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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.1. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.2. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.4. . . -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
1.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
1.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
2.2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
3.3. 4- . . . . . . . . 46
3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
4. . . . . . . . . 53
4.1. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.2. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
4.3. ,
. . . . . . . . 57
5. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
5.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
4

6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.1. . . . . . . . . . . 70
6.2. , -
. . . . . . . . . 70
7. (
). . . . 73
8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
8.1. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
8.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
8.3. 4- 89
8.4. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
8.5. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
8.6.
,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
9.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
9.1. () . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
9.2.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
9.3. - -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
9.4. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
10.2. GNII (
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
10.3. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127
10.4.
GNII- . . . . . . 129
10.5. GNII--
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

-
, .
,
XIX .
4- . -
. , ,
.

. , . ,
. , . . -
-
,
-
.


. . . . ( .., ..
. . II. . .: , 1973. 504
.). 1918 . . (Noether E.
Invariante Variationsprobleme // Kgl. Ges. Wiss. Nachr. Gottingen. Math.-
Physik. Kl. 2. 1918. S. 235257),

-
. ,
,
XX- ,
.
-
-
. ,
,
, -
(-
)
6

( -
-
), , -
-

.

. , , -
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- .
,
,
-
,
.
. , , -
. , ,

, ,
.
,
( - )
.
-
.
-
, , -
- . -
,
. -,
-
, ,

(
),
(Truesdell C., Toupin R.F. The Classical Field Theories/
Principles of Classical Mechanics and Field Theory. Encyclopedia of Physics.
Vol. III(1) / Ed. S. Flugge. Berlin: Springer, 1960. P. 2260793;
.
7

. .: , 1975. 592 .), 80- -



.
-
, : .
. .: , 1965. 480 .; .
: . .: , 1983. 400 .
-, - -
( )
, -
.
( ),

.

.
,

,
,

.

, 2009 . ..-.., . . .

(
, , , ,
, -
) . -
1 .

.
- -
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( ).
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.
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-
: , , ,
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, . -

,
,
, (
) .
, , -
,
1

.
9

. -
, .
, -
, ,
, .., . (
). ., .: , 1951. 480 .
.
(., : Truesdell C., Toupin R.A. The
Classical Field Theories/ Principles of Classical Mechanics and Field Theory.
Encyclopedia of Physics. Vol. III(1) / Ed. S. Flugge. Berlin, Gottingen,
Heidelberg: Springer, 1960. P. 226793)
.
,
-
( -
).

, . ,
,
-
,
, ;
,
()
.
( )
. , -

.

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, ,
.

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,

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10

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( -
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- .
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, -
.
,
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,

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.
11



, -
1 .


GNII- (
) 2 . -
. GNII-

-
. -

.
, , ,
-
. ,
.
1
--
, Qj (k , k , k , . . .
. . . , X ), -

Fj (k , k , k , . . . , X ) = 0,

, -

J = Qj Fj

J k , , , -

J = 0.

2
GNII- (A. E. Green)
(P. M. Naghdi)
-
, ( -
) .
, -
.

.
12

, .-.
. . , - .-. , . . .
,
.

, , 2009 . ..-.., . . .
..-.., . . .

-
-
(
(E. Mach)) , ,
. ,
,

-

. ,
-
. (Kelvin) (
: ),
,
.
-

(G. W. Leibniz). , -
, ,
.
(J. L. Lagrange) -
(W. R. Hamilton) , -
.

1 .
(., -
, [1]). , ,

[2]. , -
, : -
() ,
, , -,
1

1834, 1835 . (Hamilton W.R. On a general method in dynamics, by which the study
of the motions of all free systems of attracting or repelling points is reduced to the
search and differentiation of one central relation, or characteristic function // Philos.
Trans. Roy. Soc. London. 1834. Pt. II. P. 247308; Hamilton W.R. Second
assay on a general method in dynamics // Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London. 1835.
Pt. I. P. 95144) , , . . 1848 .
14


, -
,
1 . ,
-
.
.

(GN II), , ,

,
.
2
: ( 1)
4- - 3 , -
( -
), -
,
; [3]

( ) 2;
3 -
, ( 3.1)
( 3.3) -
( 10- ),
(. 3.2) ,
, 3.4
- (
) -

1
., : Knowles J.K., Sternberg E. On a class of conservation laws
in linearized and finite elastostatics // Arch. Rat. Mech. Anal. 1972. V. 44.
P. 187211; Olver P.J. Conservation laws in elasticity I. General results // Arch.
Rational Mech. Anal. 1984. V. 85. P. 119-129; Olver P.J. Conservation
laws in elasticity II. Linear homogeneous isotropic elastostatics // Arch. Rational
Mech. Anal. 1984. V. 85. P. 131160; Olver P.J. Symmetry Groups and
Path-Independent Integrals // In: Fundamentals of Deformation and Fracture. Eshelby
Memorial Symposium, Sheffield 2-5 April, 1984 / Eds. B. A. Bilby et al. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1985. P. 5771.
2
. : ..
// : . . 90-
. . / . . . . . .: , 2003.
. 658684.
3
, -
. -
( , , )
.
15

,
(
); -

4,
,
- -
(. 5) ;
, 6, , -
,
(
); 7 -
( )
, . .
;
8, -
( ) 1 ;

9

1
, , .
,
,
, -
.
[15].

, -
-
.
,
. 8.4
n- -
( 4- - ).
-
(. 8.1) ,
, -
-. (. 8.2),
-
15 .
,
(. 8.5). -

. , -
8., , -
, ,

,
- - -
, , ,
.
16

1 ; 10 -
( -
) GNII- ,

2 , .
,
.
, ,

[4]. , -
-

.
, [5] .
-
.
, .
-
, .

. [6], [7],
[911].
-

, ,
[12] ( [13]).
()
. -
[14]. , -

.

1
-
,
.
2

( ) -
. -
,
, -
.
1

( -
) ,
,
(, , ) .

(,
[9]). [7] (.
pp. 260264). [4], pp. 96115.

1.1. -. .

,

. , ,
S . .

Z
= L(k , k , k , . . . , X ) d4 X , (1.1)
D
k ( -
), ; X
( = 1, 2, 3, 4) - 1 : X 4 = ct (-
1
-
. ,
.
-
. -
. -
, , [16], . 457472.
X 1 , X 2 , X 3 -
, -

. -
- .

2 . . , . .
18 . 1.

c
); d4 X ; D 4- 1 , -
- X 1 , X 2 ,
X 3 , X 4 .
, .
(1.1)
2 .
-
(1.1). -
, .
, ,
, ( )
- -
.
-
3 ,
-

ds2 = e (dX )2 ( = 1, 2, 3, 4), (1.2)

e1 = 1, e2 = 1, e3 = 1, e4 = 1.
4- -
(H. Minkowski) .
-
X ; -

ds2 = g dX dX . (1.3)

1

, D -
, ,
,
t1 , t2 .
2
4- ( -
-
) .
3
-
: .. -
. .: , 1966. 648 . . : .., ..,
.. . .: , 1979. 760 .
1.1. -. 19

-
1 . (1.3) -
; g
;
-
. , ,
.
, -
,
.
-
, -
y k , -


y k y k
= g (X ).
X X
, n- ,
(1.3) ,
- .
4 -
-
.
.
d4 X - -

d4 X = dX 1 dX 2 dX 3 dX 4 . (1.4)
L . -
, . . X
k
- ,
.
1
:
, .
,
. -
: .. . .:
. - . -, 1948. 316 .; ..
. .: , 1967. 664 .; ..
. .: , 1969. 548 .
2*
20 . 1.

d4 - -
, X , -


d4 = g dX 1 dX 2 dX 3 dX 4 , (1.5)
g (, ) , -
- -
g . , - -

, g g 1 ,

. g dX 1 dX 2 dX 3 dX 4
-,

.

d4 X = dX 1 dX 2 dX 3 dX 4 ,
- ,

g . -

.
-
- -

Z

= L(k , k , k , . . . , X ) g d4 X. (1.6)
D
,
,

L, g L. , L

- . L

. , L
.
,



g L L, (1.7)
1
(.,
, [17], . 39).
1.1. -. 21



L g L, (1.8)
, , -
(1.1).
-
- .
,
X 1- -
. k
:
. -
, k ,
-
.
, (1.1) -

- X . -
F (k , k , k , . . . , X )
X  F
F = expl F + 1 2 . . . s l . (1.9)
(1 2 . . . s l )
s>0
, -
F (k , k , k , . . . , X )
(1.9) -
.
-
, -
, , (

expl
X ), , , . .

-
- .
,
, -
. ,
,
(., , [18], [19]),
,
22 . 1.

:
- ( ),
( ),
.
, -
D .

k -

L = L(k , k , X ). (1.10)
, -

.
, .
,
. .

.
.
.
k
( ) ,
(. . ,

) (
,
, ,
1 ):
xk = xk (X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , X 4 ).
, , -
, , -
k : k = xk .

( ):
X = X (x1 , x2 , x3 , t).
-
.
1

[1820].
1.2. 23

.
, -
.
(.,
, [4]).
-
,
. -
,
.
.

1.2.
.


(
), ,
, , . .

k :
= 0. (1.11)
- -
X 4- .
.
-
4- D
(1.1).
-

k , - X .
1 .
1

, ,
: .., .., .. .
.: , 1979. . 338406.
24 . 1.

,
, () -
() -

e,
(X , k ) (X ek ), (1.12)

e = X (X , ),
X ek = k (s , X , ),
(1.13)


X (X , ) = X, k (s , X , ) = k . (1.14)
=0 =0
(1.13),
, .
.
, --
X k -
(1.13) , (1.13)
X , -
k . -
.

e = X (s , X , ),
X ek = k (s , X , ), (1.15)

.
, , (1.13)
- X
k . -

(fiber-preserving transformations). ,
- (base transforma-
tions)
Xe = X (X , ),
ek = k (1.16)
(standard transformations)
Xe = X,
ek = k (s , X , ). (1.17)
-
,
( -
,
1.2. 25

, ) 4- - -
, . .
Z Z
ek , e
L(k , k , k , . . . , X ) d4 X = L( ek , e e e ) d4 X
ek , . . . , X e
D e
D
(1.18)
(1.13)
- 4- X
X e.
-
,
(
).

, (1.13),
, , -

(1.13). (1.18) -
o(). (1.13)
.
,
.
,
( -
, , -)
-
- . -
,
( -
)
.

( ) -
(1.13), -
([14], p. 230) e .
Z
= L(k , k , k , . . . , X ) d4 X , (1.19)
D
Z
e=
e
L( ek , e
ek , e e e ) d4 X
ek , . . . , X e (1.20)
e
D
26 . 1.

(1.13)
,
e = .

, -
(1.13)
, . .
1
e =
(1.21)

Le d4 X
e = L d4 X , (1.22)
Le ,
- X e
ek
(1.13)
Le = L(
e ek , e
ek , e e e ),
ek , . . . , X
, (1.22)
e
L( ek , e
ek , e e ek , e
e ) L(
ek , . . . , X ek , e e e ),
ek , . . . , X (1.23)
.

1.3.

, ,
(1.13),
, -
(, ,

(1.13), ,
, ) (1.22),

 e 
X
det e
L( ek , e
ek , e e e ) = L(k , k , k , . . . , X ).
ek , . . . , X
X
(1.24)
-
(1.13) , (1.24)
1
, -
(1.13),

, .
1.4. . 27

(1.23), . .
 e 
X
det L(ek , e
ek , e e e ) = L(k , k , k , . . . , X ).
ek , . . . , X
X
(1.25)

-
(1.13).
(1.24) -
(1.19), (1.20) -
(1.13).
( -
, (1.25)) -
(1.13) , (1.25)
,
. ,
, -
. -
-
-
.

1.4. . .

(1.17), . .
, - X .
k
 k s 
k ( , X , )
= . (1.26)
=0
- -
, -

= . (1.27)
, L
, k -
-
28 . 1.

([8], . 152; [14], pp. 223, 224)


Z  
L L
= k
+ ( k
) d4 X ,
k ( k )
, ,
Z   Z  
L L k 4 L
= d X + k
d4 X. (1.28)
k ( k ) ( k )
-
,
k
Z  
L L
= k d4 X. (1.29)
k ( k )
( -
) ( -
)
L L
Ek (L) = 0. (1.30)
k ( k )
( )
. -
(1.30) -
.
1- Ek
.
, k
,
(1.30). , -
,
. -,
( ),
(1.30) .
, 8. -, -
;
(1.30) , , -
1 , (1.30). -,
: -
, , ,
1



- .
1.4. . 29

,
,
.
,
.
,

-
.
, -
,
1
L L L
Ek (L) k
k
+ = 0. (1.31)
( ) ( k )
Ek , (1.31), -
(
).
1- .

