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This is a preprint -- subject to correction.

SPE
SocIstu of Petmieun Engmers

SPE 28688

Decline Cuwe Analysis Using Type Cuwes--Analysis of Oil Well Production Data Using Material Balance Time:
Application to Field Cases
by LE. Doublet: Texas A&MU.,P.K.Pande: Fha uil arm den,wa W,,,PC&y, . .. . .. .. . . ... . . .. tJNOCAL-Coastal
California,
-., .-A A --:,.,. I -Am-. t, T I MeCnlltlm

and T.A.Blasmgame,Texas A&MU.

SPE Merrtwa

~1-,~d~=%--k
W~m~tipm-titi lW~_mti~d~Mrn~M~~,lG13 tirlW.
. ._.
hfomdonarrwndhan,sbdmaaubmimdbyirowhoritj. Con@nttoitipp@r, aa~
~y~=$ed~m~z=~--=dbh~s). ~~-~~~~ . of=:
iboaimmorrnunbua P8por8Pm-utatsPE
mam91hiOctlD
=i4z%%n*dmotof..-. wah. mum81ian..m&aTu#wl&+g&droumonminasu%~ tofwhomMd
%? W&nhopaprrn
Plaadmd *lalmrim, e% P.o. M==5 mchadmmlYt7aOawasa,

BRIEF SUMMARY Arps efforts provided a variety of results; including the


This paper presents rigorous methods to analyze and interpret exponential,hyperbolic,and harmonicrate declinerelationsthat
productionrate and pressuredatafromoil wellsusingtypecurves we use today for empirical decline curve analysis. Due to the
to perform decline curve analysis. These methodsare shownto simplicity and consistencyof this empiricalapproach,the Arps
yield excellent results for both the variable rate and variable reistionsremaina benchmarkin the industryfor the analysisand
bottomholepressurecases, withoutregardto the structureof the interpretationof productiondata.
reservoir (shape and size), or the reservoir drive mechanisms. The utility of the Arps relations is the applicability of the
Remits of theseanalysesincludethefoilowing: hyperbolicfamilyof curvesto modela widevarietyof production
Reaewoirpmpe!ti~ characteristics.In addition,the simplifki ansiysisof exponential
- Skin factorfornearwelldamageor sdmtdation,s and hyperbolic data trends (such as the graphical techniques
- Formationpermeability,k providedby Nind2)maintainthepopularityof theArpsrelations.
. In-placefluidvolumes: The applicationof the A@ relationstypicallyincludesa semilog
- Originaloil-in-place,N plot of rate versus time where the hyperboliccasesyield gently
- Movableoil at currentconditions,NP,mv decliningcurveswhichhavethestraight-line,exponentialdecline
- Reservoirdrainagearea,A case as a lower limiL Nindz provides the development and
illustrationof plottingfunctionsfor the grsphicsisnsiysisof rate
We have thoroughly verified these analyses and interpretation data for the general hyperbolic decline case as well as the
methodsusing both syntheticdata and numerousfieldexamples. exponentialdeclinecase.
In addition, we provide illustrativeexamplesto demonstratethe
ease of analysisand interpretation,as well as to orientthe reader Anotherattractionof the Arpsrelationsis theirusein graphicalas
as to what am the benefitsof rigorousdeclinecum analysis. well as functionalextrapolation. Manyanalystsrely uniquelyon
the Arps relations for performance predictions, often without
INTRODUCTION realizingtheempiricalnatmeof suchextrapolations.In thiswork
The importanceof performingaccurateanalysisandinterpretation we will use exponential decline case as a basis for estimating
of reservoir behavior using only rate and pressure data as a movableoil at currentconditions,NP,MV We will demonstrate
function of time simply can not be overemphasized. In most that this approachcan be derivedtheoreticallyfor the case of a
cases, these will be the only data available in any significant weilproducedat a constantbottomholeflowingpressure.Wewill
quantity,especiallyforolderwelisandmsrginsilyeconomicwells also show that this approach works for wells which are not
where both the quantity and quality of ~ types of data are producedat suchrestrictiveconditions.
iimited. The theoretics applicationof this techniqueis for newer The Arps relations for flow rate and cumulativeproductionare
wells, at pressuresabovethe bubblepoitt~aithoughweshowthat givenas foilows
the methodsdescribedherecan be accuratelyappliedat any time Arps Flow Rate Relations
duringthe depletionhistoryof a psrtictdarweIi.
The developmentof modemdeciinecurveansiysisbeganin 1944 -
whenA@ pubiisheda comprehensivereviewof previousefforts *oncnriak (H) ~t) = ~ieXp(-D#) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(1)
for the graphicsi anaiysisof productiondeclinebehavior. In that Hyperbalk (tkkl) ~t] = qi
work, Arps developeda family of functionalrelationsbasedon .....................(2)
the hyperbolicdeclinemodelforthe analysisof flowrate&ts. [l+bD#]l/b
Harmonic: (b=l)
g(f) = & .. . ... . . .... .. . .. . . .... ...(3)
Referencesandiiiustrsdonsat endof paper
.
2 DeclhteCurveAnalYsisUsingType CmwS-AIIdysiS of OdWell~uction DataUsingMaterialBalanceTime: SPE 2t$bW
Applicationto Fiild Cases

Arps Cumulative Production Relations ;= N~q ..........................................................(l4)


The analysismethodderivedfrom Eq. 11was observedto work
Exponential: (b=O) N~t) = ~[1 -exd-Dit~ . .. .. . .. . . ...(5) beat when rate changes were small, that is, when the transients
inducedby rate changesdo not obscurethe boundary-dominated
or in terms of q@ flowbehaviorfor long periodsof time. Eq. 11wasderivedusing
..
me. -,..- --...1.12
UmLZKCMML A. A- ~ tqm.t
- s ~4 w, -0..-
=Ie C&S, and verified by

Np(t) = ~[qi-q(t~ ...................(6) comparison to the Muskatls solution for a bounded circular
reservoirand by the analysisof simulatedwellperformancedata.
~yperbofic:(*1) N~t) = qi [] - (l+bDit)l-l/b].. .(7) Continuing in a chronological fashion, we note that in 1987
(1-b)Di Fetkovich,et ap presenteda seriesof fieldcasestudiesevaluated
or in termsof q(t) by declinecurveanalysisusingtypecum%. In additionto several
excellent field examples, the authora also gave commentary
regardingthe analysisand intmpretationof productiondatausing
declinetypecurves.
Harmonic (b=l) N~t) = ~til+D$) ..................(9) One of the majorconclusionsof the Fetkovich,et af7 study was
LI=o~p~efi LML MCantdvsis of transientproduction ddta using
or in tmns of q(r) the Arps hyperbolic equatk ~ invalid. Transientflow theory
states that the flow rate profile should be concaveup, and as a
declining function, the Arps stems are concave down--which
clearly poses an inconsistency in both the analysis and
interpretationof transientflow data. A curiousdevelopmentwas
In additionto presentingthese fundamentalmlationa,A@ later the emergence in the industry of a rule-of-thumbduring the
introduced methods for the extrapolation of rate-time data to 1970aand 1980swhere it was suggestedthat an Arps stem of
estimateprimaryoil reservesusingtheexponentialandhyperbolic b>l should be used for the analysia of transient flow data.
declinecunfemodels. However, from the previous arguments it is obvious that this
The use of typecurves(dimensionlessor normalimdflow rate roleis withoutfoundationand will ultimatelyleadto erroneous
solutionsplottedon a scaledgraph)for analysisof productiondata resultsas WMas incorrectinterpretations.
was introduced to the petroleumindustryin the late 1960sand Put in a practical sense, transient flow data (productiondata
early 1970s.4$ In 1980 (preprint 1973)Fetkovichsintroduced functionswhichare concaveup) shouldneverbe usedto estimate
the most significant developmentin the type curvematchingof resmoir volume. Specifically, Fetkovich, et al suggest that
production data-tie creation of a unified analytical solution m.servoirvolumesand volume-relatedflowcharacteristicsshould
(exponentialdecline)for a wellproducedat a constantbottomhole not be estimated using declinecurve analysisk.fore boundary-
w..-.~ Imnplwwdomkiated
ee.m.a ABM%O
ph.. . . . ., -.---- flow conditions.
~- :-. -~ fIfiw
uVmAiJaLu fidlv exis~q
... . .-..= (nrnductiondata exhibit a concave
--.&r...
Further, Fetkovichs plotted his unified exponential decline downwardsbehavior).
solutionsimultaneouslywith the A@ hyperbolicdeclinestems, In 1991 Blasingame, et ap expanded on the earlier work of
which are assumed to account for non-idealreservoirbehavior McCray~ to develop a time function that would transform
(changes in mobility, heterogeneous reservoir features, and productiondata for systems exhibitingvariablerate or pressure
reservoirlayering). The final result is the so-calledFetkovich dropperformanceintoan quivalent systemproducedat a constant
type curve, which provides for the simultaneous analysis of bottomholepressure. The motivationof this effortwas to create
production data during transient and boundary-dominatedflow an equivalent constant pressure analysis formulation for the
conditions. While the Fetkovichdeclinecurveis an extraordinary anrdyaisof variable-ratehsriablepressuredrop productiondata.
tool for reservoir engineering, this approach is not without Unfortunately,the solutionprovidedby Blasingame,et al, while
limitations. theoreticallyconsistent is somewhatdifficultto applybecausethe
A particularlimitationarises in the analysisand interpretationof approachappearsto bevety sensitiveto ematicchangesin rateand
productiondata which exhibit significantvariationsin wellbore pressure.
presaum, as well as the effects of periodic shut-ins and other However,the B1aaingame,et aP study providedboth insightand
constraintsimposedby opimuionalconsiderations.To ita crectki motivation for the development of a more robust and less
the Fetkovichdeclinecurveis the mostpowerfultoolavailablefor complicated approach to analyze and interpret variable-
the analysisof productiondata,as demonstratedin refs.6-10. In ratehariable pressure drop production data, which ultimately
this ligh~ our presentefforts serve only to extend the utilityand resultedin our presentefforts.
applicabilityof this typecurveanalysisapproach.
The initialeffort to incorporaterateand pressurechangesintothe McCray$proposedthe followingrelationas a definitionforthe
analysis and intapretation of productiondata was introducedin quivalent constantpressuretime:tcp
1986 by Blasingame and Lce.11 This work provides analysis
methods for determining drainage area size and shape from NJ)= q& d. .......................................... (15)
variable-rateproductiondatain closedreservoirsusinga Cartesian b~t) /[1 o Add
plot baaedon the followingrelation
McCrayprovideda recursive-typetrapezoidalmle formulationto
$= m-+bP,, .. . . .. . . .. . . ... .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . ... . .. . . .. . . .. .. .. (11) solve Eq. 5 for tcp In addition, Blaaingame,et aP provideda
seriesof derivativefonmdationsfor computingrcp As WSCtiVf2
where Ap = pi - pwp ~d as the concept of an equivalent constant pressuremodel is, the
computational aspects of its application are unsatisfactory,
.=& ............................................................(12) espccirdtyforapplicationto fielddatawitherraticvariationsin the
rateand bottomholepressureprofiles.
b,.,=141.2#&(-$-&-] . .. .. . ... . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . .. (13) The utility of the tc concept is aignificanlgiven the use of the
Fetkovich6Wlquid&OW)and Carter14Js(gas flow) type curves
andthe defiition of materialbalancetimeis givenby for analysis of production data, and given tlds potential, we
L.E. DoybleLP.K. Pande,T.J. McCollum.@d T.~ Bl~ingme 3
SPE 28688

recommend that the equivalent constant pressure concept be wells in order to estimate reservoir voiuttiES art~ fiw
consideredfor fmher study. characteristics.We focuson usingdata that operatorsacquireas
In 1993,Palacio and Blasingame10developeda solutionfor the part of normalfield operations(e.g.,productionra~s froms~es
generalcaseof variableratdvariablepressuredropforthe flowof tickets and pressuresfrom permanentsurfaceand/orbouomhole
either single-phaseliquid or gas. These authorsshowedthat for gauges). This approach eliminates the loss of productionthat
~ny ~a,ti~cu!ar~rodu~ticn hismry using the pressure drop occurs when wells are shut in for pressuretransienttesting.~d
-*....:..-A
providesSniuysls :-*-m..a*.;nm-f .*I *Afi-ld
mm lIlbG1pHdA411 v, well UA.u . . . . . pe.tima!m
normalized flow rate function and the material balance time
function will yield a harmonic rate decline (b=l stem on a at little or no cost to the operator. In addition,the methodswe
Fetkovichdeclinecurve)for liquidflow. introducein this paper are not constrainedby the requirementof
cerwm: rata w !mttornho!epresmes, as is the case for the
The authors derived this method rigorously from the previouslypubtishedmethods.
pseudosteady-state (or boundary-dominated)flow equation as Awe mentionedearlier,the analysismethodsthatwe presentin
follows. RecaUingthe paeudosteady-stateflowequation,Eq. 11, this workprovideestimatesof the following:
andthedefinitionof thematerialbalancetime,r, @q. 14)we have
Reservoir prOJ)Wtit?S

~= m-+bP,, . . . ... . . .. . . ... ... . ... .. .. .. ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. (11) . Skinfactorfornearwelldamageor stimulation,s


