Vertical load = Lv Wv
Longitudinal load = 0 (assuming insulator swing equalizes tension)

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S12.2 Weight span to wind span ratio (Based on parabolic simplification)


For spotting suspension structures, a lower limit of weight span to wind span ratio is
derived from the maximum allowable transverse insulator swing angle ( from vertical) that
satisfies the electrical clearance requirements under the maximum wind condition. (Refer to
Figure S2 for definitions of terms).
Lv Wh
(neglecting insulator weight and wind) . . .S55
Lh Wv tan
The spotted weight span to wind span ratio is
Lv 2bCv
=1+ . . .S56
Lh L1 L2

L1 + L2
where the wind span Lh =
2
Note that b is negative when the support is below the chord joining adjacent supports
(dashed line of Figure S2).
S12.3 Variation of weight span with conductor tension (Based on parabolic
simplification)
If the weight span (Lv1) is known for a given tension (H1) then the weight span (Lv2) at any
other tension (H2) is
C2
Lv2 = Lh + ( Lv1 Lh ) . . .S57
C1
where
H1 H
C1 = and C2 = 2 . . .S58
Wv1 Wv2
Longitudinal profile drawings can be used to measure the weight spans for the plotted
catenaries (e.g. the maximum operating temperature or sometimes the maximum working
wind or ice load). The above formula can be used to calculate the conductor weight spans at
other conditions of temperature, ice, wind or creep.

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APPENDIX T
CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT AND SAG MEASUREMENT
(Informative)

T1 CONDUCTOR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT


Various measuring techniques have been used to establish the temperature for stringing new
conductors. The actual temperature of the conductor should be measured during sagging of
the conductor to avoid conductor over-tensioning or loss of ground clearance.
The actual conductor temperature can be determined reasonably accurately by using a
stainless steel dial type thermometer with the stem inserted into the core of the conductor of
similar material. For smaller bare conductor the stainless steel dial type thermometer alone
is usually sufficient. The thermometer should be hung in an exposed location parallel to the
conductor and at a height similar to the conductor. A sufficient period should be allowed for
the temperature to stabilize before it is read immediately prior to sagging of the conductor.
NOTE: Temperature correction may be required to allow for conductor inelastic stretch.

T2 CONDUCTOR SAG MEASUREMENT


Conductor sag may be measured by direct methods, such as sight boards mounted on the
structures or by theodolite measurement, or by measuring the conductor tension by
dynamometer.

T3 SIGHT BOARD METHOD


To produce a required sag a sight board is fitted at the required distance below the point of
attachment at each end of the span and the conductor is tensioned until the tangent of the
catenary is in line with the two boards. To measure an unknown sag the tangent of the
catenary is sighted from a known distance (A) below the first point of attachment to a point
below the second conductor attachment (distance B).
2
A+ B
D = . . .T1
2
where
D = conductor sag
A = distance below the first conductor support
B = distance below the second conductor support
(Refer to Figure T1).

FIGURE T1 QUANTITIES ASSOCIATED WITH SIGHT BOUND METHOD

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T4 THEODOLITE METHOD
This method is more accurate and is recommended for long spans where the sag is greater
than the height of either conductor attachment points above the ground. A theodolite is set
up below the conductor attachment and the angle of tangency to the catenary is measured.
The sag can be calculated by solving the following equation:
4 AD + H 4 D
tan = . . .T2
L
where
= angle of tangency to the catenary
D = conductor sag
A = vertical distance from the centre of the theodolite to the conductor
support
H = difference in height of the conductor supports (positive when the support
furthest from the theodolite is the higher)
L = span length
(Refer to Figure T2).

FIGURE T2 QUANTITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THEODOLITE METHOD

This method should not be used where the point of tangency is greater than 80% of the span
length because of the magnification of sighting errors.
A
P = 50 . . .T3
D
where
P = point of tangency expressed as a percentage of the span length (%)

T5 WAVE SAG METHOD


One indirect method, known as wave sagging, relies on the relationship between conductor
tension and the speed at which a mechanical pulse travels along the conductor. The
conductor is struck at one end of a span with a suitable striker and at the same time a
stopwatch is started. The pulse will be reflected at the other end of the span back to the
striker. To reduce errors in measurement the time for three cycles is usually recorded.

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2
9.81 t
D = . . .T4
32 N
where
D = conductor sag (m)
t = time (seconds) for N return waves
N = number of return waves (usually three)
g = gravitational accelerationnormally taken as 9.8067 (m/s2)
This relationship is based on the parabolic simplification of the catenary equation and
should only be used for the relatively shorter distribution spans (e.g. up to 500 m) and for
relatively level spans.

T6 SWING SAG METHOD


Another indirect method, known as swing sagging, is based on a pendulum. The conductor
is pulled to one side and released. The time for the conductor to swing from one side to the
opposite and back is recorded.
2
t
D = . . .T5
1.7961N
where
D = conductor sag (m)
t = time for conductor to swing N times from one side to the opposite side
and back (seconds)
N = number of swings timed

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APPENDIX U
RISK BASED APPROACH TO EARTHING
(Normative)

U1 RISK ANALYSIS
A probabilistic risk analysis is a calculation of the probability and consequences of various
known and postulated accidents. Probabilistic risk analyzes are therefore an applied
extension of statistics and are affected by the same limitations and assumptions from which
the methods are derived. In this guide, the probabilistic risk analyzes are used to determine
the probability of causing fatality to one or multiple individuals.
The calculation of the probability of fatality is limited by the accuracy of the available data
and the conditions under which the hazard may occur. The calculation of the probability of
fatality may be simplified significantly if the following conditions are met:
(a) The occurrence of a hazard is random.
(b) The occurrence of a hazard is independent of the presence of an individual.
(c) The occurrence of a hazard will be independent of the occurrence of past hazards.
(d) The hazard occurs at a constant rate per unit of time, one at a time*.
The development of a probabilistic risk approach on the basis of these assumptions restricts
the application of the calculation to individuals who will not contribute to or cause the
hazard to occur, and situations for which a fault which causes the hazard will not cause the
generation of additional faults. If the probability of a fault occurring satisfies the above
conditions the occurrence of faults may be classified as a Poisson Process and the
probability of an individual being in a hazard zone during a fault can be described by Pc:
1
Pc = H E (LE + LH) . . .U1
365 24 60 60
where
H = hazard rate factor (average number of faults per year)
E = exposure rate factor (average number of exposures per year)
LH = average hazard duration (in seconds)
LE = average exposure duration (in seconds)

* In certain situations, hazards separated by short intervals derived from a single cause may be approximated
as a single fault.

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Pc is the probability that an individual is in a hazard zone during the fault. Hence, it can be
thought of as the probability that the exposure of an individual and the presence of a fault
coincide. To convert this probability to a probability of a fatality there are many variables
to consider. Following a coincidence, a fatality depends on factors such as the footwear,
clothing, age and health of the person in the hazard zone, as well as other environmental
factors and the exact position of the individual. Hence, although Pc is a useful measure of
the probability of coincidence, it is a conservative estimate of the probability of death and it
is extremely difficult to know whether it is a good approximation or highly conservative.
This lack of precision is due to the multitude of unknown factors which control whether a
coincidence becomes a fatality. In summary, Pc is an effective metric for the probability of
fatality and can be used to rank hazard situations. However, it is difficult to directly
estimate the probability of a fatality. The coincidence probability is therefore be considered
equivalent to the probability of fatality.
In some cases it may be more useful to set the coincidence probability, Pc, to the high and
low limits, Phigh (=104 ), Plow (=106 ) and back calculate the limits for the total time spent
inside the hazard zone each year.

31,536,000 1 106 LE 31.5 LE


low-int = = . . .U2
H LE + LH H LE + LH

31,536,000 1 104 LE 3153.6 LE


int-high = = . . .U3
H LE + LH H LE + LH

The method of defining the exposure limits according to the fault rate, and comparing the
calculated risk according to limits of 104 and 106 are mathematically equivalent. These
limits provide a simple method which may be used by on-site personnel to estimate whether
the exposure is likely to exceed the tolerable limits set. The cumulative exposure of an
individual may be expressed as:
= ELE . . .U4
where
E = exposure rate factor (average number of exposures per year)
LE = average exposure duration (in seconds)
= cumulative exposure per year (in seconds)
In complex cases for which the rate at which hazards occur has large seasonal variations,
the risk should be determined by using the coincidence probability.

U2 FAULTS ON TOWERS AND CABLES


To assist with calculations, where more accurate data is not available, some typical data on
overhead line fault rates and protection fault clearing times can be found in Table U1 and
Table U2, respectively. For considering faults on overhead lines, if the line length of
interest is known, then the average number of faults per unit time on overhead lines in
Table U1 can be used to estimate the rate at which hazardous voltages will occur on a
tower H.

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The fault rates for underground cables are much lower than for overhead lines. Typical
underground cable fault rates are 2 to 3 per 100 km for 11 to 33 kV and less than 1 for
higher voltages. The average fault duration, LH, can be estimated from values given in
Table U2. Note that for close in faults, earth fault current is high and the protection
operates quickly. However, for faults further out along the feeder, line impedance causes
lower fault current which takes longer to be seen by the protection. Consequently, different
fault locations need to be considered to determine the worst case EPR and clearing time
combination.

TABLE U1
TYPICAL OVERHEAD LINE FAULT RATES
System voltage Overhead line fault rate
(phase to phase) (faults/100 km year)
LV 20150
11 kV33kV 510 shielded, 1040 unshielded
66 kV 25
100 kV132 kV 14
220 kV275 kV <1.0
330 kV <0.5
400 kV <0.5
500 kV <0.5
NOTES:
11 The rate at which faults occur on a tower is different to the rate at which
hazards occur. The hazard zones around towers connected by OHEWs are
reduced by the flow of current transferred through adjacent towers, however
this transferred current can also create hazards at those towers. The rate at
which hazards occur can therefore be significantly larger than the tower fault
rate.
12 The higher outage rates occur in northern Australia where there is more
frequent high wind and lightning storms.
13 The lower outage rates occur in southern Australia and New Zealand where
there is less frequent high wind and lower lightning activity.

TABLE U2
TYPICAL PRIMARY PROTECTION CLEARING TIMES
System voltage Primary protection clearing time
(phase to phase)
LV 2s
11 kV33 kV 1s
66 kV 0.5 s
100 kV250 kV 220 ms
251 kV275 kV 120 ms
330 kV 120 ms
400 kV 120 ms
500 kV 100 ms
NOTE:The primary protection clearing times for >100kV are based on National
Electricity Code fault clearing time requirements for remote end.

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U3 SIMPLIFIED CALCULATION OF PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMITS


The above calculation may be simplified if certain additional conditions are met
(a) the length of time for which a person is within a hazard region is significantly greater
(more than 100 times greater) than the average length of a fault;
(b) the rate at which faults occur over time is constant (i.e. faults are equally likely to
occur at any time of the day or season); and
(c) there is only one source of hazards within the hazard region.
The above conditions are usually too strict for most situations as slight variations in fault
rate and exposure length can occur. Further analysis is required for such situations however
the analysis does not usually alter the calculated probability significantly. If conditions (a),
(b), and (c) are met, the limits for cumulative exposure per year can be calculated as
3153.6 31.5
high = , low = . . .U5
H H
The coincidence probability may be calculated using the simplified equation
1
Pc = H E LE . . .U6
365 24 60 60
Example 1
Problem
A jogger goes for a run every day of the week. At the end of each run, the jogger leans
against a 11 kV concrete pole to do stretching exercises for two minutes. Hazards occur at
the pole once every 150 years and create a hazard on and around the pole. The length of an
exposure is significantly longer than the fault clearing time.
Solution 1
The average length of time that the jogger is exposed in the hazard region LE is 120 s, and
the average number of exposures per year, E, is 365. Faults occur once every 150 years on
average. The fault rate factor is therefore
1 hazard
H = = 6.67 103 hazards per year . . .U7
150 years
The equivalent probability is therefore
1 6.67 103 365 120
Pc H E LE = 9.3106 . . .U8
365 24 60 60 365 24 60 60
This risk level is above the tolerable level of 106 and falls in the Intermediate risk category
defined in section Consequently, risk treatment measures should be investigated to reduce
the risk to as low as reasonably practical.
Solution 2
The hazard rate H is equal to
1 hazard
H = = 6.67 103 hazards per year . . .U9
150 years

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The limits for the cumulative exposure per year are


3153.6 3153.6
high = = = 472,803 s per year = 9092 s per week . . .U10
H 6.67 103

low = 0.01 lhigh = 4728 s per year = 91 s per week . . .U11


The joggers exposure is above the lower limit of 91 s per week and falls in the
Intermediate risk category defined in Section 10. As expected, the methods used in
Solution 1 and Solution 2 produce the same result.