,

= l, = 1 2 ...s (1.32)
l
0 (1 2 . . . s l ) s l
(. [14], p. 223)
X
El = (1)s 1 2 . . . s l1 2 ...s . (1.33)
s
s>0
s = 0
l .
0
(1.31)
(1.16), . . - -
X . , , 2
 e 
X
Ek (L) = det Eek (L)
e, (1.34)
X
1
,
k , ,
.
., , [4], pp. 116, 117.
2
., , [6], . 213221.
(1.16) .
(1.16) .
30 . 1.

e e Le
e L e L + e e
Eek (L) ,
ek (e ek ) (e e
ek )
 e 
X
det e
L( ek , e
ek , e e e ) = L(k , k , k , . . . , X )
ek , . . . , X
X
(1.35)
, , X k k e
e , X -
(1.16). (1.34) ,
Ek (L) = 0 Eek (L) e = 0 -
. ,
: ,
, (1.35)
.
-
(1.15) , , [13], . 323
327; [14], pp. 230235. , (
) -
.


(1.15). -
(1.15)
, , , ,
.

1.5.

- X -
k (1.13) ,
:
   k s 
X (X , ) k ( , X , )
X = , = . (1.36)
=0 =0
k -
-
, X
1.5. 31

-. -
k k
k
k = k +
X . (1.37)
X

( ) ,
. -
(1.37) . , 9
, -
-
.
,
(1.13) , -
(1.25) ,
, . (., , [9], p. 174)
 e 
X (X )
det = 1 + + o(),
X X


(X )
L + L = 0, (1.38)
X
L
ek , e
L( ek , e e e ) L(k , k , k , . . . , X ).
ek , . . . , X (1.39)
,
, ,
 
L L L
L = X + k + ( k ).
X expl k ( k )

( k ) = (k ) + ( k )X ,

k = k + ( k )X ,

L L
L = ( L)X + k
k + (k ) (1.40)
( k )
32 . 1.

   
L L k L k
L = + ( L)X + . (1.41)
k ( k ) ( k )
(1.39) ,
, 9.

1.6.

( , -
)
- X k
([6], . 246248; [9], pp. 168176):
Z  
L L
= k
+ k
( ) + (LX ) d4 X =

k ( k ) X
Z  
L L
= k d4 X +
k ( k )
Z  
L
+ + LX d4 X. (1.42)
k
( k )
-
,

Z   I  
L L k 4 L k
= d X + + LX d .
k ( k ) ( k )

(1.43)
1 -
(1.13), (1.42),
(1.13), , .
(1.11)
(1.42). (1.42)
(1.13).
(1.11) -
,
. -
.
1
, ,
.
1.7. 33

1.7.

-
(1.38) (1.13)
, [21],
(X ) B
L + L = (1.44)
X X
,
Z
= ( B ) d4 X ,
-
B .
1- B
- (
, , )
B = B (k , k , k , . . . , X ).
(1.13) , (1.44)
B ,
(. [13], . 358).
(1.42)
, - X
k
Xe = X (s , X , ),
ek = k (s , X , ), (1.45)
, -,


X (s , X , ) = X, k (s , X , ) = k .
=0 =0
-
(1.45) , 6.

3 . . , . .
2

( . [6], . 248250; [9],


pp. 176178; [10], . 377386)
, -
, -
( ,
, ) 4- -
. ,
( )
(1.13)

e,
(X , k ) (X ek )

1 .
-
(1.13) ,
.
1

, -
, , , [10], . 377386; [12],
. 337362.

J = 0,
J (k , k , k , . . . , X ) 1- -
4-, .
, J = 0 -
k ; J -
.
,

-
.
(., , [12], . 341343) -
: J = L ,
L = L (k , k , k , . . . , X )
(L = L ).
2.1. 35


-,
.
4-
,
(, , )
1. ( 4--
);
2. 4--, -
3-, (H. A. Lorentz)
(
);
3. () .

, . . ( -
),
, , .

.
, -
, , -
, ( -
). -

, 1 .

2.1.


,
(1.13).
k -
,
L L
k
=0
( k )
1
-
. ,
,

.
3*
36 . 2.

, , (1.42) -

Z  
L
= k
+ LX
d4 X , (2.1)
( k )
, k ,
Z    
L k
= k
X
+ LX d4 X.

(2.2)
( k ) X
1-
   
1 L k k
J = X + LX , (2.3)
( k ) X
, -
(1.13),
Z
= J d4 X. (2.4)

J (2.3)
:
   
1 L k k L
J = + L ( ) X . (2.5)
( k ) ( k )
J ( ), , -
(2.3),
1 :
 
X (X , ) L
J =L +
=0 ( k )
 k s    
( , X , ) X (X , ) k

. (2.6)
=0 =0 X
, -
, (1.44),

(J B ) = 0. (2.7)

1
. .

X ( , ), k ( , , ).
2.2. 37

2.2. .


(1.13)
(, , ,
, )
e,
(X , k ) (X ek ).
, (2.4)
= 0

:
J = 0. (2.8)
, 4- J , -
,
I
J d = 0, (2.9)

d -
, 4--.
-
, (2.8), J
1 n k o
J =
Sk + P X , (2.10)


Sk P
k X (2.5).
(2.9) ,
,
, .. . , -
, X 4 =
= C1 , X 4 = C2 , .
4- J .
, ,
, ,
Z Z
3

J N d X + J N d3 X = 0.
X 4 =C1 X 4 =C2
38 . 2.

X 4 = C1 , X 4 = C2
N1 = 0, N2 = 0, N3 = 0 N4 = 1, N4 = 1,
Z Z
J 4 d3 X = J 4 d3 X ,
X 4 =C1 X 4 =C2
.. 3-
Z
J 4 d3 X (2.11)
.
,

X 4 = X 4 (X 1 , X 2 , X 3 ),
:
Z
J d (2.12)
X 4 =X 4 (X 1 ,X 2 ,X 3 )
.
3

-

. ,
, -
.
3.4
-.
, [2], [9].
, ,
[13], . 355358.
,
- .

.

3.1. -

- -
-
-:
X Xe = X (X , ) = X + .
(3.1)
-
.
-
- a priori. 3.4
.
- (, -
, )
, ,

X ;

X
40 . 3.

. -
-
.
4- -

-, -
X (. . expl L = 0), -
, 4-

J() = T ,
L
T = L ( k ) , (3.2)
( k )
,
-,

T = 0. (3.3)

.
- X , , -
,
L L j L s
= +
X j X ( s ) X X
-

L L
j
= ,
X ( j )


 j  
L L
= ,
X X X ( j )

 
j L
L ( ) = 0.
X ( j )

, T ,
(3.2), (3.3), :

T

T + B ,
k
B = B ( , k , k , . . . , X ) -


B = B ,
3.1. - 41



(T + B ) = 0.

T -
, - -
(3.3).
-
- X ,

4- J()
 
L
T = . (3.4)
X expl
, , ,
Z

= J() d4 X , (3.5)

Z  
L
= d4 X. (3.6)
X expl
(3.5) (3.6), (3.4).

4- T

1 . T
(., , [2], . 105109, 345349), -
( = 4)
(3.4),
( (3.4) ).
, , ,
, , -
(3.4)
 
4 L
4 T P = (, = 1, 2, 3), (3.7)
X expl

P = T (, = 1, 2, 3) . , -

L
= R vk ,
(4 xk )
(3.7)
R 4 (vk xk ) P

= finh (, = 1, 2, 3),
1
([22], . 143, 144).
, , -
,
1- 1-.
42 . 3.


v k = 4 k ,
, 1-
,  
inh L
f = ( = 1, 2, 3).
X expl
,
P = R vk k , (3.8)


4 P P = finh (, = 1, 2, 3). (3.9)

.
(3.8) ,
1- . -

P = R v ,

v = vk k
,
1- 1 .
, , , 1--

Z
P = T d
X 4 =X 4 (X 1 ,X 2 ,X 3 )

X 4 .
4- ( ).

L
H = (4 j ) L, (3.10)
(4 j )
P4 4-
Z
P4 = Hd3 X , (3.11)
X 4 =const
. . ,
X 4 = const,
1
v k v , -
.
3.2. 43

. d3 X
.
(3.10) ,
T44 = H.
(3.4) = 4
expl
4 T44 + T
4 = 4 L ( = 1, 2, 3)
,
L L
T k
4 = v ( k ) = v Sk ,
k
Sk = ,
( k )

4 H (Sk v ) = 4expl L
k
(k = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3).

k
Q = Sk v
. 1--
.

3.2.

, k
(k = 1, 2, 3) xk ,
( , -
)

ek = Qkj xj ,
x (3.12)
Qkj .
-
, . .
Xe = X ( = 1, 2, 3, 4).
-

, . . -
.
,

xk .
,
xk ,
44 . 3.

, -
(3.12)
L( x ek , X , t) = L( xk , t xk , X , t)
ek , t x (, = 1, 2, 3) (3.13)
Qkj , . .
L(Qkj xj , Qkj t xj , X , t) = L( xk , t xk , X , t) (, = 1, 2, 3).
(3.14)
,
L(Qkj xj , Qkj t xj , X , t)
Qkj ,
sl = Qsm Qlm sl = 0.
,
L(Qkj xj , Qkj t xj , X , t) extremum,
. .
L(Qkj xj , Qkj t xj , X , t)
=0
Qkj

sl = Qsm Qlm sl = 0.
sl ,
L sl sl
L sl
sl = 0,
Qkj Qkj
, Qij ,
L
Qij sl (sk jm Qlm + lk mj Qsm )Qij = 0
Qkj

L
Qij = ki + ik .
Qkj
,
L
Qij
Qkj
. -
Qij
 
L L L
Qij = ( x
ej ) + ej ) Qij ,
(t x
Qkj ( x ek ) (t xek )
, Qij = ij

L L
Mik = ( xi ) + (t xi ) ( = 1, 2, 3). (3.15)
( xk ) (t xk )
3.2. 45

, Mik .
,
L L
(t xi ) = vi = R vi vk (vk = t xk )
(t xk ) vk
, ,
L
( xi ) ( = 1, 2, 3)
( xk )
. -
,
L
Tkl = J 1 ( l ) ( = 1, 2, 3). (3.16)
( k )
, -
:
L L
( xi ) = ( xk ) ( = 1, 2, 3). (3.17)
( xk ) ( xi )
,
xk .
k -

e = X ( = 1, 2, 3, 4),
X
(3.18)
ek = xk + kj xj (k , j = 1, 2, 3),
x

kj = jk (k , j = 1, 2, 3)
,
. -
3-.
kj (k 6= j ) kj = jk , -
, . -
(3.18) kj , k < j .
,
e
xk
xk = js = ks xs
js
X
xk = ls (kl xs ks xl ).
l<s
l, s: l < s,
l, s = 1, 2, 3.
, X = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3, 4).
46 . 3.

, 4- J

L
J(ls) = (kl xs ks xl ) (k , l, s = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3, 4). (3.19)
( xk )

L
Sk = (k = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3, 4), (3.20)
( xk )


J(ls) = (Sl xs Ss

xl ) (l, s = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3, 4).

J(ls) (l, s = 1, 2, 3)
,
3-

J(k) = eksl Ss xl . (3.21)
-


J(k) = 0 (k = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3, 4). (3.22)

4
J(k) + 4 J(k) = 0 (k = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3),
, ,
4 = L
Ss = R vs ,
(4 xs )
4
J(k) = eksl R vs xl ,


(eksl xl Ss ) 4 (eksl R vs xl ) = 0 (k , s, l = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3).
. ekls R xl vs
( -
). -
(angular momentum) .

3.3.
4--

-
, X -
.
,
3.3. 4-- 47

- -
- .
,
(1.2), .

.
X . X
4-
,
.

T E = E.
E -
( )
E = g = e .
, - -
1
X Xe = X .

.
4- -
, 2 .


e = X + X ,
X (3.23)

=
4- , -
.
.
( 6= ) = ,
, .
, < .
1
-
, , : . .
. .: , 1966. 648 .
2
.
48 . 3.

, - -

Xe
X = = X

, X X
X = X + X ,
< >
X
X = ( X X ).
<
, : < .
, -
- ( , -
) k
(
). , k = 0.
, 4- J

L
J () = [( s )g X ( s )g X ] +
( s )
+ Lg (X X ). (3.24)

M

M = g g J () , (3.25)
. .
L
M = [( s )X ( s )X ] + L(X X ). (3.26)
( s )

M (
). , . -
,

1- 2-.
, (3.25)
(3.2)

M = T X T

X . (3.27)
- -


M = 0. (3.28)
3.4. - 49

(2.11), , -

Z
4 3
M d X.