. Formationpermeability,k
where Ap = pi - pwf ~d In-placefluidvolumes
i= Nplq . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. ... .... . ... . .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . [M) - Origiiai r2i!4n=p!ace,
N
. Movableoil at cunentconditions,Np,tMV
Takingthe reciprocalof Eq. 11gives
- Reservoirdrainagearea,A
%.~ . . . .. . . .. . .. .. ... . .... . ... ... .. .. .. .. .. . .. . ... . .. (16)
@ [m-+
bps] METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS AND INTERPRET-
Rearranging.thisresultgives, ATION OF PRODUCTION DATA
Harmonic Decline Case: General Approach for
bpss
=F&i
Ap

or reducingto shorthandnotationwe have


Variable-Rate/Vadable Pressure Drop Production Data
As we discussedin the Introduction,the rigoroussolutionforany
rate and pressureschedulefor the caseof a wellproducingunder
boundary-dominatedflowconditionsis givenby Eq. 16. Recall-
_4k=- ... . .. . . ... . ... . . ... . .. . .. .. .. ... . .. . ... .. .. (17) ing Eq. 16we have
(q/Ap)inr [1+Dit] 4L.~ .................................................(16)
wherethe(q/@)inrtermis definedss P [W-+ bpss]
We recognize that Eq. 16 is a harmonictype of equation in
whichthe materialbalancetimefunction,;, is givenby Eq. 14
as
andthe Di term is definedas i= N~q . .. .. . ... . . .. . .. . ... . . .. . . .. . . .. . ... . ... . . .. .... . .. .. .. .. . (14)
k As such, we simply plot the pressure drop normalized rate
41c+i function,q/Ap, versusmaterialbalancetime,~,on a scaledlog-log
Di = &
bp~~ = 7.9545 .10-2 ....................(19)
plot and matchthesedata on the Fetkovich/McCraytypecurve,lo
%%%
with the boundary-dominatedflow data beingforcematched(by
definition) on the Arps b=l depletion stem. The type curve
Makingthe finalreductionof Eq. 17we have matchingproceduresand the associatedanalysismethodologies
...................................................(20)
q~=FkJ
are discussedlaterin this tex~as wellas in AppendixC.
Fetkovich-McCray Decline Type Curve
wherethe definitionsof; and q~ for thiscasearegivenby The so calledFefkovich/McCray typecurvewasfirstpresented
as a single entity in ref. 10, althoughcomponentsof this curve
;~=Di; . . . .. . . .. . ... . .. . ... . . ... . ... . .. . ... .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. ... ..(2l)
werepresentedby Fetkovich6(1980,preprint1973)andMcCray8
and (M.S. thesis 1990). The utility of the resulting Fetkovich/
-\ A- McCraysolution is the ability to match flow rate functionsas
.. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . ... . ... . .. .. .. .. ... ... . .... . . (22) well as the flow rate integrai and integrai derivativefunctions
W=(q;:xnt simultaneously. In addition, the integral functions provide
Recallingthe Arpsharmonicdeclinerelation(b=l) as definedby smoother data trends for clarity and ultimately, improved
Fetkovichc(andgivenas Eq.B-3 in AppendixB) wehave matchingof dataandtypecutves.

m & ..................................................(23) Althoughboth Fetkovich6and McCraysprovidethedetailsof the


Cqwing Eos. 20 and 23 we immediatelytecognizethat these developmentof their respectivedeclinetype curves,we believe
relauons are ~. And further, if we consider the base that a unifying discussion is in order, particularlyfor readers
relationfor variable-ratehriable ptessuredrop performance,Eq. interestedin fmher developmentsof this type.
16, we note ~at during boundary-dominatedflow q/Ap data It is importantto mall that the analyticalstems(transientstems
plotted versus r will exactly overlay the Arps b=l stem on the and the exponentialdeclinecase [b=o stem]) on the Fetkovictd
Fetkovichdeclinecurve. This wasthe foundationof analysisfor McCraytypecurvel(or any declinetypecurveforthatmatter)
the workby Palacioand Blasingarne1as wellas the basisforour are solutions for a well producing at a constant bottomhole
effortsin this ptesentwork. flowingpmssun?. However,the methodologyindicatedby Eqs.
In the presentworkwe focuson the analysisandinterpretationof 14 and 16indicatethat the Fetkovich/McCraytype curvecan be
production data (flow rates and bottomhole pressures) for oil used to analyze any type of production data, including data
4 DeclineCurveAnalysisUsingTypeCurves-Analysisof
.. ...-. OdWellproduction
.An____ DataUsingMateriatBalanceTime: SPE 28688
Appltcauonto rlela uuses

exhibitingarbitrarychangeain rate and pressure,so long as the


boundary-dominatedflow data are forcematchedon the&=1
..:-~ .+.- -tn. mmmit diwu.ssions
(&iiarmulIl&J awl,,. .., --.... -----------
considerthe
--
application However, we require the solution for a constant flowing
of the Fetkovictt/McCrsytypecurveonlyforcasesof radialflow, bottomhole pressure rather tttan a constant flowrate. We cart
in particular,verticaiweiii and vetticauy IrWUKU
--**--S-.----A.WGIIS
...-11 ..jph
w ~aell ..-..:1.. ki.: th
~ulay ouw~. -.e rn~~tant
- -.- hottomhcile
__.-.. pIIXSUrC Sohtion from the
exhibit radialflow. The Fetkovich/McCraytypecutve approach constantmtesolutionusingthefollowingrelationin Lsplacespace
wasrecentlyextendedto horizontalwellsas describedin ref. 16. givenby van EvcrdingenandHurst.lg This resultis
In order to be consistent with cument literature we use fie ~~u). LA (33)
Fetkovichsdefinitionsof the dimensionlessdeclinevariables(1LM Uzpdu) ................................................
and qm) which are given below. The tnjfunction is given in Once the q~t~) values are obtained from qdtD) values, the
termsof dimensionlessvariablesas associatedderivativeandintegralfunctionscanbecomputedusing
t~=~ ~tf) ........................................(24) standard techniques, or these functions can be computed
& [lnr@-j simultaneously with the q~tm) values using the numerical
Laplacetransfotminversionatgorithm.lg
Slldht t&?ltS . . A oinsl
of ~ Vtititilf% %%%2
ii~Vt?
m rig. i we preen: tiie W..e ----- ---- Iyy curve, slOng
.....- t%tknvich6
tm= 0.00633~~ .............................. (25) with the derivativefunction,q~, as definedby Eq. 31. We note
@@ [ln r~ - *] in Fig. 1 that the q~ stemsshowa dramaticcharacterizationof
the transferfromtransientto boundary-dominati flow,however,
In a similar fashion, the qm function is given in terms of as we suggestedbefore,we wouldnot expectthe q~ conceptto
dimensionlessvariablesas be particularlyapplicabledue to random noise present in field
~~
qDrf=[~rcD-+]~D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (26)
Figure2 presentsthe Fetkovich/McCraytypecurvelowhereq~,
andin termsof realvariableswe have q~, and q~ are all plottedversus t~ on the type curvegrid.
Althoughthii plot appearssomewhatbusy,we believethat Fig. 2
q~=141.2#$[hreD-~] ............................... (27) provides all of the necessary functions for both rigorous and
a-fi~i*:~n. ..
:~ f$~i empiricalana@sisof productiondata. Figure2 is usedthroughout
A minor discrepancy in these ...,,~~..~ . .. . Llhts1/7 term
.W ., - .-- . . ~tir pre=nt work for ~heanaiysis and interpretation of both
should actually be 3/4 as noted by Ehlig-Economides and simulatedandfielddata.
Ramey.17 We maintainthe conventionof using 1/2ratherthan
3/4 for the purpose of type curve develo ments in order to be ANALYSIS OF OIL PRODUCTION DATA USING
compatiblewith existingliteratuy. But in facLthisdiscrepancy THE FETKOVICWMCCWY TYPE CURVES
rarely makes more than a few percent difference in the
interpretation,and is onlynotedherefor completeness. A step-by-stepprocedurefor the use of the Fetkovich/hfcCray
type curve is given in AppendixC, and is abbreviatedin this
The rate integratand rateintegralderivativefunctionsintroduced section for reference and use in applications. Our type curve
by McCrays are given in dimensionless form below. The anaIysistechniqueprovidesmethodsto estimatethe original-oil-
dimensionlessrateintegralfunction,q~, is givenas in-placeand other volume-relatedproperties,as well as the flow
W characteristicsof theresetvoir.
WMi=
W=L~w

W() J
q~?) dr .............................(28)

and the dimensionlessrate integralderivativefunction,q~, is


Our methodology is based on the use of the simple material
balancetimefunction,t, thatyieldsa harmonicdeclineforthecase
of liquid production,regardlessof therateand pressuteschedule.
We provide the following procedure for the analysis and
~ptien~ :......*A..
,,,~,PR_U,, .f .rn nr~nn
~.wd-- -.. &@ us~.g &@ItC &p CUtWS.

-
..412(L=.
d In(m)
tm* .............................. (29) 1. ~
.

where Eq. 29 can be reducedto the followingresultas shownin i=fV#q . . . .. .. .. .. .. . ... . .. . . .. . . .. .. .. . ... . .. .. . ... ... . ... . ... ..(J4)
AppendixB 2. ~
qw = qlmi-qDd ............................................... (30) Our approach in this study is to work with the pressure drop
T. .-
*. *tiriitiOn.... we .- -- &e dimensionlessrate derivativefunc-
.7- i~trodu~ nor@ized rate function, q/Ap, in order to be completely
tion, q~, whichis definedas .-* me.rneOrygivcit
consMent wtui --- --- -. -:..-.. L..
uy c
~. 1L
~u. nli.
-v ...o~~~~ V#iii
followthis convenuonthroughoutthe text,includingcaseswhere
qw=_J!mL=.tw$112
!Ji ...............................(31) continuouslymeasumdbottomholepressuredataarenotavailable,
and we use the initial reservoirpressure,pi, as the normalizing
Unfortunately,we do not expectEq. 31 to be of muchuse in the condition.The pressuredropnormalizedratefunctionis givenby
analysis of productiondata due to the volume of randomemor
found in productiondat&wheretheserandomerrorswfiIordybe !q!Ap)= A = . .. . . .. . ... .. . .. .. .. . ... . ... .. .. .. . .. .. . . (34)
magnifiWbythe differentiationprocess. (pi - Pwfl G
when We use Ap = pi - Pw, as a shorthand notation. The rate
In orderto developthe Fetkovich/McCraytypecurve,we require
valuesof the solutionfora wellproducedat a constantbottomhole integralfunctionis givenby
pressure, qD as a functionof dimensionlesstime, tD,which are
c~n COnve@ to r~ and qm Using Eqs. 24 and 26 respectively.
Ilmse q~@) valuescanbe obtainedfromtablesin vanEverdingen
(q!l$)~= ~~~d~ .............................................(35)
tjo AP
and Hurstls or using numerical inversionlg of the Laplace
transform solution developedby Matthewsand Russell.~ fhe and therateintegralderivativefunctionis givenby
Lrrptacetransformsolutionforconstantrateproductionfor a well
centeredin a boundedcimdar teservoiris givenby Matthewsand
Russell~ as
(q/Ap)~= - d ~j 4h!M!..i4!i!M.
. .. . . . ... . . . . .. . . .. .. . . .. . (36)
di
5
SPE 28688 L.E. DoubIettP.K.Pande,T.J. McCollum,andT.A. Blasingame

The three plotting functions (Eqs. 34-36) are computed and ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF LONG-
plottedversus the materialbalancetime, t, then matchedon the TERM PRODUCTION DATA
Fetkovich/McCray10 typecurve,takingcare to forcematchthe In this sectionwe presentthe analysesand interpretationsof the
boundary-dominated portion of the data onto the Arps b= 1 simulatedand field data cases that we consideredin this study.
(harmonic decline) stem. The force matchingof boundary- Our goalis to be ableto analyzecasesfor whichdatais plentiful,
dominatedflow data is requiredby theoryand providesthe best but alsoto be ableto accuratelyestimatemovableoil volumesand
possibleestimateof oil-in-place,N. fluid flow characteristicswhen high quality productiondata is
scarce.
3. ~-in-pb
We suggest that our proposedmethodsfor the analysisof long-
Estimating the reservoir volume or oil-in-place,N, from type term productiondata are easily transferableto any operator,in
CtlrVSSnSiysis~ti thStWe.miiltt?
ihediShiitttiSOff~~id ij~ particular, operators that iacicthe abiiity to perform periodic
(givenby Eqs. 25 and 27) to peld a matchpomtwresultm terms pressuretransienttestsor long-termproductiontests.
of volume. Equatingand isolatingterms in Eqs. 25 and 27, we
obtainthefollowingrelation We presentas completean analysisand interpretationas ssible
for each data case. We are able to reducethe adverse2 fectsof
(9dMP(@hP=W(q@f
@(h...................
(37) productionanomaliesthat occurduringthe life of a well, andwe
obtained unique type curve matches using productionrate and
SolvingEq. 37 for the oil-in-place,N, weobtain pressure functions, material balance time, and the Fetkovich/
McCrsylotypecurve. Theseproductionratefunctionsare
N.di.k!!@k . . . . . .. . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (38)
% (nAJIP (9dfP . pressuredropnormalizedme function,(q/Ap),
In orderto solvefor the pseudosteady-stateconstan~b ~, we will . m~ in@@ function,(q/AP)i,~d
use the generalized definition of q~ given by t q. C-5 in
AppendixC. RecallingEq.C-5 we have rateintegralderivativefunction,(q/Ap)~.
This processresultsin excellentestimatesof originalandmovable
oil volumes,as well as good estimatesof pmneability and akin
factor. The formationflowcharacteristicscan be calculatedwith
We note that Eqs. 27 and 39 arc equivalent,but Eq. 27 is strictly muchgreateraccuracyand confidenceif we haveaccurateesrly-
valid only for the case of a well centeredin a boundedcirctdsr time(transient)data.
reservoir and Eq. W is vaiid for a generai reservoir/weii
CO~lgWStiOZI Using tie appropriak Shapf3 factor,CA.
Whenthe typecurvematchon eithera transientor depletionstem
is indeterminate,anomaliesin theproductiondatacanbe removed
Recallingthe definitionof bpss, Eq. 13,we have by reinitirdizingthe data paata particularanomaly. Examplesof
such snomalka are recompletion, mechanicalfailures,long-
b
=142W%%I
Combining and solving Eqs. 13 and 39 for bPsSwe obtain the
. .. . .. . .. . .. .... . . ... . .. .. (13) term shut-ins,and fluctuationsin flow rate and pressureat early
timesin thelifeof thewell.
Whendatareinitializationis requireddue to suchanomrdiesin the
followingmatchpointrelation productiondata, the cumulativeoil producedremainsconstan~
regardlessof reinitislization.However,the reinitializationproccas
bp,3.& ..................................................(40) requireathat we accou: for priorproductionin the calculationof
. . materialbalancetime, t. This is accomplishedby computingi
4. ~ baaedon the ~otslcumulativeproductionand currentrates, then
The relations given below are used to estimate volumetricattd resealingthe I data to yield r =0 at the first data point. This is a
flow characteristicsof the reservoir based on the results of the simple procedureand can be easily implementedwith a small
typecurvematchandtheavaiiablewelldata. computerprogramor spreadsheetapplicationmodule.
ReservoirDrainageArea: Data Preparation and Analysis Procedure
A = 5.6148 ~ .. . . . .. . ... . . .. . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . ... . ... .. . (41) We now provide the procedures that we use to interpret and
& (l-~wirr) analyzeproductiondata. Theseproceduresare
ReservoirDrainage Radiux 1. Verificationof pertinentrock, fluid, and completiondata
usingavailablefieldrecordsand fluidpropertycorrelations.
re = . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . . ... .. . . .. . . ... . ... . ... ..(42) Thecriticaldatatequiredforouranalysisinclude
P
Effective ;ellbore Radius Totalcompre.%sibility Porosity
rm= &
r& """"" """"" """""""""""""'""""""""""""""""""""""""""'"""'"""" (43) Fluidviscosity . NetPayInterval
FormationPermeability 011formationvolumefactor . Wellboteradius
~=1+p[*]~:&] ....................(44) IrnxhtcibleWaterSaturation
2. Initialscreeningof fieldproductiondatausingsemilogand
or combiningI@. 40 and44 wehave log-logplots
~=141.2~~[-]1~1 ........................... (44) Identifyerrorsor anomaliesin the productiondata
ham andannotatechangesin thecompletionpractices
SkinFacto~
Timeminitializationof theproductiondata
s = - ln(~) . . . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. . .. .. .. . ... . . .. . . .. . .. .. ... ... . . .. . ... (45)
performintegralandintegralderivativedstasmoothing
3. Perform type curve analysis using the FetkovicMMcCray
decline type curve to determine the time and rate match
6 DeclineCurveAnalysisUsingType--Analysis of OilWellproductionDataUsingMaterialBshnce Time: SPE 28688
Applicationto Fieldcases