U4 ADVANCED CALCULATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF FATALITY


If a situation does not meet one or all of conditions (a)(c), a more rigorous analysis may be
required to calculate the probability of fatality. The appropriate method of calculating the
coincidence probability will be outlined for situations which do not meet the specified
conditions in the following paragraphs.

U5 CALCULATION OF THE PROBABILITY OF FATALITY FOR COMPARABLE


EXPOSURE AND FAULT LENGTHS
The simplified calculation approximates the coincidence probability as the probability that
a fault will occur while an individual is within the hazard region. For situations in which
the length of exposure is comparable to the length of the fault however, a significant
proportion of the coincidence probability is derived from the arrival of an individual into a
faulted hazard area. This is taken into account by the original calculation for the
coincidence probability which takes into the case that a hazard is occurring when an
individual enters a hazard region and the case that a hazard will occur while an individual is
in the hazard region.
Example 2:
Problem:
A jogger goes for a run every day of the week. At the halfway point of each run the jogger
touches a metal gate next to a 275 kV tower for 1 s. Faults occur at the pole once every
120 years and create a touch voltage hazard on the gate for 1 s.
Solution 1:
The risk associated with this scenario may be calculated directly using equation B1 as
shown. The average length of an exposure LE is approximately 1 s, the average length of a
fault LF is 1 s, and the number of exposures per year that occur E is 365. The rate at which
hazards occur is
1 hazard
H = = 8.33 103 hazards per year . . .U12
120 years
The coincidence probability per year is therefore
1
Pc = H E ( LH + LE )
365 24 60 60

1
= (8.33 103 )(365) (1 + 1)
365 24 60 60 . . .U13

= 8.33 103 365 6.34 108

= 1.93 107

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The difference between the risk for cases in which the fault length is similar to the exposure
length is therefore significant and in this case doubles the calculated risk. This risk level is
below the tolerable level of 106 defined in Paragraph U6. Consequently, no risk treatment
action is necessary.
Solution 2:
The fault rate factor is therefore
1 hazard
H = = 8.33 103 hazards per year . . .U14
120 years
The limits for the cumulative exposure per year are
3153.6 LE 3153.6 1s
high = = = 189, 291 s per year
H LH + LE 8.33103 1s +1s . . .U15
= 3640s per week
low = 0.01 lhigh = 1893 s per year = 36 s per week . . .U16
The exposure of an individual in the hazard zone can be calculated by using
= E LE = (120) (365) = 43,800 s per year = 840 s per week . . .U17

U6 TOLERABLE RISK LIMITS


Any injuries or fatalities to workers or members of the public are unacceptable, however the
inherent danger of electricity and disproportionate cost of protecting every individual from
every conceivable hazard require that some level of risk be tolerated. Tolerable limits vary
according to the classification of the risk.
Individual Limits
The unacceptable and acceptable individual fatality probability limits in the context of this
document are shown in Table U3.

TABLE U3
RISK MANAGEMENT MATRIXFREQUENCY OF OCCURRENCE VERSUS
SEVERITY OF CONSEQUENCE
Probability of single Risk classification for Resulting implication for risk treatment
fatality public death
(per year)

10 4 High Intolerable
Must prevent occurrence regardless of costs.
10 4 10 6 Intermediate As low as reasonably practical for intermediate
risk
Must minimize occurrence unless risk reduction
is impractical and costs are grossly
disproportionate to safety gained.
10 4 Low As low as reasonably practical for low risk
Minimize occurrence if reasonably practical
and cost of reduction is reasonable given
project costs.

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U7 RISK TREATMENT MEASURES


U7.1 General
When designing earthing systems, the following risk treatment methods should be
considered to manage the risk associated with step, touch and transferred voltage hazards:
(a) Reduction of the impedance of the earthing system.
(b) Reduction of earth fault current using neutral earthing impedances or resonant
earthing.
(c) Reduction of the fault clearing times.
(d) Surface insulating layer.
(e) Installation of gradient control conductors.
(f) Separation of HV and LV earth electrodes.
(g) Isolation.
Often a combination of risk treatments will be required to control EPR hazards.
The above methods are detailed below.
U7.2 Reducing earth grid impedance
Reduction in the impedance of an earthing system can be effective in reducing the EPR
hazards. However, since the fault current usually increases as the earth grid impedance
decreases, the effectiveness of the reduction depends on the impedance of the earth grid
relative to the total earth fault circuit impedance. For the reduction to be effective, the
reduced impedance needs to be low compared to the other impedances in the faulted circuit.
Typically, the earth grid impedance must approach the power system source impedance
before the EPR starts decreasing significantly.
If the earthing system earth impedance is reduced by enlarging the earthing system, then
even though the EPR on the earthing system will reduce, the resultant EPR contours may be
pushed out further. In some circumstances, the increase in the size of the EPR contours may
be significant for a small reduction in the EPR of the system. As a result, the size of any
transferred EPR hazard zones will increase. Whether this is a desirable end result will
depend on the specifics of a particular situation.
If the earthing system earth impedance is reduced by bonding remote earths to it, then the
resultant reduced EPR is also spread to the remote earths. This also introduces new
transferred EPRs onto the earthing system when there are earth faults at any of these remote
earths. Examples of this include bonding pylons to substations via overhead earth wires,
and bonding the earthing system to extensive LV network systems. This risk treatment
measure can be very effective in significant urban areas where an extensive earthing system
can be obtained by bonding together protective earth and neutral (PEN) conductors from
adjacent LV networks.
The following methods may be considered when attempting to reduce the impedance of
earth electrodes.
U7.3 Overhead shield wires
Shield wires are typically used on transmission lines at or above 66 kV usually at least over
a short section of line out from the substation. Shield wires are also sometimes used on
distribution lines (11 kV and above) for the first kilometre out from the substation but this
is not common.

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While the primary purpose of the shield wires is to provide lightning shielding for the
substation, bonding of the shield wires to the substation earth grid can significantly reduce
earth fault currents through the earth grid for faults at the station or at conductive poles or
towers bonded to the shield wires.
Inductive coupling between the shield wire(s) and the faulted phase conductor can
significantly reduce the earth return current during fault conditions at conductive poles or
towers bonded to the shield wire(s). This, in turn, reduces the EPR levels at both the
substation and at the conductive pole or tower. However the incidence of (transferred) EPR
events at the conductive poles or towers will become more frequent since each station EPR
will be transferred to the nearby towers/poles.
For a bus earth fault at a substation, the shield wires can divert significant current away
from the substation earth grid. The net effect of the shield wires is to reduce the impedance
of the overall earthing system (earth grid and tower/pole footing electrodes in parallel)
thereby reducing the EPR.
Consideration shall be given to the shield wire size (fault rating), particularly for the first
few spans from the substation.
U7.4 Cable screen
Bonded cable screens provide galvanic and inductive return paths for fault current for both
cable faults and destination substation faults.
Bonding of cable screens to the earthing systems at both ends is advantageous in most
situations. However, the transfer of EPR hazards through the cable screens to remote sites
should be considered as part of the design.
The bonding of single core cables at both ends may affect the rating of the cables,
depending on the cable configuration (due to induced currents in the screens and sheaths).
Care should be taken to ensure the rating of the cable is adequate for the application.
The rating of the cable screen should be adequate for the expected fault current and for the
current induced in the screen during normal operation.
U7.5 Earth electrode enhancement
If the soil resistivity is high and the available area for the grounding system is restricted,
methods of enhancing the earth electrode may be required. Such methods include the
encasement of the electrode in conducting compounds, chemical treatment of the soil
surrounding the electrode and the use of buried metal strips, wires or cables.
These methods may be considered in certain circumstances as a possible solution to the
problem of high electrode resistance to earth. They may also be applied in areas where
considerable variation of electrode resistance is experienced due to seasonal climatic
changes.
Chemical treatment of the soil surrounding an electrode should only be considered in
exceptional circumstances where no other practical solution exists, as the treatment requires
regular maintenance. Since there is a tendency for the applied salts to be washed away by
rain, it is necessary to reapply the treatment at regular intervals.
U7.6 Reduction of earth fault current
Earth fault currents flowing through earthing systems may be reduced by the installations of
neutral earthing impedances such as neutral earthing resistors (NER). Alternatively,
resonant earthing such as Petersen Coils, Arc Suppression Coils, Earth Fault Neutraliser
Earthing, may be very effective.
NERs are typically employed in distribution networks to limit the current that would flow
through the neutral star point of a transformer or generator in the event of an earth fault.

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NERs may be an effective way of reducing the EPR at faulted sites and thereby controlling
step, touch and transferred voltages especially in urban areas where distribution system
earth electrodes are bonded to a significant MEN system. However, the reduction in EPR
may not always be significant if the impedance of the earthing system is relatively high.
The use of NERs for the control of EPR hazards should be investigated on a case by case
basis.
NERs can be very effective in reducing induction into parallel services such as
telecommunication circuits or pipelines.
Resonant earthing (Petersen coils) are very effective is controlling step, touch and
transferred voltages.
A Petersen coil is an inductance that is connected between the neutral point of the system
and earth. The inductance of the coil is adjusted so that on the occurrence of a single phase
to earth fault, the capacitive current in the unfaulted phases is compensated by the inductive
current passed by the Petersen coil.
Upon the occurrence of an earth fault, the system capacitance discharges into the fault and
the faulted phase voltage collapses to a very low value leaving a very small residual current
flowing in the fault. This current is so small that any arc between the faulted phase and
earth will not be maintained and the fault will extinguish. Transient faults do not result in
supply interruptions and in some jurisdictions permanent earth faults can be left on the
system without the supply being interrupted while the fault is located and repaired.
Modern systems provide automatic tuning of the inductance to accommodate changes in
network topology.
To increase safety and to eliminate restriking faults on underground cables, some systems
also provide electronic compensation to reduce the remaining residual current and voltage
on the faulted phase to zero.
Resonant earthing can reduce MEN EPR to a safe level even in systems with high
MEN resistance.
U7.7 Reduction of fault clearing times
EPR hazards can be mitigated by the reduction of the fault clearing time. This may be easy
to implement in certain situations and may be very effective.
Reduction of the fault clearing time may require significant protection review and upgrade,
and may prove impracticable. The need for adequate protection grading may also limit the
effectiveness of this measure.
U7.8 Surface insulating layer
To limit the current flowing through a person contacting a temporary livened earthed
structure, a thin layer of high resistivity material, such as crushed rock and asphalt, is often
used on top of the ground surface. This thin layer of surface material helps in limiting the
body current by adding resistance to touch and step voltage circuits.
Crushed rock is used mainly, but not exclusively, in zone substations and transmission
substations for the following reasons:
(a) To increase tolerable levels of touch and step voltages during a power system earth
fault.
(b) To provide a weed-free, self draining surface.
Asphalt may also be used in zone substations and transmission substations but is likely to
be more expensive than crushed rock. Asphalt has the advantage of providing easy vehicle
access. Vehicle access over crushed rock may sometime be problematic especially if the
basecourse is not prepared correctly.

