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MODELING OF A TRICKLE-BED REACTOR: THE HYDROGENATION OF 2-BUTANONE ON A

RUTHENIUM CATALYST.
Author(s): Germain, A.; Crine, M.; Marchot, P.; L'Homme, G. A.
Author Affiliation: Univ de Liege, Belg
Source: ACS Symp Ser Int Symp on Chem React Eng, 5th Mar 13-15 1978 n 65 1978 Houston, TX, USA
Am
Chem Soc Washington, DC p 411-424
Publication Year: 1978
Abstract: The prediction of the performances of a trickle-bed reactor is possible knowing only the intrinsic
rate
equation, if a good description of the topological liquid distribution is available. This one can be obtained
using the
percolation theory and resolving the local forces balances at the gas-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces. For
the
hydrogenation of 2-butanone, the authors could obtain calculated values of the conversion in satisfactory
agreement
with the experiments, provide that they take into account all the possible mass transfer processes between
all the
different types of bed areas. So for the first time the description of the liquid distribution in a trickle-bed
catalytic
reactor is sufficiently detailed to allow the quantitative prediction of the performances of such a reactor
using a
volatile liquid reactant. 21 Refs. EI Order Number: 79070000877
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; CHEMICAL REACTION - Hydrogenation; CATALYSTS;
RUTHENIUM AND ALLOYS ;TRICKLE-BED REACTOR
Identifiers: TRICKLE-BED REACTOR
Classification Codes: 547
Effectiveness Factor of Partially Wetted Catalyst Particles: Evaluation and Application to the Modeling
of Trickle Bed Reactors
Author(s): Lemcoff, N.O. Cukierman, A.L.; Martinez, O.M.
Author Affiliation: Ciudad Univ, Buenos Aires, Argent
Source: Catal Rev Sci Eng v 30 n 3 1988 p 393-456 ISSN: 0360-2451 CODEN: CRSEC9
Publication Year: 1988
Abstract: The literature has been reviewed on the subject of evaluation and application of the effectiveness
factor of
catalyst particles in trickle bed reactor design. Numerical solutions have been presented for different
catalyst particle
geometries and, in most cases, for simple reaction kinetics. Also, several approximate equations have been
derived
that make the evaluation of the effectiveness factor much easier. Ramachandran and Smith's
approximation for gas
limiting reactant systems and Dudukovic's definition of Thiele modulus for a liquid reactant system have
been proven
to be important contributions. Although significant progress has been found in this area, there are still
several aspects
which remain to be thoroughly analyzed. The applications covered include catalyses of oxidation of ethyl
alcohol ad
sulfur dioxide, hydrogenation of methylstyrene, and hydrodesulfurization of heavy oils. EI Order Number:
Catalysts--Applications; Chemical Equipment--Reactors; Ethanol--Oxidation; Styrene--Hydrogenation;
Sulfur
Dioxide--Oxidation; Petroleum Refining ;Effectiveness Factor; Trickle Bed Reactor; Methylstyrene; Ethyl
Alcohol;
Heavy Oils; Mass Transfer
Identifiers: Effectiveness Factor; Trickle Bed Reactor; Methylstyrene; Ethyl Alcohol; Heavy Oils; Mass
Transfer
Classification Codes: 803
Document Type: JA
Treatment: AT
2
ISCRE 9: NINTH INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON CHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING.
VOLUME 1 - CONTRIBUTED PAPERS.
Source: Chemical Engineering Science ISCRE 9: Ninth International Symposium on Chemical Reaction
Engineering.
Volume 1 - Contributed Papers. v 41 n 4 1986 Philadelphia, PA, USA p 607-1135 ISSN: 0009-2509
CODEN:
CESCAC
Publication Year: 1986
Abstract: This conference contains 65 papers reporting recent advances in chemical reaction engineering.
The
papers are grouped as follows: applications to biological and solid state processes, mass transport in
reactors, fixed
bed reactors, fluidized bed reactors, gas-solid-liquid reaction systems, transients in reactor and reaction
systems,
industrial reaction modeling, polymerization and deploymerization, and parametric sensitivity and
multiplicity. EI
Order Number: 87040064701
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT--Reactions; CATALYSTS; MASS TRANSFER; POLYMERIZATION;
MATHEMATICAL MODELS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS ;FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS; REACTOR
MODELING; POLYMERIZATION REACTORS; TRICKLE-BED REACTORS; EIREV
Identifiers: FLUIDIZED BED REACTORS; REACTOR MODELING; POLYMERIZATION
REACTORS;
TRICKLE-BED REACTORS; EIREV
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: CP
3
MODELING OF TRICKLE BED REACTORS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES
WITH VOLATILE FEEDS.
Author(s): Collins, George M. Hess, Richard K.; Hook, Bruce D.; Akgerman, Aydin
Author Affiliation: Texas A&M Univ, Kinetics, Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Lab, College Station,
TX, USA
Source: Annu Meet Am Inst Chem Eng 1984 Annual Meeting - American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
1984
San Francisco, CA, USA Sponsored by: AIChE, New York, NY, USA AIChE New York, NY, USA 31p
Paper:
108B ISSN: 0196-7282 CODEN: AMAEDX
Publication Year: 1984
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a model to predict the behavior of trickle beds when
the liquid
feed is volatile. The model developed is compared with a non-volatile liquid phase model employing the
same
kinetics. In the model it is assumed that the reactor is operating in plug flow and that there is no
significant wall flow,
the catalyst bed is completely wetted, the mass transfer effects are negligible, the feed is volatile, and that
the reaction
takes place on the wetted catalyst in the liquid phase. It is intended to apply this model to hydrotreating
processes
which take place at high temperatures and pressures with partial vaporization of the feed. 40 Refs. EI
Order
Number: 85040053530
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT--Reactors; CATALYSTS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS - Hydrogenation;
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - Mathematical Models; FLOW OF FLUIDS - Packed Beds; LIQUIDS -
Chemical Reactions ;TRICKLE BEDS; PLUG FLOW; WALL FLOW; HYDROTREATING; VOLATILE
LIQUID FEEDS
Identifiers: TRICKLE BEDS; PLUG FLOW; WALL FLOW; HYDROTREATING; VOLATILE LIQUID
FEEDS
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: CA
4
ADVANCES IN TRICKLE-BED REACTOR MODELING.
Author(s): Crine, Michel L'Homme, Guy A.
Author Affiliation: Univ de Liege, Groupe de Chimie Appliquee et de Genie Chimique, Liege, Belg
Source: Recent Adv in the Eng Anal of Chem React Syst 1984 John Wiley & Sons New York, NY, USA p
430-461
Publication Year: 1984
Abstract: Various attempts in modeling heat and mass transport processes are reviewed in this paper.