4
T = P ( = 1, 2, 3),
P ( = 1, 2, 3) (),

Z
(X P X P ) d3 X (, = 1, 2, 3)
.

3.4. -

-
(1.16) (1.17),
- ( ). -
-
1 . -
(1.16) ,
-

e )dX
g (X e dX
e = g (X )dX dX , (3.29)
-
(1.16).
(1.16)
Xe = X + X (3.30)
-.
X - -
, (1.16), ,
(1.16) -
1
.: .. . .: . -
. -, 1947. . 251254; .. .
.: . - . -, 1948. . 266303; ..
. .: , 1961. 464 .
,
-
.
4 . . , . .
50 . 3.

g ,
(X ) g + g (X ) + g (X ) = 0. (3.31)
X (W. Killing) 1 .
(3.31) .

+ = 0. (3.32)

A
A = + A ,
X
A
A = A ,
X
.
, -
-,

+ R = 0, (3.33)
( -
)
1
R = [ ] + [ ] , (3.34)
2


R = + (3.35)
-
( ).
1-
3- .
- 20
. , R

, R = g R
.

(L. Bianchi)
R + R + R = 0. (3.36)
1
,
X
=

. -
, ,
(1.16).
3.4. - 51

-


A A = A R , (3.37)

-
, A .


R = R (3.38)


R = g R . (3.39)


1
G = R Rg (3.40)
2

( )

G = 0. (3.41)

-
(, , )
, ,

X ;

X
.

() 1 . -
- ,
g (3.31) (. (1.2))

ds2 = e1 (dX 1 )2 + e2 (dX 2 )2 + e3 (dX 3 )2 + e4 (dX 4 )2 . (3.42)

(3.31)

X = + X , (3.43)
1
, -
.
: .. . .:
, 1974. . 262279.
4*
52 . 3.

, ( = ) 10- -
. -
-

1
, , , ;
X X 2 X 3 X 4

e1 X 1 e2 X 2 , e1 X 1 e3 X 3 , e1 X 1 e4 X 4 ,
X 1 X 2 X 1 X 3 X 1 X 4

e2 X 2 e3 X 3 , e2 X 2 e4 X 4 ,
X 2 X 3 X 2 X 4

e3 X 3 e4 X 4 .
X 3 X 4
(3.44)
-
, , 3.1, 3.3.
4

, -
(1.13),

e,
(X , k ) (X e k ),
.
(1.13),
- -

Xe = X (s , X , ),
e k = k (s , X , ), (4.1)
, -,


X (s , X , ) = X , k (s , X , ) = k .
=0 =0

4.1.

(4.1)
j (X ) e ). ,
ej (X
(4.1) - -
s = s (X ), -
X X e ;
(4.1) ek
X e . ,
-
e e k , e e
e k , . . ., -
X X e
s , s , s , . . .
(4.2)
s e
e ,
e , e
s e es , . . .
(4.1).
54 . 4.

- X s
(4.1). -
-
( -
),
. , -

, (G. A. Maugin),
[4] (. [23]).

(
-
X = X (xk , t)) -
, -
, -
.
(G. Piola) ,

XIX . [25] ( ).
,
( ),
-


,
.
Z
= L(k , k , k , . . . , X )d4 X (4.3)
D
(4.1), -

e,
(X , k ) (X ek ),

Z
e
= L( ee k , e
e k , e e e )d4 X
e k, . . . , X e,
e
D

e
L(k , k , k , . . . , X ) L( e k , e
e k , e e e)
e k, . . . , X
4.2. 55

-
(4.1).
-
(4.1), . . e
:
e = .
(4.4)
e ,
,
.
1 e
e
L( e k , e
e k , e e e k , e
e ) L(
e k, . . . , X e k , e e e ),
e k, . . . , X (4.5)
, ,
-
(4.1).
, (4.4) (4.5)
, ,
, -,
e D. -
D

(4.1); , ,
.
, , -

(4.1), (4.1),
.

4.2.

-
-

- .

Ek (L) = 0. (4.6)
1
, o().

(4.1).
56 . 4.

,
(4.3)
(4.6) (., , [13], . 330, 331; -
), . .
L L L
+ = 0,
k ( k ) ( k )
L L(k , k , k , . . . , X ),
, (. .
, -
(4.1))

L L L
k
e + e e = 0,
e (e
e k) (e e e k)
L
L(e k , e
e k , e e e ).
e k, . . . , X

(4.1)
(. .
). ,
(. [13], . 323-327),
Ej (L) = Ajk Eek (L)
e, (4.7)

L L L
Ek (L) k
k
+ ,
( ) ( k )
e Le Le
e L e
Eek (L) + e e ,
k
e (e
e k) (e e
e k)

1 X 1
1 X X 1
j
.. .. ..
. . .

Ajk = det X

, (4.8)
1 X
X

j

k
1 k k
j
-
X , - ,
 
X e k e k e e k e ) = L(k , k , k , . . . , X )
det L(e ,
e ,
e ,...,X
X
4.3. 57

, k , X e -
e k, X
(4.1) ,
, , .
Ek (L) = 0 Eek (L) e = 0 ,
. 1

4.3.
,

- X -
k (4.1)

   k s 
X (s , X , ) k ( , X , )
X = , = . (4.9)
=0 =0
k k -

k
k = k + X . (4.10)
X

(4.1)

(X )
L + L = 0, (4.11)
X
L
e k , e
L( e k , e e e ) L(k , k , k , . . . , X ).
e k, . . . , X
,

L L
L = ( L)X + k
k + (k ) (4.12)
( k )

   
L L k L k
L = + ( L)X + . (4.13)
k ( k ) ( k )
1
,
, [13], . 468, 469.
58 . 4.

( ,
), -
- -
X k (4.1),

Z  
L L
= k
+ k
( ) + (LX ) d4 X =

k ( k ) X
Z  
L L
= k d4 X+
k ( k )
Z  
L
+ + LX d4 X. (4.14)
k
( k )
1
(4.1), (4.14), -
(4.1), ,
.
-
(4.11) -
(4.1) ([21])
(X ) B
L + L = (4.15)
X X
,
Z
= ( B ) d4 X ,

-
B , -
(
, , )
B = B (k , k , k , . . . , X ).
(4.1) -
.

   
1 L k
J = k
X
+ LX
, (4.16)
( k ) X
1
, ,
.
4.3. 59

, -
(4.1),
Z
= J d4 X. (4.17)

(-
)
(4.1). , (4.17)
= 0 -
:

J = 0, (4.18)
4- J (4.16),
(4.1) :
 
X (s , X , ) L
J =L +
=0 ( k )
 k s    
( , X , ) X (s , X , ) k

. (4.19)
=0 =0 X
-
, (4.15)

(J B ) = 0. (4.20)


,
- X k
(4.1), (4.14).
.
, -
:
   
k L L s L
( )Ek (L) = + ( ) ,
X expl X X ( s )

    
L L s L
X = X + ( ) X +
X X expl X ( s )
+ ( k )Ek (L)X
60 . 4.

, ,
 
L L L

X =
X ( s )( (X )) +
X X expl ( s )
 
k s L
+ ( )Ek (L)X + ( ) X . (4.21)
X ( s )
(,
) (4.14) -
(4.21),
Z 
L L
= k
k + (k ) +
( k )
 
k k L
+ ( )Ek (L)X + ( ) X +
X ( k )
    )
L L
+
X + L ( ) k
(X ) d4 X , (4.22)

X expl ( k )

   
X (s , X , ) k k (s , X , )
X = , =
=0 =0

1
- -
k
X ,

k
k = k + X .
X
, k -
- X
4-, , , k
, ,
(4.22)
Z   
L L
= k +
k ( k )
   ! )
L L
+
L ( ) k
X
d4 X ,
X expl ( k )
1
: , -
[4]
.
4.3. 61

:
Z (    ! )
L L
= + ( Sk ) k + + ( P ) X d4 X ,
k X expl
(4.23)

L
Sk = , (4.24)
( k )
L
P = L ( k ) . (4.25)
( k )
, -
1- 1- . 1
, (4.23) -
- X
k , , ,
(4.10) , k
. ,
(4.23)
Z     
L L

(P X ) + k k
+ ( ) X
d4 X.
( k ) ( k )
,
4 L
Sk = = R vk (v k = 4 k ),
(4 k )
L
P4 = ( k ) = R vk k ( = 1, 2, 3),
(4 k )
P44 = H,
v k , R -
, H -
, (3.10).

, Sk ( = 1, 2, 3) 2
( )
L
S= ,
F
1
, Sk 1-
1- .
2
-
, .
62 . 4.
(, = 1, 2, 3)
P 1

P = (LI + S FT ).

: F 2 ,
S = JFT T , J = det F,
T .

1
,

P = T ,

T .
2


k
F = k
1- 1- -
.
5
,

Oe e -
X s

e,
(X , k ) (X e k)

,
.

5.1.


(X , k ) (X ,
e k ),

e k = k + k (X )

k 4- D, -

X = 0, k = k = k .
(4.23), ,
Z  
L 
= + Sk k d4 X (5.1)
k
, -
,
L
+ ( Sk ) = 0,
k
, -, (. .
- X ) .
64 . 5. ,

5.2.

(k = 1, 2, 3)
(X , k ) (X ,
e k ),

e k = k + k (s , t).

, -, , k (s , t)
4- D.
- X -
k
X = 0, k = k = k (s , t)
.

xk = k , x4 = t
xk
(- X
).
, 1
Z  
L L
= + ( Sk ) 4 k d4 X ,
k (4 k )
(k = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3)

Z  
L L
= + ( S
k ) 4 k (s , x4 )d4 X =
k (4 k )
Z  
1 L 1 L
= J l
+ (l Tk )J 4 k (xs , x4 )d4 x =
xk (4 k )
Z  
1 L 1 L
= J l
+ (l Tk )J 4 k d4 x,
xk (4 k )
(l, k , s = 1, 2, 3; = 1, 2, 3) (5.2)
1
l :
- X
( = 1, 2, 3), xl (l = 1, 2, 3).
-
, -
() .
(. 9) -
l l .
0
5.2. 65

J = det( xs ) ( = 1, 2, 3; s = 1, 2, 3),
L
Tkl = J 1 ( l )Sk = J 1 ( l ) ( = 1, 2, 3; k , l = 1, 2, 3).
( k )
(5.3)
(5.2) Tkl ,

J 1 Sk = l Tkl ( = 1, 2, 3; k , l = 1, 2, 3).
,

Sk = J(i X )Tki ,


J 1 Sk = J 1 Tki (Ji X ) + (i X ) Tki = l Tkl
,
(Ji X ) = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3; i = 1, 2, 3).

2Jk X = klm ( l )( m )
k = k ,
( k ) = 0.

Tkl . , 1-
1- Tkl
( ).
k -
4-

L L
J 1 4 + J 1 k + l Tkl = 0 (k , l = 1, 2, 3), (5.4)
(4 k ) x
. ,
( , )
L
= R vk , R = J ,
(4 k )
(5.4) :
L
t vk = l Tkl + det(s X ) k , (5.5)
x
, t , -
X
5 . . , . .
66 . 5. ,

( = 1, 2, 3), . . vk (x1 , x2 , x3 , t) (5.5) -



t vk = t |xj vk + (s vk )v s .
,
(5.5)
L
det(s X ) k ,
x
-
xk , , ,
xk ,
gks . ,
-
,
.

, (
), ,

( t |xj vk + (s vk )v s ) = l Tkl (k , s = 1, 2, 3).



t |xj + s (v s ) = 0 (s = 1, 2, 3), (5.6)
( -
)
t |xj (vk ) + s (v s vk Tks ) = 0 (k , s = 1, 2, 3). (5.7)
(5.6), (5.7) 4-
s
s Jk = 0 (s, k = 1, 2, 3, 4), (5.8)
, -
, Jk s (s, k = 1, 2, 3, 4)


1
v v1 T11 v 1 v2 T12 v 1 v3 T13 v 1
2
v v1 T21 v 2 v2 T22 v 2 v3 T23 v 2
. (5.9)
3
v v1 T31 v 3 v2 T32 v 3 v3 T33 v 3
v1 v2 v3
s 1- 1--
4- Jk
s (s, k = 1, 2, 3, 4)
Jk
.
5.3. 67

, 1- pk = vk
(k = 1, 2, 3)
( ).


J = v p T,
(5.7)
t |x p + (v p T) = 0. (5.10)
t |x
x.


-
[5], . 190195.
(5.5) , Tkl -
1
T = J 1 FT S.

5.3.