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Asphalt and crushed rock can also be used to control touch and step voltages around towers
and poles.
Limited data is available on the flashover withstand of asphalt which may be as low as 4 kV
for a 50 mm thick sample. Therefore, where asphalt is used for mitigation, touch voltage
should typically not exceed 4 kV and step voltage should not exceed 8 kV. For applications
where these limits are exceeded, the withstand voltage should be determined based on the
type of asphalt that is being considered.
For design purposes the following criteria applies:
i) A resistivity of 3,000 -m and a minimum thickness of 100 mm should be used for
crushed rock.
ii) resistivity of 10,000 -m and a minimum thickness of 50 mm should be used for
asphalt.
The insulating property of crushed rock can be easily compromised by pollution (e.g. with
soil). Therefore, regular inspection and maintenance of a crushed rock layer is required to
ensure that the layer stays clean and maintains its minimum required thickness.
The insulating property of asphalt can be compromised by cracks and excessive water
penetration. The integrity of the asphalt layer used for surface treatment shall be
maintained.
Close attention is required to the preparation of the ground prior to the application of
crushed rock or asphalt. Suitable basecourse shall be prepared before laying the crushed
rock or asphalt.
Chip seal should not be used since the resistivity of the chip seal surface is not typically
very high and its breakdown voltage is usually low.
Concrete should not be used to control touch and step potentials due to its low resistivity
unless the reinforcing in the concrete is used to provide an equipotential zone.
U7.9 Gradient control conductors
Touch voltages on a structure can be mitigated to some extent by using gradient control
conductors buried at various distances from the structure. Typically gradient control
conductors are buried at a distance of one metre from the structure. Additional gradient
control conductors are also buried further out from structures as required.
In zone and transmission substations, gradient control conductors are typically used for the
control of touch voltages outside the station security fence. These conductors are very
effective when used in conjunction with a metre wide strip of crushed rock or asphalt
installed around the outside of the fence. When designing zone and transmission
substations, provision should be made to allow such a strip to be installed, if required.
Gradient control conductors can also be used to control touch voltages on distribution
substations and equipment.
Step voltages cannot be controlled with the use of gradient control conductors.
U7.10 Separation of HV and LV earth electrodes
When an earth fault takes place at the HV side of a distribution centre, the EPR on the HV
earth electrode is transferred to the LV system via the PEN conductor. By separating the
HV and LV electrodes, the transfer of EPR from the HV system to the LV system can be
controlled.
The minimum separation distance required between the HV and LV earthing systems is
dependent on
(a) the size of the HV earthing system;

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(b) the maximum EPR on the HV earthing system; and


(c) the distances to the earths bonded to the LV system.
A minimum separation distance of 4 m is suggested between the HV and LV earthing
systems. In some instances the required separation may be much larger (i.e. low/high
resistivity layering with a LV network of limited extent).
The integrity of the separated HV and LV earthing systems may be difficult to maintain into
the future since other earthed structures may be installed at later stages within the physical
separation distance.
Separated HV and LV earthing systems may not be effective in controlling hazardous step
and touch voltages in the event of a HV line to LV line contact at the distribution
transformer, or on a conjoint HV/LV line section. The following options may be considered
for protecting against HV to LV contacts:
(i) Ensuring the configuration of LV lines at the distribution transformer poles is such
that a HV line to LV line contact is unlikely.
(ii) Replace the LV lines over conjoint HV/LV spans with
(A) LV buried cable;
(B) LV lines on a separate poles; or
(C) LV aerial bundled conductor cable that is insulated to withstand the full HV
conductor voltage.
The transformer shall be rated to withstand the maximum EPR on the HV earthing system,
without breaking down to the LV side of the transformer (e.g. via HV/LV winding
breakdown, or transformer tank to LV winding breakdown).
When the LV earthing system is segregated from the HV earthing system at a distribution
substation, the total earth impedance of the LV earthing system plus associated
MEN earths, shall be sufficiently low to ensure the HV feeder protection will operate in the
event of a HV winding to LV winding fault. A safety factor should be considered when
calculating this maximum earth impedance value.
U7.11 Isolation
Access to structures where hazardous touch voltages may be present can be restricted by the
installation of safety barriers or fences. These barriers or fences would typically be non-
conductive such as wood, plastic or rubber. For example, a tower could be surrounded by a
wooden fence to restrict access to the tower base, or a sheet of rubber could be wrapped
around the base of a steel or concrete pole. The installation of isolation barriers usually
requires ongoing maintenance but can be very effective in reducing the risk.
Third party fences should be isolated from the substation security fence using non-
conductive section of fences. Non-conductive sections may also be required at additional
locations along third party fences.
Mitigation of step and touch voltages of metallic pipelines e.g. water pipes connected to a
HV or LV network earthing system can be effectively achieved by the installation of plastic
pipes.
Example 3:
To illustrate the principles of risk based earthing design following the simplified method
presented in this guide, a simple case study is detailed below. The case study follows the
steps detailed in Section 10

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The case study involves an existing 33 kV concrete pole located close to a bus stop. This
pole was identified as potentially carrying an EPR risk for people using the bus stop. The
bus stop is typically used by people travelling to work and it can therefore be assumed that
footwear is worn around the pole.
Step 1Basic data:
(a) The prospective earth fault current at the source substation is 7 kA.
(b) The resistance to earth of the 3 kV pole was measured as 20 .
(c) The resistivity of the top soil layer was measured as 50 -m.
(d) The earth fault clearing time is 0.5 s.
(e) The earth fault frequency for the line is 5 per year.
(f) The line consists of 200 poles.
Step 2 Functional requirement
The pole already meets the functional requirements.
Step 3Connection to other earthing systems
In this case, bonding the 33 kV pole to nearby earthing systems is not practical.
Step 4Pole EPR
Using parameters associated with the earth fault current path for an earth fault at the pole,
the EPR on the pole was calculated as 6 kV.
Step 5Prospective tolerable step and touch voltage limits
The touch voltage limit was determined from Figure 10.2 for a fault clearing time of 0.5 s
and for a soil resistivity of 50 -m (footwear included).
The step voltage limit was determined from Figure 10.1 for a fault clearing time of 0.5 s
and for a soil resistivity of 50 -m (footwear excluded).
VT (limit) = 600
VS (limit) = 5000
Step 6Is EPR VT (limit) and VS (limit)?
The EPR on the pole is greater than the touch and step voltage limits.
Step 7Calculate actual step and touch voltages
The actual touch voltage on the pole was calculated as approximately 3000 V
The actual maximum step voltage was calculated as approximately 2000 V
Step 8Are actual touch and step voltages VT (limit) and VS (limit)?
Actual touch voltage exceeds the touch voltage limit but the actual step voltage is less than
the step voltage limit. Therefore, only touch voltage hazards exist.
Step 9Risk analysis
The only hazardous components at the pole are the touch voltages onto the concrete pole.
The risk can be assessed by calculating the coincidence probability.
Applying equation U6
1
Pc = H E LE
365 24 60 60

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The frequency of earth faults for the line with 200 poles is 5 faults per year. Therefore
5
H = = 0.025
200
If for the purpose of this case study, we assume that the pole is being touched once a day
for 5 min (i.e. someone leans against the pole) for five days of the week (i.e. for 260 days
per year), E = 260.
LE = 5 min 60 s = 300 s
1 (0.025)(260)(300)
Pc = H E LE = = 6 105
365 24 60 60 (365 24 60 60)
Since only one person is typically affected, N2 = 1 and the equivalent probability is
Pe = N2Pc = Pc = 6 105
The risk is therefore Intermediate and should be minimised unless the risk reduction is
impractical and the costs are grossly disproportionate to safety gained. A cost benefit
analysis should be carried out to determine whether the costs of risk treatment options are
disproportionate to safety gained.
Calculate the present value (PV) of the liability
Value of a statistical life (VOSL) = $10,000,000
Liability per year = 10,000,000 6 105 = $600
PV = $13,000 (assuming an asset lifespan of 50 years and a discount rate of 4%)
Step 10Risk treatment options
A number of risk treatment options can be considered. Examples of risk treatment options
are
(a) Installing an underslung earth wire on the line.
(b) Installing a gradient control conductor and an asphalt layer around the pole.
(c) Installing an insulating barrier around the pole to prevent people from touching the
pole.
(d) Moving the pole.
(e) Moving the bus stop.
A few of the above risk treatment options are detailed below to illustrate the principles.
(i) Installing an underslung earth wire on the line
A study has shown that an underslung earth wire would reduce the EPR on the pole to
600 V. The resulting touch voltage on the pole would then reduce to 300 V which is
below the tolerable touch voltage limit. The cost of this risk treatment option has
been determined to be approximately $200k. Comparing the cost of risk treatment to
the prevent value of the liability indicates that the cost of this risk treatment option is
grossly disproportionate to the safety gained.
(ii) Installing a gradient control conductor and an asphalt layer around the pole
With a gradient control conductor installed at a distance of one metre around the pole,
the touch voltage reduces to 900 V. This touch voltage exceeds the touch voltage
limit. However, if asphalt is also installed around the pole, the touch voltage limit
increases to 2000 V with the result that the touch voltage is lower than the limit. The
cost of this risk treatment option is $10k and is below the present value of the
liability. There may be some additional ongoing costs associated with maintenance of
the asphalt.
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(iii) Installing an insulating barrier around the pole to prevent people from touching the
pole
An insulating barrier could be installed around the pole to prevent people from being
able to touch the pole. Such an insulating barrier could take the form of a wooden
enclosure or a fibreglass jacket. The cost of this risk treatment option is $5k and is
significantly below the present value of the liability. There may be some additional
ongoing costs associated with maintenance of the insulating barrier.
(iv) Additional risk treatment options may be considered as required
Clearly, economically viable risk treatment options exist for this case and one of the
option should be implemented. The cheapest risk treatment option may not be the best
option. Other considerations may dictate which risk treatment option is selected. For
example, an underslung earth wire may be the best option if a number of other EPR
issues exist along the line.
For other cases, the costs and practicality of the selected mitigation option may be
such that there is some residual risk in the intermediate category after mitigation is
applied.
The remaining steps detailed in section Section 10 should then be considered as required.
The exposure corresponding to the transition from low to intermediate and from
intermediate to high may also be calculated as a sensitivity/sanity check. The calculations
below show that the exposure would have to be in excess of 41 minutes per week for the
risk to be come high. In this case, it is unlikely that someone would be exposed for so long
every week.
3153.6
high = = 126,144 s per year = 2426 s per week
h
For the risk to fall within the low risk category, the exposure for a person would need to be
less than 24 s per week as shown below. In this case, it appears that the exposure is likely to
exceed 24 s per week.
31.5
low = = 1260 s per year = 24 s per week
h
The above sensitivity check confirms that an intermediate risk level should be adopted for
this case.

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APPENDIX V
CONDUCTOR PERMANENT ELONGATION
(Informative)

V1 GENERAL
Conductor permanent elongation expressed as a function of time, temperature, conductor
stress and conductor constants is given as
= ktc1c2ec3(20) . . .V1
where
= unit strain in mm/km
t = time in years
= conductor average stress in MPa
= conductor average temperature in C
k, c1, c2 and c3 are constants
In many cases, the conductor exposure period at elevated temperatures is very small relative
to an everyday exposure temperature assessed to be 20C hence the above equation may be
reduced to
t = ktc1c2 . . .V2
Conductor constants are determined by conductor creep tests as described in AS 3822.
Typical creep test results are illustrated in Figure V1 and yield the creep constants k, c1, c2
and c3.
LO G ( ELO NG AT IO IN )

T85C = 20 % C B L

T20C = 40 % C B L
T20C = 3 0 % C B L

T20C = 20 % C B L

I n i ti a l c re e p

LO G ( T IM E )

FIGURE V1 TYPICAL CONDUCTOR CREEP TEST RESULTS

The cumulative conductor permanent elongation is dependent on the aggregation of


permanent elongation intervals characterized by differing conductor stresses and
temperatures. Graphically, a conductor may be subjected to a number of differing stress
levels and temperatures each with a given time interval as illustrated in Figure V2. In this
example, the initial exposure is at 20% CBL and 20C with a duration, t1 to t2 which will
result in creep accumulation of 2 1 as the conductor behaviour moves from a to b.

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LO G ( ELO NG AT IO N )
T85C = 20 % C B L

3
d b e
2 c
1 T20C = 20 % C B L
a

t3 t1 t4 t2 t5
LO G ( T IM E )

FIGURE V2 TYPICAL CONDUCTOR PERMANENT ELONGATION ACCUMULATION

At c, the conductor experiences an elevated temperature at say 16% CBL and 85 with
duration, t3 to t4 which will result in creep accumulation of 3 2 as the conductor
behaviour moves from c to d. At d, the conductor may return to the original condition and
hence the original creep curve and transition to point e.
Thus, conductor permanent elongation may be determined for the predicted operating duty
of the transmission line. Whilst this has been illustrated as a graphical representation of the
creep accumulation, the application of the elongation equation knowing the conductor stress
history, exposure duration and conductor temperature allows a mathematical determination
of the creep accumulation.
Also illustrated in this example is that
(a) the creep at a low temperature is much less than that at an elevated temperature; and
(b) the creep from one creep curve may be translated to another creep curve (ie from
point b to point c and also from point d to point e).
Conductor creep is cumulative for a given set of operating conditions of time, temperature
and stress.
c1
(i 1) c 2t ( i 1) . . .V3
Teq(i) =
1
where
Teq(i) = the equivalent time in years for unit strain at stress level (i)
(i-1) = the stress level in MPa associated with time interval t(i1)
(i) = the stress level in MPa associated with time interval teq(i)
t(i-1) = time interval in years associated with stress level (i1)
One of the most important aspects of understanding conductor permanent elongation is
determining design allowances for the long term conductor behaviour. The design
allowance for conductor elongation is necessary to account for the changes in conductor sag
and hence ground clearance over time. To compensate for conductor inelastic stretch it is
necessary to carry out one or a combination of the following:
(i) add a margin on the statutory ground clearance requirements;
(ii) subtract an allowance on the maximum design temperature;
(iii) prestress conductors prior to final sagging; and or
(iv) over-tension conductors.