points. This typecurvematchingpmceaswasaccomplished Drainageradius,re = 744.7 f[


using a commercialsoftware graphics package.zl These Net pay thickness,h = 10ft
matchpointsare thenusedto estimatethefollowing Porosity,#(fraction) = 0.20
Oil-in-place,N
~ucible watersaturation,Swirr = 0.00
OngmaInommalwellspacing = 40 acres
. Paeudosteady-stateflOWconstsnttbpss Formationpermeability,k =lmd
Original-oil-in-place,
N = 564,210STB
T~ent stemmatch,rm FluidProperties:
These results are then used to estimatereservoirdrainage Oit formationvolumefactor,B = 1.1RB/STB
area formationpermeability,andthenear-wellskinfactor. Oil viscosity,p = l.ocp
4. To estimatethe movableoil, Np,mov, at cu~nt producing Totalcompressibility,q = 2O.OX1O-6
psi-l
conditionswe usc thefollowing ProductionParameter
InitialmSCrVOir pESSUrC, pi = 4000 psia
Smctlyrigorousapproach (requiresPWIdI@
Curve~
Plot calculated average pressure, ~cal=Pw~+ @Ps,s.
versuscumulativeoil production,Np, md exmpola~ to The semilog and log-log productionplots, togetherwith the rate
functionplots are shownfor the two simulatedcasesin Figs.3-8.
Fca@ The rate function, (qhp). rate integml function.(@p)i, ad fsE
Sem--analyticalapproach: integralderivativefunction,(qhp)ti are plotted versusmaterial
Plot (q/Ap) versus cumulativeoil production,Np. and balancetime,~,on the FetkovichtMcCraytypecurveas shownon
extmpolateto (q/Ap)=O Fig. 9 (constantpressurecase)andFig. 10(variable-rate/pressure
case). The boundary-dominatedportionof the ratefunctionsare
Analytical approach-constant bottomholepressure ca.w forcematchedon the 6=1 (harmonic)declinestemas dictatedby
Plot the flow rate, q, versus cumulativeoil production, theory for the use of materialbalancetime, and the appropriate
NP, and extrapolateto q=o. This methodis used when match points are taken. The dimensionless drainage radius
matchingparameter,r~, is estimated fromthepositionof thedata
bottomholepressuredataarenot available. on the transientflowtypecurvestems. me r~ parameteris then
For a complete treatment of the proceduresused for the usedto estimateformationpermeabilityandakmfactor.
estimationof movableoil pleasereferto AppendixA. We obtainedexcellenttype curvematcheson both the transient
Simulated Data Cases stems(forearly-timedata)as well as the depletionstems(forlate
We used a 2-D, radial, single-phaseblackoil simulatorwith 30 time or boundarydominatedflowdata),as shownon Figs. 9 and
geometricallyspacedgridsblocksto modelwellperformancein a 10. The drainage area, total and movable oil volumes,
single-layerreservoirwithhomogeneousandisotropicpropmies. permeability, and skin factor estimated by type curve analysis
These cases are used for vetilcation of our type curve analysis exactly matched the input data to the simulator,verifyingour
and interpretationmethods. A constantbottomholeprt%surecase approachfor bothcases.
was used as a benchmark anda secondcasewithmultiplerateand Type Curve Match FetkovichlMcCray Type Curve (Radial
pressurechanges(includingshut-ina)was generatedto ver@ the Flowin a BoundedReservoir).
variable-ratdpreasutedropperformanceof ourapproach. ~ ConstantBottomholePressure@lg.9)
The analysismethodwas verifiedusingsimulateddatacaseswith MatchingParamettxr~ = 3000(est.)
a wide range of permeabtity, and numerouschangesin rate and
bottomholepmasure. Agreementbetweensimulatedperformance [tQ.&p = 1.0 [iMP = 1270.6days
and the results of decline curve analysis were checked for
permeabilitieaof 1, 10, and 100md. We presentthe analysisof [4*P = 1.0 MAPIMP = 0.00888 s~~/Psi
simulatedperformancefor thefollowingproductionhistories
Cmigbia:-i2Wn-Haee:
N.dhd@d!& .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (38)
CtMMP (QM)MP
Verkble pW.with O.olml vukbk 15.0 N = (1270.6days)(O.00888STB/D/psi)= Sa Zlo Sm
*
multipleshut-ins llm.o 1000 vuiabk
2C0.O varkbk 0.0 20x 104 psil
210.0 23CQ vukbk Resemoir DrainageArea:
310.0 1300
A .5.6148 ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . (41)
410.0 vukble .0.0
6rn:o 2000 vukbk
@l(l%!iwi~)
520.0 700 vukbk
620.0 Varkbti 6.0
~ = (s.6148 ft3/RB)[564,210STB)(l.1 RBNTB)
630.0 1000 vukbk (0.20)(10ft)(l -o)
720.0 300
Iwo.o 200 vuiebk A = (1,742359 ft~(l acn#43560ft? = 40.0 acres
2m3.o 100 vukbk ReservoirDrainage Radius
4000.O 100 verieble
The pertinent reservoir, rock, and fluid properties for these re= ~ . .. . . .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . ... . . .. ... . . ... .... .. .. . ... .. (42)
F
vcsifkationrunsam summarizedin thetablebelow.
re = ~(1,742,359 ft2)/~= 744.7ft
Reserwir Properhe.c
Wellboreradha, rw = 0.25 ft
L.E. Doublet,P.K. Pande,T.J. McCollum,andT.A. Blasingame 1
SPE 28688

Effective Wellbore Radiur:


r~*
r~
. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . ..(43)
Recovery Factor = ~~~o\~B
.
,
.
(
.
1
100) = 8.33%.

Iscw.
~e ~ = 0.2482 ft
Thesimulatedcasesprovidean excellenttest for theutilityof the
FormationPermeability typecurveanalysismethod.The resultsof thetypecurveanalysis
and materialbalanceanalysisare essentiallythe sameas the data
~=ldl.+~~[~]~:~] ....................(44. inputto the simulator. Ourmethodwasahownto workwellfora
varietyof producingscenariosinvolvingboth variablerates and
variable bottomhole pressures, which gives us confidence in
k= 706 (1.0 cp)(l.1 RB/#?B) applyingthesemethodsto fielddatacases.
(loft)
Field Data Cases
(4)(1,742,359ft2) (ow888) = ~~d
In Thisworkincludesfieldcasesfromthe followingareas:
][ (1) 1
[ (1.781)(31.62)(0.2482ft)2 kW2ti9n &elY&Li.tbJ@
SkinFacttx WestTexas Carbonate(Dolomite)
SouthCentralTexas AustinChalk Carbonate(Chalk)
s = - lj~) .. ... .. .. . ... . .. . . .. . ... . . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . ... ... . .. .. ... (45) WestTexas Sprdxrry clastic (TurWtite)
OffshoreQdifornia LowerRepetto Clastic(TttrMdite)
--- 1.u2wL\ s OO.
- -t ().25 ) -.1116~-....t:fi, .-d ~,tsi;w nf nrnductinn data vties for mch of the
Uf WULJ -*U ~---., . y-- ----- -- . -

Since most weiis are not iisiialiy prorhdcedat 2 constant field cases, and the analysis of each case presents unique
bottomhole pressure indefinitely, we developed our second challenges. The types of fieiti production data rivaiiabk for
verification case with multiple rate and pressure changes analysisirklude
(includingshut-ins). This case morecloselymodelsactualfield Singlewelldailyrateandbottomholepressuredata
performanceand shouldbeconsideredrepresentativeof the types
of production histories for which our methodologies were . Singlewelldailyratedatawithsurfacetubhtgandcasing
developed. pltXs~ data
_ v~~h!e B~ttomho!ehum with Average monthly production data allocated on a tract
MultipleShut-ins(Fig. 10) basis~th no boaomholepressuredata
MatchingParatnetecr~ = 3000(esL)
For many of the wells we analyzed,the rock, fluid, and other
[t&p = 1.0 [~p = 1270.6days pertinent formation properties were unknown and had to be
estimated.lle fluidpropertieswereestimatedusingtheavailable
[4LnlMP= 1.0 [q/@~p = 0.00888S-fB/D/pal field data and from cordations providedin the fiuitiproperties
Curve~ moduleof a commercialsoftwarepackage.n
Tlten%wdta forthesecondcasearecalculatedsimilarly We suggest that fluid properties be evaluated at an average
preysurewhenthereservoiris betweenthe initialandbubblepoint
N = 564,210STB pre.saurea,and at a pressurejust abovethe bubblepointwhenthe
A = 40.0 acres reservoirpressureis belowthe bubblepoint. Ourexperiencehas
re = 744.7 ft shownthat these practicesyield the best resultswhenusing this
approach.Due to thedtificuhyin obtainingrepresentativevalues
rwa = 0.2482 ft of certain fluid properties,we suggest reportinga value for the
k = l.Omd Ncf product. This approachallows each individualanalyst to
s = 0.0 supplytheirownestimatesof fluidpropenies,andto providetheir
owninterpretationof thecalculatedresults.
~ (Figs.11-16) In addition to difficulties in obtaining representative fluid
P1OLSof calculatedaveragepressure,~d, normalizeddaiiy rate, po prrte s, we f-r O report ~ Witt!2 fO~ the
a im fx e k. . ~~e ~biiit~-

(q/Ap),and daily rate, q, versuscumulativeproduction,NP, were thicknessproduc~kh, in place of permeabilitybecausewe lack


accurateestimatesof net pay tldcknessfor each of the ~aervoirs
constructedto estimatethe movableoil volume,NP,mov Extra- analyzedin this work. However,to be consistent,we do present
polationof theplotteddatato theN axisinterceptyieldsmovable penneabilitiesanddrainageatwtabaaedon estimatedvaluesof net
volumesof between46 and47 M( TB for both verificationcases. paythicknessforallcases.
The simulated estimate for movable oil was slightly less The inability to complete all results with a high degree of
(approximately45 MSTB). confidence is not related to the analysis or interpretation
Theseextrapolatedvaluesrepresentthe movableoil volumeat the methodologieswe present,but rather,to a lack of reservoirand
time whenall reservoirenergyhas beendepleted.Thesevolumes fluiddatawithwhichto completethesecalculations.We use this
are usually alightlyhigherthan the actualfieldvalueof movable opportunityto pointout theimportanceof earlyandcompletedata
oil due to the practicalandeconomicinabilityto producea wellto collection.
such a low pressurelevel. North Robertson Unit (Ch2arfc@, Mm Cc., TX
Whenbottomholepressuresare available,the~d or (q/Ap) plots The North Robertson(Ckarfork) Field (Fig. 17)was developed
should be used to estimate NP,mow Even without bottomhole on a nominal 40 acre well spacing beginning in 1956. The
pressure data, the plot of q versusNP has been shown to yield dominant reservoir producing mechanismfor the original 141
wellswassolutiongas drive. The initialreservoirpressurein the
accurateeatitnatesof NP,moW LowerClearfork(LCF)wasestimatedto be 2800psia. As pan of
an infill drillingand waterfloodprojectbegunin 1987,116new
wells were drilled, reducing well spacing to 20 acres, and
Np,mov =45.0 MSTB(simulation) resultingin uniform40 acre5-spotpatterns. Original-oil-in-place
Np,mov =46.0 -47.0 MSTB(movableoil plots) was estimated to be approximately230 MMSTE,with primary
8 DeclineCumeAnatysisUsingType Curvca-Anrdysis of OdWell Production DataUsingMaterialBalanceTime: SPE 28688
Applicationto FieldCases