,
e , k ) ,
(X , k ) (X

e = X + (X )
X
4- D.
- X -
s :
X = , k = 0.
1 l
Tk T ,
. ,

L L

T = T = L ( k ) k
, Tkl
= J 1 ( l ) .
( ) ( k )


-
L .
5*
68 . 5. ,

,
k
k = X .
X
(4.23),
Z   !
L
= + ( P ) X d4 X.
X expl
4-
,
 
L
+ ( P ) = 0, (5.11)
X expl
, [26].
6


-
(4.1)
.
, -,
:
e = X (s , X , ),
X e k = k (s , X , ).

( 4- -
) -
(4.1),
. .

e = ,

, , -
(
) 1 .
,
. -
,
Z Z
e k , e
L(k , k , X )d4 X = L( e )d4 X
e k, X e,
D e
D
- -
(4.1).
1
, , ,
, :
e = o().

70 . 6.

6.1.

(. 4.3) -
(4.23). ,
-
4- . (4.23), -
,
Z (    ! )
L L
= + ( Sk ) +k
+ ( P ) X
d4 X ,
k X expl
(6.1)

Sk P
:
L
Sk = , (6.2)
( k )
L
P = L ( k ) . (6.3)
( k )
, - -
X k -
4- ,
: ()

L
k
+ ( Sk ) = 0, (6.4)

 
L
+ ( P ) = 0. (6.5)
X expl
4- -

(6.4), (6.5).

6.2. ,

, -
, -
( )
 
L L
+ ( Sk ) = 0, + ( P ) = 0, (6.6)
k X expl
6.2. 71

I = 0, (6.7)

I :
1  k 
I = Sk + P X . (6.8)

, , (. (4.22))
Z (  
L k L k L
= + ( ) + X +
k ( k ) X expl
 
k k L
+ ( )Ek (L)X + ( ) X +
( k )
  
L
+ L ( k ) (X ) d4 X =
( k )
Z   
L k k L
= Sk ( ) + X P (X ) +
k X expl
 
L
k
+( )Ek (L)X + ( ) k
X
d4 X = 0.
( k )
4-

 L k
( k )Ek (L)X ( k )Sk X + Sk (k ) +
k
 
L
+ X P (X ) = 0. (6.9)
X expl
,

k = k + ( k )X ,

Sk (k ) = (Sk k ) (k )( Sk ),
P (X ) = (P X ) (X )( P ),

(6.9)
    !
L L
+ ( Sk ) k + + ( P ) X
k X expl

(Sk k + P X ) ( k )Sk X = 0.
72 . 6.

, (6.6) -
,

(Sk k + P X ) = 0. (6.10)
1 , , ,

,
, .

R (S x + P X) = 0,
, -, S , P
,
I
(S x + P X) dS = 0
S

S ,
.
7

( ).

-
(4.1), -
( ) -
k . ( ) -
-
( )

e = X (s , s , s , . . . , X , ),
X
(7.1)
k k s s s
e = ( , , , . . . , X , ).

-


X (s , s , s , . . . , X , ) = X,
=0


k (s , s , s , . . . , X , ) = k .
=0
(7.1) -
[3] ( -
: . / .:
. .: , 1959. . 611630)
-

-
, . [12]
-
.
[14].
,
,
(7.1).
e = X (s , s , X , ),
X e k = k (s , s , X , ). (7.2)
74 . 7. ( )

, ,
, , -
, . ,
, j (X ), -
(7.1)
e ). ,
ej (X
(7.1) s = s (X ),
- X X e ,
(7.1)
e k X e . ,
e e k , e e
e k , . . . ,
- X X e

s , s , s , . . .
(7.3)
s e
e ,
e , e
s e es , . . .
(7.1).
(7.1)
.
(7.1),
, [13], . 468, 469.

Z
= L(k , k , k , . . . , X )d4 X (7.4)
D
(7.1),
X Xe , (7.3),
(. . )
Z
e
= L( ee k , e
e k , e e e )d4 X
e k, . . . , X e,
e
D

e
L(k , k , k , . . . , X ) L( e k , e
e k , e e e)
e k, . . . , X
-
(7.3). e
e
= , , -
(7.3)
.
( ) 75

(
, o();
)
e = ,

e
L( e k , e
e k , e e e k , e
e ) = L(
e k, . . . , X e k , e e e ),
e k, . . . , X
,
(7.1).

[12], . 368470.
(7.2) -
[8], . 167188. , , (
) , ,
, -
.
.

(7.2),
Z Z
e k , e
L(k , k , X )d4 X = L( e )d4 X.
e k, X e
D e
D

- X -
k (7.2)

 
X (s , s , X , )
X = ,
=0
 k s  (7.5)
k ( , s , X , )
= .
=0
k k

k
k = k +
X . (7.6)
X

(7.2)
(X )
L + L = 0, (7.7)
X
76 . 7. ( )

L
L(e k , e
e k , e e e ) L(k , k , k , . . . , X ).
e k, . . . , X
, ,
(X ) B
L + L = , (7.8)
X X

B = B (k , k , k , . . . , X ).
,

L L
L = ( L)X + k + (k ) (7.9)
k ( k )

   
L L k L k
L = + ( L)X + , (7.10)
k ( k ) ( k )
,
 
(X ) j L k
L + L = E j (L) + LX + . (7.11)
X ( k )
( ,
), -
- -
X k
(7.2),
Z  
L L
= k
+ k
( ) + (LX ) d4 X =

k ( k ) X
Z  
L L
= k d4 X +
k ( k )
Z  
L
+ + LX d4 X. (7.12)
k
( k )
4-
   
1 L k k
J = X + LX , (7.13)
( k ) X
, (7.2),
Z
= ( J ) d4 X. (7.14)
( ) 77

() -
(7.2), (7.14) = 0
-

J = 0, (7.15)
4- J (7.13),
(7.2)
 
X (s , s , X , ) L
J =L +
=0 ( k )
 k s    
( , s , X , ) X (s , s , X , ) k

. (7.16)
=0 =0 X
8

-

L L + L
,
L (k , k , k , . . . , X )
. ,
L L -
, , ,
, , -
. -
. L L + L
.

L = L (k , k , k , . . . , X ), (8.1)

L L L
Ek (L ) + =0 (8.2)
k ( k ) ( k )

k , 1 ,
-

, .
(. [6], . 241243) -
, , . .
L = (1 1 )(2 2 ) (1 2 )2 . (8.3)
,
E(L) = 0 , ,
1
(null Lagrangian).
.
79

(8.3) . ,

L = 1 P 1 + 2 P 2

P 1 = (1 )(2 2 ), P 2 = (1 )(1 2 ).
L ,
Z
= L (k , k , k , . . . , X ) d4 X (8.4)

. -
,
,
,
,
.

,
, -
.
, , [19], pp. 224226.
[15].
-
-
.
- ,
Qj (k , k , k , . . . , X ),

Fj (k , k , k , . . . , X ) = 0,

,

J = Qj Fj

J k , , ,
-

J = 0.
80 . 8.

8.1. ,

,
(8.1) (
1 )

(k , k , k , . . . , X )
L (k , k , k , . . . , X ) = . (8.5)
X
(8.5) -
, .
-
(8.5): Ek ( ) = 0. -
. , -

, [13], . 322, 323; [14], pp. 225, 226.
,
L (k , k , k , . . . , X )
,
k , k , k , . . . , -
.
,
. , [0, 1]. -
1
( -
(. [27], . 271; [28], . 222)) ,
,
.
. -
, -
P , P = P , -
,
: I
P dX = 0.


(., , [27], . 144150). , ,

, :
,
. -
, ,
.
8.1. 81

, ,

L (k , k , k , . . . , X )
[0, 1].

 
d k k k L k L
L ( , , , . . . , X ) = + ( k ) +
d k ( k )
 
L
+ ( k ) + . (8.6)
( k )
,
     
k L L
k k L
( ) = ,
( k ) ( k ) ( k )

   
L L
( k ) = k
( k ) ( k )
   
L L
k 2 ( k
) k
,
( k ) ( k )

   
k L k L
( ) =
( k ) ( k )
   
L L
2 k + k ,
( k ) ( k )
(. (1.32))
XX  
(1 2 . . . s l ) l1 2 ...s L =
s
l s>0
X X  
= l (1)s 1 2 . . . s l1 2 ...s L + =
s
l s>0

= l El (L ) + ,
, -
k , - X ,
.
6 . . , . .
82 . 8.

(8.6), ,
  
d k k k k L L
L ( , , , . . . , X ) = +
d k ( k )
  
L
+ + .
( k )
, L -
, . . k Ek (L ) = 0,
, [0, 1],

L (k , k , k , . . . , X ) L (0, 0, 0, . . . , X ) = ,

Z1

= (k , k , k , . . . , X ) d.
0

b ,

b,
L (0, 0, 0, . . . , X ) =
, 1
b + ,
=
-
:

L (k , k , k , . . . , X ) = (k , k , k , . . . , X ).
4-, ,
4-
, , . 2
,
-
, 4- .
1
, b
b = . ( -

) , -
, -
X .
2
(8.5), 1-
.
8.2. 83

8.2.

,
-
, -
.
X k = 1, 2, 3, -
,
,

L (k , k , X ) = A(k , X ) + Bk (k , X ) k +
k k
+ C ( , X )Jk X + D(k , X )J , (8.7)
k
A(k , X ), Bk ( , X ), C
k (k , X ), D(k , X ) ,

- X
k 1 , J X xk = k :
J = det ( k ).


L = A + tr(B (R x)) + Jtr(C (R x)1 ) + JD, (8.8)

k
(R x)k
= x .
, -
, X ,
k ,
,
(k , k , X ) = L (s , X ) + ( k )Kk (s , X ) +
(8.9)
+J(k X )M k (s , X ),

L = L (k , X ), Kk = Kk (k , X ), M s = M s (k , X )
.
(8.9) :
= L + ((R x) K) + J(R x)T M,
1 k
A, Bk , C , D, ,
.
6*
84 . 8.

( (Gibbsian cross)) -
: (A ) = A 1 .
(8.9)
(k , k , X )
     
k
= + ( ) + ( k ). (8.10)
X X expl k ( k )

2 k 2 k 2 k
, , ,
(X 1 )2 (X 2 )2 (X 3 )2

1 2 3
= 0, = 0, = 0 (k = 1, 2, 3). (8.11)
(1 k ) k
(2 ) (3 k )
, k (k = 1, 2, 3).

1 2
+ = 0,
(2 k ) (1 k )
1 3
+ = 0, (8.12)
(3 k ) (1 k )
2 3
+ = 0,
(3 k ) (2 k )

2 k 2 k 2 k
, , .
X 1 X 2 X 1 X 3 X 2 X 3
(8.11), (8.12) ,

1 = ak k (2 k )(3 k ) + bk (2 k ) + ck (3 k ) + h1 ,

2 = ek k (1 k )(3 k ) + fk (1 k ) + gk (3 k ) + h2 ,

(8.13)
3 k k k k 3
= pk k (1 )(2 ) + qk (1 ) + sk (2 ) + h ,

ak k (k , X ), ek k (k , X ), pk k (k , X ),
bk (k , X ), fk (k , X ), qk (k , X ),
ck (k , X ), gk (k , X ), sk (k , X ), hk (k , X ).
1
,
,
:
(a b) = a b.
8.2. 85

, , , 2
2 k , 3 3 k ,
(8.12) , 1 2 k
, 3 k , , ,
1 3 k ,
2 k . , 1
1 k , (8.13) 1 .
(8.13) (8.12), ,


(ekk + akk )(3 k ) + fk + bk = 0,

(ak k + pkk )(2 k ) + ck + qk = 0, (8.14)
k
(ek k + pk k )(1 ) + gk + sk = 0,

ekk = akk , pkk = ak k , akk = ak k ;
fk = bk , qk = ck , sk = gk ,
(8.13)
1 = ak k (2 k )(3 k ) + bk (2 k ) + ck (3 k ) + h1 ,

2 = ak k (1 k )(3 k ) bk (1 k ) + gk (3 k ) + h2 ,

(8.15)
3 k k k k 3
= ak k (1 )(2 ) ck (1 ) gk (2 ) + h .
as , -
akj 2as = skj akj ,
1 = a3 ((2 1 )(3 2 ) (2 2 )(3 1 ))
a2 ((2 1 )(3 3 ) (2 3 )(3 1 )) +
+ a1 ((2 2 )(3 3 ) (2 3 )(3 2 )) +
+ bk (2 k ) + ck (3 k ) + h1 ,
2 = a3 ((1 1 )(3 2 ) (1 2 )(3 1 )) +
+ a2 ((1 1 )(3 3 ) (1 3 )(3 1 ))
(8.16)
a1 ((1 2 )(3 3 ) (1 3 )(3 2 ))
bk (1 k ) + gk (3 k ) + h2 ,
3 = a3 ((1 1 )(2 2 ) (1 2 )(2 1 ))
a2 ((1 1 )(2 3 ) (1 3 )(2 1 )) +
+ a1 ((1 2 )(2 3 ) (1 3 )(2 2 ))
ck (1 k ) gk (2 k ) + h3 .
86 . 8.