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Reference: CIGRE WG 22.05 Permanent Elongation of Conductors Predictor Equations


and Evaluation Methods, CIGRE Electra No 75 1981.

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APPENDIX W
CONDUCTOR MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
(Normative)

W1 GENERAL
Homogeneous conductor modulus of elasticity is given as
Eal = 68 GPa (aluminium) . . .W1
Est = 193 GPa (SC/GZ) . . .W2
Figure W1 illustrates a stress strain curve for a homogenous conductor. Essentially the
figure shows the loading and unloading as a function of stress and strain where strain is
expressed as a percentage of elongation. As the applied load exceeds the elastic limit of the
conductor some permanent elongation will result as shown in Figure W1.

H o m o g e n o u s c o n d u c to r
ST R ES S

Le a d i n g
Unloading

Pe r m a n e nt e l o n g ati o n

ST R A IN (% ELO NG AT IO N )

FIGURE W1 STRESS STRAIN CURVE FOR A HOMOGENOUS CONDUCTOR

Figure W2 illustrates a stress strain curve for a non homogenous conductor such as an
ACSR construction.

C o m p o s i te c o n d u c to r
ST R ES S

Outer wires (al)

core (gz)

Tra ns i ti o n p o i nt

ST R A IN (% ELO NG AT IO N )

FIGURE W2 STRESS STRAIN CURVE FOR NON HOMOGENOUS CONDUCTOR

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The initial characteristics of the conductor stress strain may be described by a polynomial
equation as follows:
= A0 + A1S + A2 S2 + A3S 3 + An Sn . . .W3
where
= conductor strain
An = coefficients derived from conductor test
S = conductor stress
A0 is general very small and can be ignored. Usually a 3rd order polynomial describes the
data adequately, however in some cases higher orders may be more appropriate. Similar
polynomials are derived for the initial curves of the steel core and the aluminium outer
layer. Linear regression may be applied to the unloading curves and is used to determine the
line of best fit. The slope of the line is termed the final modulus of elasticity.
For a non homogenous conductor, consisting of dissimilar materials, the composite modulus
above the transition point may be theoretically determined knowing the weighted ratios of
the aluminium and steel components to the composite conductor and the material modulus
of aluminium and steel and is given as
A1 E1 + A2 E2
Ecomp = . . .W4
A1 + A2
where
A = cross sectional area
E = conductor modulus of elasticity
1 = subscript denoting material 1
2 = subscript denoting material 2
Below the transition point the modulus will be that of the core material and in the case of an
ACSR/GZ, the modulus will be that of the GZ wires.
Equation W4 does not account for the wire geometry of a helical stranded conductor and
this equation will always over estimate the modulus by about 1%. A 1% error in modulus
will generally result in conductor sag error of about 2%.
In more recent times Nigol and Barrett (see reference at end of this Appendix) discovered
that the stress and strains in helically stranded aluminium wires of a conductor were not the
same as those of the individual straight wires. By examining the wire geometry of a
helically stranded wire, Nigol and Barrett derived an equation for the conductor strain
related to the wire strain, and to the change of layer radius R. From this work, a more
accurate modulus may be determined and for a non homogenous conductor with multiple
layers the composite modulus is given by

1 Ni
n
Ec = core core ni,j Ai,j Ei,j
E A + . . .W5
Ac j =1 i =1
where
A = cross sectional area
E = conductor final modulus of elasticity
Ni = number of wires in the conductor
Nij = number of wires in i layer of material j
c = subscript denoting composite

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1 = subscript denoting material 1


2 = subscript denoting material 2
The modulus for AAC, AAAC and ACSR/GZ conductors are published in relevant
Australian Standards.
The final stress strain curve of a non homogeneous construction includes a transition
tension/stress load point defined as the point on the final modulus composite conductor
curve where the slope of the curve changes from the composite modulus to that of core
modulus. This is an unloading point where the aluminium because of permanent elongation
does not support any stress and the total conductor stress is supported by the core. The
conductor modulus below the transition point is that of the steel core material.
Of particular interest is the change in transition tension/stress with a change in temperature.
A phenomenon reported by Nigol Barrett known as the birdcaging temperature, when above
this temperature the conductor expands at the rate of the steel core. With increasing
tensions the birdcaging temperature will increase because additional thermal expansion is
required in the aluminium before the load is transferred wholly to the steel core.
Conductor tension changes shall be determined in accordance with Table W1.

TABLE W1
CONDUCTOR TENSION DETERMINATION MODELS
Model Modulus of Elasticity
Non linear stress strain Conductor stress strain described by a polynomial equation and
determine conductor permanent elongation for tension excursions
Linear stress strain Use final modulus for either homogeneous of non homogeneous
conductors

Reference
NIGOL, O. and BARRETT, J.S., Development of an Accurate Model of ACSR Conductors
for Calculating Sags at High TemperaturesPart III. Report prepared for the Canadian
Electrical Association, March 1980.

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APPENDIX X
CONDUCTOR COEFFICENT OF THERMAL EXPANSION
(Informative)

X1 GENERAL
Homogeneous conductor coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is given as
al = 23 106 (aluminum)
st = 11.5 106 (sc/gz)
Non homogenous conductor, consisting of dissimilar materials, the composite CTE above
the transition point is given as
A1 E11 + A2 E2 2
comp = . . .X1
A1 E1 + A2 E2
where
A = cross sectional area
= coefficient of thermal expansion
E = conductor modulus of elasticity
1 = subscript denoting material 1
2 = subscript denoting material 2
Below the transition point the CTE will be that of the core material and in the case of an
ACSR/GZ, the CTE will be that of the GZ wires.
Equation X1 does not account for the wire geometry of a helical stranded conductor and
this equation will always over estimate the CTE by up to 5%. A 5% error in CTE will
generally result in conductor sag error of about 2%.
A more accurate CTE may be determined by examining the wire geometry and an increase
in temperature which will cause an increase in wire length resulting in an increase in lay
length. Hence for a non homogenous conductor with multiple layers the composite CTE is
given by

1 Ni
n
c = core core core ni,j Ai,j i,j
E A + . . .X2
Ec Ac j = 1 i =1
where
A = cross sectional area
= coefficient of thermal expansion
E = conductor final modulus of elasticity
Ni = number of wires in the conductor
Nij = number of wires in i layer of material j
c = subscript denoting composite
1 = subscript denoting material 1
2 = subscript denoting material 2
CTE for AAC, AAAC and ACSR/GZ conductors are published in the relevant Australian
Standards.

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APPENDIX Y
CONDUCTOR DEGRADATION and SELECTION FOR DIFFERING
ENVIRONMENTS
(Informative)

Y1 GENERAL
To one degree or another, most materials experience some form of interaction with a range
of diverse environments. Often these interactions result in degradation of material ductility,
strength and in the case of conductors, effective cross sectional area and hence
conductivity. Conductor corrosion susceptibility depends on the material, the construction
and the protective mechanisms employed in the design. The severity of the corrosive
environment and the presence of chlorides, sulphur dioxide and other pollutants will
accelerate corrosion. Atmospheric corrosion takes place in aqueous environments and the
exposure duration of wetness is a principal factor.
Y1.1 Pit corrosion
Pitting is the loss of parent material at a localised site on a surface exposed to the
environment. Pitting may be caused by corona corrosion in UHV lines or more commonly
by localised electrolytic reaction in which water and oxygen must be present. Pit growth
rate is generally very small.
Surface pitting is generally associated with an exposure to industrial and coastal
environments. With time, pit corrosion will continue to be initiated and existing shallow
pits may widen. Catastrophic localised corrosion is not likely to occur and the overall effect
would be the gradual loss of cross sectional area.
Y1.2 Crevice corrosion
When an electrolyte such as water is present in the interstitial spaces between wires,
localised etching or crevice corrosion may occur. This may be associated with conductor
suspension fittings coupled with environments of particularly high rainfall, frequented by
fogs and or perhaps in close proximity to chloride and or sulphate atmospheric depositions.
Corrosion may take place and voluminous grey to white slightly moist deposits between the
penultimate and ultimate aluminium layers will be found. Chemical investigations generally
reveal levels of aluminium oxide, sulphates and chlorides of about 60%, 5% and 1%
respectively.
Y1.3 Homogenous Al and Al alloy conductors
The corrosion mechanism is generally limited to pit corrosion and is influence by
atmospheric chloride and sulphate levels. The performance is generally excellent due to
firstly, the formation of a resistive coating of aluminium oxide and secondly that the PH
levels of aluminium ranges from 4 to 8.5 which results in passive behaviour. Nevertheless
all aluminium conductors show some pit corrosion and the level of pit corrosion is
dependent on the level of impurities held in the substrate. One example is aluminium alloy
6201A which employs compound Mg2Si, is anodic in aluminium and reactive to acidic
solutions and tends to dissolve away leaving an inactive pit.

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Y1.4 Homogenous copper conductor corrosion


The corrosion mechanism is generally limited to pit corrosion and is influenced by the
presence of ammonia in the atmosphere. The performance is generally excellent due to the
formation of a protective coating of copper oxide however severe corrosion will result when
copper conductors are used in the vicinity of abattoirs and or fertiliser factories. When in
contact with aluminium, special jointing techniques are critical to avoid severe and rapid
galvanic corrosion of the aluminium from copper oxides in the presence of an electrolyte
such as water.
Y1.5 Homogenous galvanized steel wire conductors
The corrosion mechanism is limited to initially the gradual loss of zinc followed by
localized galvanic action of the steel substrate. The rate of corrosion is approximately linear
and is generally determined by the classification of the environment. Hence, the most
critical element in determining the life of the zinc coating is coating thickness and this
provides a reliable correlation in determining the expected life of zinc coated wires.
Application of the known corrosion rates to zinc coated steel wires, the associated age and
the location of the line enables the deterioration of the wires to be determined. The
corrosion rates for zinc and steel are given in Table Y1

TABLE Y1
CORROSION RATES FOR ZINC AND STEEL
Corrosion rate
Corrosivity m/yr 1 Zinc/steel corriosion
classification ratio (approx)
zinc steel
Mild <1 <10 1:10
Moderate <2 10 20 1:20
Tropical <2 20 50 1:50
Industrial 24 20 50 1:15
Marine (>1 km) 24 20 80 1:20
Severe marine (<1 km) 4 >10 80 -200 1:20

Y1.6 Non homogenous Al conductors steel reinforced


Initially a galvanic cell is set up with the zinc coating of the steel wires as the anode and the
aluminium wires as the cathode with the zinc corroding in the presence of sulphur oxides.
After some time the zinc will expose the steel substrate. At this stage the aluminium will
then act as an anode and the steel as a cathode resulting in the aluminium being sacrificial
to the steel. At this stage, the aluminium corrosion rate accelerates rapidly.
The most effective method of reducing corrosion is to prevent moisture, sulphur oxides and
other corrosive substances from coming into contact with the zinc aluminium interface.
This may be achieved by applying a protective material such as grease, bitumen, paint or a
plastic film over the zinc wires.
Y1.7 Protective greases
Protective greases provide a layer or barrier to corrosion products and conductors may be
partly greased which provides better performance than ungreased conductors. Fully greased
conductors provide superior performance in the most aggressive environments.
The performance of the grease is influenced by consideration of the drop point which
should be much greater than the maximum operating temperature of line.