These models
are characterized by a homogeneous representation of the fluid flows wherein the gas and liquid flow rates
are
assumed to be independent of the position in the packing. The paper shows how the main concepts of
percolation
theory may lead to a phenomenological description of the fluid flow hydrodynamics and, in turn, to the
modeling of
various transport processes such as the dynamic liquid holdup, the catalyst irrigation rate, the axial
dispersion and the
radial flow spreading in the liquid phase. These models are compared with experimental results and
empirical
correlations reported in the literature. (Edited author abstract) 54 Refs. EI Order Number: 85120175747
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT--Reactors; CHEMICAL REACTIONS - Mathematical Models; FLOW OF
FLUIDS; HEAT TRANSFER - Mathematical Models; MASS TRANSFER - Mathematical Models
;TRICKLE-BED REACTOR; RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION; PERCOLATION PROCESS
Identifiers: TRICKLE-BED REACTOR; RESIDENCE TIME DISTRIBUTION; PERCOLATION
PROCESS
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: MC
Treatment: NT
5
IMMOBILIZED CELL REACTOR-SEPARATOR: EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND GAS FLOW ON
REACTOR PERFORMANCE.
Author(s): Dale, M. C. Okos, M. R.; Wankat, P. C.
Author Affiliation: Purdue Univ, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA
Source: Amer Inst Chem Eng Natl Eng Natl Meet American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1983
Summer National
Meeting (Preprints). 1983 Denver, CO, USA Sponsored by: AIChE, New York, NY, USA AIChE New
York,
NY, USA 26p Paper: N 77D CODEN: ACENC9
Publication Year: 1983
Subjects: BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING; ;WHEY LACTOSE FERMENTATION; BUBBLE
COLUMN;
TRICKLE COLUMN; REACTOR MODELING; COLUMN PERFORMANCE; SPONGE PACKED
COLUMN
Identifiers: WHEY LACTOSE FERMENTATION; BUBBLE COLUMN; TRICKLE COLUMN;
REACTOR
MODELING; COLUMN PERFORMANCE; SPONGE PACKED COLUMN
Classification Codes: 461
Document Type: CA
Record 1
Mathematical modeling of the process of oxidation of SO$-2$/ in a fixed trickle bed of catalyst
Author(s): Stegasov, A.N.; Kirillov, V.A.
Corporate Source: Inst Kataliza SO RAN, Novosibirsk, Russia
Source: Teoreticheskie Osnovy Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii v 27 n 4 Jul-Aug 1993 p 393-397 CODEN:
TOKTA8
Publication Year: 1993
Abstract: The mathematical model is proposed for calculation of the process of oxidation of sulfur dioxide
in a fixed
catalyst bed under continuous and pulsed feeds of the liquid phase. The model is verified using the results
of
experimental-data processing. In Russian 13 Refs EI Order Number: 94011170299
Subjects: Mass transfer; Differential equations; Hydrodynamics; Mathematical models; Oxidation;
Chemical
reactors
Identifiers: Trickle-bed reactors; Balance equations; Liquid phase; Gaseous phase; Numerical experiments
Classification Codes: 631.2
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
1
Effectiveness Factor of Partially Wetted Catalyst Particles: Evaluation and Application to the Modeling
of Trickle Bed Reactors
Author(s): Lemcoff, N.O. Cukierman, A.L.; Martinez, O.M.
Author Affiliation: Ciudad Univ, Buenos Aires, Argent
Source: Catal Rev Sci Eng v 30 n 3 1988 p 393-456 ISSN: 0360-2451 CODEN: CRSEC9
Publication Year: 1988
Abstract: The literature has been reviewed on the subject of evaluation and application of the effectiveness
factor of
catalyst particles in trickle bed reactor design. Numerical solutions have been presented for different
catalyst particle
geometries and, in most cases, for simple reaction kinetics. Also, several approximate equations have been
derived
that make the evaluation of the effectiveness factor much easier. Ramachandran and Smith's
approximation for gas
limiting reactant systems and Dudukovic's definition of Thiele modulus for a liquid reactant system have
been proven
to be important contributions. Although significant progress has been found in this area, there are still
several aspects
which remain to be thoroughly analyzed. The applications covered include catalyses of oxidation of ethyl
alcohol ad
sulfur dioxide, hydrogenation of methylstyrene, and hydrodesulfurization of heavy oils. EI Order Number:
Catalysts--Applications; Chemical Equipment--Reactors; Ethanol--Oxidation; Styrene--Hydrogenation;
Sulfur
Dioxide--Oxidation; Petroleum Refining ;Effectiveness Factor; Trickle Bed Reactor; Methylstyrene; Ethyl
Alcohol;
Heavy Oils; Mass Transfer
Identifiers: Effectiveness Factor; Trickle Bed Reactor; Methylstyrene; Ethyl Alcohol; Heavy Oils; Mass
Transfer
Classification Codes: 803
Document Type: JA
Treatment: AT
2
RECENT ADVANCES IN THE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF TRICKLE-BED REACTORS.
Author(s): Ramachandran, P. A. Dudukovic, M. P.; Mills, P. L.
Author Affiliation: Washington Univ, St. Louis, MO, USA
Source: Sadhana v 10 n pt 1-2 Apr 1987 p 269-298 ISSN: 0256-2499 CODEN: SAPSER
Publication Year: 1987
Abstract: This paper summarizes some progress in our understanding of trickle-bed reactors. The
particular topics
discussed in this review are the basic hydrodynamics, flow regime transition, pressure drop and holdup
calculations,
use of tracers, modelling of partial wetting effects, reactor design of and catalyst testing in trickle beds.
The rapid
advances made in these areas are critically examined and some problems which need further investigation
are
outlined. (Author abstract) 72 Refs. EI Order Number: 88010000352
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; HYDRODYNAMICS; CATALYSTS ;TRICKLE-BED
REACTORS;
MULTIPHASE REACTORS
Identifiers: TRICKLE-BED REACTORS; MULTIPHASE REACTORS
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
3
LIQUID DISPERSION IN TRICKLE-BED REACTORS WITH GAS-LIQUID COCURRENT
DOWNFLOW.
Author(s): Chu, C. F. Ng, K. M.
Author Affiliation: Univ of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
Source: Amer Inst Chem Eng Natl Eng Natl Meet American Institute of Chemical Engineers 1986 Annual
Meeting.
1986 Miami Beach, FL, USA Sponsored by: AIChE, New York, NY, USA AIChE New York, NY, USA
10p
Paper: 33E CODEN: ACENC9
Publication Year: 1986
Abstract: The flow pattern can deviate form ideal plug flow in both trickling and pulsing flows. The liquid
dispersion
in those flow regimes are investigated separately, as the mechanisms causing the deviation of flow pattern
from plug
flow are different. In trickling flow, the dispersion of the liquid phase occurs in the flow path which is
determined with
computer-generated packed column. Dispersion in pulsing flow is studied with a combination of the
method of
characteristics and analysis of liquid dispersion in the liquid slug and gas pulse. The axial dispersion
coefficients are
then determined based on Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, liquid dispersion in trickle beds containing
porous
packings is also discussed. (Author abstract) 16 Refs. EI Order Number: 87060096922
FLUID DYNAMICS--Mathematical Models; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT - Reactors; FLOW OF FLUIDS
-
Pulsatile Flow; MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS - Monte Carlo Methods ;LIQUID DISPERSION;
TRICKLE-BED REACTORS; TRICKLING FLOW; AXIAL DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS; POROUS
PACKINGS
Identifiers: LIQUID DISPERSION; TRICKLE-BED REACTORS; TRICKLING FLOW; AXIAL
DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS; POROUS PACKINGS
Classification Codes: 631
Document Type: CA
4
MODELING THE HYDROTREATING REACTIONS OF A HEAVY RESIDUAL OIL IN A PILOT
TRICKLE-BED REACTOR.