, ,

1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 X 1 2 X 1 3 X 1

1 2 2 2 3 2 = 1 X 2 2 X 2 3 X 2 ,

1 3 2 3 3 3 1 X 3 2 X 3 3 X 3
. .
2Jk X = klm ( l )( m ),

J1 X 1 = (2 2 )(3 3 ) (2 3 )(3 2 ),
J2 X 1 = (2 1 )(3 3 ) (2 3 )(3 1 ),
J3 X 1 = (2 1 )(3 2 ) (2 2 )(3 1 );
J1 X 2 = (1 2 )(3 3 ) (1 3 )(3 2 ),
J2 X 2 = (1 1 )(3 3 ) (1 3 )(3 1 ),
J3 X 2 = (1 1 )(3 2 ) (1 2 )(3 1 );
J1 X 3 = (1 2 )(2 3 ) (1 3 )(2 2 ),
J2 X 3 = (1 1 )(2 3 ) (1 3 )(2 1 ),
J3 X 3 = (1 1 )(2 2 ) (1 2 )(2 1 ),

h = L , as = M s , bk = Kk3 , ck = Kk2 , gk = Kk1 ,
(8.16) (8.9).
L
, M s , Kk
1- 1-
.
, -
(8.9).

= ( L )expl + (k L )( k ) + ( k )( Kk )expl +

+ ( k )( l )(l Kk ) + J(k X )( M k )expl +


1
+ klm (n M k )( l )( m )( n ).
2
,
( k ) = 0,

2Jk X = klm ( l )( m )

(Jk X ) = 0.
8.2. 87

, 1
( n )( l )( m ) = Jnlm ,
nlm klm = 2kn ,

1 1
klm (n M k )( l )( m )( n ) = nlm klm J(n M k ) == J(k M k ).
2 2
(., , [29], . 28)
( k )( l ) = rlk r ,
r r

1 1 2 1 3 1

1 2 2 2 3 2 ,

1 3 2 3 3 3

r = J(r X ),

( k )( l ) = rlk J(r X ),
,
( k )( l )(l Kk ) = klp (l Kp )(k X ) = kpl (l Kp )(k X ),
(8.7)
k , D , -
, A, Bk , C
, :
 k 
L (x , X )
A(xk , X ) = , (8.17)
X expl
 
M s (xk , X )
D(xk , X ) = , (8.18)
xs expl
   
s Kk (xk , X )
Bk (x , X ) = + k L (xs , X ) , (8.19)
X expl expl

   
k s
Kp (xs , X )
C (x , X ) = M k (xs , X ) kpl . (8.20)
expl xl expl
(8.17)(8.20):
A = Divexpl L,
D = divexpl M,
1
, , [29], . 23, 24.
88 . 8.

B = Rotexpl K + (gradexpl L)T ,

C = Gradexpl M (rotexpl KT )T

Divexpl L = (R L)expl , divexpl M = ( M)expl ,

Rotexpl K = (K R )expl , (rotexpl KT )T = (KT )T


expl ,

gradexpl L = (L )expl , Gradexpl M = (M R )expl ,



 
Divexpl L = L expl , divexpl M = k M k expl ,
 k 
Kk (x , X )
(Rotexpl K)
k = ,
X expl
 
Kp (xs , X )
((rotexpl KT )T )k
= kpl
,
xl expl

(gradexpl L)T k = (k L )expl , (Gradexpl M)s s
= ( M )expl .

k L = k L ,
jks s Kk = jks s Kk ,
k M k = s M s

gradexpl Divexpl L = Divexpl (gradexpl L)T ,


rotexpl (Rotexpl K)T = (Rotexpl (rotexpl KT )T )T ,
Gradexpl divexpl M = divexpl (Gradexpl M)T ,
1
gradexpl A = Divexpl B,
(Rotexpl C)T = rotexpl BT , (8.21)
T
Gradexpl D = divexpl C ,

Divexpl B = (R BT )expl ,
divexpl CT = ( C)expl ,
1
A, B, C, D
(8.7) .
8.3. 4- - 89



(Divexpl B)k = ( Bk )expl ,
(divexpl CT ) = (k C
k
)expl .
(8.21) -
(8.7) (8.2)
k .

8.3. 4-
-

-
, - , m -
k . ,
L
(8.5) k
.

(k , k , X )
L (k , k , X ) = , (8.22)
X
, , ,

( k ).
, -,
L ( k )
( ) , ,
:

=0 ( ),
( k )
. . ( k ) (k = 1, 2, . . . , m).
-, L -
( k ) ( 6= )

+ =0 ( 6= ). (8.23)
( ) ( k )
k

= 1 , = 2 , , 2
(2 k2 ) , , 1
90 . 8.

2 k2 , . .

1 = ak21 2 2 k2 + b1 ( 2 , k2 ), (8.24)

ak21 2 b1 2 k2 .
, (8.24) 1 (8.23)
= 1 , = 3 , 1 6= 3 , , ak21 2 b1
(3 k3 ).
, , -
k

1 2 1
= A + Bk1
(1 k1 ) + Ck2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ) +
3 2 1
+ Dk3 k2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 ) + . . . , (8.25)
1 2 1
A , Bk 1
, Ck2 k1
, Dk33k22k1 1 X , k ,

.
(8.25) (8.23),
1 1
Bk1
= Bk1
,
1
. . Bk 1
, 1 ;
2 1
, Ck 2 k1
-
3 2 1
, 1 , 2 ; Dk3 k2 k1
, 1 ; , 2 ; , 3 ; .. (8.25)
.
2 1
Ck 2 k1
, 1 ,
2 :
, 1 :
2 1 1 2
Ck2 k1
= Ck2 k1
;

1 , 2 :
1 2 2 1
Ck2 k1
= Ck2 k1
;

, 2 :
2 1 1 2
Ck2 k1
= Ck2 k1
.
2 1
, Ck2 k1

1 , 2 .
8.3. 4- - 91
3 2 1
, Dk 3 k2 k1
-
1
,
(8.25) .
, , , (8.25)
,
1, 2, 3, 4,
(8.25)
, . . (8.25)
:

1 2 1
= A + Bk1
(1 k1 ) + Ck2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ) +
3 2 1
+ Dk3 k2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 ). (8.26)
(8.26).

2 1
Ck2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 )
2 1
Ck2 k1
1 , 2 , :
2 1 1 2
Ck2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ) = Ck2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ),
1 2 , 2 1 , k1 k2 , k2 k1
, :

2 1 2 1
Ck2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ) = Ck2 k1
(2 k1 )(1 k2 ) =
2 1
= Ck1 k2
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ).
2 1
, Ck 2 k1
-
k1 , k2 .
3 2 1
, Dk 3 k2 k1
-
.
1
, , Bk 1
-
2 1 3 2 1
, Ck2 k1 , Dk3 k2 k1 -
.
1 3 2 1
, Dk 3 k2 k1

:
3 2 1
Dk 3 k2 k1
= Dk3 k2 k1 3 2 1 ,

Dk3 k2 k1 3- .
92 . 8.

, -
4-
-
  1
! !
A A1 B k1
L = = + + (1 k1 ) +
X X expl xk1 X
expl

2 1 2 1 ! !
Bk Ck2 k1
+ 1
+ (1 k1 )(2 k2 ) +
xk2 X
expl

3 2 1 3 2 1 ! !
Ck2 k1
Dk3 k2 k1
+ + (1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 ) +
xk3 X
expl
3 2 1
Dk3 k2 k1
+ (1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 )( k4 ). (8.27)
xk4
(8.27)
3 2 1
Dk3 k2 k1
= Dk3 k2 k1 3 2 1
, -
, :
3 2 1
Dk3 k2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 )( k4 ) =
xk4
Dk3 k2 k1
= (1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 )( k4 )3 2 1 =
xk4
Dk3 k2 k1
= Jk4 k3 k2 k1 ,
xk4
J (X 1 , X 2 , X 3 , X 4 ) (x1 , x2 , x3 , x4 ).
-
 
A
A= ,
X expl
1
!
1 A 1 B k1
Lk = + ,
1 xk1 X
expl
2 1 2 1 !
2 1 Bk1 Ck2 k1
Lk 2 k1
= k
+ ,
x 2 X
expl
3 2 1 3 2 1 !
3 2 1 Ck2 k1 Dk3 k2 k1
Lk3 k2 k1
= k
+ ,
x 3 X
expl
8.3. 4- - 93
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1 Dk3 k2 k1
Lk4 k3 k2 k1
=
xk4
4- -

2 1
L = A + Lk11 (1 k1 ) + Lk2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ) +

+ Lk33 2 1 k1 k2 k3
k2 k1 (1 )(2 )(3 ) +
4 3 2 1
+ Lk4 k3 k2 k1
(1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 )(4 k4 ). (8.28)
, -
,
, ,
2 1
Lk2 k1
, Lk33 k22 k11 , Lk44 k33 k22k11
.
(8.28), ,
2 1
L = A + Lk11 (1 k1 ) + L[k2 k1 ]
(1 k1 )(2 k2 ) +
3 2 1
+ L[k3 k2 k1 ]
(1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 ) +

+ L[k4 3 2 1
4 k3 k2 k1 ]
(1 k1 )(2 k2 )(3 k3 )(4 k4 ), (8.29)
-
.
,
2 1
Lk2 k1
= L[k2 1
2 k1 ]
,
3 2 1
Lk3 k2 k1
= L[k3 2 1
3 k2 k1 ]
,
4 3 2 1
Lk4 k3 k2 k1
= L[k4 3 2 1
4 k3 k2 k1 ]
.
(8.28) (8.2)

k ,
(8.28).
, -
:
 
A 1
L = 0, (8.30)
xk1 X 1 k1 expl
94 . 8.

! !
  1
A A1 Bk1
+ = 0. (8.31)
xk1 X expl X 1 xk1 X
expl expl
,
   
A A1
=
xk1 X expl X 1 xk1 expl
1
, Bk1
,
1
!
2 Bk1
= 0.
X 1 X
expl

1 1    
Lk1
Lk2
2 1 2 1
+ L L = 0, (8.32)
xk2 xk1 X 2 k1 k2 expl X 2 k2 k1 expl

1
! ! 2 1 2 1 ! !
A1 Bk 1
Bk 1
Ck 2 k1
+ + +
xk2 xk1 X X 2 xk2 X
expl expl expl
2 1 2 1 ! !
Bk2
Ck1 k2
+ +
X 2 xk1 X
expl expl
1 ! !
A1 Bk2
+ = 0. (8.33)
xk1 xk2 X
expl expl
-
2 1
Ck 1 k2

.
, -,
,
(8.32)
1
L[k  
1 2 1
= L . (8.34)
xk2 ] X 2 [k2 k1 ] expl
:
2 1
L[k  
1 k2 3 2 1
= L , (8.35)
xk3 ] X 3 [k3 k2 k1 ] expl
3 2 1
L[k  
1 k2 k3 4 3 2 1
= L . (8.36)
xk4 ] X 4 [k4 k3 k2 k1 ] expl
8.4. 95

(8.34)(8.36)
:
1 1
1 Lk L[k 1 
Pk1 k2 = k
1
, 1
]
= P[k11k2 ] = Pk11k2 Pk21k1 ;
x 2 x k2 2
2 1 2 1
L k1 k2
L [k1 k2
Pk12k2 1k3 = , = P[k12k1k ] ,
xk3 x k3 ] 2 3

1 
P[k12k21k3 ] = Pk12k2 1k3 Pk22k1 1k3 Pk32k2 1k1 Pk12k3 1k2 + Pk22k3 1k1 + Pk32k1 1k2 ;
3!
3 2 1 3 2 1
Lk L[k 1 k2 k3
3 2 1 1 k2 k3
Pk1 k2 k3 k4 = k
, = P[k13k2k1k4 ] ,
x 4 xk4 ] 2 3

1 3 2 1
P[k13k22k31k4 ] = Pk1 k2 k3 k4 Pk33k2 2k1 k14 Pk13k3 2k2 k14 Pk23k1 2k3 k14 +
4!
Pk23k3 2k1 k14 + Pk33k1 2k2 k14 + Pk43k2 2k1 k13 + Pk13k4 2k2 k13 + Pk23k1 2k4 k13
Pk43k1 2k2 k13 Pk13k2 2k4 k13 Pk23k4 2k1 k13 Pk43k3 2k1 k12 Pk13k4 2k3 k12
Pk33k1 2k4 k12 + Pk33k4 2k1 k12 + Pk13k3 2k4 k12 + Pk43k1 2k3 k12 + Pk43k3 2k2 k11 +

+ Pk23k4 2k3 k11 + Pk33k2 2k4 k11 Pk33k4 2k2 k11 Pk23k3 2k4 k11 Pk43k2 2k3 k11 .