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If the drop point of the grease is less than the maximum operating temperature of line, then
grease will liquefy, run to centre of span, form droplets and for lines greater than 33 kV
cause radio interference.
A cautionary note, that bituminous compounds used in 50s and 60s in ACSR/GZ have a
drop point of about 700C and there are many examples where lines may now be operating
at or near maximum operating temperatures and the compound may have liquefied, run to
the centre of the span and fallen as droplets.
Y1.8 Application recommendations
Carter (see reference 2 at the end of the Appendix) reviewed the types of conductor
constructions in common use and surveyed service experience and resistance to corrosion
under varying conditions. Also published were results of corrosion tests in severe saline
environments, commenced in 1964 in collaboration with Illawarra County Council
(predecessor of Integral Energy). The results were consistent with those reported by other
international and national authors at the time and indicate the following general
conclusions
(a) for aluminium, slight external pitting generally less than 250 m will occur after
about 3 years;
(b) there is no difference in the extent of external pitting between 1350 aluminium and
6201 aluminium alloy;
(c) there is good internal and external corrosion resistance provided by homogenous
conductor constructions;
(d) for ACSR/GZ protection of the aluminium wires will occur up to the point that
degradation of the zinc coating has occurred;
(e) severe attack on bare galvanized wires up to 3 years and complete removal of the zinc
coating will occur in 3 years with salt deposition > 160 g.m2 ; and
(f) a delay in the onset of internal corrosion results will occur from the use of protective
grease.
When selecting a conductor for a hostile environment the following factors should be
considered:
(i) Full or partial greasing of the conductor significantly improves corrosion resistance.
(ii) Ensure that all fittings are compatible so that electrolytic corrosion does not occur.
(iii) Insulated/covered conductor systems may provide protection against corrosion
provided the conductors are completely sealed by the insulation/covering and do not
provide traps for corrosive solutions nor allow ingress of moisture.
(iv) The aluminium coating on SC/AC is very soft and should be treated carefully if it is
to provide adequate corrosion protection. The corrosion resistance of SC/AC is very
dependent on the thickness of the coating.
Carters work was used in the 90s coupled with other service experience (see reference 3 at
the end of the Appendix) to develop conductor application recommendations adopted by
ESAA (now ENA) (see reference 4 at the end of the Appendix) shown in Table Y2.

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TABLE Y2
CONDUCTOR SELECTION FOR DIFFERING ENVIRONMENTS
Salt spray pollution Industrial pollution
Conductor type Bay, inlets and
Open ocean Acidic Alkaline
salt lakes
AAC Good Good Good Poor
AAAC/6201 Good Good Average Poor
AAAC/1120 Good Good Good Poor
ACSR/GZ Poor Poor Average Poor
ACSR/AZ Average Good Average Poor
ACSR/AC Good Good Average Poor
SC/GZ Poor Poor Poor Average
SC/ZC Good Good Good Poor
OPGW Good Good Average Poor
HDCu Good Good Average Good

References
1. ROBINSON, J., Development of A Durability Branding System for Steel Construction
Products, Corrosion Management, Vol 10, No. 2, pp 3 10, November 2001
2. CARTER, R.D., Corrosion Resistance of Aluminium Conductors in Overhead
Service. MM Metals Report released to the Aluminium Development Council.
3. BRENNAN, G.F., Methodology for Assessment of Serviceability of Aged
Transmission Line Conductors Postgraduate Thesis, Wollongong University, 1989.
4. Guidelines for design and maintenance of overhead distribution and transmission
lines, Electricity Supply Association of Australia Publication C(b)1, 1991.

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APPENDIX Z
CONDUCTOR STRESS AND FATIGUE
(Informative)

Z1 GENERAL
Fatigue failures of overhead line conductors occur almost exclusively at points where the
conductor is secured to fittings. The cause of such failures is dynamic stresses induced by
vibration combined with high static stresses. It is necessary therefore to limit both the static
and dynamic stresses if the conductor is to have acceptable fatigue endurance.

Z2 STATIC STRESSES
Z2.1 Static tensile stress
The line conductor tension produces static tensile stresses in the individual conductor wires.
For homogeneous conductors, the outer layer stress can be calculated by dividing the
tangential tension in the conductor by the cross-sectional area. For non homogeneous
conductors, the static tensile stress in the aluminium wires can be estimated by
T
A1 = . . .Z1
AA1 + nASt
where
Al = stress in aluminium wires
AAl area of aluminium
ASt = area of steel
T = conductor tension
n = Efe/Eal
Eal = 68 GPa (aluminium)
Est = 193 GPa (sc/gz)
The ratio of the density of steel to aluminium is similar to the ratio of their moduli of
elasticity and Equation Z1 may be rewritten as
T
A1 . . .Z2
m
In the case of ACSR conductors, the stress in the aluminium wires decreases with time as
the metallurgical creep in the aluminium is much greater than in the steel and results in a
load transfer from the aluminium to the steel. This effect becomes more predominant as the
percentage of steel in the conductor decreases.
Z2.2 Static bending stress
Static bending stress results from the bending of the conductor at the support point and is a
function of the span length, tension, self weight and flexural stiffness of the conductor and
the radius of curvature of the support clamp.
Z2.3 Static compressive stress
Static compressive stresses arise as a result of tensile and bending forces in the individual
wires of the conductor and the conductors self weight on the support and from external
clamping pressures.

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While the stresses are primarily bearing or radial stresses with very small associated
longitudinal stress, they are a source of aggravated fretting which can significantly reduce
the fatigue endurance of the conductor.

Z3 DYNAMIC STRESSES
Dynamic stresses are alternating bending stresses caused by wind-induced vibration in the
conductor and the stresses can vary widely in magnitude, frequency and duration. The
fatigue fracture of an individual wire within a conductor is the result of a large number of
stress cycles which cumulatively exhaust the fatigue strength or endurance limit of the
material.
The wind induced vibration or commonly known as aeolian vibration occurs when laminar
wind flows across a conductor causing vortices to be shed alternatively from top and bottom
of the conductor. This continuous shedding of vortices causes an alternating force to be
applied to the conductor, thus causing vibration predominantly in the vertical plane.
The severity of the vibration problem is determined by the nature of the wind flow, its
direction with respect to the line, the line tension and the frequency of occurrence of the
laminar winds. It is therefore necessary when considering dynamic stresses to take into
account the topographical and climatic conditions of the line route.
Laminar flow winds are generally most prevalent in early morning in winter. The vibration
induced by wind velocities between 0.5 m/s and 7 m/s is characterized by short wave
lengths, relatively high frequencies and low amplitudes. Wind velocities less than 0.5 m/s
do not have sufficient energy to induce vibration and velocities greater than 7 m/s are
turbulent in nature and do not produce the vortex shedding necessary to induce vibration.
The temperature under which the horizontal tensions are applied should therefore be based
on this condition. The average temperature over the coldest month is generally used for this
purpose.
Practically all fatigue failures of conductors originate at wire crossover points or at support
contact points where fretting occurs. Fretting is the form of damage that arises when two
surfaces in contact are exposed to slight periodic relative motion. The fretting produces
abraded particles and in the case of aluminium, the product consists of black aluminium
oxide. Fretting initiates fatigue cracks and the overall fatigue strength of the conductor is
significantly reduced.
Conductor fatigue endurance is related to bending and compressive static stresses and is
relatively insensitive to static tensile stresses. However as static stress levels increase, the
conductor self-damping characteristics are reduced. This reduction in conductor self-
damping, coupled with the dynamic stress induced by laminar winds, which are terrain
dependent, and length of time exposure to transverse laminar winds are considered to be the
most significant factor in conductor fatigue endurance.

Z4 LIMITING OUTER LAYER STRESSES


Z4.1 Limiting static stresses
The outer layer stresses (OLS) used for the derivation of Table Z1 are generally based on
work carried out by CIGRE and the Swedish State Power Board, and represent the
allowable static tensile stress in the outer layer of a conductor under certain specified
conditions.
A conductor which is most likely to experience damage due to vibration will be supported
in a short bolted clamp or on a pin insulator with no armour rods or dampers in a terrain
conducive to laminar wind flow. This combination of factors defines the base case outer
layer stress.

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A conductor which is least likely to experience damage due to vibration will be fully
supported, fully damped and erected in a terrain not conducive to laminar wind flow. This
combination of factors defines the recommended maximum outer layer stress levels.
In Table Z1 the base case outer layer stresses have been converted to a base case horizontal
tension expressed as a percentage of the calculated breaking load (CBL). The values listed
in Table RTE are expressed as horizontal tension, rather than tangential tension. This
approximation is satisfactory, except for very long spans or for spans in very steep terrain.
Some adjustments have been made in the light of operational experience, in particular with
regard to small diameter ACSR conductor with high steel content where experience has
shown that, with effective damping, these conductors can be strung to higher allowable
tensions.
The static bending and static compressive stresses resulting from the support arrangement
used for the base case can be reduced by using long radius shaped clamps, armour rods,
preformed ties or helical support/suspension units. As a consequence of appropriately
designed supports, a higher static tensile stress may be tolerated.
Shaped long radius clamps and armour rods, or pin insulators with armour rods, allow an
increase in the static tensile stress of 5% to 7%, while helical support/suspension units, or
preformed ties with elastomer inserts, used in conjunction with armour rods on pin
insulators allow an increase of 10% to 15% on the base case. These allowable increases
have been converted to a percentage of CBL and included in Table Z1 under clamp
category.
The performance of AAAC irrespective of alloy is considered to related to fretting fatigue
and Table Z1 reflects this consideration.
Z4.2 Limiting dynamic stresses
Control of dynamic stresses is the most significant factor in the fatigue endurance of
overhead conductors. Dynamic stresses can be limited by
(a) terrain not conducive to laminar wind flow. Factors such as mountainous terrain, tree
cover and urban development will minimize conductor vibration;
(b) the use of effective vibration dampers;
(c) the use of spacer dampers with bundled conductor; and
(d) the presence of some or all of the above factors will allow the static tensile stress
(design horizontal tension) to be increased in accordance with Table Z1.
Combinations of open or rolling terrain without dampers are in general not recommended
because the level of dynamic stresses that result can cause the fatigue life of the conductor
to be reached at a very early stage. In this case the fatigue life may be relatively insensitive
to everyday tension. This is particularly important for steel and small diameter high steel
content ACSR conductors which have little inherent self damping.

Z5 VIBRATION DAMPERS
Use of effective dampers is critical if use is to be made of this factor in the selection of the
higher horizontal tensions from Table Z1. Selection of dampers should be based on the
recommendations of the manufacturer and compliance with the relevant Australian or New
Zealand or equivalent International Standards. Vibration damping requirements may be
calculated, for example for Stockbridge type dampers using energy balance considerations
which may allow higher tensions to be used. The following considerations are relevant:

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(a) Damper type


Spiral dampers are generally considered to be more effective for conductor diameters
up to 12 mm, and Stockbridge type dampers for conductor diameters above 15 mm.
In the range 12 to 15 mm either type may provide an effective solution, alternatively
an optimum solution may involve a combination of the two types
(b) Damper construction
Robustness of design to achieve a useful life compatible with that of other line
components; avoidance of conductor damage at the point of attachment consideration
of working live line working; and corona discharge and radio frequency interference
limited to acceptable levels
(c) Damping characteristics (Stockbridge dampers only)
(i) Frequency response and energy dissipationShould be capable of limiting
bending stress and strain anywhere along the conductor to permissible levels for
all frequencies of vibration encountered in aeolian vibration; as the frequency is
dependent on conductor diameter, dampers with different responses will be
required for different conductors. It is important that the dampers have adequate
energy dissipation over a wide frequency range and cover the highest level of
expected frequency; and dampers which meet the performance criteria of
AS 1154.1 will generally provide acceptable energy dissipation and frequency
range;
(ii) ImpedanceThe reactive and resistive mechanical impedance of the damper
should match the conductor as closely as possible;
(iii) EnduranceThe fatigue life of the damper itself should be sufficient to endure
the rigorous service life of the conductor. The performance of the damper
should not deteriorate due to fatigue and ageing. With hardware using elastomer
inserts, degradation due to exposure to ozone and ultra violet light should be
taken into consideration; and
(iv) Damper stressThe dampers should not create significant stresses on the
conductor due to clamping or damping forces exerted by the bending stresses at
the damper clamp.
(d) Number of dampers per span
For fully damped conductors the number of dampers in a span should be sufficient to
dissipate wind induced energy in the conductor. It should also be noted that dampers
to be used in Category 1 Terrain should provide substantially more energy dissipation
than those used for higher terrain categories to fully damp the conductor.
Consideration should be given to damper life when selecting the number of dampers
in a span. There could be situations when effective energy dissipation can be achieved
with fewer dampers, but this may be at the expense of the damper life.
(e) Damper location
The ideal location is the anti-node of the vibrating loop, however, as vibration
frequency and loop length is a function of wind velocity, the Manufacturers
recommendation for a location to suit the full range of frequent wind velocities
should be obtained.