Author(s): Iannibello, Antonio Marengo, Sergio; Burgio, Gerlando; Baldi, Giancarlo; Sicardi, Silvio;
Specchia, Vito
Author Affiliation: Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili, Milan, Italy
Source: Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev v 24 n 3 Jul 1985 p 531-537 ISSN: 0019-7882 CODEN:
IEPDAW
Publication Year: 1985
Abstract: The removal of sulfur and metals from a heavy residual oil by hydrotreating in a pilot trickle-bed
reactor
was examined. Catalysts with different active components on two different supports (bauxite and alumina)
were
tested. The results were interpreted via several models that took into account the physical and chemical
complexity of
the three-phase system. A first-order kinetics approach proved valid for the bauxite-based catalysts, having
a wide
pore size distribution, provided that the hydrodynamic effects in the reactor had been suitably accounted
for by either
external liquid holdup or apparent intraparticle diffusivity. In contrast, the results from the alumina
catalyst required
interpretation with a different model, probably because of the different pore size distribution. 31 Refs. EI
Order
Number: 85080106901
HYDROCARBONS--Processing; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT - Reactors; HYDRODYNAMICS;
CATALYSTS
- Alumina ;HYDROTREATING REACTIONS; HEAVY RESIDUAL OIL; PILOT TRICKLE-BED
REACTOR
Identifiers: HYDROTREATING REACTIONS; HEAVY RESIDUAL OIL; PILOT TRICKLE-BED
REACTOR
Classification Codes: 803
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
5
KINETIC MODELING OF THE OXIDATION OF GLUCOSE INTO GLUCONIC ACID USING A
TRICKLE BED REACTOR.
Author(s): Long, Nguyen Qui Germain, A.
Author Affiliation: Univ de Liege, Inst de Chimie, Liege, Belg
Source: Amer Inst Chem Eng Natl Eng Natl Meet 1985 Spring National Meeting and Petro Expo '85 -
American
Institute of Chemical Engineers. 1985 Houston, TX, USA Sponsored by: AIChE, New York, NY, USA
AIChE
New York, NY, USA 26p Paper: 70D CODEN: ACENC9
Publication Year: 1985
Abstract: A new continuous process was studied for the synthesis of gluconic acid by oxidation of glucose
on a
palladium catalyst. In order to optimize the productivity and the selectivity of the process, a kinetic model
was
developed based on data obtained in a continuous micro trickle bed reactor. This model correlates
accurately the
formation of gluconic acid as well as side products with the operating variables. It enables one to show
that the very
high catalyst loading of trickle bed reactors can considerably improve the selectivity of reactions normally
realized in
slurry reactors. 9 Refs. EI Order Number: 85080111069
SUGAR--Oxidation; CHEMICAL REACTIONS - Reaction Kinetics; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT -
Reactors;
CATALYSTS; ACIDS - Manufacture; PALLADIUM AND ALLOYS ;GLUCONIC ACID;
CONTINUOUS
MICRO TRICKLE BED REACTOR; GLUCONOBACTER; ASPERGILLUS NIGER
Identifiers: GLUCONIC ACID; CONTINUOUS MICRO TRICKLE BED REACTOR;
GLUCONOBACTER; ASPERGILLUS NIGER
Classification Codes: 822
Document Type: CA
6
MODELLING OF A TRICKLE-BED REACTOR - THE HYDROGENATION OF XYLOSE TO
XYLITOL.
Author(s): Herskowitz, M.
Author Affiliation: Ben Gurion Univ of the Negev, Dep of Chemical Engineering, Beer Sheva, Isr
Source: Chem Eng Sci v 40 n 7 1985 p 1309-1311 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1985
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to develop a model for predicting the conversion of xylose to xylitol
in a
trickle-bed reactor. The hydrogen and xylose concentrations in the liquid are calculated as a function of
the liquid and
gas superficial velocities, the pressure and temperature in the reactor. Since the hydrogen concentration in
the liquid is
at least two orders of magnitude smaller than the xylose concentration while the diffusivity of hydrogen in
the liquid is
only five times larger than the diffusivity of xylose, the assumption that the concentration of xylose is
uniform in the
catalyst pores is justified. 24 Refs. EI Order Number: 85100138998
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT--Reactors; CHEMICAL REACTIONS - Hydrogenation ;TRICKLE-BED
REACTOR; XYLOSE; XYLITOL
Identifiers: TRICKLE-BED REACTOR; XYLOSE; XYLITOL
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
7
MODELING OF TRICKLE BED REACTORS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURES
WITH VOLATILE FEEDS.
Author(s): Collins, George M. Hess, Richard K.; Hook, Bruce D.; Akgerman, Aydin
Author Affiliation: Texas A&M Univ, Kinetics, Catalysis & Reaction Engineering Lab, College Station,
TX, USA
Source: Annu Meet Am Inst Chem Eng 1984 Annual Meeting - American Institute of Chemical Engineers.
1984
San Francisco, CA, USA Sponsored by: AIChE, New York, NY, USA AIChE New York, NY, USA 31p
Paper:
108B ISSN: 0196-7282 CODEN: AMAEDX
Publication Year: 1984
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a model to predict the behavior of trickle beds when
the liquid
feed is volatile. The model developed is compared with a non-volatile liquid phase model employing the
same
kinetics. In the model it is assumed that the reactor is operating in plug flow and that there is no
significant wall flow,
the catalyst bed is completely wetted, the mass transfer effects are negligible, the feed is volatile, and that
the reaction
takes place on the wetted catalyst in the liquid phase. It is intended to apply this model to hydrotreating
processes
which take place at high temperatures and pressures with partial vaporization of the feed. 40 Refs. EI
Order
Number: 85040053530
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT--Reactors; CATALYSTS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS - Hydrogenation;
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING - Mathematical Models; FLOW OF FLUIDS - Packed Beds; LIQUIDS -
Chemical Reactions ;TRICKLE BEDS; PLUG FLOW; WALL FLOW; HYDROTREATING; VOLATILE
LIQUID FEEDS
Identifiers: TRICKLE BEDS; PLUG FLOW; WALL FLOW; HYDROTREATING; VOLATILE LIQUID
FEEDS
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: CA
8
MODELLING AND DESIGN OF A TRICKLE BED REACTOR.
Author(s): Sicardi, S.
