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Fracture Mechanics

Griffith theory
Strain Energy Release rate
Definition: The rate of transfer of energy from the elastic stress field of the
cracked structure to the inelastic process of crack extension.
Critical value of it that makes the crack to propagate to fracture is called
Fracture Toughness of the material.

Since P/M =constant


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Strength of Materials vis--vis Fracture Mechanics

W
6WL
max = BH2

H Failure occurs when max > YS


BH2
L to prevent failure W < 6L YS

B = beam thickness

W
6WL
K = 1.12max a = BH2 a
a Failure occurs when K > KIc
H
BH2 KIc
L to prevent failure W < 6L
1.12 a
Strength of Materials vis--vis Fracture Mechanics II

Strength of materials approach :


failure when h > YS
pD
Hoop Stress = h = 2h
2h
safe operating pressure p = D Y

Fracture Mechanics approach :


For shallow crack, approximate to edge-cracked plate, i.e. K = 1.12h a

KIc 2h KIc
Safe operating stress : h = Safe operating pressure : p= D
1.12 a 1.12 a
2
1 KIc
Max. allowable crack size under this pressure : a=
(1.12)2 YS
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Regimes of Fracture Mechanics

1 Elastic Plastic
Linear Elastic
Fracture Fracture
M echanics Regime M echanics
Regime

Kapp
Kcrit

Engineering General
Design Yield
Regime Behaviour
0
0 Applied S tress 1
Yield S tress
Regimes of Fracture Mechanics
1 Elastic Plastic
Linear Elastic
Fracture
M echanics Regime
Fracture
M echanics Plastic Zone
Regime

Kapp
Kcrit

LEFM
Engineering General
Design Yield
Regime Behaviour
0
0 Applied S tress 1
Yield S tress

GYFM EPFM
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+0.1
2 Holes, dia = 12.5
-0.0
37.5

25

45o

10
62.5
50

60

C
L

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Fracture Mechanics Specimens

Single edge-notch, bend: SE(B)


E399, E813, E1737, E1290

Compact tension: C(T)


E399, E647, E813, E1737, E1290

Middle(-crack) tension: M(T)


E647

Disk-shaped compact tension: DC(T) Arc-shaped tension: A(T)


E399, E1737 E399

Cord-supported, arc-shaped bend: A(B)


E399
Fracture Toughness Testing: LEFM
P
P

V PQ

KQ = PQ.G.f(a/W)

V
ASTM E1820

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The force PQ is then defined as follows: if the force at every point on the record that
precedes P5 is lower than P5, then P5 is PQ (Fig. A5.1, Type I); if, however, there is a
maximum force preceding P5 that exceeds it, then this maximum force is PQ (Fig. A5.1,
Types II and III).
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ASTM E1820

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Stress intensity factor
(a>r>)
Stress distribution at the crack tip for an elastic solid:

As per Irwin, Stress intensity factor Model for equations for stresses at a point near a crack
K:

Then,
Now, for =0
(directly
ahed of crack
tip):
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Dugdale-BCS model
(Strip Yield Model)
Plastic zone spreads out at ends of crack forming
narrow strips of length R.
Plastic zone

At the crack tip, yielding crack

occurs ( > YS) which R 2c R


closes up the crack.

From this: ys

ys
Which simplifies to:
2
K
R I
8 ys c R
Essentially the same as Irwins
D.S. Dugdale, Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of
result bc. /8 1/ Solids,
Volume 8, Issue 2, May 1960, Pages 100-104
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Fracture Behaviour of Ductile &
Brittle Materials

50

40
Load, kN

30

20

10
Ductile
Brittle
0
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0
Crack opening displacement, mm
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Jintegral
Nonlinear elastic materials present nonlinear stress-strain relationships even at infinitesimal
strains
Example: Rubber, biological tissues, Liquid Crystal Elastomers Weakly cross linked liquid
crystal polymers, Glasses with orientational order

In the mid1960s James R. Rice and G. P. Cherepanov independently developed a new


toughness measure to describe the case where there is sufficient crack-tip
deformation that the part no longer obeys the linearelastic approximation.

Rice's analysis, which assumes nonlinear elastic (or monotonic deformation theory
Plastic) deformation ahead of the crack tip, is designated the J integral.