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TABLE Z1
CONDUCTOR EVERYDAY LOAD HORIZONTAL TENSION (H)
Recommended incremental increase in horizontal tension
(% CBL)
Recommended
Static stress considerations Dynamic stress considerations
Base case maximum
Damping/terrain category horizontal
Conductor or overhead horizontal
earthwire type tension No dampers Fully tension
Clamp category* damped all (% CBL0
(% CBL)
Terrain category terrain
categories
A B C 1 2 3
COPPER 25 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 34
SC/GZ, SC/AC 10 0 2.5 5.0 0 5 10 16.0 31
AAC 18 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 27
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AAAC/1120 15 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 24


AAAC/6201 13 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 5.5 21
ACSR 3/4, 4/3 10 0 2.0 4.0 0 4 8 13.0 27
ACSR 6/1, 6/7 17 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 7.5 27

272
ACSR 30/7 16 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 25
ACSR 54/7, 54/19 18 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 27
AACSR/1120 6/1, 6/7 14 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 23
AACSR/1120 18/1 16 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 7.5 26
AACSR/1120 30/7 13 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 22
AACSR/1120 54/7, 54/19 14 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 23
AACSR/6201 6/1, 6/7 13 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 22
AACSR/6201 18/1 14 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 23
AACSR/6201 30/7 12 0 1.5 2.5 0 2 4 6.5 21
Optical conductor 14 NA NA 2.0 NA NA NA 4.0 20
* Clamp category: Type A Short trunnion clamp, post or pin insulator with ties (without armour rods)
Type B Post or pin insulator (clamped or tied) with armour rods or shaped trunnion clamps with armour rods
Type C Helically formed armour grip with elastomer insert or helically formed ties with armour rods
Terrain Category: Type 1 Flat, no obstacles (See Note 12)
Type 2 Rolling terrain with scattered trees (See Note 12)
Type 3 Mountain, forest or urban

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Notes on Table Z1:


1 Generally, the temperature under which the horizontal tensions from Table Z1 are applied is based on the
average temperature over the coldest month, which in the absence of detailed data may be calculated as
the average of daily mean maximum temperature and daily mean minimum temperature.
2 Limits for covered conductors are subject to further research.
3 Limits for LVABC are given in Clause 4.4.1.5.
4 Limits for HVABC should be based on the limits for the support conductor (subject to further research).
5 The tension values given in Table Z1 are a guide only and need not apply to situations where proven line
performance indicates that a higher or lower tension would be appropriate. This could apply for example
to a new line built adjacent to an existing line where the conductor and support (the same as the type to be
used) have shown adequate performance.
6 When using the tension limits in Table Z1, additional considerations may need to be given to
(a) The conductor diameter, as this is the governing factor with respect to vibration frequency. Smaller
diameter conductors will vibrate at higher frequencies and reach their fatigue life in a shorter time,
however, smaller conductors are easier to damp effectively. For all conductors particular care should
be taken to ensure that the damper efficiency range is effective over the range of frequencies likely to
occur.
(b) The span length, because of the requirement to increase vibration protection with increased span
length.
(c) The conductor design, including self damping characteristics, compactness, bundled cables, number
of aluminium layers, steel/aluminium ratio, etc.
(d) The extent to which supports, insulators and fittings can withstand vibration transmitted to them by
the conductor.
7 Consideration should be given to the exposure created by structure height, particularly with regard to steel
overhead earthwire on steel tower transmission lines where tensions significantly lower than those listed
in Table Z1 are normally used.
8 Any terminations, suspensions or joints should be designed so as not to cause damage to conductors or to
be damaged by conductors when the conductor is subject to vibration. Vibration dampers are designed to
reduce the amplitude of vibration whereas armour rods and other protective fittings are primarily designed
to protect against the damage to conductors resulting from mechanical vibration.
9 An accurate measurement of conductor temperature during stringing is essential to ensure the initial
conductor tensions are achieved.
10 An accurate prediction of conductor creep is necessary to ensure that design final conductor tensions are
achieved.
11 Tensions for optical conductors are based on a conductor composed of aluminium clad or galvanized steel
plus aluminium or aluminium alloy wires. The optical fibres are carried in a metallic tube located in the
centre or an inner layer of the conductor. Optical conductor should always be installed with helical type
armour grips and be fully damped. The manufacturer of the optical conductor should be consulted
regarding the recommended maximum tension.
12 Where conductors are strung in Terrain Categories 1 and 2, it is recommended that vibration dampers be
applied. If dampers are not applied, care should be taken to ensure that supporting structures and
insulators are not subject to vibration damage, especially when use is made of the tension increase for
Type C suspension clamps.
13 Use of spacers on bundled conductors may contribute some damping but it is good practice to also fit
vibration dampers to bundled conductors.

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APPENDIX AA
CONDUCTOR TENSION CHANGE OF STATE EQUATION
(Informative)

AA1 GENERAL
The method employed to determine conductor tension due to a change of state of
temperature, wind loading and or ice loading depends on whether the design operating
tension is within the linear stress strain regime or whether design tensions excursions are in
the non linear stress strain regime. For non linear stress strain design, two methods are
commonly used and are the graphical and strain summation. Both methods have been
analysed, compared and described in some detail (see reference 1 at the end of this
Appendix) To employ the non linear stress strain detailed knowledge of the particular
conductor stress strain characteristic as detailed in Appendix W is required. The linear
stress strain model may be used using the modulus of elasticity determined in accordance
with Appendix W.
Having decided on either the use of a non-linear or linear method, the designer can then use
either the equivalent span theory (see reference 2 at the end of this Appendix) or the
complex finite element analysis (see reference 3 at the end of this Appendix) to determine
conductor tensions. The equivalent span theory is explained below and may be used for the
majority of overhead line designs.

AA2 EQUIVALENT SPAN


An equivalent span assumes a continuous conductor, supported at intermediate structures
and the tension within the section between conductor termination points is assumed to be
equal irrespective of the number of intermediate structures, span lengths and terrain profile.
The equivalent span or ruling span is a determination from the lengths of all the spans
between tension structures of a span length that will dictate the conductor tension within the
section. The ruling span is given by

Lruling =
L 3

. . .AA1
L
For example, three spans 240 m, 280 m and 220 m between two tension structures would
have a ruling span determined as follows:

2403 + 2803 + 2203


Lruling = = 251 m . . .AA2
240 + 280 + 220

The total section length is 740 m and the conductor tension determined for the change of
state equation would based on a span of 251 m.
Under some circumstances such as long insulator lengths, significant changes of elevation
between adjacent structures or where adjacent spans are of significant differing lengths the
equivalent span theory has limited application and finite element analysis using commercial
software should be used to determine conductor tension.

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AA3 TENSION CHANGE OF STATE EQUATION


The tension change of state equation determinates the conductor tension for any condition
of temperature, wind loading and or ice loading. The key to understanding the tension
change of state equation relationships is that
(a) there is some initial conductor condition which is usually a predetermined design
condition;
(b) there is a final conductor condition and this is normally the condition that is being
determined; and
(c) the fundamental relationship is based on conductor length between two points where
the conductor length is constrained from any axial movement or in other words
mechanically terminated.
Take the simple example of a single span, length L with the conductor terminated at A and
B as illustrated in Figure AA1.

A ( x 1 ,y 1 ) B ( x 1 ,y 1 )

Sy

FIGURE AA1 SIMPLE OVERHEAD LINE SPAN SHOWING SPAN LENGTH AND
CONDUCTOR LENGTH

In this example the general time independent conductor tension change of state equation for
the conductor length cord, l is
linitial + l = lfinal . . .AA3
where
l = change in conductor length due to changes in temperature, ice and or
wind load and or tension.
By substitution into Equation AA3, the Taylor series expansion of the initial parabolic
conductor length, the change in length due to change in temperature, the change in length
due to change in tension and the Taylor series expansion of the final parabolic conductor
length results in Equation AA4 (see reference 4 at the end of this Appendix).
12 L3 L 2 L3
L+ 2
L( 2 1 ) + (T2 T1 ) = L + 2 2 . . .AA4
24Th1 AEf 24Th 2
where
L = span length
= conductor mass
Th = conductor horizontal tension
= conductor temperature
= coefficient of thermal expansion
A = conductor cross sectional area
Ef = conductor final modulus of elasticity

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1 = subscript denoting initial condition


2 = subscript denoting final condition
The tension change of state equation may be manipulated and result in a cubic
Equation AA5 which may be solved using a range of mathematical techniques.
T23 + AT2 = B . . .AA5
where
2
LC
A = C2 (t2 t1 ) + 1 1 T1
T1
B = ( 2LC1)2

EA
C1 =
24
C2 = EA
Equation AA3 omits consideration of conductor permanent elongation and hence is termed
the time independent tension change of state equation. The time dependent equation for
tension change of state equation for conductor length, l is
linitial + l + = lfinal . . .AA6
where
= conductor permanent elongation determined in accordance with
informative ADF.
The time dependent equation may be solved to determine conductor sag change with time
for a particular condition such as the maximum operating condition. This then permits
determination of the required allowances for conductor permanent elongation as described
in Appendix V.
References
1. CIGRE SCB2.12.3, Sag Tension Calculation Methods for Overhead Lines. CIGRE
Technical Brochure No.324, 2007.
2. BOYSE, C.O. AND SIMPSON, N.G., The Problem of Conductor Sagging on
Overhead Transmission Lines. Journal of the Inst. of Elec. Eng. Vol 91, Pt II, Dec
1944, pp 219 231.
3. BARRIEN, J, Precise Sags and Tensions in Multiple Span Transmission Lines.
Electrical Engineering Transactions IEAust, Vol II, No.1, 1975, pp 6-11.
4 Overhead Conductor Design, BICC Wire Mill Division Prescot, Lancashire, England,
1967, pp 21-28.

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APPENDIX BB
CONDUCTOR SHORT TIME AND SHORT-CIRCUIT RATING
(Informative)

BB1 FAULT RATINGS


BB1.1 General
The main factors to consider when determining the fault rating of a line are
(a) the annealing of the conductor resulting from overheating due to the magnitude and
duration of the fault current;
(b) the sagging of the conductor into another conductor below it; and
(c) movement of conductors due to electromagnetic forces leading to conductor clashing,
arcing, conductor damage, secondary faults, etc.
BB1.2 Annealing
The short circuit or transient thermal state condition for a homogenous conductor,
assuming
(a) uniform current distribution within the conductor and the wires;
(b) the resistance temperature characteristic of the conductor is linear;
(c) the specific heat of the conductor is constant and the heating is adiabatic; that is due
to the transient nature of the current flow the heat gains and losses at the surface of
the conductor are ignored; and
(d) the fault duration is small such that no heat will be dissipated from the conductor
then the following equation is a reasonable approximation of the conductor temperature
rise
Ar RJ 2r
1 1 DC

T2 = 20 + T1 20 + e . . .BB1
Ar Ar

where
T2 = final temperature in C
T1 = initial temperature in C
Ar = temperature coefficient of resistance in C1
R = resistivity in ohm mm at 20C
D = density in g/mm3
J = current density in A/mm2
t = duration in seconds (includes reclosure times)
T + T
C = specific heat = C20 1 + Ac 1 2 20
2
C20 = specific heat at 20C in Jg 1 C1
Ac = temperature coefficient of specific heat

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Rearranging Equation BB1


T + T2 1
DC20 1 + Ac 1 20 T2 20 +
2 Ar

J2t = 1n . . .BB2
Ar R T 20 + 1
1 Ar

TABLE BB1
CONDUCTOR CONSTANTS
AAAC/ AAAC/ HD
Constants Units AAC SC/GZ SC/AC
1120 6201A copper

A r (at 20C) * C1 0.00403 0.00390 0.00360 0.00381 0.00440 0.00360

R (at 20C) * mm 28.3 10 6 29.3 10 6 32.8 10 6 17.77 10 6 190 10 6 85 10 6

D* g/mm 3 2.70 10 3 2.70 10 3 2.70 10 3 8.89 10 3 7.8 10 3 6.59 10 3

C 20 ** Jg 1 C 1 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.4 0.5 0.5

A c ** C 1 4.5 10 4 4.5 10 4 4.5 10 4 2.9 10 4 1.0 10 4 1.0 10 4

* Value taken from the appropriate Australian Standard, i.e. AS 1531, AS 1746, AS 1222.1, AS 1222.2.
** Values are median values of data sourced from several references including
V T Morgan, Rating of Bare Overhead Conductors for Intermittent and Cyclic Currents, Proc
IEE, 1361-1376, 116(8), 1969.
V T Morgan, Rating of Conductors for Short-Duration Currents, Proc IEE, 555-570, 118(3/4),
1971.
Draft IEEE Standard, Calculating the Current-Temperature relationship of Bare Overhead
Conductors, 1993.