Author Affiliation: Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali ed Ingegneria Chimica,
Turin, Italy
Source: Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series ISCRE 8, The Eighth International
Symposium on
Chemical Reaction Engineering. n 87 1984 Edinburgh, Scotl Sponsored by: Inst of Chemical Engineers,
Rugby, Engl
Inst of Chemical Engineers (EFCE Event n 299) Rugby, Engl p 169-176 ISSN: 0307-0492 CODEN:
ICESDB
ISBN: 0-85295-176-0
Publication Year: 1984
Abstract: In a trickle bed reactor, when a volatile key reactant is controlling, the experimental conversion
rate is
generally higher than that determined with the model of totally wetted particles. The models proposed to
interpret this
phenomenon are based on very different approaches and, at the present, are not completely reliable for the
design of
the trickle bed reactor. An empirical correlation for the evaluation of the conversion rate is proposed: it is
obtained
from the experimental data taken from the literature and is valid for three different reactions. It is useful
information
for reactor design. 11 Refs. EI Order Number: 85060080026
CHEMICAL REACTIONS--Reaction Kinetics; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT - Reactors; CATALYSIS -
Performance; CATALYSIS - Mathematical Models ;TRICKLE BED REACTOR; VOLATILE KEY
REACTANT; CONVERSION RATES; TOTALLY WETTED PARTICLES; MICROKINETICS
Identifiers: TRICKLE BED REACTOR; VOLATILE KEY REACTANT; CONVERSION RATES;
TOTALLY WETTED PARTICLES; MICROKINETICS
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: CA
9
MODELLING OF A GAS-SOLID TRICKLE FLOW REACTOR FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION
OF HYDROGEN SULPHIDE TO ELEMENTAL SULPHUR.
Author(s): Verver, A. B. Swaay, W. P. M.
Author Affiliation: Akzo Engineering BV, Arnhem, Neth
Source: Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series ISCRE 8, The Eighth International
Symposium on
Chemical Reaction Engineering. n 87 1984 Edinburgh, Scotl Sponsored by: Inst of Chemical Engineers,
Rugby, Engl
Inst of Chemical Engineers (EFCE Event n 299) Rugby, Engl p 177-184 ISSN: 0307-0492 CODEN:
ICESDB
ISBN: 0-85295-176-0
Publication Year: 1984
Abstract: The gas-solid trickle flow contactor is studied as a reactor for desulfurization of gases with small
amounts
of H//2S producing elemental sulfur. Experiments on the conversion of H//2S and O//2 and on mass
transfer
performance have been carried out in a bench-scale pilot plant at 150 to 300 degree C. The performance is
described by two reactor models. The first model considers only mass transfer between gas and solid
particles in
series with reaction, and the other takes account of diffusion phenomena in the gas-solids emulsion
(trickles) in
parallel with reaction. At increasing temperature, mass transfer phenomena show an increasingly
important limitation
for the conversion rate. Results show the influence of trickle formation. 7 Refs. EI Order Number:
85060080028
SULFUR COMPOUNDS--Oxidation; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT - Reactors; AIR POLLUTION -
Control;
CATALYSTS - Zeolites; CATALYSIS - Mathematical Models ;DRY DESULFURIZATION;
HYDROGEN
SULFIDE; GAS-SOLID TRICKLE FLOW REACTOR; BENCH-SCALE TESTING
Identifiers: DRY DESULFURIZATION; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; GAS-SOLID TRICKLE FLOW
REACTOR; BENCH-SCALE TESTING
Classification Codes: 804
Document Type: CA
10
OXIDATION OF SULFUR DIOXIDE IN A TRICKLE-BED REACTOR: A STUDY OF REACTOR
MODELLING.
Author(s): Berruti, F. Hudgins, R. R.; Rhodes, E.; Sicardi, S.
Author Affiliation: Univ of Waterloo, Dep of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo, Ont, Can
Source: Can J Chem Eng v 62 n 5 Oct 1984 p 644-650 ISSN: 0008-4034 CODEN: CJCEA7
Publication Year: 1984
Abstract: In the reported experiments, the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide on activated carbon by
oxygen in the
presence of water was carried out to study a laboratory-scale trickle-bed reactor. The particular aim of this
study
was to develop empirical models describing the reactor behavior for reactions in which the controlling
reactant is in
the gas phase. Water and various gaseous SO//2-air-O//2 mixtures were fed co-currently downward
through a fixed
bed of small carbon particles wetted to various degrees. The liquid distribution nozzle was designed to
minimize
entrance disturbances. Sulfuric acid product was analyzed by conventional titration methods. The
experimental data
are satisfactorily interpreted by either of two different models: one considers that the external area of the
catalyst is
divided into two zones (wetted and dry) both active with respect to mass transfer; the other assumes that
only one
zone of the external area involves mass transfer and that the mass transfer coefficient must be calculated
according to
film theory. 15 Refs. EI Order Number: 84120221396
Subjects: SULFUR DIOXIDE; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT - Reactors; MATHEMATICAL MODELS;
CATALYSTS - Activated Carbon; OXYGEN; WATER ;TRICKLE-BED REACTORS
Identifiers: TRICKLE-BED REACTORS

11
PERFORMANCE OF A PILOT TRICKLE-BED REACTOR FOR HYDROTREATING OF
PETROLEUM FRACTIONS: DYNAMIC ANALYSIS.
Author(s): Iannibello, Antonio Marengo, Sergio; Guerci, Alessandro; Baidi, Giancarlo; Sicardi, Silvio
Author Affiliation: Stazione Sperimentale per i Combustibili, Milan, Italy
Source: Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev v 22 n 4 Oct 1983 p 594-598 ISSN: 0019-7882 CODEN:
IEPDAW
Publication Year: 1983
Abstract: The total liquid holdup and the intraparticle apparent diffusivity have been measured in a pilot
trickle-bed
reactor by a dynamic method. Different liquids and catalyst particles were tested. The total holdup show
that pore
filling of the catalyst may be considered as total even at very low liquid flow rate and at a relatively high
temperature.
The apparent intraparticle diffusivity is in line with that measured in bench scale reactors and with other
liquid phases.
22 Refs. EI Order Number: 84020018842
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; HYDROCARBONS - Processing
Classification Codes: 802
12
TRICKLE-BED REACTORS: A REVIEW.
Author(s): Herskowitz, Mordechay Smith, J. M.
Author Affiliation: Ben Gurion Univ of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Isr
Source: AIChE J v 29 n 1 Jan 1983 p 1-18 ISSN: 0001-1541 CODEN: AICEAC
Publication Year: 1983
Abstract: In the last few years experimental and theoretical studies that contribute to improved design and
scaleup
of trickle-bed reactors have been published. The scope of this study is to review critically these
improvements.
Progress in understanding local rates of reaction is considered first. Then recent developments in reactor
design are
analyzed. 110 Refs. EI Order Number: 83050061600
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; CATALYSTS ;TRICKLE BED REACTORS
Identifiers: TRICKLE BED REACTORS
Classification Codes: 802
13
COMPARISON OF CURRENT MODELS FOR TRICKLE-BED REACTORS WITH APPLICATION
TO A MODEL REACTION SYSTEM.
Author(s): Mills, P. L. Dudukovic, M. P.