8.4.



- X ( = 1, 2, . . . , n + 1):

2 1
= A + A 1 k1 k1 k2
k1 (1 ) + Ak2 k1 (1 )(2 ) +
...
n1
+ Aknnkn 1 ...k1
1
(1 k1 ) . . . (n1 kn1 )(n kn ), (8.37)

2 1 ...
A (X , xs ), A 1 s s n n1 1 s
k1 (X , x ), Ak2 k1 (X , x ), . . . , Akn kn1 ...k1 (X , x )

1 .
1 n1 1 ...
Aknnkn 1 ...k1

,
n1 ...1
Aknnkn 1 ...k1
= Akn kn1 ...k1 n n1 ...1 ,

Akn kn1 ...k1 n- .


96 . 8.

, (8.37), -

(n + 1)- - :
  1
! !
A A1 Ak

L = = + + 1
(1 k1 ) +
X X expl xk1 X
expl
2 1 2 1 ! !
Ak Ak2 k1
+ 1
+ (1 k1 )(2 k2 ) +
xk2 X
expl
1 ...1 n1 ... !
1
!
Aknnn
1 ...k1
Aknnkn 1 ...k1
+ +
xkn X
expl

(1 k1 ) . . . (n1 kn1 )(n kn ) +



n1 ...
1
Aknnkn 1 ...k1
+ (1 k1 ) . . . (n1 kn1 )(n kn )( kn+1 ). (8.38)
xkn+1
,
n + 1,

n1 ...
1
Aknnkn 1 ...k1
(1 k1 ) . . . (n1 kn1 )(n kn )( kn+1 ) =
xkn+1
Akn kn1 ...k1
= (1 k1 ) . . . (n1 kn1 )(n kn )( kn+1 )n n1 ...1 =
xkn+1
Akn kn1 ...k1
= Jkn+1 kn kn1 ...k1 ,
xkn+1
J (X 1 , X 2 , . . . , X n+1 ) (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+1 ).

8.5. ,

-
,
s . , ,
,
.
8.5. , ... 97

,
- X -
s ,
, , xs .
, A, B, C, D -
(8.7) -
(8.21)

gradexpl A = Divexpl B, (Rotexpl C)T = rotexpl BT ,

Gradexpl D = divexpl CT .

, A, B, C xs , -

Divexpl B = 0, Rotexpl C = 0, Gradexpl D = 0,

,
xs ,
A = A(X ), D , 1-
1- Ek = Ek (X )
Ak = Ak (X ) ,

B = Rotexpl E = (E R )expl , C = Gradexpl A = (A R )expl , (8.39)



Bk = Ek , k
C = Ak . (8.40)

, -
, -
xs , 1

L ( k , X ) = A(X ) + ( k ) Ek (X ) +

+ J(k X ) Ak (X ) + D0 J. (8.41)

1
, Ek , , Kk
(8.19).
7 . . , . .
98 . 8.

-
,
s .
(8.28) -
1  
1
L = 0,
X 1 k1 expl
 
2 1
L = 0,
X 2 [k2 k1 ] expl
  (8.42)
3 2 1
L = 0,
X 3 [k3 k2 k1 ] expl
 
4 3 2 1
L = 0,
X 4 [k4 k3 k2 k1 ] expl

(8.28),
 
1 1
Lk1 = M ,
X k1 expl
 
2 1 2 1
Lk2 k1 = M ,
X k2 k1 expl (8.43)
 
3 2 1
Lk3 k2 k1
= M 3 2 1 ,
X k3 k2 k1 expl
4 3 2 1
Lk4 k3 k2 k1
= 4 3 2 1 Mk4 k3 k2 k1 ,
1
k ; Mk 1
-
2 1
; Mk2 k1
2 , 1 2 2 , ;
3 2 1
Mk3 k2 k1
3
, 3 ,
; Mk4 k3 k2 k1 ,
.
1
A (8.28) , , -
X .
2
, , 1 .
3
, , 2 , 1 .
8.6. 99

8.6.
,

-
-
.
Qj (k , k , k , . . . , X ),

Fj (k , k , k , . . . , X ) = 0, (8.44)
, -

J = Qj Fj (8.45)
J k , , , -
(8.44)
J = 0. (8.46)
Qj .
(8.45), -
k , , Qj Fj , . .
Z
= Qj Fj d4 X (8.47)

.
-
-
.
(7.2)
(X )
L + L = 0;
X
, ,
(X ) (B )
L + L = ,
X X

B = B (k , k , k , . . . , X ).

7*
100 . 8.

(7.11) , , -
,
 
j L k
Ej (L) + LX + = 0, (8.48)
( k )
 
L (B )
Ej (L)j + LX + k
= . (8.49)
( k ) X
(8.48) (8.49)
j X L k
Qj = , J = L + ,
( k )

Qj Ej (L) = (J ) (8.50)

Qj Ej (L) = (B J ) (8.51)
(8.45) , -

,
, ,
j
Qj = . (8.52)

(8.50) (8.51) , Qj Ej (L)
, , k -

El (Qj Ej (L)) = 0. (8.53)
9



( )
.
XIX . -
-

. -

[10], [13], [14] 1 . -


.
, -
, , ,
-
2 .

-
1
-
[10] .
.
: -
.. . .: , 1989. 48 .; ..
. .: -
, 1991. 48 .
2

. -
,
, -
.
, ,
,
, -
, .
102 . 9.

, ,
. , -
, , [10].

9.1. ()

-
( )

Xe = X (s , X , ) = X + (s , X ) + . . . ,
(9.1)
k k s k k s
e = ( , X , ) = + h ( , X ) + . . . ,

= 0


X (s , X , ) = X, k (s , X , ) = k .
=0 =0
(9.1) . = 0 -
.

(9.1). ,
.
, -
.

(9.1); , hk
(9.1). s , X
:
X s
= , hs = . (9.2)

(9.1) ,
([10], . 55)
= ( (s , X ), hk (s , X )). (9.3)
(
) s , X .
, (9.1),

 

=
+ hj j , (9.4)
X expl
9.1. () 103

F (k , X ) -
 
F F
( )F = + hj .
X expl j
X
, -
expl .
X
.
, expl .
( -
X ) .
(9.4) -
(9.1) (. [10], . 55). -
(9.4)
.
(9.4)
(9.1).
-
(A , Bk )
X   X

= A X
+ Bk k k .
X expl
k

( -
) (9.1)
( ).
-

dXe
= (Xe, e k ),
d (9.5)
es
d e,
= hs (X e k ),
d
,

Xe = X , es | =0 = s .
=0
, -
(9.1).
104 . 9.

, ( -

) -
. .
(9.1) -
()
, j , X
. -
(9.1). ,
(9.1) j (X ) ej (Xe ),
, (9.1)
s = s (X ), -
X X e ,
(9.1)
e k X e .
, ,
e1 e k , e1 e2 e k , . . . .
, , , ..

X X e ,
s , 1 s , 1 2 s , . . .
(9.6)
s e
e , 1
s e e
e , 1 2 s
e ,...
(9.1).

(9.1), (9.4).
(
(9.4))
 

=
+ hj j
+ hk , (9.7)
1 X expl ( k )
hk
([10],
. 58)
    
l hl s h
l
l k
h = + ( ) s ( ) + ( ) k .
X expl X expl
(9.8)

hk ,
9.1. () 105

, D
1
:

hl = D (hl ) ( l )D ( ), (9.9)
1 1
 

D = + ( k ) . (9.10)
1 X expl k
, -
(9.1) -
,
2


= + hl , (9.11)
2 1 ( l )

 
hl hl hl
hl = + ( k ) + ( k
)
X expl k ( k )
  
l k
( ) + ( ) k . (9.12)
X expl
D
2

hl = D (hl ) ( l )D ( ), (9.13)
2 1


D = D + ( k ) . (9.14)
2 1 ( k )
n -
(9.1):

= + hl1 2 ...n , (9.15)
n n1 (1 2 . . . n l )

hl1 2 ...n1 = D (hl1 2 ...n1 ) (1 2 . . . n1 l )D ( ), (9.16)


n 1


D = D + (1 2 . . . n1 l ) . (9.17)
n n1 (1 2 . . . n1 l )
106 . 9.

,
 

= expl , = l, = 1 2 ...s (9.18)

X expl l
0 (1 2 . . . s l ) s l
. ,

:
= + hl1 2 ...n l1 2 ...n , (9.19)
n n1 n

hl1 2 ...n1 = D (hl1 2 ...n1 ) (1 2 . . . n1 l )D ( ), (9.20)


n 1

1 2 ...n1
D = D + (1 2 . . . n1 l ) l . (9.21)
n n1 n1

!
expl
X1
n
1 2 ...s
l k
h1 2 ...n1 = + (1 2 . . . s ) k hl1 2 ...n1
s
s=0

(1 2 . . . n1 l )(expl + ( k ) k ) . (9.22)
0
l
h1 2 ...n1
k
, n 1, -
, ,
:
hl1 2 ...n1 = hl1 2 ...n1 (1 2 . . . n1 l ) , (9.23)

hl1 = 1 hl ( l )1 = 1 (hl ( l ) ) + (1 l ) ,

hl1 2 = 1 2 (hl ( l ) ) + (1 2 l ) , (9.24)


hl1 2 ...n = 1 2 . . . n (hl ( l ) ) + (1 2 . . . n l ) .
( )
Ql = hl ( l ) , (9.25)

hl1 2 ...n = 1 2 . . . n Ql + (1 2 . . . n l ) . (9.26)
-
-
(9.6)
e1 e2 . . . en
e k = 1 2 . . . n k + hk1 2 ...n + . . . . (9.27)
9.1. () 107

, ,
F () F (e) F () -
k , X , (9.1), -
(
)
1
F (e) F () = ( )F () + 2 ( )2 F () + . . . . (9.28)
2!
. -

F (e) = e() F (). (9.29)
, F (e) = F ()
, ( )F () = 0. F (k , X ),
k , X
(9.1), . .
F ( e ) = F (k , X ),
e k, X
-
(9.1).
F X , s ,
(9.1) -

2
e = X + ( )X + ( )2 X + . . . ,
X
2! (9.30)
2
s s s 2 s
e = + ( ) + ( ) + . . . ,
2!
, -
-
(9.1).
F (s , 1 s , 1 2 s , . . . , X ),
k , m,
(9.1)

F = F + . . . ,
m
s s s
es , e1
F = F ( , 1 , 1 2 , . . . , X ) F ( es , e1 e2 e ).
es , . . . , X
(9.31)
, F , -
(9.1),
F 
= F, (9.32)
m
108 . 9.

m
X
= + hl1 2 ...s , (9.33)
m (1 2 . . . s l )
s=1

m
X
= + hl1 2 ...s l1 2 ...s , (9.34)
m s
s=1
hl1 2 ...s = 1 2 . . . s (hl ( l ) ) + (1 2 . . . s l ) . (9.35)
m -
(. (9.63)):
Xm
= (1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s + , (9.36)
m s
s=0

, D , -
s
, l1 2 ...s . (9.36)
s
m
X
= (D s Q) + D , (9.37)
m s
s=0

Dj = D
| D
{z D} .
j
(9.36), (.
(9.68))
Xm m
X
(1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L = (1)i1 i Jii + Ql El (L) Ql l L,
s 0
s=1 i=1
(9.38)

m
X

L= (1)i1 i Jii + Ql El (L) + L. (9.39)
m
i=1

9.2.

-


9.2. 109

.

. 1
X -
X , s . -
(9.1) -

e = X (X , , ),
X e = (X , , ). (9.40)
n -
s
n .


E(X , , , . . . , n ) = 0, (9.41)
E El .
(9.40) -
-
(9.41)

E(Xe, e, e
e, . . . , en )
e = 0, (9.42)
(9.40) -
(9.41).
, -
(9.41) (9.40) (
( )).

-
.
-
(9.41), n,
-
(9.40) :

E = 0,
n
(9.43)
E(X , , , . . . , n ) = 0.
1
,
,
.
.
110 . 9.

1
,
.