~ (Fig.22)
production before unitization in 1987 of 20.5 MMSTB.
Individualwellprimaryrecoveryfactorsare low,rangingbetween We nowconsiderthe typecurvematchingof the rate, (c@p), rate
5 and 10pereent. integral,(q/@)i, and mte integral derivative,(q/Ap)i~,functions
The Lower Clearfork is a shallow-shelf carbonate composed plottedversusmaterialbalancetime,i, on the Fetkovich/McCray
primarilyof a massivedolomitesection with varyingdegreesof typecurve. The threemtefunctionsare forcematchedon theArps
anhydritecement. The geologicsetting at the time of deposition 6=1 (harmonic)dedne stemas before,and the appropriatematch
andsubsequentdiagenesiscontributedto the heterogeneousnature pointsare obtained.
of the Clearforkformation,which is definedby extremelylarge To obtainthebest typecurvematch,thedatawasreinitializedat a
reservoirpayintends, poorvertiealand lateralcontinuity,and timeof 549days. Afterreinitiali=tion,weobtaineda goodmatch
lowporosity(8%on average)andpermeability(often< 1red). on the depletionstemsand a uniquematchon the transientstems
The wells were initially completed in the Lower, Middle, and at an r~ value of 160. From the log-log productionplot (Fig.
UpperClearfork,at measured depthsof between6200 and 7200 20),we notethat the transientflowperiodhad notendedat a time
feet. The majorityof the originalcompletionintenfalswerein the of 549 days,and the transientmatchshould be valid. Usingthis
LowerCk?arfork,which is consideredthe main pay. Additional dimensionless radius and the time and rate match points, we
completions were added in the Upper Clearfork and Glorieta calculatevaluesfor in-placeoil, drainagearea, permeability,and
duringworkoverprogramsin the 1970s.At the inceptionof the skin.
waterflood project in 1987, many of the original wells were Type Curve Match Fetkovich/McCmy Type Curve (Radial
converted to injeetors, and the remaining producerzwere re- Flowin a BoundedReservoir).
completedup sauetum.
MatchingPararnetecr~ = 160
Although the reservoir may be difficult to characterize
geologically,the Clearforkdoes behavelike a materialbalance [f*p = 1.0 [~p = 3300days
~oir, andthe deelinecurvetechniquesoutlinedptevioualyare
applicable.Likemanyolderfields,thereamlimiteddataavailable [9*P = 1.0 [q/Apkp = 0.019STB/D/psi
for analysis. Much of the fluid properdes data, as well as the Curve~ : (Rg.22)
completionintervalshave beenestimated. me oil flow ratedata Baaedon our estimatedvalues for total compressibilityand net
was allocatedto individualwells on a tract basis, and may be in pay tidcknesswe find
error, although the errorsare not likely to be significantbeeattse
the wells were tested for allocationon a semi-annualbasis. In Net = 62.7 STBlpsi
addition, there are no bottomholepressuredata availablefor the N = 3.13 MMSTB
North Robertson Unit and for analysis purposes we assumed
A = 35.02 SCKeS
pti= O, which means that the rate function term, (q/Ap), was
re = 696.9 ft
XtUSlly (q/i).
. . . kh = 19.61 md-ft
Umt ~.
ReservoirPr9pcrties: k =0.08 md
Wellboreradms,rW = 0.31ft s = -2.6
Estimatedgrosspayinterval = 1300ft ~ (Fig. 23)
Estimatednet pay thickness,h = 250ft Due to the lack of bottomholepressuredata, it is not possibleto
Averageporosity,#(fraction) = 0.08
Averageimeduciblewatersaturation,Swim = 0.25 use ~mlplottedvemusNP to estimatemovableoil. Instead,we
Averageformationperrncabfity,k < l.Omd plot the daily oil rate, q, versus NP to find the movable oil
original nominalwellspacing = 4oacr& volume. The extrapolationof this line to the NPaxis intercept
Curnmtnominalwellspacing = 20 acres y&&d~p~eo~blevolumeat the timewhenall mswoir energyhas
Fluid Propemex
Avrxue oil fortnationvolumefactor,B = 1.30RB/sTB Estimatesfor primaryandsecondaq movableoil were 190MSTB
Avera~eoil viscosity,P = 1.3ocp and 130 MSTB, respectively. Our results indicate that
JnitiaItotalcompressibility,cri = 12.oxlti psi-l approximately10,000STB of primarymovableoil remainedin
Averagetotalcompressibility,cl = 20.oxlo-~psi-i the drainageareaof ihe wciiwhenthe waterfhd was initiatedin
ProductionParameter 1987. The analysisof the secondarydeelinetrendis difficultat
T.{*;.1
.,.AUUS.. .- nrecwm?fLCm.
*c*rvnir y...---- \- ,.r.D; = 2800psia presentdue to a lack of aeeondaryproductionhistory. However,
Flowingbottomholepressure,pwf unknown using the preseni SLXOiid~rj ddh fiit~ vw ~sti~.~i~ ih~!
approximately113MSTBof reeovembleoil remainedas of July
NRU Well No. 4202 1994. Obviously,the actualmovableoil volumewill be lessthan
Figure 18 shows the locationof NRU Well 4202 with respectto thevolumecalculatedif thewellwereproducedto zeromtc.
its weUpattern and the unit. Tlds well was drilledin 1962,and
completedin both the LowerandUppmClearfork. Thewellwas
stimulatedwith 3,000gallonsof acid,and hydraulicallyfmctured Np.mov= 190.0MSTB(primary)
with 60,000gallonsof fracturingoil and 90,000poundsof 20/40 NP,mov= 130.0MSTB(seconda~)
aand. The well initiallytested at 141 STBO/D. It had produced Recovery Factor =6.07% (primary)
approximately207 MSTB as of July 1994. Semilogand log-log = 4.15% (secondary)
productionplots shownin Figs. 19and 20 indicatethattherewere
no significant rate fluctuationsduring primaryproduction. Itis
interestingto note the decreasein declinerate at approximately The resultsof the type cutvematchandmaterialbalanceanalysis
5* days of producingtime. This stabilizingof the production yield realistic estimates for original-oil-in-place,movable oil,
rate may be a responseto an adjacentwaterfloodprojeetthat was drainage area, permeability, and skin factor. The primary
initiated during the same time period. The responseto the unit recoveryfactorcalculatedusingthe valueof original-oil-in-place
waterfloodcan be seen at approximately9,000days,whenthe oil fromthe typecutvematchis typicalfor wellsin this tUdL
rate incmsed sharply.
A pressure build-up teat was performedon well NRU 4202 in
1988,and the permeabilityto oil was estimatedto be 0.2 md,and
SPE 28688 L.E. Doublet,P.ICPande,T.J. McCollum,and T.A. Blssingsme 9

. . .
the calculated skin factor was -3.7. Both of these values are
consistentwith the valuesobtainedfromour analysis,althoughit The analysis techniquesused for this well show that the analyst
should be noted that the calculations for drainage area, must be carefulwhenmajorevents,such as longshut-inperiods,
permeability,and skin factorare adverselyaffectedby thelackof or questionableproductiondataaffecta wellsproducinghistory.
an accuratevalueforthe netpayinterval. If a goodwell historyis available,the analysisand interpretation
can be accuratelyperformed.The resultsof ourtypecuwe match
NRU Well No. 1004 as well as our materiatbalanceanalysisindicatethat the well is
Figure24 shows the locationof NRU Well 1004with respectto draininga verysmall area and may requirestimulation,although
its well pattern and the North Robertson Unit. The wetl was the primaryrecoveryfactorestimatedfromthis anatysisis typical
drilled in 1960,and completedin the Lower,Middle,and Upper for wellsin the unit.
Clearfork. It has producedapproximately135.5MSTBas of July Sprayberry Trend, West Texas
1994. The semilog and log-logproductionplots shownin Figs.
25 and 26 indicatethat there were severalrate variationsand an This particularSpraberryreservoirwas initially developedon a
extendedperiodof an apparentlyconstantproductionrateduring nominal80 acre well spacingand additionalout-of-patterninfill
primary depletion. Due to the fact that the productiondata is wetlsweresubsequentlydrilledthroughoutthe field. The originat
allocatedmonthlyon a tractbasis,webelievethattheratebehavior reservoir producing mechanismwas solution gas drive, but is
between5,500 and 10,000days may not representthe wellstrue presentlygravitydrainageand waterfloodin certainareasof the
fil-lfl
....
depletion behavior. In order to achieve the best estimate of
original oil-in-place, and the correct type curve match, only The SpraberryTrend in this field consists of two distinctzones
productiondata priorto 5300 dayswasusedin ouranalysis. (Upperand Lower)with gross sandintervalsof 150to 600 ft and
. 330 fq respectively. The averagetotat net sand intervalfor the
curv~ : (Fig.28)
wellsin thisfieldis approximately190ft. The averageporosityis
The p~oductionrate functionsare plottedversusmaterialbalance about9 percentandpermeabiliticsareextremelylow(<e 1red).
time,r,on the Fetkovich/McCraytypecurveandforcematchedon After approximately30 years of primary production,a limited
the b= I (harmonic) decline stem. Upon further review, we waterfloodwas initiatedin certainareasof the field,but has had
reinitializedthe dataat a timeof 336days at whichpointthewell limitedsuccessdue to the suspectedpresenceof preferentialflow
achieveda stabledeclinerate. Afterminitialization,we obtaineda paths within this reservoir. While it is probablethat the lack of
goodmatchon the b=l depletionatcmsas welIas a uniquematch waterfloodcontinuityis due to reservoirheterogeneity,it is also
on the r~800 transientstem. From the log-logproductionplot probablethat thereis a low sweepeftlciencydue to communica-
@lg.26), VVe note that the transientflow-periodhadnot yet ended *A. fif .h. ydmtjli~ frsc~m~ ~tw~n indtidud We~S.
-s. . -s.. ----
at 336 days,and thereforethe transienttypecurvematch-isvalid.
l%e original-oil-in-placefor thii reservoiris estimatedto be 112.8
TyP Curve Match Fetkovich/McCray Type Curve (Radial MMSTB. The estimates for primary and secondary ultimate
Ftowin a BoundedReservoir). recoveriesare 1.9percentand 1.7percent,respectively,although
MatchingParametecr~ = 800 individualwell primaryrecove~ factorsrangeas highas 7 to 10
percentfor Sprabemymacrvoirsin general Theinitiatpressurein
[tap = 1.0 [JMp = 2000days thismaervoirwasestimatedto be 2650psia.
[91MlMP= 1.0 [q/@kP = 0.013STB/D/psi In this case, only monthly oil production data is availablefor
Cmve ~ analysis. In addition,we haveno accuraterock,fluid,or bottom
hole pressure data available for analysis. Since bottomhole
From our estimatesof totalcompressibilityandnet pay thickness pressuredataare not availablewe assumedpWf= O,whichmeans
we fmd
thattheratefunctionterm,(q/Ap), was actually (q/Pi).
Net = 26.0 STi3ipsi
Pro~
N = 1.30MMSTB
ReservoirPropemk.r
A = 14.52acres Estimatedwellboteradius,rW = 0.3 ft
re = 448.7 ft Averagenet paythickness,h = 190ft
kh = 18.41md-ft Averageporosity,@(fraction) = 0.09
EstimatedirreduciblewaterSSL,Sw.~~ = 0.30
k = 0.07 md Averageformationpermeability,k << 1.0md
s = -0.6 Originalnomimdwellspacing = 80acres
~ ~lg. 29) FluidProperties:
Averageoil formationvolumefactor,B = 1.33RB/sTB
As with well NRU 4202, we again plot the daily oil production Averageoil viscosity,P = 0.9Cp
rate, q, versus NP to estimate the movable oil volume. The Initialtotalcompreaaibitity,cri = 12.4x106psi-l
extrapolationof the straightline portionof this datato theNPaxis Averagetotatcompressibility,c1 = 18.3x10-6psi-l
interceptyieldsthe movableoil volumeat thetimewhenatl of the ProductionParonteters
reaetvoirenergyhas beendepleted. Ourresultsindicatethatthere Initiatteservoirpressute,pi = 2650psia
were approximately105MSTB of primarymovableoil, and 75 Flowingbottomholepressure,p~~ Unknown
h4STBof secondary movable oil (using the averagesecondary
declinefor the unit). The analysisof the secondarydeclinetrend Spraberry Well A
may be inconclusive due to a lack of secondary production Thiswellwasdrilledin 1957and completedin boththeupperand
history, however, we estimate that approximately44 MSTB of lower sections of the Spraberry. The well has produced
_ fi.,amhla
WC nil mmdnd
.- Q. .. .... ---- -ae nf ]llly !$)$)4.
. .-. approximately123 MSTB as of September 1993. The scmilog
and log-log productionplots shown in Figs. 30 and 31 indicate
that the oil rate varied significantly during the later stages of
Np.mov 105.0MSTB(primary)
= primarydepletion. llte rate integraland rate integralderivative
Np,mov 75.0MSTB (secondary)
= functionsreducethe affectsof the datascatterevidenton the rate
Recovery Factor = 8.08%(primary) functionprofde@lg.32). This smoothingallowsfora bettertype
=5.77% (secondary) curvematchevenforratedatawitha highdegreeof scatter.
10 DeclineCurveAnalysisUsingTypeCurves-Anslysisof..
OitWell
. Production DataUsingMaterialBalanceTime: SPE 28688