Author Affiliation: Monsanto Co, St. Louis, Mo, USA
Source: Preprints -Division of Petroleum Chemistry American Chemical Society Preprints - Division of
Petroleum
Chemistry, American Chemical Society, Volume 28, Number 2: Symposia. v 28 n 2 Feb 1983 Seattle, WA,
USA
Sponsored by: ACS Div of Petroleum Chemistry, Washington, DC, USA ACS Washington, DC, USA p
525
ISSN: 0569-3799 CODEN: ACPCAT
Publication Year: 1983
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; ;COCURRENT DOWNFLOW OF GAS ON LIQUID
REACTANTS;
LIQUID-PHASE HYDROGENATION AND OXIDATION; HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF
PETROLEUM FEEDSTOCKS; HYDRODENITROGENATION OF COAL LIQUIDS; TRICKLE-BED
REACTOR PERFORMANCE PREDICTION; ABSTRACT ONLY
Identifiers: COCURRENT DOWNFLOW OF GAS ON LIQUID REACTANTS; LIQUID-PHASE
HYDROGENATION AND OXIDATION; HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF PETROLEUM
FEEDSTOCKS;
HYDRODENITROGENATION OF COAL LIQUIDS; TRICKLE-BED REACTOR PERFORMANCE
PREDICTION; ABSTRACT ONLY
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: CA
14
TRICKLE-BED REACTORS: DYNAMICS TRACER TESTS, REACTION STUDIES AND
MODELING OF REACTOR PERFORMANCE.
Author(s): El-Hisnawi, A. A. Dudukovic, M. P.; Mills, P. L.
Author Affiliation: Washington Univ, St. Louis, Mo, USA
Source: ACS Symp Ser Chemical Reaction Engineering - Boston Develped in Advance of the 7th
International
Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering. 1982 Boston, Mass, USA Sponsored by: ACS,
Washington, DC,
USA ACS Washington, DC, USA p 421-440 CODEN: ACSMC8 ISBN: 0-8412-0732-1
Publication Year: 1982
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; ;GAS-PHASE, RATE LIMITING REACTANT; LIQUID-SOLID
CONTRACTING EFFICIENCY; GAS-LIQUID-SOLID MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS;
REACTOR
PERFORMANCE PREDICTION; RATE LIMITING CHARACTERISTICS; NON-INTERACTING
GAS-LIQUID REGIME
Identifiers: GAS-PHASE, RATE LIMITING REACTANT; LIQUID-SOLID CONTRACTING
EFFICIENCY;
GAS-LIQUID-SOLID MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS; REACTOR PERFORMANCE
PREDICTION;
RATE LIMITING CHARACTERISTICS; NON-INTERACTING GAS-LIQUID REGIME
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: CA
15
DESIGN AND SCALE-UP OF TRICKLE BED REACTORS. SOLID-LIQUID CONTACTING
EFFECTIVENESS.
Author(s): Baldi, Giancarlo
Author Affiliation: Politecnico of Torino, Istituto di Chimica Industriale, Turin, Italy
Source: NATO Advanced Study Institutes Series, Series E, Applied Sciences Multiphase Chemical
Reactors.
Volume II - Design Methods n 52 1981 Vimeiro, Port Sponsored by: NATO Advanced Study Inst Sijthoff
&
Noordhoff, Alphen aan den Rijn, Neth and Rockville, Md, USA p 323-341 ISSN: 0304-9930 CODEN:
NASEDC
ISBN: 90-286-2821-5
Publication Year: 1981
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; ;DESIGN AND SCALE-UP OF TRICKLE BED REACTORS;
SOLID-LIQUID CONTACTING EFFECTIVENESS; MICROKINETICS; HYDRODYNAMICS;
SOLID-LIQUID EFFECTIVENESS FACTOR; CATALYST WETTING
Identifiers: DESIGN AND SCALE-UP OF TRICKLE BED REACTORS; SOLID-LIQUID
CONTACTING
EFFECTIVENESS; MICROKINETICS; HYDRODYNAMICS; SOLID-LIQUID EFFECTIVENESS
FACTOR; CATALYST WETTING
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: CA
16
DYNAMICS OF A TRICKLE-BED HYDROCRACKER WITH A QUENCHING SYSTEM.
Author(s): Yan, T. Y.
Author Affiliation: Mobil Res & Dev Corp, Princeton, NJ
Source: Can J Chem Eng v 58 n 2 Apr 1980 p 259-266 ISSN: 0008-4034 CODEN: CJCEA7
Publication Year: 1980
Abstract: A mathematical model has been developed to simulate the dynamic behavior of a trickle-bed
hydrocracker without and with one quench. The model was used to study the effects of parameters on
transient
temperature and hydrocarbon feed profiles. The system was found to be very sensitive to inlet
temperatures and the
states of catalyst activity. The model can be used to guide design and operation of a quenching system, i.
e. , proper
location, starting time, and quantity of quench stream, to prevent excess temperature rise that would
otherwise lead
to left double quote run-away right double quote condition and poor product yields. 18 Refs. EI Order
Number:
80110002035
Subjects: CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT; CHEMICAL REACTIONS - Hydrocracking; MATHEMATICAL
MODELS; DYNAMICS ;TRICKLED-BED REACTORS
Identifiers: TRICKLED-BED REACTORS
Classification Codes: 802
17
AXIAL DISPERSION OF GAS AND SOLID PHASES IN A GAS-SOLID PACKED COLUMN AT
TRICKLE FLOW.
Author(s): Roes, A. W. M. van Swaaij, W. P. M.
Author Affiliation: Twente Univ of Technol, Enschede, Neth
Source: Chem Eng J (Lausanne) v 18 n 1 Aug 1979 p 13-28 ISSN: 0300-9467 CODEN: CMEJAJ
Publication Year: 1979
Abstract: Axial dispersion of gas and solid phases in a gas-solid packed column at trickle flow, a
promising new
countercurrent operation, was evaluated using residence time distribution (RTD) experiments. The column
was
packed with dumped Pall rings, the gas phase was air at ambient conditions and the solid was a porous
catalyst
carrier. At a given solid flow rate axial dispersion of the gas phase decreases with increasing gas velocity
and is
strongly dependent upon solid mass flux. Axial dispersion of the solid phase is approximately independent
of the gas
velocity and it is reduced if the solid mass flux is increased. For conditions of practical importance, 2-5
and 5-15 Pall
ring layers correspond to the height of a mixing unit in the gas and solid phase, respectively. 23 Refs. EI
Order
Number: 80010000366
Subjects: FLOW OF FLUIDS; HEAT TRANSFER; MASS TRANSFER ;COUNTERCURRENT
OPERATION
Identifiers: COUNTERCURRENT OPERATION
Classification Codes: 631
TRICKLE-BED REACTORS.
Author(s): Ng, K. M. Chu, C. F.