(9.41) .
-
(9.40). I(X , ) -
(9.40),
I(X e , )
e = I(X , ), (9.44)
(9.40).
,
. -
.
, -
, -
. ,
-
.
,
, ,
,
.

,
,

.
( ) -
(9.40) ,
1
.

.


E(X , , , . . . , n ) = 0
-
.
(9.41) , ,
. ,
-

, , .
9.2. 111

I ,
( )I = 0, (9.45)
. .
. (9.45) -
. -
J , -
(9.45).
(9.40).
I (9.40)
J .
-
(9.40). -
m , -
m, -
m (9.40)
I . m
m
I (X , , , . . . , m )
m


I = 0. (9.46)
m m
(9.41), -
(9.41),
, ,
, -
(. [13], . 147). .

= (X) (9.47)
(9.41).
(9.40)


e = (
eX e , ) (9.48)
-
(9.40) (9.41).
(9.48) -
(9.42) -
(9.47) (9.41), -
(9.40) -
(9.41). ,
112 . 9.

(9.40),
(9.41), -
(9.47) (9.48).
, ,
, -
. -
,
-
.
(9.47) (9.48) ,
, . (9.47) (9.48)

. ,
(9.40) .
(9.41)
( -)
(9.40). ,
(9.41),

(X , ) = 0, (9.49)
, -
(9.40),

(X e , )
e =0 (9.50)
e
, , X , X , e
(9.40). ,

()
.
()
-
(9.41), -
(9.49), -
, X , .
, (9.49)
(9.41) , (X , )
, . .
( ) = 0.
, (., ,
[10], . 244, 245, ),
9.3. - 113

(9.41), (9.49),
, I
,
I(J) = 0, (9.51)
J , , -
X , (9.49)
, (9.51).
.

.
.
Xe = X (X , , ),
e = (X , , )

E(X , , , . . . , n ) = 0
,
X   X

= A X + Bk k k . (9.52)
X expl
k
-
, (
), .

9.3. -

(9.1)

= expl + hj j . (9.53)
0

(9.1)
(. (4.11))
(X )
L + L = 0, (9.54)
X
(. (4.15))
(X ) B
L + L = . (9.55)
X X
8 . . , . .
114 . 9.

-
(9.32)

L+L = 0, (9.56)
m X
 B
L+L = , (9.57)
m X X
, -
m.

m

Xm
= + hl1 2 ...s l1 2 ...s , (9.58)
m s
s=1
hl1 2 ...s = 1 2 . . . s (hl ( l ) ) + (1 2 . . . s l ) . (9.59)
(9.57) ,
 
El L + L = 0.
m
- -

X
El = (1)s 1 2 . . . s l1 2 ...s , (9.60)
s
s>0
l .
0
D ,
s
, l1 2 ...s , (9.60)
s
X
E= (1)s D s . (9.61)
s
s>0
(9.57) ,
,
.
, ,
m
X

L = ( )L + hl1 2 ...s l1 2 ...s L,
m s
s=1
m
X

L = expl L + hl l L + (1 2 . . . s l ) l1 2 ...s L +
m 0 s
s=1
m
X
+ (1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L,
s
s=1
9.3. - 115


L = expl L + hl l L + L ( expl L + ( l ) l L) +
m 0 0
m
X
+ (1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L.
s
s=1

m
X

L = ( L) L( ) + Ql l L + (1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L.
m 0 s
s=1
(9.62)
, ,
:
m
X
= (1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s + , (9.63)
m s
s=0

m
X
= (D s Q) + D , (9.64)
m s
s=0

Ql l .
0

m
X m
X
(D s Q) L = (1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L,
s s
s=1 s=1
(i = 1, 2, . . . , m)
m
X
Si = (i i+1 . . . s Ql )1 2 . . . i1 l1 2 ...s L =
s
s=i
m
X
= (D si+1 Q) (D i1 L).
s
s=i
,

m
X m
X
(1 2 . . . s Q l
) l1 2 ...s L = 1 (2 3 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L
s s
s=1 s=2
m
X
(2 3 . . . s Ql )1 l1 2 ...s L
s
s=2
Ql 1 l 1 L + 1 (Ql l 1 L),
1 1

8*
116 . 9.

m
X
(i i+1 . . . s Ql )1 2 . . . i1 l1 2 ...s L =
s
s=i
m
X
= i (i+1 i+2 . . . s Ql )1 2 . . . i1 l1 2 ...s L
s
s=i+1
Xm
(i+1 i+2 . . . s Ql )1 2 . . . i l1 2 ...s L
s
s=i+1
Q 1 2 . . . i l1 2 ...i L + i (Ql 1 2 . . . i1 l1 2 ...i L),
l
i i

(i = 2, 3, . . . , m 1)

m
X
(m Ql )1 2 . . . m1 l1 2 ...m L =
m
s=m
m
X
= m Ql 1 2 . . . m1 l1 2 ...m L
m
s=m
Ql 1 2 . . . m l1 2 ...m L.
m

m
X
J11 = (2 3 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L + Ql l 1 L,
s 1
s=2

m
X
Jii = (i+1 i+2 . . . s Ql )1 2 . . . i1 l1 2 ...s L +
s
s=i+1
+ Ql 1 2 . . . i1 l1 2 ...i L, (9.65)
i

(i = 2, 3, . . . , m 1)

Jmm = Ql 1 2 . . . m1 l1 2 ...m L,
m

i = Ql 1 2 . . . i l1 2 ...i L (i = 1, 2, . . . , m), (9.66)


i

m
X
Ji = (D si Q) (D i1 L) (i = 1, 2, . . . , m),
s
s=i
i = Q (D i L) ( i , i = 1, 2, . . . , m),
i
9.3. - 117


Pm
S1 = (1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L = 1 J11 S2 1 (i = 1),
s=1 s
.. ..
. . (9.67)
Si = i Jii Si+1 i (i),
.. ..
. .
Sm = m Jmm m (i = m).
(9.67) , ,
j Sj+1 ,
j + 1.
m
X m
X m
X
(1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L = (1)i1 i Jii + (1)i i .
s
s=1 i=1 i=1

m
X
(1)i i = Ql El (L) Ql l L,
0
i=1
-

m
X m
X
(1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L = (1)i1 i Jii + Ql El (L) Ql l L
s 0
s=1 i=1
(9.68)

Xm m
X
(1 2 . . . s Ql ) l1 2 ...s L = (1)i1 i Jii + Ql El (L). (9.69)
s
s=0 i=1
(9.62) (9.68),
m
X
( )L + L = ( L) + Ql El (L) + (1)i1 i Jii . (9.70)
m
i=1

m
X
( )L + LD = D (L) + Q E(L) + (1)i1 D J i . (9.71)
m
i=1
, -
(9.55)
m
X
(B L) + (1)i i Jii = Ql El (L), (9.72)
i=1
118 . 9.

J -

(B J ) = Ql El (L). (9.73)
(9.72)
D (B L A) = Q E(L), (9.74)

m
X
A = (1)i J i . (9.75)
i=1

J = L + A. (9.76)
(9.74)
-
.

9.4.

J (9.74)
J = L + A. (9.77)

m = 1, 2, 3 (. .
, 1, 2, 3)
J .
m = 1.
J11 = Ql l 1 L,
1
J = L + Ql l L.
1

L
J = L + (hl ( l ) ).
( l )

L
T = L ( l ) . (9.78)
( l )
9.4. 119

m = 2.
J11 = (2 Ql ) l 1 2 L + Ql l 1 L,
2 1
J22 1 2
l
= Q 1 l L,
2
J = L + Q l L + ( Ql )
l l
l L Q l L.
1 2 2

L L
J = L + l
(hl ( l ) ) + (hl ( l ) )
( ) ( l )
L
(hl ( l ) ) .
( l )
-

L L
T = L ( l ) ( l ) +
( ) ( l )
l

L
+ ( l ) . (9.79)
( l )
m = 3.
J11 = (2 Ql ) l 1 2 L + (2 3 Ql ) l 1 2 3 L + Ql l 1 L,
2 3 1
1 2 3
J22 = l
(3 Q )1 l l
L + Q 1 l L,1 2
3 2
3 l 1 2 3
J3 = Q 1 2 l L,
3

J = L + Ql l L + ( Ql ) l l
l L Q l L + ( Q ) l L
1 2 2 3

( Q l
) l L + Ql

l L.
3 3
:
L L
J = L + l
(hl ( l ) ) + (hl ( l ) )
( ) ( l )
L L
(hl ( l ) ) + (hl ( l ) )
( ) ( l )
l

L L
( (hl ( l ) )) l
+ (hl ( l ) ) .
( ) ( l )
120 . 9.


L L
T = L ( l ) ( l ) +
( ) ( l )
l

L L
+ ( l ) l +
( ) ( l )
l

L L
+ ( l ) ( l ) . (9.80)
( l ) ( l )
(m > 4)
.
19
1. .., .. . . I. .
.: , 1973. 208 .
2. .., .. . . II.
. .: , 1973. 504 .
3. Noether E. Invariante Variationsprobleme // Kgl. Ges. Wiss. Nachr.
Gottingen. Math.-Physik. Kl. 2. 1918. S. 235-257.
4. Maugin G.A. Material Inhomogeneities in Elasticity. London: Chap-
man & Hall, 1993. 276 pp.
5. .. -
. .: , 1983. 448 .
6. ., . . . I.
., .: , 1933. 528 .
7. Courant R., Hilbert D. Methods of Mathematical Physics. Vol. 1. New
York: Interscience Publishers, 1953. 562 pp. 1
8. .., .. . .: -
, 1961. 228 .
9. Gelfand I.M., Fomin S.V. Calculus of Variations. (Revised English ed.
Translated and edited by R. A. Silverman.) Englewood Cliffs, New
Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1963. 232 pp. 2
10. .. .
.: , 1978. 400 .
11. .. .
.: , 1983. 280 .
12. Olver P.J. Application of Lie Groups to Differential Equations. New
York: Springer, 1986. 3
13. . .
: , 1989. 639 .
14. Olver P.J. Equivalence, Invariants and Symmetry. Cambridge, New
York, Melbourne: Cambridge University Press, 1995. 526 pp.
1
: [6].
2
. [8].
3
[13].
122 19

15. .., ..
// . .
. . 2002. . 39
56.
16. . . . I.
. .: , 1965. 700 .
17. ... . .: ,
1978. 64 .
18. Truesdell C., Toupin R.A. The Classical Field Theories/ Principles of
Classical Mechanics and Field Theory. Encyclopedia of Physics, Vol.
III(1) / Ed. S. Flugge). Berlin, Gottingen, Heidelberg: Springer,
1960. P. 226793.
19. Silhavy M. The Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Continuous Media.
Berlin, Heidelberg, New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997. 506 pp.
20. .. . .: , 1980.
512 .
21. Bessel-Hagen E. Uber die Erhaultungssatze der Elektrodynamik // Math.
Ann. 1921. V. 84. P. 258276.
22. . . .: , 1975. 400 .
23. Maugin G.A. Material forces: Concepts and applications // Applied
Mechanics Reviews. 1995. V. 48. P. 213245.
24. Piola G. Nuovo analisi per tutti le questioni della meccanica molecu-
lare // Mem. Mat. Fis. Soc. Ital. Modena. 1835. V. 21. P. 155
321.
25. Piola G. Intorno alle equazioni fondamentali del movimento di corpi qual-
sivoglioni considerati secondo la naturale loro forma e costituva // Mem.
Mat. Fis. Soc. Ital. Modena. 1848. V. 24(1). P. 1186.
26. Eshelby J.D. The Force on an Elastic Singularity // Phil. Trans. Roy.
Soc., London. 1951. V. A244. P. 87112.
27. . . . II. .: , 1972. 528 .
28. . . -
. .: , 1971. 392 .
29. - ..
, . .: , 1963. 412 .
10


GNII- (-
, ).
GNII- (A. E. Green)
(P. M. Naghdi) -

, -
. ,
-
.

. GNII-
, -
. :
GNII- -

.
GNII-
-

.

10.1.

(CTE)
, -
h
h = , (10.1)
(thermal conductivity). -
, , -
. ,
124 . 10.

,
, , ,
. ,
, -
.
(
) -
.
, -
,
.
,
, ( -
60 70 ),
,
. -
,
,
[1],
, 1989 .
90- . [2], [3]
, ,
GN-.
I, II, III:

, -
-
,
.
GN-
, .

. GNII
h = , (10.2)
,
(thermal conductivity rate). -

.


10.2. GNII 125

. ,
1 . -
GNII-
-

. [4]
GNII -
-
.