From Equation BB2 the fault rating can be determined based on maximum allowable
temperature. Constants for specific conductor types are contained in the relevant Australian
Standards and as shown in Table BB1.
Aluminium loses approximately 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of 210C with a
significant proportion of the annealing taking place during the cooling period following a
fault. This annealing is cumulative over the life of the conductor. It anneals rapidly at
temperatures exceeding 340C and commences melting at approximately 645C. The
mechanical properties of the steel core of ACSR are affected very little at these
temperatures. Zinc melts at approximately 420C. Copper loses 10% of its tensile strength
at a temperature of 220C.
To provide for a loss of conductor tensile strength of less than 5% due to fault conditions
over its life, the temperatures indicated in Table BB2 should not be exceeded. The rate of
cooling is dependent on the thermal mass of the conductor, therefore lower maximum
temperatures are applicable to conductors of large cross-section.

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TABLE BB2
GUIDELINES FOR 5% LOSS OF TENSILE STRENGTH FOR TOTAL FAULT
CLEARING TIME (INCLUDING RECLOSES)
Conductor type Approximate size Maximum temperature
(mm)
HDCu 60 200C
AAC, AAAC/1120, ACSR/GZ, 100 160C
ACSR/AZ,
ACSR/AC 300 to 500 150C
AAAC/6201A 100 220C
SC/GZ, SC/AC 400C
OPGW ***
***Dependent on construction.
Reference: ROEHMANN, L.F. and HAZAN, E., Short time annealing characteristics of electrical
conductors, AIEE Trans 82/3 p1061, Dec 1963.

BB1.3 Sag under fault


Overhead lines have been known to sag into subsidiary lines or undercrossings under fault.
If this is to be avoided it may be advisable for the line to be designed to have a positive
clearance to the lower conductor. It is recommended that the appropriate non-flashover
distance from AS 2067 for the system voltage be used for this clearance.
BB1.4 Movement of conductors under fault
The movement of conductors due to the electromagnetic forces generated by large short
time current is a complex matter for which a simple satisfactory solution is not available.
The Transmission Line Reference Book115-138 kV Compact Line Design (EPRI EL-100-
V3, Research Project 260, 1978) Section A3, Simulation and Tests of Motion Due to Fault
Currentsgives equations which may be used to determine conductor swing and the
mechanical forces due to fault currents.
By taking these criteria and the degree of reliability required into account, a suitable
compromise on structure design, conductor configuration and economics can be achieved.

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APPENDIX CC
CONDUCTOR ANNEALING
(Informative)

CC1 GENERAL
Aluminium alloys are designated by the numbering system in Table CC1. The first digit
specifies the principle alloying elements, and the remaining digits refer to the specific
composition of the alloy. The alloys are subdivided into two subgroupsheat treatable and
non heat treatable alloys. Heat treatable alloys are age hardened (precipitation hardened),
whereas non heat treatable alloys are hardened by solid solution strengthening (not used for
conductors because of the reduction in electrical conductivity), strain hardening, or
dispersion strengthening.

TABLE CC1
DESIGNATION SYSTEM FOR WROUGHT ALUMINIUM ALLOYS
1xxx Commercially pure Al (>99%) Non heat treatable
2xxx Al-Cu Heat treatable
3xxx Al-Mn Non heat treatable
4xxx Al-Si and Al-Mg-Si Heat treatable if Mg is present
5xxx Al-Mg Non heat treatable
6xxx Al-Mg-Si Heat treatable
7xxx Al-Mg-Zn Heat treatable

The degree of strengthening is given by the temper designation in Table CC2

TABLE CC2
TEMPER DESIGNATIONS FOR ALUMINIUM ALLOYS
F As fabricated (hot rolled, forged, cast, etc)
O Annealed (most ductile condition)
H1x Cold worked only (x refers to the amount of cold working or strengthening)
H2x cold worked and partly annealed
H3x cold worked and stabilised at a low temperature to prevent age hardening
W Solution treated
Tx Age hardened (x refers to the amount of strain hardening)

Resistance to room temperature creep and annealing varies with composition or fabrication
variations. EC alloy 1350 has about 0.20% (by weight) Fe and 0.08% Si. Addition of iron
decreases resistances to creep and annealing. Addition of Mg to a high iron alloy increased
the resistances to creep and annealing. Production of rod by the continuous cast process
also causes higher resistances to creep and annealing than the conventional hot-rolled
process.

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CC2 WIRE FABRICATION


Aluminium strands are drawn from 9.5 mm rod which can be produced by either the
continuous cast (known as Properzi) process or by the hot-rolled process. Continuous cast
rod is the result of the tandem manufacturing steps of casting, rolling and solution heat
treating, if applicable. This allows the continuous production of coils limited in size only by
the capability of the materials handling equipment. By contrast, hot-rolled rod is produced
from cast billets that are rolled and solution heat-treated, if applicable. Large coils of hot-
rolled rod are made by welding together smaller coils.
Conductors derive their strength from the metallurgical properties of the alloy and from
strain hardening (cold working) during the wire drawing process. In the case of heat
treatable aluminium alloys such as 6201, the strengthening of the wire that occurs during
the aging treatment is added to that achieved during the drawing process. For example, the
process of tempering produces approximately 41% of the overall strength for HDC; 56% of
the overall strength for 1350-H19 and 60% of the overall strength for 6201-T81.
Smaller diameter wire experiences more strain hardening and achieves about 3% higher
tensile strength. The greater the gain in tensile strength from cold working, the greater the
loss of strength from annealing for a given temperature and time duration.

CC3 ANNEALING FROM ELEVATED TEMPERATURE OPERATION


Morgan (see reference 6 to this Appendix) proposed the formulae below for determining the
loss of tensile strength of strands due to annealing. Morgan related the loss of strength of
the wires to the percentage reduction in cross sectional area during wire drawing, since this
determines the degree of strain hardening.
B
A + 1n ( t ) +
T*
C
T*
+ D 1n
R
80
W = Wa 1 e
e
. . .CC1


D 2
R = 100 1 w . . .CC2
Do

where
W = loss of tensile strength in the partially annealed state (% of
ultimate tensile strength in the tempered state)
Wa = loss of tensile strength in the fully annealed state (% of
ultimate tensile strength in the tempered state)
A, B, C and D = experimentally derived constants for the alloy
T* = wire absolute temperature (K)
t = time duration at temperature T* (hours)
R = reduction in cross-sectional area during wire drawing (%)
Do = diameter of prior to drawing (mm) usually 9.5 mm for
aluminium
Dw = diameter of the drawn wire i.e. strand diameter (mm) usually
2.5 to 4.75 mm for aluminium
Table CC3 is an excerpt from Table 2 of [reference 6 to this Appendix] using average
values of C/A.

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TABLE CC3
ANNEALING EQUATION CONSTANTS
Alloy Wa A B C D
(%) (K) (K)
1350-H19 56 7.8 150 4700 7.5
6201A-T81 60 16.2 270 9000 4
HDC (110A-H) 41 14 175 6700 3

In general, Aluminium loses approximately 10% of its tensile strength at a temperature of


210C with a significant proportion of the annealing taking place during the cooling period
following a fault. This annealing is cumulative over the life of the conductor. It anneals
rapidly at temperatures exceeding 340C and commences melting at approximately 645C.
For ACSR, the mechanical properties of the steel core are affected very little at these
temperatures. Zinc melts at approximately 420C. Copper loses 10% of its tensile strength
at a temperature of 220C.

CC4 ANNEALING FROM FAULT CURRENTS


Excessive heating of conductors and in particular overhead earthwire during a short circuit
can cause a reduction in tensile strength and permanent elongation. The permanent
reduction in electrical clearance can reduce the reliability of the line. Failure of the
conductor and or earthwire either during the fault or subsequently during adverse weather
can cause an outage as well as damage to the support structures. In the case of steel stands,
any loss of protective zinc coating can lead to corrosion
In particular, the earthwire size is determined by the assuming a maximum acceptable
temperature that causes minimum permanent damage. The effect of cumulative heating of
the earthwire when the line is reclosed under short circuit conditions should be considered.
Permanent damage includes
(a) loss of protective coating i.e. zinc, grease;
(b) reduction in tensile strength (annealing);
(c) permanent elongation; and
(d) permanent attenuation losses for OPGW.
For AAC and AAAC earthwires the reduction in tensile strength will be accompanied by
accelerated creep. For ACSR earthwires there will be a transfer of load from the aluminium
to the steel, resulting in larger sags than perhaps anticipated.
Consideration should be given the instantaneous sag of the earthwire at elevated
temperatures to ensure that the sag does not result in a consequential fault during an auto
reclose operation.

CC5 MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURES


Typical conductor types, csa and maximum allowable temperature [See reference 8 to this
Appendix] are given in Table CC4 for loss of strength of 10%. Notwithstanding this it is
stressed that this is a guide only and annealing cumulative damage should be determined by
summing the loss of tensile strength as a percentage of original strength for the range
operating temperatures and operating durations.

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TABLE CC4
TYPICAL CONDUCTOR MAXIMUM OPERATING TEMPERATURES
Conductor type csa Maximum temperature
(mm)
HDCu 60 200C
AAC, AAAC/1120, ACSR/GZ, 100 160C
ACSR/AZ, ACSR/AC 300 to 500 150C
AAAC/6201A 100 220C
SC/GZ, SC/AC 400C
OPGW Dependent on construction

References
1. KIESSLING, F. et al, Overhead Power Lines Planning and Design , Springer, pp
250 251
2. IEEE Std 1283-2004, IEEE Guide for Determining the Effects of High-Temperature
Operation on Conductors, Connectors, and Accessories
3. BARBER, K.W.; CALLAGHAN, K.J., Improved overhead line conductors using
aluminium alloy 1120, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Volume 10, Issue 1,
Date: Jan 1995, pp 403 - 409
4. WESTERLUND, R.W., Effects of composition and fabrication practice on resistance
to annealing and creep of aluminium conductor alloys, Metallurgical and Materials
Transactions B, Volume 5, Number 3/March, 1974, pp 667-672, Springer Boston
5. CIGRE WG22.12, Loss in Strength of Overhead Electrical Conductors Caused by
Elevated Temperature Operation, ELECTRA No. 162, October 1995, pp 115118
6. Vincent Morgan, Effect of Elevated Temperature Operation on the Tensile Strength of
Overhead Conductors, IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 11, No. 1, January
1996, pp 345-352
7. FRANC JAKL and ANDREJ JAKL, Effect of Elevated Temperatures on Mechanical
Properties of Overhead Conductors under Steady State and Short-Circuit Conditions,
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 2000, pp 242 246
8. ROEHMANN, L.F. and HAZAN, E., Short time annealing characteristics of
electrical conductors, AIEE Trans 82/3 p1061, Dec 1963.

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APPENDIX DD
MECHANICAL DESIGN OF INSULATOR - LIMIT STATES
(Normative)

DD1 INSULATOR LIMIT STATES


There are 3 states for the mechanical design of insulators, these being
(a) everyday load;
(b) serviceable wind load; and
(c) failure containment load.

DD2 MECHANICAL DESIGN SIMPLIFIED APPROACH


Table DD1 shows the load and wind conditions for a range of insulator types.
These define the minimum requirements for an overhead line of relative reliability of 1 or
less.