Author Affiliation: Univ of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
Source: Chem Eng Prog v 83 n 11 Nov 1987 p 55-63 ISSN: 0009-2495 CODEN: CEPRA8
Publication Year: 1987
Abstract: Trickle-bed reactors can be defined as a fixed bed of catalyst particles, contacted by a gas-liquid,
two-phase flow. The flow may be cocurrent (downflow or upflow) or countercurrent. In this article,
cocurrent
downflow is considered, which, because of its relatively lower pressure drop and the absence of flooding,
is by far
the most common mode of operation in industrial practice. Trickle-bed reactors are used primarily in the
petroleum
industry for hydrocracking, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrodenitrogenation. Many basic aspects of
trickle-bed
reactors are not yet fully understood, making design from fundamentals very difficult. The axial Peclet
number in the
trickling regime, which is in agreement with the experimental data, is relatively independent of the liquid
flow rate. 10
Refs. EI Order Number: 88030036194
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT--Reactors; FLOW OF FLUIDS - Two Phase; PETROLEUM REFINERIES -
Equipment; PETROLEUM REFINING - Nitrogen Removal; HYDROCARBONS - Hydrocracking
;TRICKLE-BED REACTORS DESIGN; GAS-LIQUID SYSTEM; COCURRENT DOWNFLOW;
CATALYST PARTICLES; CATALYST FIXED BED
Identifiers: TRICKLE-BED REACTORS DESIGN; GAS-LIQUID SYSTEM; COCURRENT
DOWNFLOW;
CATALYST PARTICLES; CATALYST FIXED BED
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: GX
2
SIMPLE MULTICOMPONENT DESCRIPTION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE PARTICLE AND
PORE SIZE OF COMMERCIAL CATALYSTS ON THE HYDRODESULFURIZATION OF HEAVY
GAS OIL IN (SMALL) TRICKLE-FLOW REACTORS.
Author(s): Gosselink, J. W. Stork, W. H. J.
Author Affiliation: Shell Research BV, Amsterdam, Neth
Source: Chem Eng Process v 22 n 3 Nov 1987 p 157-162 ISSN: 0255-2701 CODEN: CENPEU
Publication Year: 1987
Abstract: Catalysts for the catalytic hydrodesulfurization (HDS) process are still being improved, for
instance by
optimization of particle size and shape and pore structure. They are generally tested in small-scale trickle-
flow
equipment. A simple multicomponent model has been developed to describe the influence of the particle
and pore
sizes on the heavy gas oil HDS performance in such equipment. The model is based on both the diffusion
through the
catalyst pores and the chemical HDS reaction on the catalyst inner surface of the individual sulfur
components. It
makes use of a broad distribution function for the HDS reaction rate constants k, and assumes that all the
components have the same effective diffusion coefficient less than D greater than . This model, which has
the mean
value of k, this is less than k greater than , and less than D greater than as the only two parameters, gives
an excellent
description of the HDS performance of Co/Mo/A1//2O//3 catalysts over broad ranges of space velocities
and
catalyst particle sizes. (Author abstract) 23 Refs. EI Order Number: 88020020604
GAS OIL--Desulfurization; CATALYSTS - Porosity; PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS - Mathematical
Models;
DIFFUSION - Optimization; POROUS MATERIALS - Mass Transfer; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT -
Reactors
;HEAVY GAS OIL HYDRODESULFURIZATION; TRICKLE FLOW REACTORS; CATALYST
PARTICLE
SIZE EFFECT; CATALYST PORE SIZE EFFECT; PARTICLE SIZE OPTIMIZATION
Identifiers: HEAVY GAS OIL HYDRODESULFURIZATION; TRICKLE FLOW REACTORS;
CATALYST
PARTICLE SIZE EFFECT; CATALYST PORE SIZE EFFECT; PARTICLE SIZE OPTIMIZATION
Classification Codes: 523
Document Type: JA
Treatment: NTX
3
TRICKLE-BED REACTORS: LIQUID DIFFUSIONAL EFFECTS IN A GAS-LIMITED REACTION.
Author(s): Beaudry, E. G. Dudukovic, M. P.; Mills, P. L.
Author Affiliation: Washington Univ, St. Louis, MO, USA
Source: AIChE J v 33 n 9 Sep 1987 p 1435-1447 ISSN: 0001-1541 CODEN: AICEAC
Publication Year: 1987
Abstract: A model is developed for predicting the performance of a partially wetted trickle-bed reactor for
a
gas-limiting reaction of order less than or equal to one. The model indicates that under certain conditions
the liquid
reactant may affect the reaction rate due to its inability to rapidly diffuse to catalyst areas that are in direct
contact
with the gas. This model is the first to explain and predict on a rational basis the experimental results for
the
hydrogenation of diluted alpha -methylstyrene and aqueous maleic acid reported in the literature. A
criterion that
determines when liquid reactant effects can be expected is developed and reported. (Author abstract) 31
Refs. EI
Order Number: 87120192853
CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT--Reactors; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS - Hydrogenation; CATALYSTS -
Wetting;
ACIDS - Hydrogenation; MASS TRANSFER; GASES ;TRICKLE-BED REACTORS; LIQUID
DIFFUSIONAL EFFECTS; GAS-LIMITED REACTION; MALEIC ACID
Identifiers: TRICKLE-BED REACTORS; LIQUID DIFFUSIONAL EFFECTS; GAS-LIMITED
REACTION;
MALEIC ACID
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
4
GAS-SOLID TRICKLE-FLOW REACTOR FOR THE CATALYTIC OXIDATION OF HYDROGEN
SULPHIDE: A TRICKLE-PHASE MODEL.
Author(s): Verver, A. B. Van Swaaij, W. P. M.
Author Affiliation: Twente Univ of Technology, Enschede, Neth
Source: Chem Eng Sci v 42 n 3 1987 p 435-445 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1987
Abstract: The oxidation of H//2S by O//2 producing elemental sulfur has been studied at temperatures of
100-300
degree C and at atmospheric pressure in a laboratory-scale gas-solid trickle-flow reactor. In order to
describe mass
transfer in the trickle-flow reactor, a reactor model has been developed in which a particle-free, upflowing
gas phase
and a dense, downflowing gas-solids suspension, the so-called trickle phase, are distinguished. From the
experiments
and from the reactor model calculations it appears that for the H//2S-O//2 reaction no mass transfer
limitations occur
at temperatures up to about 200 degree C, whereas at 300 degree C gas-phase mass transfer and diffusion
within
the dense solids suspensions offer resistance to reaction. (Edited author abstract) 16 Refs. EI Order
Number:
87070105627
HYDROGEN SULFIDE--Oxidation; CHEMICAL EQUIPMENT - Reactors; SOLIDS - Suspensions;
MASS
TRANSFER; ZEOLITES ;GAS-SOLID TRICKLE-FLOW REACTOR; TRICKLE-PHASE MODEL;
TRICKLE PHASE
Identifiers: GAS-SOLID TRICKLE-FLOW REACTOR; TRICKLE-PHASE MODEL; TRICKLE PHASE
Classification Codes: 931
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
5
CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING OF BITUMEN DERIVED COKER GAS OIL: A MODIFIED
KINETIC MODEL FOR PILOT AND COMMERCIAL PLANTS.
Author(s): Yui, S. M. Sanford, E. C.