Curve~ : @lg. 33) significant exploration and production activities are presently
The (q/Ap), (q/Ap)i, and-(ghp)id rate functionsare plottedversus occuningin EastTexasandLouisiana.
material balance time, f, and then force matched on the b= 1 The AustinChalkconsistsof an immaturezoneabove6000ft. a
(harmonic)declinestemas dictatedby theory. Uponobtaininga generationand accumulationzonebetween6000and7000f~ and
matchof the dataand thetypecmvetrends,the appropriatematch a morematureoil generationand accumulationzonebelow7000
pdlrtt Va:iies are taken. WI=. . ., then
.... .. nht~~n
.. ~ va]~e for the fg in whichLhef.mcmesystemis most dominant.~
dimensionlessdrainageradhIsmatchingparameter,r~, which is The Giddings(AustinChalk)Fieldwas firstdevelopedin the late
used to estimate permeabilityand skin factor. The matchof the 1970s. Initial field development used vertical wellbores,
tatc functionson the r#2 transientstemis excellen~ however, with the rapid development of horizontal well
Type Curve Match Fetkovich/McCrayType Curve (Radial technologyin the early 1980s,almostall subsequentwellsdrilled
Flowin a BoundedReservoir). in the field have beenhorizontalto take advantageof the Austin
MatchingParametecr~ = 12 Chalkfracturesystem.
In the GiddingsField,the AustinChalkhas an averageporosityof
[t&p = 1.0 [~p = 8500days approximately5 percentandan avemgepermeabilitybetween0.01
[qRflMP= 1.0 [q/ApkP = 0.0069 STB/D/psi and 1.3md, dependingon the relativecontributionsof thematrix
and fmcturcsystems. The reservoirhas an avemgethicknessof
Curve~ between200 and 800f~ Total cumulativeproductionas of 1993
wasestimatedto be 150MMSTB. Theoriginalreservoirpressure
Usingour estimatesof totalcompre.ssiiiiiity
andnet pay thickness
we fmd for the GiddingsFieldwasestimatedto be 3326psia
NC1= 58.65 STB/psi The quantityandqualityof productiondatawasfairlygoodforthe
wells we analyzed. In particular,both daily rates and surface
N = 3.20 MMSTB pressuresare available. Theproblemwe facein theseanalysesis
A = 45.90 acres our inability to accumtelyconvert surface flowingpressure to
re = 797.8 ft bottomholeflowingpressure,as well as the lack of accumtcrock
and fluid data. To be consisten~surfacetubing P=WRP,P will
kh = 2.024 md-ft be used instead of pWffor both of the Austin Chw csscs we
k =0.01 md present.
s = -5.4
~ (Fig.34) Reservoir Propem.es:
Since we again lack bottomholepressuredata, we plot daily oil Estimatedwellboremdius,rW = 0.25 ft
productionrate, q, versus IVpto estimatethe amountof movable Estimatednetpaythickness,h = 3ooft
Averagepotosity,# (fmction) = 0.05
oil. Theextmpolationof thislineto theNPaxisinterceptindicates lMhtcxI irreduciblewaterSSt.,Swirl = 0.30
that the total primarymovableoil volumeis 160MSTB,and tit Avemgeformationpermeabfity,k = 0.01 -1.3 md
there were approximately 35 MSTB of primary movable oil FluidPropem.eE
remaining in the wells drainage area as of September 1993. Avemgeoil formationvolumefactor,B = 1.35 RB/sTB
presently,thereis insuffkientdataavailableforcommentas to the Avemgeoil viscosity,P = 0.45Cp
volumeof secondaryoil thatmaybe produced. Initialtotalcompmssibility,cfi = 16.4xI0-Spsi-l
Avemgetotalcompressibility,cl = 21.OXIO-S psi-l
n-- J..- --- 23....-...-.
Np,mov = 160.0MSTB rrvuudiun rurumcux a.

Recovery Factor = 4.99%


Initi# reservoirp~ure, Pi = 3326psia
Flowtngsurfacembmgpressure,PWI = 80 psia(7/94)
Barton Lightsey Well No. 64
The results of the typecurvematchandmaterialbalanceanrdysis
yield realistic estimates for original-oil-in-place,movable oil, This well was drilled and completedin 1991,and has produced
permeability, and skin. The recovery factor (4.99 percent) approximately330.5 MSTB of oil as of July 1994. The well
calculatedusingthe estimateof original-oil-in-place fromthe type presentlyhas a dailyoil mtc of 102STB/D,a producingGOR of
curve match and materialbalanceanalysisis slightlyhigherthan 5275 scf/STB,and a watercut of 9%. The semilogand log-log
averagefor the field, and the reservoirqualityin the am of this productionplots shown in Figs. 35 and 36 indicatethat the oil
well appearsto be high. productionmte startedout veryhighand thendeclinedrapidly,as
would be expectedfrom a dual porositysystem (fmcturdmatrix
Althoughwe had to estimatevirtuallyall of therockandfluiddata drainage).
requiredfor the calculationof permeability,the resultingvalueof Afterapproximately500 daysof production,the wellwasplaced
O.O!md is ~epm.wntativefor this extremely low permeability, . meAL&b
l:f% .-A *ha 4+1 nrmhmtinn mte hw.mav~
turbiditcreservoir. The calculatedskin factorof -5.3 is whatwe 0,16$U WIUu. .. y.**9..... . ...-. ~~~q)!~ f~~.rn. ~70
could reasonably expect for a low permeability,hydraulically STB/D to about 400 STWDbeforeresumingthe initial decline
fracturedwell completion. As of September1993,the well had rote. The mteintegralandrateintegralderivativefunctionsshown
produced123MSTB,or 77 percentof the recoverableoil volume in Fig. 37 wereslightlyaffectedby periodicmtevariationsat early
calculatedfordepletionto zerorate. producingtimes. The availabdityof dailyproductionandsurface
pressure data improvesour chancesof obtaininga unique type
Giddings (Austin Chalk) Field, Burleson Co., TX curvematch.
The Austin Chalk is an Upper Cretaceous, naturally fractured ~ (Fig.38)
reservoirconsisting of a homogeneousmicritic limestonechalk
with interbeddedblack shales. The reservoir has a low matrix ASbfom, (q/~p), (q/Ap)i, ad (q/@)idSMplottedversusmaterial
permeability,with a dominantnatuml tlacmre system trending balancetime,Z,andmatchedon theFetkovich/McCraytypecurve.
from Northeastto SouthwesLbut the presenceand influenceof Fmm Fig. 35, we see that dueto numerousratechangesandshut-
this fracturesystem is not well correlated. The main producing in periodsearly in the wellslife, it is difficultto obtaina unique
oend parallelsthe TexasGulfCoastbetweenthe PearsaUFieldto match on the transientflow stems. To improveour chancesfor
the SouthweaGand the GiddingsField to the Northeas4although obtaininga matchof the transientdata,we minitialti thedatato
SPE28688 L.E. Doublet,P.K.Pande,T.J. McCollum,and T.A. Blasingame 11

a timeof 132days to removethe most significantpartof the rate log-log production plots shown in Figs. 42 and 43 exhibit the
datascatter. characteristicbehaviorof a dual porositysystem. Oil production
After reinitialization,we obtained a good match on the r =28 ratedeclinesxapidlyas the fracturesystemis dmined,andthenthe
rate of declineis reducedduring the period in whichthe matrix
transientflowstem. It is interestingto note the effectthat tfl
e gas dominates.As withwellBartonLightsey64, we againhavedaily
lift processhas on the flowrate profile. The rate profileshowsa production rate and surface pressure data for more rigorous
spike-liketrendin Fig. 36 but is smoothedto a pairof overlapping analysis. The rate, rate integral, and rate integral derivative
trendsfor the (q/Ap) functionin Fig. 37. This behaviordoes not functionsare shown in Fig. 44. These pressurenormalizedrate
affecttheoverallqualityof the typecurvematch. functionsate not grearlyaffectedby early-timerateanomalies,and
Type Curve Match FetkovichM4cCmyType Curve (Radial therefore,datareinitializationis not required.
Flowin a BoundedReservoir). Curve~ : (Fig.45)
MatchingPammettxra = 28 The rate functionsare onceagainplottedversusmaterialbalance
[t&p = 1.0 [t~p = 330 days time, i, andmatchpointsareobtainedusingtheFetkovichA4cCray
typecurve. We havea goodtransientmatchon the r~800 stem,
[9AJMP = 1.0 [9/APhffp = 031s~~@i andwe will use this dimensionlessradiusalongwiththe timeand
ratematchpointsto estimatevaluesforoil-in-place,dminage-
permeability,and skin factor. This well is P=n~Y Producing
:kxdour estimates of totalcompressibilityandnet payttdcknesswe under boundary-dominatedflow conditions, attd is probably
nearingtheendof its operatinglife.
Net = 102.3STB/psi From our calculations,this weIl appearsto be draininga much
N = 4.87 MMSTB smaller volume than the Barton Lightsey well, which is not
A = 80.73acres
surprising considering the Scarmardo Carrabba wells per-
formanceto date. Aawe mentionedfor the BartonLightseywell,
re = 1058.0ft theanalysisandinteqxetationfromtypecurvematchingmaybe in
kh = 68.67 md-ft errorbecausewe areanalyzinga horizontalwellwithtypecurves
derivedfora verticalwell.
k = 0.23 md
Type Gove Matclc Fetkovich/McCray Type Curve (Radial
s = -5.0 Flowin a BoundedReservoir).
~ (Rgs. 39-41) MatchingParametecr~ = 800
Plots of ~d (qlAp), and q versus Np are used to estimatethe [t&p = 1.0 [t~p =84 days
movableoil volume. We assumethatbecauseflowingbottomhole
pressureis held constantaftergas tift is initiated,the straightline [91MlMP= 1.0 [9/APIMF= 0.32 s~~/Psi
extrapolationof q to zeroyieldsaboutthe samevalueformovable
Curve~ 1
oii ss rioesextrapomtion
of~d or (gl~p)to ~he.NP~ ifi*=~ept.
All of the materialbalancemethodsyielda movableoil volumeof Forourestimatesof totalcompressibilityandnet paythic-kness
we
360MSTBwithgas lif~whichmeansthatthereareapproximately find
30 MSTB of movable oil remainingin the reservoirat present Net = 26.88STB/psi
Ct?rtditkms: N = 1.28MMSTB
We also note that duringthe periodbeforeinstallationof gasliftj A = 21.21acres
that the extrapolatedmovableoil volumesfor all materialbalance re = 542.3 ft
methodsare also quite similar (=310 MSTB). The results of the
volumetricanalysisare givenbelow. kh = 162.90md-ft
k = 0.54 md
Np,mov = 360.0MSTB(withgas lift) s = -1.0
Recovery Facwr = 7.39% ~ (Figs.46-48)
Plots of id (qhp), and q versus Np are used to estimate
The typecurve and material balance analyses yield acceptable N~mowand again the computed movable volume for all three
results for original-oil-in-place,movable oil, and the reservoir methodsis exactlythe same. Primarymovableoil for this wellis
flowcharacteristics.Thecalculatedrecove~ factoris in therange estimatedto be 100MSTB,indicatingthatthe remainingmovable
of whatwe wouldexpectfor AustinChalkwells,andwenotethe oil volume is less than 10,000 STB. The recovery factor is
short operatinglife that is also characteristicof thesewells. The stightlyhigherthanforthe BartonLightsey64 eventhoughno gas
calculatedpermeabilityof 0.23md andskin factorof -5.0arealso lift processwas initiated. The comptison of recovexyfactorsis
representativevatues. The calculatedpermeabilitymayIMin error somewhatmisleadingwhenwe considerthat the BartonLightsey
sincewe may havetmdereatimatedtheeffectivenet payinterval. well will recover approximately3.5 times as much oil as the
As tids is a horizontal well, it appears that we may be able to ScarmardoCarrabbawell. We assumethatthe higheroil recovery
accuratelymodel the behaviorof horizontalwells in the Austin factor is due to better reservoir quality, if not better
Chalk using the Fetkovich/McCray type curve which was communicationbetween the fracture and matrix systems. All
developed for vertical wells (radial flow). In addition, this things being equal, one possible recommendationwould be to
analysis technique may provide a method to estimate the well performa significantstimulationtreatmenton thiswelt.
drainagearea,whichis oftenunknownforAustinChalkwells.
Searmardo Carrabba Well No. 225 Np,nIOV = 100.0MSTB
This well was drilled and completedin 1993,and has produced Recovery Factor =7.8 1%
approximately 92 MSTB of oil as of July 1994. The well
presentlyhas a dailyoil productionrateof 58 STB/D,a producing
GORof 5535SCUSTB,and a watercut of 11%. The semilogand
12 DeclineCurveAnatysisUsingTypeCuwea-Analysisof 011WellProduction
DataUsingMaterialBalanceTime: SPE 2g688
Aj@catimiwFiild -