TABLE DD1
INSULATOR LOADING CONDITIONS
State Tension insulator Suspension and vee Post and pin insulator
condition string insulator condition
condition
Everyday Everyday tension (EDT), Vertical weight span, Vertical weight span,
0 Pa wind 0 Pa wind 0 Pa wind
Serviceable Serviceable wind or Resultant load at Resultant load with
500 Pa wind serviceable wind or serviceable wind or
500 Pa transverse load 500 Pa transverse +
longitudinal unbalance
load
Failure containment Conductor calculated Resultant load for Resultant load with
breaking load (CBL) ultimate conductor wind ultimate transverse wind
transverse load + longitudinal unbalance
load

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APPENDIX EE
EASEMENT WIDTH
(Informative)

EE1 EASEMENT WIDTHS


Table EE1 provides typical easement widths for a range of voltages.
For distribution voltages, approval for an overhead line on private property is generally
negotiated with the property owner and may not require a formal easement agreement.
It is generally not required to obtain easements for overhead powerlines located on road
reserves because of building set back conditions contained in local authority planning
schemes. However if an easement is required Table EE1 gives the nominal widths.

TABLE EE1
TYPICAL EASEMENT WIDTHS FOR A RANGE OF VOLTAGES (FOR TYPICAL
SPANS)

Nominal voltage Easement building restriction Typical width of easement


widths generally used
(measured from the centre line
of the overhead line) *
Up to 33 kV 5 to 10 m 10 to 20 m
66 kV 10 to 15 m 20 to 30m
110/132 kV 15 to 20 m 30 to 40 m
220 kV 15 to 25 m 30 to 50 m
275 kV conventional 25 to 30 m 50 to 60 m
275 kV guyed 30 m 70 m
330 kV 30 m 60 m
400 kV 30 m 65 m
500 KV 35 m 70 m

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APPENDIX FF
SNOW AND ICE LOADS
(Normative)

FF1 GENERAL
The accumulation of snow and ice on conductors and supports varies greatly with altitude,
latitude and local conditions such as terrain. In general, lines located in areas higher than
800 m above sea level in Australia and in some areas of New Zealand may be subject to
occasional snow/ice loadings. However, there is insufficient consistently re-occurring data
for most regions on which to base return periods for snow and ice loads. Hence details
provided are considered to provide a reasonable guide to designers.
Only combined wind and ice loads on conductors are considered in this standard. Wind
loads on ice covered supports and insulators may be treated similarly when appropriate drag
factors are used.
The effect of wind on an ice covered conductor is determined by three variables:
(a) the wind speed during the period of time that the conductor is ice covered; and
(b) the mass of the ice layer;
NOTE: The shape of the ice layer, i.e. the diameter and the relevant drag factor.
Reference should also be made to the provisions contained in AS/NZS 1170.3 and CIGRE
Technical Brochure 291, Guidelines for meteorological icing models, statistical methods
and topographical effects, April 2006.
In particular the following specific provisions should be made:
FF1.1 Australia
In areas with ice and snow loadings, the minimum design loads should be based on a radial
ice thickness of 12 mm with a density of 900 kg/m3 (SG = 0.9) and coincident with a wind
pressure of 100 Pa at a conductor temperature of 5C. These loads may be taken as
corresponding to a return period of 50 years though the appropriateness is uncertain.
Provision should also be made for the unbalanced longitudinal loads produced by ice
forming on certain spans but not others, due to local topographic effects. In this regard, line
sections with large adjacent span ratios should also be investigated.
In regions within Tasmania icing can occur at low altitudes but with reduced thickness of
accretion. In this area the requirements provided in Table GG1 shall be included in design
loadings.

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TABLE GG1
TASMANIA REGION ICE LOADING CONDITIONS

Ambient Wind pressure


Elevation Ice condition (Pa)
Wire type temperature
(m) 900 kg/m3
(C) Spans >150 m Spans <150 m
Earthwire 0499 Non-ice Coexisting Inclement (design) weather
temperature conditions prevail
Conductor 0599
Eathwire 500799 Ice6 mm 10C 190 380
Conductor 600799
Both 800999 Ice9 mm 10C 190 380
Both >1000 Ice12 mm 10C 190 380
NOTES:
1 Icing should be assumed to occur in all areas of Tasmania and is dependent on altitude and locations
where ice loading has been known to occur.
2 Snow offset cross arms should be used on all vertical configuration circuits to minimise clashing of
conductors. Earthwires are not to be positioned above phase conductors in horizontal/flat construction
configuration
3 Ice build up is assumed to only occur on conductors. Lattice structures with congested bracing
arrangements that may trap snow accumulations shall have increased windage areas provided in designs.
4 Where in-cloud icing may occur on elevated location expert guidance should be sought from local
meteorology sources.
5 Where the line is subject to moist air rising from the coast (West Coast and around the South East Coasts
of Tasmania), the susceptibility to ice accretion is higher. In those areas, the elevation shall be 100 metres
lower at which ice conditions apply.

These effects may then be used to evaluate wire tensions and the calculation of wire loads
on structures.
FF1.2 New Zealand
Ice (or wet snow) is to be considered on wires only. For ice cases which include wind, the
reduced return period wind should be applied to un-iced pole or tower, taking into account
the structures overall drag coefficient. On towers heavily congested by members, all gaps
of less than 75 mm should be considered as being filled with ice.
For exposed sites on ridges, non uniform ice build may result and the ice build up shall be
taken as the full ice accretion thickness on one side of the structure and 40% of ice build up
on the other side.
All large deviation (greater than 30) and section poles shall be designed for the full ice
accretion thickness on one side of the structure and no ice build up on the other side.
The drag coefficient to be used for wind co-incident with ice conditions shall be taken as
1.1 times the relevant drag coefficient (Cd) for wind conditions only, but in no case be less
than 1.2.
FF1.2.1 Temperature effects
Unless specific data is available, the following design temperatures shall be used.
(a) Snow0C
(b) Ice
(i) Coastal areas: temperature = 0.0085 altitude 3C
(ii) Inland areas >5 km from coast: temperature = 0.0085 altitude 5C

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The temperature shall be based on the highest altitude of the line. If there is significant
variation in altitude along the line, then the line shall be broken into several temperature
zones.
FF1.2.2 Conductor tensions (FT)
The conductor tensions shall be based on a span equal to the ruling span.
Consideration shall be made for the overall effect of differences in tension of adjacent
spans on the structure.
Where significant span differences arise, the structure shall be checked for full loading on
one side of the structure and 40% of loading on the other side.
Allowance shall be made for some flexibility of post and pin insulators when calculating
tensions.
FF1.2.3 Snow and ice zones
The snow and ice zones are based on AS/NZS 1170.3 Figure 7.1 (snow zones). These are
based on the 1988 Council Boundaries.
Specific historical knowledge and records of other lines in the same locality may be utilized
in generating ice and snow loading requirements.

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FIGURE GG.1 NEW ZEALAND SNOW AND ICE ZONES

FF1.2.4 Radial snow and ice build up on conductors


Table GG2 below specifies radial snow/ice thicknesses corresponding to a 50 year event.
Relatively low density Wet Snow occurs at low elevations below 600 m. At higher
elevations, ice is expected to form. Two snow/Ice cases shall be checked

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TABLE GG2
ICE AND SNOW PARAMETERS FOR NEW ZEALAND
Radia snow or ice thickness (Rice) on conductors
Zone Altitude Wet snow Ice thickness at Co-incident
thickness at 7000 kg/m 3 wind return
400 kg/m 3 period for ice
(years)
N0 450600 25 1
Upper North Island 600900 30 5 1
9001200 35 8 1
>1200 40 10 5
N1 150450 25 1
Lower North Island 450600 30 10 1
600900 35 15 1
9001200 40 20 5
>1200 45 25 5
N2, N3, N5 0150 30 10 1
South Island 150300 35 15 1
300450 40 20 1
450600 45 25 1
600750 30 5
750900 35 5
9001200 40 5
>1200 45 5
N4 0150 45 (30 15 (10) 1
Canterbury 150300 50 (35) 20 (15) 1
300450 55 (40) 25 (20) 1
450600 60 (45) 30 1
600750 65 (50) 35 5
750900 40 5
9001200 45 5

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NOTES:
1 The figures in brackets are the existing standard thicknesses. Ice density has been assumed as 900 kg/m.
[Based on current knowledge, this appears too high]. The snow values are based on AS/NZS 4676 and
equivalent Transpower radial thicknesses (these were converted to uniform density values).
2 For wind associated with ice, it is recommended that at low altitudes that a 1 year return period be used;
for higher altitudes a higher value has been adopted on the basis that wind is more likely to occur and
that ice formation may remain for many days.
3 AS/NZS 4676 requires 30 mm radial snow (0.4 SG) be considered at all below 600m altitudes for
Canterbury (N4).
4 AS/NZS 1170.3 suggests that 30 mm radial ice (0.9 SG) at 0C combined with a 10 year return period
wind be used for building structures in sub alpine regions. This may be appropriate for rigid structures
only; it is very conservative for overhead lines (which are very flexible).
5 ISO 12494 suggests that combined actions be considered involving maximum wind (50 year RP) and
reduced icing (factor = 0.7) also maximum icing (50 year RP) and reduced wind cases (50 year RP); wet
snow is usually taken in still air conditions. This is similar to IEC 60826 requirements.
6 For wind associated with ice, the overall effect is similar to current overhead line standards. Although
the ice density has been reduced from 915 to 700 kg/m and the wind speed reduced, the iced diameter
has been increased slightly to compensate. Most lines companies dont want to see a reduction in
transverse loading on the poles, hence results should be comparable.
7 The proposed wet snow values are based on limited data on 2006 June storm in Orions area (this was up
to a 50 year event in some locations). Reported snow build up was 20 mm to 50 mm radial thickness at
an equivalent of 400 kg/m snow density. This indicates that current standards are probably too low at
particularly at lower altitudes.

FF1.2.5 Co-incident wind and ice conditions


No wind shall be applied to wet snow.
Wind loads shall be calculated as per AS/NZS 1170.2.
Only winds from the SW, S or SE directions shall be considered coincident with ice.
FF1.2.6 Ice densities
For all radial ice thicknesses, a base density of 700 kg/m shall be used. This is consistent
with a medium rime ice which is believed to be the predominant icing mechanism in New
Zealand.
For conductors less than 11mm, the radial ice thickness shall be increased by 10%.
FF1.2.7 Snow densities
For all radial snow thicknesses, a density of 400 kg/m shall be used.
FF1.2.8 Differential ice loading
In addition to the uniform extreme ice/snow loading case, every structure within ice/snow
zones shall also be checked for torsional and longitudinal loading resulting from
Differential Icing as described in the Table GG.3. No coincident wind shall apply with
differential icing.

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FIGURE GG2 DIFFERENTIAL ICE LOADING

TABLE GG3
DIFFERENTIAL ICE AND SNOW LOADING CONDITIONS
Differential ice and snow loading conditions
Longitudinal condition Torsional condition
Support type Left span Right span Left span Right span
Single circuit xyabc XYABC XYABC XYABC
abc ABC ABC ABC
Double circuit xabcdef XABCDEF XABCDEF XABCDEF
abcdef ABCDEF ABCDEF ABCDEF
A,B,C,D,E,F represent phase conductors and x,y are earthwires.
A,B,C,D,E,F,X,Y represent spans loaded with 70% of maximum ice/snow weight.
The letters a,b,c,d,e,f,x,y represent spans loaded with 30% maximum ice/snow weight.

FF1.2.9 Snow loading on pole structures


Poles in areas subject to snow shall have a minimum down-line strength of at least
(a) 50% of their transverse strength. This allows some equalisation of out-of-balance
loads before significant damage occurs; and
(b) 50% of the initial stringing tension of the conductors being supported on the pole
under everyday conditions (still air). This ensures that multiple circuit poles have
sufficient robustness.
Consideration should be given to the effects of redistribution of forces between stays and
rigid poles under snow loads.
NOTE: In soft soils, up to 200 mm of movement may occur before the soil passive anchor
capacity is reached].

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*** END OF DRAFT ***

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PREPARATION OF JOINT AUSTRALIAN/NEW ZEALAND STANDARDS

Joint Australian/New Zealand Standards are prepared by a consensus process involving


representatives nominated by organizations in both countries drawn from all major interests
associated with the subject. Australian/New Zealand Standards may be derived from
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submit views on the requirements to be included.

The following interests are represented on the committee responsible for this draft
Australian/ New Zealand Standard:
CIGRE
Electrical Engineers Association of NZ Inc
Electrical Regulatory Authorities Council
Electricity Engineers Association (New Zealand)
Energy networks Association
Engineers Australia
National Electrical and Communications Association
Transpower New Zealand Limited
Vector Ltd
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