Author Affiliation: Syncrude Canada Ltd, Edmonton, Alberta, Can
Source: Preprints - Tenth Canadian Symposium on Catalysis. 1986 Kingston, Ont, Can Sponsored by:
Chemical
Inst of Canada, Catalysis Div, Ottawa, Ont, Can Chemical Inst of Canada Ottawa, Ont, Can p 30-39
Publication Year: 1986
Abstract: A new kinetic model for hydrotreating of coker gas oil has been developed. First and 1. 5th order
kinetics
are applied to nitrogen (HDN) and sulfur removal (HDS), respectively. The model incorporates terms for
hydrogen
partial pressure (H//2PP) and catalyst wetting efficiency. By analyzing the pilot plant data, the power
terms of 1. 3
(HDN) and 0. 8 (HDS) for H//2PP were obtained. The wetting efficiency of a commercial unit is assumed
to be
unity. The pilot scale trickle-bed, on the other hand, is only partially wetted; therefore, the plug flow
assumption
cannot be applied. The validity of the model was confirmed by commercial data. (Edited author abstract)
11 Refs. EI
Order Number: 88030044950
GAS OIL--Processing; CHEMICAL REACTIONS - Reaction Kinetics; CATALYSTS - Wetting;
CHEMICAL
EQUIPMENT - Reactors; HYDROGEN - Pressure Effects ;COKER GAS OIL; CATALYTIC
HYDROTREATING; CATALYST WETTING EFFICIENCY; PLUG FLOW; TRICKLE-BED
REACTOR
Identifiers: COKER GAS OIL; CATALYTIC HYDROTREATING; CATALYST WETTING
EFFICIENCY;
PLUG FLOW; TRICKLE-BED REACTOR
Classification Codes: 523
Modelling of catalytic SO$-2$/ oxidation for continuous and periodic liquid flow through a trickle bed
Author(s): Stegasov, A.N.; Kirillov, V.A.; Silveston, P.L.
Corporate Source: Siberian Branch of the Russian Acad of Science, Novosibirsk, Russia
Source: Chemical Engineering Science v 49 n 22 Nov 1994 Pergamon Press Inc Tarrytown NY USA p
3699-3710 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1994
Abstract: SO$-2$/ oxidation over an activated carbon catalyst in a dynamically operated, adiabatic trickle
bed can
be described by a system of partial differential equations representing mass balances on four components
in two
phases, a fifth component only in the gas phase, two heat balances (one in the mixed fluid phase and the
other for the
stationary catalyst particles) and a total mass balance on the liquid phase. A stable, efficient algorithm has
been
developed to integrate the system of equations so as to predict the temperature profile in the bed and the
acid
concentration leaving the trickle bed. The adjustable parameter used to obtain the prediction, the wetting
fraction,
agrees well with experimental correlations of wetting vs liquid flow. The model is thus accurate. The
effect of different
kinetic models for SO$-2$/ oxidation on the simulations is examined. In English (Author abstract) 29
Refs. EI
Order Number: 95012528892
Subjects: Oxidation; Reaction kinetics; Sulfur dioxide; Sulfuric acid; Activated carbon; Catalysts;
Mathematical
models; Differential equations; Algorithms; Integration; Wetting; Flow of fluids; Particles (particulate
matter)
Identifiers: Trickle bed; Intermittent liquid flow
Classification Codes: 802.2
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 2
Liquid-phase methanol synthesis: modelling of a monolithic reactor
Author(s): Cybulski, Andrzej; Edvinsson, Rolf; Irandoust, Said; Andersson, Bengt
Corporate Source: Delft Univ of Technology, Delft, Neth
Source: Chemical Engineering Science v 48 n 20 Oct 1993 p 3463-3478 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN:
CESCAC
Publication Year: 1993
Abstract: A mathematical model of a monolithic reactor for liquid-phase methanol synthesis is developed.
The
performance of a commercial-scale monolithic reactor is simulated. The influence of various design
parameters for
different solvents and process conditions is studied. Over the range of process conditions considered, it
was found
that the mass transfer is sufficiently fast to allow the process to be operated essentially in the kinetic
regime. The
numerical results are compared with literature data on slurry columns, autoclaves and trickle-bed reactors.
The
performance of the monolithic reactor was found to be commensurable with these reactors. In view of
some of the
unique advantages of the monolithic reactor it can be a viable alternative to the conventional methanol
reactors. In
English (Author abstract) refs EI Order Number: 93111127433
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Mathematical models; Methanol; Synthesis (chemical); Performance; Mass
transfer;
Reaction kinetics; Solvents
Identifiers: Monolithic reactor; Liquid phase methanol synthesis; Design parameters; Kinetic regime;
Process
conditions
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: AT
Record 3
Simulation of hydrodewaxing reactor by stochastic method
Author(s): Yang, Jianli; Li, Jianlong
Corporate Source: Qingdao Inst of Chemical Technology, Qingdao, China
Source: Journal of Chemical Engineering of Chinese Universities v 6 n 3 Sep 1992 p 264-270 ISSN:
1003-9015
CODEN: GHGXEG
Publication Year: 1992
Abstract: An industrial reactor is divided into MXN reaction zones which are in series and parallel. A
model for the
conversion rate of the hydrodewaxing reaction in a given zone was derived from a pure death process and
Sylvester-Pitayagulsarn model. The gas and liquid flow distributions in each zone were predicted by a
Markov
process with discrete state and discrete time is in agreement with the industrial operational data. The
effects of the
feed temperature and the feeding rate on the performances of the industrial hydrodewaxing reactor were
also
discussed in the paper. In Chinese (Edited author abstract) 8 Refs EI Order Number: 93050994396
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Dewaxing; Flow of fluids; Computer simulation
Identifiers: Trickle bed; Hydrodewaxing
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
Record 4
Modelling of non-catalytic reactions in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor. Dry, regenerative flue gas
desulphurisation using a silica-supported copper oxide sorbent
Author(s): Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; Van Swaaij, W.P.M.
Corporate Source: Univ of Twente, Enschede, Neth
Source: Chemical Engineering Science v 47 n 17-18 Dec 1992 p 4271-4286 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN:
CESCAC
Publication Year: 1992
Abstract: A one-dimensional, two-phase axially dispersed plug flow model has been developed to describe
the
steady-state performance of a relatively new type of reactor, the gas-solid trickle flow reactor (GSTFR). In
this
reactor, an upward-flowing gas phase is contacted with a downward-flowing dilute solids phase over an
inert
packing. The model is derived from the separate mass and heat balances for both the gas and (porous)
solids phases
for the case of a non-catalytic gas-solid reaction, which is first-order in the gaseous reactant. The reaction
rate may
also depend on the solid reactant concentration, but this concentration is assumed to be low and uniform
throughout
the solids volume. From the model, axial profiles can be calculated numerically for the four independent
variables, viz,
the gas-phase and solids-phase temperatures and the concentrations of the gaseous and solid reactant.