S. Gilds Well S-42


The type curve matching and material balance analyses yield Figure50 showsthe locationof Well S-42withinthe SantaClara
consistent results even though we have used a type curve Field (Lower Repetto Reservoir). Well S-42 was drilled and
developedfor vertical wells to analyzehorizontalwells. Whilethe completedin 1986and has producedapproximately620MSTBof
reservoirqualitysumoundingthiswell appearsto be muchhigher oil as of January1994. At present,thepresentdailyoil rateis 113
than that of the BartonLightseywell, the movableoil volumeis STB/D, with a producing GOR of 737 scf/STB, a flowing
much lower,whichsuggestsless than optimalcommunicationof bottomholepressureof 2126psia, and a watercut of c 5 percent.
the welland the lCWVOti. This well intersectsthe Lower.Repettoresmoir at 56.6and has
an estimatednet verticalpaythicknessof 150ft.
Santa Clara (Lower Repetto) Field, Offshore, CA
The Santa Clara (LowerRepetto)Field (Fig. 49) was developed The aemilogand log-log productionplots are shownin Figs. 51
on an approximate 40 acre nominal well spacing beginningin and 52 and indicate that the oil rate is decliningsmoothly,but
1984. There are presently 9 producingwells in the field at an quite rapidly, which is probably a result of the producibility
average true vertical depth of 7500 fee~ The originalreservoir problems mentionedabove. The rate integral and rate integral
pressurein the LowerRcpettowasestimatedto be 5900paia derivative functions, as seen in Fig. 53, show no instancesof
erraticratevariationsin the productionhistory.
The Lower Repetto reservoir is characterizedby four distinct
zones consisting of thinly bedded turbidite sandstones, with ~ (Fig.54)
interbeddedsilts andshaleswhichlimitboththe VC1ti@ andlateral The - mk functions,(q/Ap~, (q/Ap)i, and (q/Ap)~~ plot~d
continuity of reamwoirproperties. These clasticturbiditeawere versus material balancetime, L and matched on the Fetkovicld
fotmedas a resultof densitycurrentswhichweredepositedon the MC@I ~ curve, as shown in Fig. 54. We have obtaineda
mid andouterfanportionsof a tmlidite lobe. vexygood matchon the transientflowstems at a valueof r+,
This depositional process resulted in the fortnation of poorly While this is a goodmatch,we mustspeculateas to whythe r~ is
sorted, medium to very fine-grainedarkoaesand Iithic arkoaea. so low, which indicates an extremely high level of near-well
Thesesandahave poroaiticsrangingfrom5 to 35 percen~withan Stidion. The obviousexplanationis that WellS-42is highly
average in-situ oil permeabilityof less than 3 md, and possibly .
muchleas even thoughcorepermeabilitiesfor the LowerRepetto The rate functions also indicate that the well is just beginning
often average20 md or higher. The in-aimreservoirpermeability boundary-dominated flow, and this behavior may adversely
is much lower than the calculatedcore permeabilitydue to the influencethe analysisand interpnxationof the wellperformance,
unconsolidatednatureof the rock,andrelativelyhighoilviscosity However, we believe that the results of this analysis are
at resenfoirconditions. representative and consistent with boundary-dominatedflow
-.. . .-
to AL:- . . . . - ,...I..,.*:n:. . theory. ~a ~ei,lt= nf
1--1
Due tms lacKd corisci~ldrition,
WUIU ~r-uuuull ~aa rnajer As. SUu.w . th;c
M.. analvc{e akn ...-.
. ......- ..-. hdicat$ ~h~~1~~ wC!! is
problem and gravel-packedcompletionsusing slotted liners am draininga much larger volumethan would be indicatedby a 40
required. l%e high viscosity of the oil at reservoirconditions acre well spacing. This interpretationof a larger drainagearea
results in the rapid depletion of reservoir energy, therefore, maybe dueto the uncertaintyof the net verticalpaythicknessand
pmsaurecommunicationis limitedto withina fewhundredfeetof the significant deviation of the well. Given the difficulties
any particularwell. The LowerRepettoformationdips at 10to associated with interpreting the perfmttmiiceof tiii~ -wdi, we
20 to the WIXLand due to the placementof the drillingplatform recommend the development and application of decline type
on the Upper Repetto structure,Lower Repetto wells are inter- curvesfor the analysisof horizontalwells(seeRef. 16).
sectedat anglesbetween50and6@relativeto horizontal. Type Curve Match Fetkovich/McCray Type Curve (Radial
lle original-oil-in-placefor thereservoiris estimatedto be greater Flowin a BoundedReservoir).
than 300 MMSTB. Total productionfromthe LowerRepettoas MatchingPatametecra = 4
of January 1994was 3.6 MMSTBoil and 3.9 BCF gas. Ultimate
recoveryis expectedto be less than3% dueto theheterogeneous, [f&p = 1.0 [z~p = 5900days
low permeabilitynature of the reservoir,in additionto the high [q&P = 1.0 [@PhtP = o.068 s~~lwi
coatof developmentdrilting.
However,given the producibilityproblemsas wellas theexpense
of operation, the operator has elected to obtain continuous Using the results of our type curve analysis along with our
measurements of flow rate and bottomhole pressure. Sub- estimatesof total compressibilityand net pay thicknesswe have
sequently, the quantity and quality of oil production data and developedthe followingresults
bottomhole pressure data for the wells is very good, and we Net =401.2 STWpsi
expectto performa rigorousanalysisof thesedata.
N = 36.5 MMSTB
A = 273.82acres
Resenwir Propertie~
Wellboreradius, rw = 0.146ft re = 1948.5ft
Net pay thickness,h = 120-150 ft kh = 17.36 md-ft
Averageporosity,#(fraction) = 0.25 k =0.12 md
Averageimeduciblewatersaturation,SWim= 0.35
Averageformationpermeability,k < 3.0 md s = -8.1
Originalnominalwellspacing = 40 acres ~ (Figs.55-57)
FluidProperlleX In this case,we estimateconsistentvaluesof movableoil fromthe
Averageoil formationvolumefactor,B = 1.42RBISTB plots of (q/Ap) and q versus NP,which yield about 1.0MMSTB
Averageoil viscosity,K = 2.ocp
Initialtotalcompressibility,cfi = 10.OX1O6
psi-l total recovery. However, the ~d versus NP plot predicts
Averagetotalcompressibility,c1 = 1LOxl@ psi-1 approximately1.7MMSTBof movableoil volume, In an attempt
Prd4ction PamnuterK to maolvethis discrepancy,we considerthat the ~d functionis
Iflitial XWMXVOh P-lWC, pi = 5900paia
difficult to interpret relative to the actual pressurelevel in the
Welldeviation reservoir.
= 50-60
SPE 28688 L.E. llouble~ P.K. Pande,T.J. McCollum,snd T.A. B1asingame 13

The mainconclusionsof thisworkare:


Is there really 1.7 MMSTB of movable oil? Probably not at
cuxrentoperatingconditions,especiallywhenweconsiderthatthe 1. For the case of single-phaseliquid flow, the analysisof any
bottomhole pressure level has risen and stabilized for the past productionrate and bottomholepressurescheduleis possible
threeyeara. This rise and stabilizationin the bottomholepressure providedthat we use the materialbalancetime function,and
suggeststhe needforstimulationandprobablyMlcisl lit. the appropriate rate functions for data matching during
boundary-dominatedflowontotheb=] stemof theFetkovicld
Duetotheincmase andstabfizationofpWlat a high pressurelevel McCraytypecurve.
and since the well has only just entered the pseudoateady-state
flow regime, the rate and pressure drop normalized rate- 2. *,-,__ -. .--. L..A...1.. *,-..1.* .mrl ;sltD1.nr,at rdw.linn
using UW nlGUI WU@y UJ aJ14uJ&- Q!lU ..1* p. . p...
cumulative oil plots probablyyield the most accuratevalue of data is relatively straightforwardand can providethe same
movable oil for this case, and will be used for referencein our information as conventional pressure transient analysis,
analysis. without the as. eneia~d
. .. ~o~!of data acquisition, Or]05SOf
production.
.Vp,mov.10
.. nll~s~
... ---- 3. The flow rate integral and flow rate integral derivative
---
-.:----11-...s..-
luflcuu~ ~UUW iu[ -Illul6
---- acbu~abu-~.,~-
. -..-*n A-l:- *- P,, matrhee
.J p N
n
. . .. . . . ..-

Recovery Factor = 2.74% than would be possible using flow rate data alone. These
integralfunctionsalsoeliminateproblemsassociatedwiththe
~n~y~ of. .field
. . . . nmdUC~~n
~.- &@ wigh erratic pK)dUC1.iOII rste
The type curve and material balanceanalysesyield acceptable and bottomholepressurebehavior.
results for estimatesof original-oil-in-placeand movableoil, and
the calculatedrecoveryfactoris reasonablefor wells producing 4. The use of data reinitializationfor the removalof early-time
from the Lower Repetto. The calculateddrainagearea is much rate variationscan yield improvedtype curvematches. The
largerthanwhatweexpected,butwebelievethiscanbe attributed analyat must be aware of major events in the production
to a lack of knowledge of net vertical pay tldckness and the history that might have changedthe producingconditionsof
deviationof the well. the wellor reservoir.
Perhaps the most intriguing result of this entire analyaisis the 5. The calculationof movableoil volumeusing the q verausNP
match of transient data on the r- stem, which yields an plot yields acceptableresultsunless pw, variessignificantly.
estimated permeabilityto oil of 0.12 md and a calculatedskin The simulatedcases verify that the q verausNp plot yields
factor of-8. 1. This estimateof skin factoris unrealisticfor any
vexticalwellcase,withthepossibleexceptionbeingthecaseofan resultssimilarto thosepredictedby themorerigorousplotsof
extremely large, high conductivityverticalfracture. As this is (q/Ap) verausNP, and ~d versus NP. This conclusionhas
clearlynot the case, we can only assumethat the akinfactorcan also beenconfirmedforfielddatacasesforwhichsurfaceand
be attributedto welldeviation. bottomholepressuredataareavailable.
In contrast, the aemilog and log-log analysis performedon a 6. The techniques introduced in this work give excellent
pressure build-up test taken in 1992 gave an estimated estimates of maervoir volumes (total and movable), and
permeabilityto oil of 0.8 md and gave a skin factorof +2.0. If reasonable estimates of formation flow characteristics.
the permeabilityand skin factor are correctedfor the effectsof However, all of these estimates could be significantly
par-i penetrhml*:.. us,-
..~ ~.11 Amviatinn
.AA -..-..,
we twrwrr that @c txtmp~~
..- *..r-. -. . . . . . . . improved if high quality transient production data are
valuea would be comparable to the values obtained from available,as wellas accuraterock,fluid,andcompletiondata.
productiondataanalysis. 7. Additionalworkshouldbe developedfor the analysisof long-
iii order i~ USe tjTk- Gui%a
-.. .- w. SbbUL
.,.-..-+.91.,-.*;-m+a+-m-_,;nn flnw
aLGtJ WLUUaW AU. . .. WUW.. ..v r. tem. ~roduction data frQm.horizonta! wells. In addition,
characteristicsfor the LowerRepettowells we shouldprobably present decline type curve analysis concepts should be
use a matchmg parameterthat incorporatesdeviatedhorizontal extendedforthe analysisof multiphaseflowdata.
well length, instead of effective wellbore radius. The NOMENCLATURE
developmentand applicationof type curves for the analysisof
productiondata for horizontalwellswill aid in both the analysis
and interpretationof problemslikethis.lc Formationand FluidPammeters:
A= drainagearea,ft2
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS B= formationvolumefactor,RB/STB
In this work,we havedeviseda rigorousandconsistentprocedure cl = totalsystemcompreaaibility,psi-l
for theanalysisand interpretationof long-termoil wellproduction C(i = initialtotalsystemcompmsibility,psi-l
data *uaittg- wv*rnfit~hinotechniques. Specifically,we = porosity,fraction
proposethe Go~;lti;Z;%;lcCray type curveto estimate != formationthickness,ft
total and movable reservoir volumes, as well as the flow stir~ = inducible watersaturation,fraction
characteristicsof the reservoir. Further,givena limitedquantity k = formationpermeability,md
of productiondata, we ahowthat we can accuratelyinterpretand re = reservoirdrainageradius,ft
predictreservoirbehavior. rW = wellboreradius,ft
We also note that the use of rate integral and rate integral rmu = apparentwellboreradius(includesformationdamage
derivative functions allow for the analysisand interpretationof or atimuhuioneffects),ft
noisy field productiondata. In addition,the integralfunctions P = fluidviscosity,cp.
providebettertypecurvematchesand increaseconfidencein our Pressur@ate/Tii ParameteW
interpretations. b = Fetkovich/Aspsdeclinecurveexponent
The analyais techniquesthat we proposealways yield excellent bpss = constantin thepseudoateady-state
equationforliquid
estimates of original and movable oil volumes, and accurate flow,as definedby Eq. 13or Eq. A-4
estimatesof reservoirflow characteristics,providedgood early- Di = constantdefinedby Eq. 19,D-1
time data are available. Ouranalyaistechniqueswereveflled by m = constantin thepseudoateady-state
equationforliquid
evaluationof the simulateddatacases, and we againrecommend flow,as definedby Eq. 12,psilSTB
that qualitydata be takenearlyand oftento ensuremoreaccurate (q/AP)iti = constantdefinedby @. 18,STB/D/psi
~ldy~ and iltte~tetZtiOItS. = oil flowrate,mm
k = originaloil in ptace,STB
DeclineCum AnalysisUsingTypeCurves-AnalysisofOilWellProductionDataUsingMaterialBalanceTime: SPE 28688
Applicationto Fieldcases

)+/P . cumulativeoil production,STB We also acknowledgethe technicalassistanceof Dr. Anil Kumar


Np,mov = movableoil, STB of Mobil Explorationand Producing,U.S., Inc., and Mr. David
= pressure,psia
Elmer of ~PRC regardingthe acquisition and interpretationof
E= theirrespectivefielddatacases.
~ averagereservoirpressure,psia
Andfinally,we acknowledgethe technicalandcomputingsupport
Pabn = averagereservoirpressureat abandonment servicesprovidedby the Departmentof PetroleumEngineeringat
conditions,psia
Texas A&M University,as well as the financialsupport of the
Pi = initialreservoirpressure,psia UnitedStatesDepartmentof Energy(DOE)for fundingprovided
Pwl = flowingbottomholepressure,psia throughtheDOEClassII OilProgram.
Ptt = flowingsurfacetubingpreawm,psia
Ap = PrPwf*P~u~ dropspsi REFERENCES
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t = time,days fi#&(;;45) 160,228-247.
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tq = equivalentconstantpmasuretimeas definedby McGraw-Htil(1981).
McCray8,days 3. Arps, J.J.: Estimationof Primary 011Reserves,Trans.,
r = dummyvariableof integration AIME(1956) 207, 182-91.
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~ RcaJDomain 4. Slider,H.C.: A SimplifiedMethodof HyperbolicDecline
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the;onstant flowratecase CUNCS - Case HKtories7SPEFE (Dec. 1987) 637-656.