10.2. GNII
( )


GNII ( )


pR
R S = 0,
t X
(10.3)
( + s) + tr (S FT ) jR R = 0,
x
pR = R v , v = , S
t X
, F = R x
, (
), s (
), jR -
(
), ;

.
GNII- -
F, R
. (thermal
displacement) , - (Van Dantzig), -
( )
1
-
.
126 . 10.

Z
= dt. (10.4)

(
) hR jR
jR
hR = . (10.5)

(
)
= (F, R , ) (10.6)
GNII-:

S= , s= , jR = . (10.7)
F (R )
-
-
( GNII, )
, () 1
2 u + ( + ) u u = 0,
(10.8)
2 0 u = 0,

u ;
; , ;
( ); 2 = ; -
; 0 -
; ; (
) ; -
= (1/3)(3 + 2) ,
;
.
-


= , = .
0 0
1
.
, -
.
10.3. 127

(10.8) -
:
2 u + ( + ) u u = 0,
(10.9)
2 u = 0.


,
, .

10.3.

, GNII-
-
, -
.
,
(10.9) -
.
(10.9), .

2 u + ( + ) u u = 0,
(10.10)
2 u = 0.

-
.
G
( ) u -
. n
,
1
[ u] = n n A,
[ ] = n nB,
1
., : .
. .: , 1964. 308 . -

,
, .
128 . 10.

[ u] = G2 A,
[ ] = BG2 ,
[ u] = Gn A,
h i
= BGn,
[ ] -
; B, A ,
, B = 0 A = 0 -
,
.
(10.10) , -
u
:
A + ( + )(n A)n + BGn G2 A = 0,
G (10.11)
B BG2 + (n A) = 0.

1 n A -
. , ,
(B 6= 0),

n
 
G2 s2 G2 2 2 2
1 2 2 = 0 l = , s = ,
l c l G2
( 1,
)
v
u !2
cl 2 u c2
1 + 2 + s2 t 2l + s2 1 + 4s2
G21, 2 l l
= , (10.12)
l2 2
, . .

.
(B 6= 0) -
(n A 6= 0),
GB
nA= 2 .
(cl G2 )
1
n.
10.4. 129

,
(A = 0), -
.
, G1, 2
. ,
(10.11) -
,
( G2 )( A) = 0,
, , -
A 6= 0, ,
,
G3 = ct . -
.

10.4.

GNII-

, [4],
GNII-. -
.
GNII-

. , ,


.
X ( = 1, 2, 3)
xj (j = 1, 2, 3) (
) GNII-

1
L(X , xj , , xj , ) = R (X )xk xk (X , xj , , ). (10.13)
2
,
GNII
[2], [3],
xj , = , b = ( = 1, 2, 3). (10.14)
9 . . , . .
130 . 10.

GNII- , ,
:
Z
= L(X , xj , , xj , )dX1 dX2 dX3 dt, (10.15)
D
D -
( ) -
t1 , t2 .
, GNII-
xj
( -
-
).
,
,
.
GNII-,
(10.15),
(
) (10.13), .
, 1

Sj = , s = , jR
= ; (10.16)
( xj ) ( )
-
.
GNII-
xj = xj (X , t) (10.17)
(10.15),
, -

.

(
)
R vj Sj = 0,
(10.18)
( + s) + Sj xj jR

= 0,
1

. -

, .
10.4. 131

, 4--,
-
. X4 = t, x4 = , -

L = L(X , xj ) ( = 1, 2, 3, 4; j = 1, 2, 3, 4), (10.19)
,
X4 . ,
4 4-

 
L
= 0 ( = 1, 2, 3, 4; j = 1, 2, 3, 4). (10.20)
( xj )

   
L L
+ 4 = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3; j = 1, 2, 3),
( xj ) (4 xj )
    (10.21)
L L
+ 4 = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3).
( x4 ) (4 x4 )
-

(10.13).
:  

R xj = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3; j = 1, 2, 3),
( xj )
    (10.22)

+ = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3).
( ) ()
(10.16), (10.22)

Sj R xj = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3; j = 1, 2, 3),
(10.23)

jR + s = 0 ( = 1, 2, 3).
:

(R v)
R S = 0,
t X (10.24)
s + R jR = 0.
, (10.23), -
, -
(
9*
132 . 10.

)
(
). , ,
GNII- (10.3),
, (10.3) .

(10.15)
. ,
-
.

10.5.
GNII-

,
, -
(-
) (10.23). -
, [4].
4-
- -
-,
L X
( = 1, 2, 3, 4), . .
expl L = 0. (10.25)
-
X ( = 1, 2, 3) t.

- -
, .
-
(10.23), , -
L X
( = 1, 2, 3) t,
(L + Sj xj jR

b ) (R xj xj + sb ) = 0,
(10.26)
(Sj xj jR

) + (L R xj xj s) = 0.
10.5. GNII- 133

(10.26). -
(10.13) ,
 
1
(Sj vj jR ) R vj vj + + s = 0. (10.27)
2

(10.23),
( + s) + Sj vj jR

= 0. (10.28)
(10.3).
, (10.28) -
-
(10.23).
, , . . -
L
X ( = 1, 2, 3),
:
expl L =
6 0 ( = 1, 2, 3). (10.29)
(, =
= 1, 2, 3):
(L + Sj xj jR

b ) (R xj xj + sb ) = expl L. (10.30)
-

e = X + X ,
X
(10.31)
x
ej = xj xj .


 
L
X expl L 2 xj + 4L = 0. (10.32)
( xj )
, (expl L = 0), -
, xj
(10.32), . .
(10.31). , -

, -
.
134 . 10.

-
,
(10.31): GNII-
, , -
(10.23), -
:
h i
(L + Sj xj jR
b )X + (Sj xj jR

)t + Sj xj jR

+
   
1
+ R xj xj + u t (R xj xj + sb )X R xj xj s = 0,
2
(10.33)
u ( )
: u = + s.
10
1. Joseph D.D., Preziozi L. Heat waves // Rev. Modern Physics. 1989.
V. 61, No. 1. P. 4173.
2. Green A.E., Naghdi P.M. On undamped heat waves in an elastic
solid // J. Therm. Stress. 1992. V. 15. P. 253264.
3. Green A.E., Naghdi P.M. Thermoelasticity without energy dissipa-
tion // J. Elasticity. 1993. V. 31. P. 189208.
4. Kalpakides V.K., Maugin G.A. Canonical formulation and conservation
laws of thermoelasticity without dissipation // Reports in Mathematical
Physics. 2004. V. 53. P. 371391.

ELEMENTS OF THE CLASSICAL FIELD THEORY:
VARIATIONAL SYMMETRIES AND GEOMETRIC
INVARIANTS
Kovalev Vladimir Alexandrovich 1 (kovalev@migm.ru)
Radayev Yuri Nickolaevich 2 (radayev@ssu.samara.ru)

Elements of the classical field theory based on a variational formulation of


the Hamilton type are discussed and corresponding 4-dimensional Lagrange
formalism is presented both as the variational and the group theoretical script.
Variational symmetries (geometric and generalized) of field equations and the
Noether theorem providing a regular way of obtaining a conservation law for
every given variational symmetry are revisited in the present study in order
to give a complete version of the contemporary field theory. All developments
are presented in the non-linear frame (i.e. of finite strains as to continuum
mechanics). Natural derivations of all tensor attributes of a physical field
are given by the variational symmetry technique. As an example of the
Lagrangial formulation and systematic derivation of the conservation laws
of the non-linear hyperbolic thermoelasticity developed by Green and Naghdi
in order to take account of the wave nature of heat transport in solids at
low temperatures. The null Lagrangian theory for n-dimensional manifold
(including 4-dimensional Minkowski space-time) is developed in an attempt
to extend the canonical formalism of non-linear field theory. By the aid of
divergence formula for the null Lagrangians regular in n-dimensional star-
shaped domains, a general representation of the null Lagrangian depending
as maximum on the first order field gradients is obtained. A method of
systematic and derivation of the null Lagrangians for n-dimensional manifold
is proposed. It is shown that in the case of non-linear 3-component field in
3-dimensional space the null Lagrangian is represented, in general, via 15
arbitrary independent field functions.

1
Department of Applied Mathematics, Moscow City Government University of Manage-
ment, Moscow, 107045, Russia.
2
Department of Continuum Mechanics, Samara State University, Samara, 443011, Russia.

Vladimir A Kovalev, D.Sc. (Phys.&Math.), Ph.D.

kovalev@migm.ru
http://www.migm.ru/vakovalev/

Vladimir A Kovalev was born in Kamyshin village of the Stalingrad region,


Russia, on January 12, 1952. He is a Mechanical Engineering and Applied
Mathematics graduate (1974) of Lomonosov Moscow State University marked
by the degree of excellence. In 1974 he entered post graduate courses at
the Department of Mechanics of the same university. In 1977 he graduated
from Lomonosov Moscow State University and in 1982 he defended under the
supervision of Acad. of Russian Academy of Science (RAS) A.Yu. Ishlinskii
his Ph.D. in Applied Mechanics dissertation work Mathematical Modelling of
Ordered Structures in a Turbulent Flow in a Horisontal Channel of Stratified
Liquid and received the Ph.D. degree from this university. Since 1977 he
had been working at Moscow State Academy of Machinery Designe and
Computer Science first as Assistant Professor (19771982), then as Seniour
Lecturer (19821984), Assoc. Professor (19842003) and Full Professor
of Higher Mathematics (20032005). Since 2005 he has been working
at Moscow Municipal University of Managemnet of Moscow Government
taking position of Chair of Applied Mathematics. In 2003 he received the
Doctor of Science (Phys.&Math.) Degree from Chernyshevsky Saratov State
University for his study Refinements of Asymptotic Models in Problems of
Acoustic Waves Dispersion by Elastic Cylinders and Spheres which was
proposed for him by Prof. A.L. Goldenveyser. He is a member of Russian
Academy of Natural Science (since 1999, Rock Mechanics and Metallurgy
Branch), member of Editorial Board of several Scientific Journals, an Awarded
Professional of Higher Education in Russia. Professor Kovalev is a winner of
Competition of Scientific Research Projects Supported by the Russian Fund
of Basic Research. He has very much personally contributed to organization
and co-ordination of scientific meetings, conferences and seminars announced
by RAS and leading Russian universities. Much of his academic activity is
devoted to post graduate students and younger scoientists as the academic
adviser.
He published nearly a hundred scientific papers (including educational
works) on the following subject: Dynamic Elasticity, Mathematical Plasticity,
Thermoelastic Wave Propagation in Solids, Dynamic of Structural Members,
Mechanics of Cracks and Fracture Mechanics, Theory of Viscoelastic Shells.

Yuri N Radayev, D.Sc. (Phys.&Math.), Ph.D.

radayev@ssu.samara.ru
http://www.ssu.samara.ru/radayev/

Yuri N Radayev is a noted scientist in the fields of mechanics and applied


mathematics, partial differential equations, and their applications.
Yuri N Radayev was born in Samara, Russia, on February 10, 1962. He
is a Mechanical Engineering graduate (1984) of Samara State University.
After serving in the USSR Air Forces he joined (1986) the Laboratory of
Viscoelastic Solids of the Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian
Academy of Science. In 1989 he graduated from the Institute for Problems in
Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science and received Ph.D. in Applied
Mechanics from the USSR Academy of Science. Since then he has been
working in Samara State University first as Assistant Prof. at Department
of Solid Mechanics (19891995) and later as Associate Prof. at the same
Department (19952000). He was also working as a visiting researcher at
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagoya University (19931995) and
Laboratoire de Modelisation en Mecanique, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie
(Paris VI)/CNRS (19992000). In 2000 he received the Doctor of Science
(Phys.&Math.) Degree from the Russian (former USSR) Academy of Science
for his disseratation work Continuum Models of the Material Damage. He is
the Head of Department of Continuum Mechanics (since 2002) and Professor
of the same Department (since 2000).
Professor Radayev is a member of the Scientific Council on Problems of
Solid Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Science (since 2001) and Mathe-
matics and Mechanics Expert Council of the Higher Attestation Committee of
Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (since 2005). He
is a member of the Russian National Committee on Theoretical and Applied
Mechanics (since 2006).
The main area of his research is Classical Non-linear Field Theories,
Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Hyperbolic Thermoelasticity,
Partial Differential Equations of Mathematical Physics, the Mathematical
Theory of Perfect Plasticity, Fracture and Damage of Materials. He is the
author of five books (Applied Problems of Fracture Mechanics, 1999; Non-
Linear Fracture Mechanics, 2001; Non-Linear Elasticity as a Field Theory,
2005; Three-Dimensional Problems of the Mathematical Theory of the Perfect
Plasticity, First Ed., 2004, Second Ed., 2006; Mechanics of Limit State of
Rocks and Solids, 2008) and nearly two hundred papers on the subject.