This analysis is limited to situations where plastic deformation at the crack tip does
not extend to the furthest edge of the loaded part.
It also demands that the assumed nonlinear elastic behaviour of the material is a
reasonable approximation in shape and magnitude to the real material's load response.

The elasticplastic failure parameter is designated JIc and is conventionally


converted to KIc.

Wiki
J Integral and strain energy release rate
Rice showed that the J integral is a pathindependent line integral and it represents
the strain energy release rate of nonlinear elastic materials.

where

is the potential energy, the strain energy U stored in the body minus the work W
done by external forces and A is the crack area.

The dimension of J :
J-integral: Interpretation
Interpretation: Potential energy difference between two identically loaded
specimens w/ different crack lengths

The value of J (obtained under elastic-plastic conditions) is numerically equal to the strain-
energy release rate (obtained under elastic conditions).

B is the
In the tensile mode we can use JIc the specimen
same way as GIc and KIc thickness
(i.e., when J = JIc fracture occurs).

Related to CTOD: t =f(ys, n)J/ys

= proportionality factor, = strain, n=strain hardening exponent


Definition of J Integral
Consider a nonlinear elastic body containing a crack, the J integral is defined as

Use finite element analysis to establish and


What is Stretch Zone ?
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Load, kN
20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Load-line Displacement, mm
Load-line Displacement

Time
40

30
Load, kN

Load, P
20

10

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Load-line Displacement, mm
Displacement, V

V
Compliance =
P
1
u=
EBV
+1
P
a
= Co+ C1 u + C2 u2 + C3 u3 + C4 u4 + C5 u5
W
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30
crack length
Load, kN

J-integral
20

10

1200
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1000
Load-line Displacement, mm

800

J (kJ/m )
2
600
K2 (1-2)
J = Jel + Jpl Jel =
400 E
200

(i-1) Apl(i) 0 a(i) - a(i-1)


Jpl(i) = Jpl(i-1) + W - a B .1 - (i-1) W - a
(i-1) N 10.0 10.2 10.4 10.6(i-1)10.8
11.0 11.2 11.4
crack length a (mm)
Adjust the initial crack
length

Obtain the blunting line


1200

Obtain power law fit to


1000

800
post-blunting data points
JQ Offset blunting line and
J (kJ/m )

600
determine JQ at
2

400
Ji intersection with power
law curve
200
Determine Ji at
0 intersection of blunting
line with power law curve
10.0 10.2 10.4 10.6 10.8 11.0 11.2 11.4
crack length a (mm)
Calculate Tmat from
slope of power law fit at
given crack extension
1200

1000

800 JQ
J (kJ/m )

600
22

Ji
0.6 JQ
400

aoq
200
0.2 JQ
0

0.0
10.0 0.2
10.2 0.4
10.4 0.6
10.6 0.8
10.8 1.0
11.0 1.2
11.2 1.4
11.4
alength
crack (mm) a (mm)
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Crack growth resistance curve (R-curve) method: Introduction
Fracture resistance of a material under plane strain conditions with small-
scale crack-tip plasticity is described by the critical stress intensity factor
KIc
Under such conditions, fracture of the material is sudden, and there is
either no, or very little, crack growth before final instability

In thin specimens, insufficient material


exists to support a triaxial constraint near
the crack tip, and plane stress dominates

For thin specimens, the crack tip plastic


enclaves are no longer negligible, and final
instability is preceded by some slow stable
crack growth

It has been observed experimentally that


the fracture resistance increases with
increasing crack growth Typical load-crack size curves for (a)
plane strain and (b) plane stress.
Concept of Resistance Curve

Step-like R-curve shown by


materials under ideal conditions of
G(2)
G, R

R
plane strain, gross elastic behaviour
Materials can be ascribed singular
G(1) fracture resistance parameters

Rising R-curve exhibited by ductile G(3)


R
materials, under low stress trixiality

G, R
G(2)
Materials fracture resistance must
be characterised through range of
crack driving force G(1)

a
R-Curve
The graphical representation of the variation of R, or the critical stress
intensity factor K plotted against crack extension, is called the crack
growth resistance curve (R-curve).

A typical form of the R-curve R-curve and a family of rising G-curves

The points of intersection of the G- and R-curves refer to stable crack growth. Stable
crack growth continues up to the point P at which the G(a, a,)-curve, that corresponds to
the value a, of the applied stress, is tangent to the R-curve
R-Curve: Brittle Vs Ductile material
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