BP q, dimensionlessflowrate function 8. McCray, T.L.: Reservoir Analysis Using Production


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hi dimensionlessdeclinerateintegralas definedby FlowrateSystcms,wpaperSPE 21513presentedat the 1991
McCray SPE Gas TechnologySymposium,Houston,TX, January
mid dimensiotdmsdeclinerateintegralderivative 23-24.
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rUUL4J DL~ W *..86 . J ~ u%~~ : .AMq~!y~~~ of ~~~ ~~!!
&mensionkssdrainageradiusof rcaervoir ProductionData , paperSPE 25909 presentedat the 1993
akinfactorfornearwelldamageor stimulation SPE Rocky Mountain Regional/Low Permeability
dimensionlesstimebasedon drainagema ~~sw~~~ &mnnsium.
, ...r -----------.-., CO.
Denver. Amil 12-14,
__, --r--- __
dimensionlesstimebasedon wellboreradius 11. Blasingame,T.A. and Lee, WJ.: Variable-RateReservoir
dimensionlessdeclinetimeas definedby Fetkovich Limits Testing, paper SPE 15028 presentedat the 1986
~. .
bphlce TmnsformDomain SPE Permian Basin Oil & Gas Recovery Conference,
Midland,TX, March13-14.
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constantflowratecase 12. Dietz,D.N.:Determinationof AverageReservoirpressure
~D = Laplacetsansformof dimensionlessrateforthe fromBuildupSurveys: SPEFE (August1965)955-959.
constantwellborepressurecase 13. MuskaLM.: Flow of Homogeneous Fluids ThroughPorous
u = Laplacespacevariable,dimensionless Media, McGraw-HillBookCo., Inc., NewYork(1937).
14. Catter,R.D.: CharacteristicBehaviorof FiniteRadialand
Zo(x) = modifiedBesselfunctionof the 1stkind,zeroorder Linear Gas Flow Systems - Constant Terminal Pressure
Ii(x) = mod~ledBesselfunctionof the 1stkind, 1storder Case, paper SPE 9887 presented at the 1981 SPE/DOE
Ko(x) = modilledBesselfunctionof the2nd kind,zeroorder Low permeabilitySymposium,Denver,Colorado,May27-
KI(x) = moditledBesselfunctionof the 2ndkind, 1storder 29.
15. Carter,R.D.:TypeCurvesfor Finite RadialandlinearGas
= calculated Flow Systems: ConstantTerminal PressureCase, SPEJ
E = dimensionlessdeclinevariable (Oct. 1985) 719-728.
MP = matchpoint 16. Shih, M.Y.: Decline Curve Analysis for Horizontal Wells,
pss = pacudosteady-state M.S. Thesis,Texas A&M University,CollegeStation,TX
i = ~&@
[i994j.
id = integal derivative 97 lx.1:
Al. Unug-muuumn.a,
C.n.nMsA.. P A
L.n., c+.A Ramnu
Uaau ..-,, -,, U T d,..
* *..., 1.. ~pmp~i~n:
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Rate Decline Analysis for Wells Produced at Constant
We acknowledgethe permissionto publishfielddataprovidedby Presaurey SPEJ (Feb. 1981)98-i 04.
Fhta Oil and Chemical,Co. (westernDivision,USA), 18. van Everdingen,A.F. and Hurst, W.: TheApplicationof
the Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in
Mobil Explorationand Producing,U.S., Inc.,
Reservoirs,Trans., AIME (1949), 186,305-324.
UNGCALCorporation(CoastalCaliforniaDivision),and

UnionPacificResourcesCo. (UPRC).
SPE 28688 L.E. Doublet,P.K. Pande,T.J. McCollum,and T.A. Blasingarne 15

19. StehfesGH.: NumericalInversionof LaplaceTransforms, and Blasingamelofor the analysisof oil and gas wellproduction
Communications of the ACM (January 1970), 13, No. 1, data.
47-49.(Algorithm368withcorrection) Movable~ . .
20. Matthews,C.S. and Russell, D.G. : Pressure Buildup and SolvingEq. A-3 for the flowmte,q. givm
Flow Tests in Wells, Monograph Series, Society of
PetroleumEngineersof AIME,Richardson(1967)1. q=$ (P-Pwh-&NP . . .. ..- .. .. . .. . ..... .. .. .. ... ...(A-8)
21. Igor-Graphingand Data Analysis Program (Version2.7),
WaveMetrics,LakeOswego,OR, USA, 1992. Weimmediitclynotethatifpwl = constan4thena plotof q versus
Npwillyielda straightlineof thefollowingcharacter
22. PanSystemTM-WellTest AnalysisProgram(Version1.8),
EdinburghPetroleumServices,Ltd., Edinburgh,Scotland, slope . .1 . .. . . .. . . . .. . . ... . ... . .. .. .. .. . . ... ..(A-9)
UK, April 1991. NC#pSS
23. Hinds, G.S. and Berg, R.R.: EstimatingOrganicMaturity y-int.mept = #PI-Pw) .. . . .. . . . .. . . . .. . . . ... .. ... . . .. (A-IO)
From Well Logs, Upper CretaceousAustin Chalk, Texas
Gulf CoaaLTrans., GCAGS (190) a. 295-300.
x-intercept = Npmy=Np atq=O........................(A-l U
24. Dake, L.P.: Fundamentals of Reservoir Engineering,
Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam This result has considerable implications from a practical
(1978). standpoint. In partictdar,we can use a plot of q versusNp as a
25. Johnston, J.L.: Variable-Rate Analysis of Transient Well meansto estimatethe movableoil for the caseof a wellproduced
Test Data Using Semi-Analytical Methods, M.S. Thesis, at an approximatelyconstantbottomholepressure. For casesof
TexasA8cMUniversity,CollegeStation,TX (1992). variablebottomholepressures,Eq. A-8 becomesless applicable,
but we can still use the q versus Np plot as a ~mi-an~Ytic~
APPENDIX A - DER1VATION OF MATERIAL methodto predictmovableoil.
BALANCE PLOTTING FUNCTIONS FOR Aninterestinghistoricalfootnoteis thatNind2developedEq.A-8
PRODUCTION DATA froma comp~etely_ perspective.Hisgoalwasto develop
In this appendix,we start withthe materialbalanceequationfora the~ usingtheobservationof a lineartrend
slightlycompressibleliquidwhichis givenby Dake~ as of q versus Np. In this light, we recall that the at@.yl@
development of the exponential decline solution for a well
?=Pi-Net~Np .................................................(A.l) produced at constant bottomhole pressure is given by Ehlig-
EconomidesandRamey.17
We notethatif we plot~ versusNPthen we wiii obtaina straight . . V~ .
*.. m-s--
une or s llr-
slope JIfVCfad fii*WC2pi j+. we am, . .l.A a- Dvtrm+te .y .- the Z
. .. y Moe Otl.
versus NP trend to@ in orderto estimatethe movableliquid Thedevelopmentof a variable-rat.dvariable pressuredropformof
(oil) volume,NP,mov Of course,~ is typicallynot availablein Eq. A-8 can be derivedby simply dividing throughEq. A-8 by
practice,so we-must use an aitemate approachto appiyingthis L6ep~SUE drnp: Aps pi.pw$ This gives
concept
~=~ 1 Np ..................................... (A-12)
We now considerthe so called oilflowequationwhichrelates Ap bpss N@pss AP
rates and pressuredrops duringboundary-dominated(orpseudo-
Eq. A-12 and other variations of this result are developedand
Steady-5tattj fiow. This eqmaakxi is gii;efias
diSCUSsdill tietSiiin R%. 8 Sttd if).
F = Pwf+ dress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(A-2) Consideringthe form of Eq. A-12, we note that a plot of q/Ap
CombiningE@. A-1 and A-2 and solvingfor the pressuredrop, versus N~Ap will yield a straight line with the following
Ap = pt-pwfi we obtain
-em
. . . .. & Np + qbpss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (A-3)
AP = P,-pwf= slope = -- ...................................(A-13)
N@p$f
wherethe paeudosteady-stateconstamtbpss,is givenby
y-intercept = ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (A-14)

bp=1412w%k)l .........................(A-4) bpss

For the interestedreader,a completederivationof Eq. A-3 from x-intercept = % =%atq/Apa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(A-15)

fundamental principles is given in Appendix A of ref. 25. [1Ap *OV Ap


Nommlizingboth sidesof Eq. A-3by the flowrate,q, we have Unfortunately,this method does not yield a direct estimateof
NPmow However,we can employ a semi-empiricalapproach
*.~~+pss ..............................................(A-5) that uses a plot of q/Ap versus Np from which the movableoil,
f? Nc, Np,moWMestimated from the linear extrapolationof the q/Ap
where
ttend to thex-axisinterceptat q/Ap=O. l%is approach,while not
i.+ . .. . . . . .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .... .. .. .. .. ... . .. .. .. ..(A-6) completelyrigorous,shouldprovideaccurateestimatesof NP,mOv
whilealso fdtenngthe influenceof variableratesandpressures
Eqs.A-5and A-6 weredevelopedandverifiedbyBlasingarneand This is simply an intermediate recommendation and further
bet 1 for the analysis of oil well productiondata. Taking the researchon this topicis warranted.
reciprocalof bothsides of Eq. A-5and reamanginggives
~=*~ .......................................(A-7) To developa straightfonvardand rigorous approachto estimate
Ap bpss 1 +-i
the movable oil, Np,mov we can use the material balance
IVC@pSS
quation, Eq. A-1, as a plotting function where the average
Eq.A-7showsthat a of plot q/Ap versus ~willyielda hatmonic reservoirpressure,~, is computedfrom Eq. A-2. RecallingEq.
declineon a Fetkovich/McCraytypecurveas dkuased by Palacio A-1wehave
16 DeciineCurveAnaiysisUsingTypeCurves-hsdysis of Od WeiiPrmluctionDataUsingMatexiaiBakmceTime: SPE 28688
Applicationto FieldCases

~ k? ..~J$
Ncl . . . ... . ... . .. .. . . .. . . .. . .. .. ... . . .. .. .. . ... . . .. .. (A-1) drivemechanisms)are aisoempirical,basedmoreon speculation
thantheory.
If we have an estimateof the pseudostidy-smte constant,bpsf. The purpose of this appendix is to collect the pertinent Arps
fromsay, typecurveanaiysisor usingthe qhp versus N~Ap plot relations and to provide an introduction to the auxiliary rate
as described above, we can calculate the average reservoir functions so that interested readers may create their own type
pressure,jL as curves. Starting@I the Arpsdlmens:onlessratefunction,q~,
we havethe followingcases
Fcal=Pwf+9bpss """""
"""""
"""""
"""""
"""""
"""""
'""""
"""""
""""(A-l6) Arps Dimensionless Fiow Rate Reiations
Plotting~~ versusNp gi~ tie foliowing~uIts The differentcasesfor the dimensionlessflowrate, qM, function
1 rm=~.oivt=n
- .-.. rIc
-
slope
= -g


@:~
y-intercept = pi ............................................ (A-18) Ihponentiak (b=O) q~ = exp(-t~) . ... . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. ...(B-l)
x-intercept = NPmOV=Npatw ......................(A-19) Hyperbolic (04<1) 9W . 1 . .. . .. .... . . .. ...(B-2)
While Eqs. A-16 to A-19 provide the most rigorous and [1+ bt~llb
comprehensiveanaiysisof movableoii, this analysisrequiresa Hamwnic: (b=l)
certain degree of interpretation. For example, we will never
producean oil reservoirto the@condition, so we realiywantto m= * ............3)....(B-3)
determineN*,moVat some~~, whichdependaon the producing Arps Dimensionless Cumulative Production Reiations
conditions. The definitionof the dimensionlesscumulativeproduction,NPW,
Obviouaiythis methodassumesthat the measuredflowratesand is givenby
bottomhole pressures are msonably accurate,which is usuaiiy
m the case in practice. So again,we havea tail for vigiiantdata t~
aquisition--if we want to performstate-of-the-artanaiysisand NPZM
= q~?) dt ........................................(B-4)
interpretationof productiondata. Jo
APPENDIX B - THE ARPS EMPIRICAL RATE The differentcasesfor the dimensionlesscumulativeproduction,
DECLINE FUNCTIONS NPLM, functionare givenas
This appendix summarizesthe A@ semi-empiricaisolutions
(depletion stems) used in the Fetkovich/McCray1type curves. NPLM= [1-ex~-t~~ ..............(B-5)
Ihponentiak (b=O)
These solutionsare derivedfromthe Arps13empiricairesultsfor
flowrate, presentedin the formof theplottingfunctionsgivenby or in termsof q~
Fetkovich6 and McCray.8 A complete developmentof these NPLM= [1-q~] . . . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. ...(B-6)
solutionscan be foundin AppendixB of mf. 16. Hyperbolic: (Ocbcl) Np~ = #l. [l+b#-@] . . . ..(B-7)
in presenting tie AVS solutions we provide ae-vemiaitxiiiar-y 1-
functions based on the flow rate, or in this case dimensionless or in termsof ?Mand q~
flow rate function. The rate and auxiiiaryfunctionsare givenas
foiiows Np~ = *[1 q~d (1 +brM)l...(ItI)I)
.
YatiWle =Onlw ~@ Function or in termsof q~
$:M DimensionlessCumulativeProduction NPW = ~[1 -q&b] . .. .. . .. .. . . ..(B-9)
DimensionlessRateIntegraiFunction .
91mi
9W DimensionlessRateIntegraiDerivative Harnwnic (b=l) NPW = in(l+tw) ................(B-lO)
Aa a prelude to these developments, we acknowledgethat a or in termsof q~
speciai ~~~~n~!a~~r~ has been adoilted for the Arpssolutions. In
particular,the term exponentialdeclinerefersto thecasewhere ~pDd = Mi;9w)= -wg~)... (iijij
the flow rate decays in an exponentialfashion with respect to
time. Arps Dimensionless Rate Integral Relations
The exponentialdeclinecaseis the~ for therate The definitionof the dimensionieasrate intcgraifunction,q~, is
~. . . . . hv
oivm =
behavior in a well producinga single phase liquid at a constant
hnftnmlplp nrecmwe AC shnwn ~y Eh!~g-ECO~Qrn.~&ZS MIC!
. . . . . . .. . . y. .= - .. - . . ..
Rarney.17 The term harmonic decline refers to the case where
9Ddi
!W=L
~m q~r) dr .......................... (B-12)
the fiowratevariesin a reciprocalfashionwithtimeor sometime hi o

function for intermediate to large times. This case is also
anaiyticaiin the sense that flow rate normalizedby pressure Thedifferentcases for thedimensionlessrateintegralfunctionare
drop plotted versus the materialbaiancetime functionyields givenbeiow
exactiy a harmonic decline during boundary-dominatedflow
conditions,as shownby Eq. A-7.
The hyperbolicdeclineis the general term givento any decline &ponentiak (b=O) 9Lkii = ~[1-exp(-t~)l
~w .......(B-13)
curve case lying betweenthe exponentialand harmonicdecline
cases. Hyperbolic cases generailyhave iittie if any analytical or in termsof q~
basis,the most notableexceptionsbeingcertainideaiandreaigas qM].............(B-14)
flow cases as described by Fetkovich.c The hyperbolicdecline Wklt = -L[l. *m

caseaaretypicaiiyuaedto~ datairendsandmost
attempts to correlate hyperbolic behavior with physical
phenomena(e.g.,changesin mobiiity,layerfeatures,andspecific
--- c.-. - .. ----- ms - 1--..11 . ... .-,4 T A Rl!i@ino!tm P 17
SPE28688 Lb UOUDlek r.h. ranae, L .J. m.umm, cwu . ..=. A-M-..fF..-

wherethe dimensionlesstime basedon drainagearea,A, is given


Hyperbolic: (kb<l) ~w = -1_ d_[I. [ l+btj(l- I@] by
trn l-b
............................ (B-15) tDA =0.m33* . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(C.2)
@c/i
or in termsof q~
and the dimensionlesstimebasedon wellbore.radius,rW, is given
qM . . L(l- . . . . . /1* h\l ~;
l-b Itm u Viii 1 ~ 16)
............................ . tD=0.~633& .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . .. . . ... .. .. .. .. . . . ... . ....(C.3)
Mmttontc(b=l) ~M = _L~l+t~) . . . . .. .. ..(B.17) 4tctr~
tm Combiningeitherdefinitionof dimensionlesstime(Eq.C-2 or C-
or in termsof q~ 3) yields the followingexpressionfor the dimensionlessdecline
time
9Ddi = &@qN) . . .. . . .. ..(B-18)
2 .......................(C-4)
t~ = 0.00633~
#/@@
pl -L
Arps Dimensionless Rate Integral Derivative Relations [1
eYCAr&
The definition of the dimensionless rate integral derivative Similarlythe definitionof the dnensionless declineflowrateis
function,q~ti, whichwe wume to be @tive~ iSgivenby givenby
.d!mL=.tw* ..(B.19)
w=1412aw%k?)l*
..tM-A..##
- d ln(t~] ()
Or if we use the def~ition of the cumulativeproductionfunction, McCray8definedtie dimensionl~s declineintegralflow rate
NPLM, we have . functionas

9Ddl.=l,m o mqm&m
.......................................(C-6)
t~
/
Expandingthe derivativeandredueinggives
and McCraysalso definedthe dimensionlessdeclineflowrate
integraldeuivstivefunctionas
..1
!?LMdmo
1 q~t) dr- q~

CombiningEqs. B-12 with B-20gives the most usefuldefinition


. . . . . ... . . . .. .. . . .. . .. .. . (B-20)
-
.A12r
d ln(tm)
L=. t&R&
The dimensionalformsof thesemhtions aregivenby
.............................(c-7)

of thedimensionlessrate integralderivativefunction,q~. This


result isgivenas qWi=141.2&~h ~ (q/@)i ....................(C-8)
redid = 9LM-9LM............................................ (B-21) [1
e yCAr$a
ApplyingEq. B-21 to our previousresultsfor the qmi functions and
yields
qDdid=141.2#~ln
~ (q/Ap)id. . . . .. .. .. .. . .. . ..(C-9)
[1
13ponentiak (b=O) 9M = _&[l- ex~-hi~ - qDd
i
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (B-22)
where

Hyperbolic (Ml)
== i%[ii-@4&f+b)l-q~
............................ J (B-23)
and
(q/Ap)i= ~
toAp
~d~ .......................................... (c-lo)

Harmonic (b=l)
qDfM = -&(l+t Dd)-qDd...24)4)
(q/Ap)~= - d ~(d 4@Ml=.#@Ap)J
.......................(C-11)
d;
APPENDIX C - PROCEDURE FOR THE ANALYSIS
OF PRODUCTION DATA USING THE FETKOVICW Curve Ma@@@mWE .
MCCRAY TYPE CURVES This procedureassumesthatwehaveaccuratemeasuredratesand
In this appendix we develop analysis relations for the pressures as a function of time. Unfortunately,pressuresare
Fetkovich/McCraylo type curves. In order to generalizethe usually not available, so for the purposes of analysis and
---1..-:- ------- c-. ---! :-..:--- ,. . . . ..:-..1... -.a-.a:. 1..,.la
arwysm wncwpt Iur appuwwwn w IIUII-UUU414U I GWI VUII CIIICLF
;-+--.**.*;*- ...- -.., h..,- *na.m,,mm
MILG&~lGUXUU1l, W- LIMAJ U-VU
* *n@*st
U -O USbSb.E -u1.a_alb ~SVU-UL- U. VP

nmee,lm Arnn

we have defined modified expressions for dimensionless @IIIL Ap=pl-pW(.when PWIis assumedto be constantwith time.
deelinevariables. RecallthatFetkovich,aas wellas laterefforts The assumptionof a constantpressuredrop poseslittle difficulty
(refs.7-10),all considerthe case of a boundedcircularreservoir. in the analysis--althoughthis assumption may cause errors in
Whilethis solutionis usuallyacceptableforanalysisof production interpretation.
data from vertical wells, we must understandhow to interpret 1. Compute the material balance time function from the
performanceresponsesfrom non-circularreservoirshapes. The productionratedata. This functionis givenby
use of the reservoir shape factor, CA,permits interpretationof
otherreservoirgeometries. i= N~q . . . ... . .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. . . .. . . . (C-12)
Startingwith the dimensionlessdeclinetimefunction,wehave 2. Computethe flowrateand flowrateintegralfunctionsusing
the material balance time function. These functions are
=@&J2mDA=l*2D
,--- bycAdtz]
givenby
(q/Ap)= h= $ ..................................(C-13)
. .. . .. .. . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . . .. . . .. . .. . .. .. . . . .. .. . .. . . .. . . . (c-l)
18 DeclineCurveAnalysisUsingTypeCurves-AnalysisofOilWellProductionDataUsingMaterialBalanceTime SPE 28688
Application to Field Ca.wxI

i
ft@p)j= &[ ~ dt ......................................(C-14)
CJO4P

(q;@)ti= - d@APll = ~ #?/~P)il ................... [P-1 w


.. --,
d ln(~ &
A minorcomputationalissueis that the datamustbeSQU@
._ . . c..-..,:-- Iul
tm- PIUIJCU
..-~~-- -albulmL.ull
..eln,,ls~;tim fif thm
m teriiis Of he i UIIIWIUII w. ~.w
integral andintegralderivativefunctions.

3. Plot q/Ap, (q/Ap)i, and (ghpkj versus ~on a scaledlog-log


grid. Force match the data trends onto the Arps b= 1
(harmonic) stem on the Fetkovich/McCraytype curve.
-oral the timeand rateaxismatchpointsas wellas the
matched transient r~ stem.

Xfthematerialbalancetimefimction,~,is correctlycalculatedthen
a scaled log-log plot of q/Ap versus z will exactly overlaythe q~
versus r~ trend for a harmonic decline on the Fetkovich/
Mccraylotypecurve. Oncea matchof thedataandthetypecurve
has beenObtied: the time andrateaxismatchpointscank used
to developthe followingrelationsfor bPWandN
~ -Ja2fk . .. . .. . . .. . . . ... ... . ... . . .. .. .. . . ... . .. .. ... . .. (C-16)
P$z- [q/Ap~

N= l&(q/Apb .. . .. .. .. .. . . . .. . . .. . . ... . .. .. .. .. .. .. (C-17)


c1(bJIVtP (9DJMP
whereM.P.refersto the matchpointvrdue.
We then may solve for the drainagearea using the estimateof
Oxiginaloil-in-place
A=5.6148~ . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. ... . ... . ...(C.l8)
#/l (l-sw~w)
wherethe effectivedrainageradius,re, can be estimatedfromthe
followingidentity
re= P = ...................................................... (C-19)
From the rate match point, we can solve for the formation
permeability,k

k=141.2~;h[~]~~~] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..(C-20)

-Fromthe matchof the dataon a particulartransientstem(a unique


valueof r~), we can solve for the effectivewellboreradius,rW,
and the skin factor,s. Theseestimatesamobtainedusing
rfi * .............................. ........ .................. (C-21)
r~

and
~
s =-
4)rw . . . .. . . . .. . .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . .... . .. . .. (c-22)
19
SPE 28688 L.E. DoubleL P.K. Psnde, T.J. McCollum, snd T.A. Blssingsme

,N* I* 10 d Id
lti

1 :
1: :-~
-%I!?SS-=2E2===

,.O
i- k--------- --------------------------- o
I I 1 t 1
0 1000 zooo moo 40C0
tow
Figure6- SernUogPmduotim plotfor SirnutafedCeee #2 (Vadebfep~with SM-ine).

Figural
.Fatkwkhqodarld
%ddvJP@QJfJ-.

1$~
10 10
tow
Ftgure7- Log-LogProductionPtotIor SlrnutatedCaee #i?(VariabfePdvhfh Shut-ha).

I I 1 ,
10+ # 1 1 7 -1 1 --i-

16 ld 10 d 10 d
~N$ ~

FlgJre 8- RateFmoflonsforSbnufated
CeeeW(variablePWWIUI Shut-ha).
---- .... .

. -------- ---------- .- . . . . . . . ..- ---------- ..........


$0
lti 0
1 1
SOO lWO
1 I 1
Zom - I I
3mo
0
tc% J
F19re3-serIIuog Prod@on Plotfor SirnutatedCase #l (ConstantfJ~.

d=ppk-1 I Ik
W

10 10*
Figure
9Metchot~ -Oateforsirnutatad cuoml
I&

ComtaIM P- . FtadM FiOWType ~M.

Figure4- LqFLqI ProdxUm Pbf for SlrnulatedCaee #l (Constantpd.

W. 1
I I I 1 1
.-1-
1 v 1 1 1

W ld 10
w%
-r
d lti d

Fbure5 Rate FurElwe for Sknufated_ 81 (~ pd.


DeclineCurveAnalysisUsingTypeCurves-Analysisof OdWellProductionDataUsingMaferialBalanceTime: SPE 28688
Applicationto FieldCases

1 # I t
tm.
IE!!Ezl:
. .- .

---- w ,

c WA a 8.aJl.a-
0 wooo
N,,STS
mm~ L-m

F-11 - Movsble Oii EsfimstiofI


ffan RetoHietofy.
I 1 1 I 1
O.mot
E!!Eiim ,,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

w.: ----- -. -

..

Figum 12- Movsble Oil fromNonnsliARsteHistoty.


Esfimstim
~ & Ie4&i:_J2.:eLK
tm4
i 1604 Ie
L ----
1 4202 4
I @Of 1
1901
I A l SEC. 8

q+_T!f
.-0
0 mom
N,.STS
Figure 14- Mwsble Oil EsUmstbn from Rste Hktofy.

i loioo S&m ___S&o 4&o Soioo


%.~
Figure 15- Movs14e Oit Eetimstfon fromNonmtized Rate Hiototy.

i I I i t
lfl-
10 ld
Lx
Figum20-Log-tog Pmddion Ptotfor NRU Wd 4202 (Cbadodt).

F@m16-Mcwsbfe Oil EsffmetionfromCaic@Uedpti.


21
SPE 28688 L.E. Double4 P.K. Pande, T.J. McCollum, and T.A. Blaaingame

I 1 1 1 .I
1o
3 I I
Ill Ill
M=-!%- --J

---
I I I I I \ I 4 1
I
UP 1
~.. ZmO 4000 eooo WOO mOOO lam 14000
.a
(w% o

-1 [
tow
F~ra 25- Sadlog Pmductica plot for NRU Wall 1004 (Clewfofk).

104 I 1
1 1 1 -r
lo~ d
10 #
044
ObJ.s

H
.*C

F@UM 21- Rate FunctionEfor NRU Well 4202 (ClamfoIIC).

am=d~-= -

-.

Pmdumonoatatw NRuwd4202(~)-w-m-.
Rgwaa2-Matchd

I I t 1 I *
10 d 10 lo~
m @N;$ m

m
13Ela~ Figure27- Rata Functionsfof NRU Wail 1004- (Cbarfwk).

!I I , _-+%;._& I !

F@Jm23- MovableOil EatimatkmfromRate Hiatcq.

?f&aJAv9E&tnu
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4 307 300 400

/&n & ~; @403 ,404

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104 209 . 210

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~24-NRUWloo4-~6d~*-U& Rgum 29- Movable (2II EatimatJon fromRateI+Mxy.
22 Decline Cunfe Analysis Using Type Curves-Analysis of Ofl Well Production Dafa Using Material Balance Time: SPE 28688
Application to Fmld Cases

I 1 1 1 I I 1500
d
1 ld m. b-*am I

: 10
e a
10 -m
. -d-

lfl ld I
o zooo am am am 10MO nooO 9400 o Zm ao mo 800 1000 woo
1W18 tow
Fi~m 30- Sernibg Pmdmlion Pfof for Well A (Sprabarry). Rglna35serrlilog plot for Sartm LigfItaay Well S4 (Austin Chalk).
PlOdUcbm
.

Fq)ura31- Log-@ Produdbn Pfot for Wafl A (Sfxabarry).

12 ,
10 & ld 10
tow
fi~m 3S - Log-LogProductionPtoffor SartonLightaayWall S4 (Austin Chatk).

F@m 33- Rata Fundona for Wall A (Sprabany).


.-. _. -..

Figure 37- Rate Funofiona for Mton Ugfrfaay WeM S4 (Auafin Chafk).

I 1 I
SQ
onLigtucqwdla4
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.

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: F~m 3S. fMcflofPmduoumoalatorsd
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F@um39-Movabie 011EafimaUmffofn Rate~.


23
SPE 28688 L.E. Doublet. P.K. Psnde, T.J. McCollum, snd T.A. BlssingsJne

~ 41- Mwsbls Oil t&fnStiOfI frWII@kUhtSd ~.

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t

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.....
N,. STS

Figure 47- Moveble Oil Estimtbn fmm NOnndizsd ReteHistmy.

T-FzrI
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td 10 ld d
toew
~ 43- ~ pmductianPM for S Csnsbbs Well 225 (AustinChslk).
1
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. . of OdWellProductionDataUsingMaterialBalanceTtme:
Ikcline CurveAnalysisUsingTypeCuwe+-fidysk SPE28688

24 ~Feld-
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m. cOumIJ Omv

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I

11 I /1

I 1
I
1000
soo-
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:

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0

mo Fqum 55- Mmrsbls Oil EsUmstion trorn Rste History.


I I 1
0 I
10* 1 1 I I 020 I
1 I
loco Sooo sem sooo
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*m 51- -q ~ XX Gilds Well S-42 (Lower Repetto).

I@
. .
. ..=.

g I@ wd~
e OQO
wmooo lsOooOO zOOOooo
o SOOooo
N,. STS

10m F~m E4 - Movsble Oil Estirnstb from NorrnsliZed Rate History.


10 l& ~* 10 10
I I
I
moooI
Figure 52- Log-l-q Production PM for Gilds Well S-42 (Lower Repelto)

10
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.
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o
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Figure 57- Movsble~ &lrnsthmfm~tsdpbu.