Under
isothermal conditions, the model equations can be solved analytically; the resulting expressions for the
axial profiles of
the gaseous and solid reactant are presented. The model is applied to predict the flue gas desulphurisation
performance of a full-scale GSTF absorber in a dry, regenerative process for the simultaneous removal of
SO$-x$/
and NO$-x$/ from flue gases. In this process, to be operated at 350-400$DGR@C, the sorbent material
consists of
a porous silica support (spherical particles, 1.5 mm diameter) with 7.5 wt% CuO deposited on this support
by an
ion-exchange technique. The model calculations are based on experimental findings from previous studies
regarding
reaction kinetics, hydrodynamics of the two-phase flow, gas-solids mass transfer and testing of the
integrated
process in a bench-scale plant. It appears that SO$-2$/ removal efficiencies over 95% can be achieved in a
GSTF
absorber with a length of 15 m. In English (Edited author abstract) EI Order Number: 93010682094
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Flue gases; Desulfurization; Flow of fluids; Performance; Mathematical
models;
Adsorbents; Reaction kinetics; Silica; Copper oxides; Two phase flow; Temperature distribution;
Hydrodynamics
Identifiers: Trickle flow reactor; Gas phase axial profiles
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 5
Trickle-bed reactors. State of art and perspectives
Author(s): Gianetto, A.; Specchia, V.
Corporate Source: Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Source: Chemical Engineering Science First International Conference on Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-
Solid Reactor
Engineering Sep 13-16 1992 v 47 n 13-14 Sep-Oct 1992 Columbus, OH, USA p 3197-3218 ISSN: 0009-
2509
CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1992
Abstract: Theoretical and phenomenological aspects of trickle-bed reactors as reported in a wide number
of
papers of the last 35 years have been reviewed. The following engineering topics have been focused by
trying a
critical interpretation of the attained results: hydrodynamics, fluid-solid contacting, theoretical and
semiempirical
models, mass transfer phenomena, heat and pressure effects. The more recent themes considered in the
literature and
some important future trends of scientific and applied research have been enlightened. In English (Author
abstract)
111 Refs EI Order Number: 92110624673
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Mathematical models; Hydrodynamics; Mass transfer; Heat transfer
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactors; Catalyst wetting; Fluid solid contacting; Wetting efficiency
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: LTG
Record 6
Multiphase reactors. Models and experimental verification
Author(s): Dudukovic, M.P.; Devanathan, N.; Holub, R.
Corporate Source: Washington Univ, St. Louis, MO, USA
Source: Revue de l'Institut Francais du Petrole v 46 n 4 Jul-Aug 1991 p 439-465 ISSN: 0020-2274
CODEN:
RFPTBH
Publication Year: 1991
Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of improving our understanding of the hydrodynamics in two
commonly
used reactor types: bubble columns and trickle beds. We use two different approaches. For the bubble
column we
develop and present a technique for measurement of liquid velocities and turbulence parameters in order
to provide
much needed data. We then suggest that this, coupled with another experimental technique for evaluation
of voidage
profiles, would yield all the necessary measurements for critical evaluation of the existing two phase flow
models. In
trickle-beds we develop a simple phenomenological model for liquid flow and confront it with the
available data for
pressure drop, holdup and flow regime transition. Based on this we develop a model for liquid distribution
and
suggest that quantification of any such model requires the use of noninvasive imaging technology of
which we give an
example. In English 50 Refs EI Order Number: 91100313157
Subjects: Chemical Reactors; Chemical Equipment--Bubble Columns; Hydrodynamics--Mathematical
Models;
Computer Aided Analysis; Flow of Fluids--Multiphase
Identifiers: Trickle Beds; Computer Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking; Multiphase Reactors;
Backmixing Parameters; Flow Regime Transition; Ergun Coefficients
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TXL
Record 1
Modelling of non-catalytic reactions in a gas-solid trickle flow reactor. Dry, regenerative flue gas
desulphurisation using a silica-supported copper oxide sorbent
Author(s): Kiel, J.H.A.; Prins, W.; Van Swaaij, W.P.M.
Corporate Source: Univ of Twente, Enschede, Neth
Source: Chemical Engineering Science v 47 n 17-18 Dec 1992 p 4271-4286 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN:
CESCAC
Publication Year: 1992
Abstract: A one-dimensional, two-phase axially dispersed plug flow model has been developed to describe
the
steady-state performance of a relatively new type of reactor, the gas-solid trickle flow reactor (GSTFR). In
this
reactor, an upward-flowing gas phase is contacted with a downward-flowing dilute solids phase over an
inert
packing. The model is derived from the separate mass and heat balances for both the gas and (porous)
solids phases
for the case of a non-catalytic gas-solid reaction, which is first-order in the gaseous reactant. The reaction
rate may
also depend on the solid reactant concentration, but this concentration is assumed to be low and uniform
throughout
the solids volume. From the model, axial profiles can be calculated numerically for the four independent
variables, viz,
the gas-phase and solids-phase temperatures and the concentrations of the gaseous and solid reactant.
Under
isothermal conditions, the model equations can be solved analytically; the resulting expressions for the
axial profiles of
the gaseous and solid reactant are presented. The model is applied to predict the flue gas desulphurisation
performance of a full-scale GSTF absorber in a dry, regenerative process for the simultaneous removal of
SO$-x$/
and NO$-x$/ from flue gases. In this process, to be operated at 350-400$DGR@C, the sorbent material
consists of
a porous silica support (spherical particles, 1.5 mm diameter) with 7.5 wt% CuO deposited on this support
by an
ion-exchange technique. The model calculations are based on experimental findings from previous studies
regarding
reaction kinetics, hydrodynamics of the two-phase flow, gas-solids mass transfer and testing of the
integrated
process in a bench-scale plant. It appears that SO$-2$/ removal efficiencies over 95% can be achieved in a
GSTF
absorber with a length of 15 m. In English (Edited author abstract) EI Order Number: 93010682094
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Flue gases; Desulfurization; Flow of fluids; Performance; Mathematical
models;
Adsorbents; Reaction kinetics; Silica; Copper oxides; Two phase flow; Temperature distribution;
Hydrodynamics
Identifiers: Trickle flow reactor; Gas phase axial profiles
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 2
Trickle-bed reactors. State of art and perspectives
Author(s): Gianetto, A.; Specchia, V.
Corporate Source: Politecnico di Torino, Italy
Source: Chemical Engineering Science First International Conference on Gas-Liquid and Gas-Liquid-
Solid Reactor
Engineering Sep 13-16 1992 v 47 n 13-14 Sep-Oct 1992 Columbus, OH, USA p 3197-3218 ISSN: 0009-
2509
CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1992
Abstract: Theoretical and phenomenological aspects of trickle-bed reactors as reported in a wide number
of
papers of the last 35 years have been reviewed. The following engineering topics have been focused by
trying a
critical interpretation of the attained results: hydrodynamics, fluid-solid contacting, theoretical and
semiempirical
models, mass transfer phenomena, heat and pressure effects. The more recent themes considered in the
literature and
some important future trends of scientific and applied research have been enlightened. In English (Author
abstract)
111 Refs EI Order Number: 92110624673
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Mathematical models; Hydrodynamics; Mass transfer; Heat transfer
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactors; Catalyst wetting; Fluid solid contacting; Wetting efficiency
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: LTG
Record 3
Multiphase reactors. Models and experimental verification
Author(s): Dudukovic, M.P.; Devanathan, N.; Holub, R.
Corporate Source: Washington Univ, St. Louis, MO, USA
Source: Revue de l'Institut Francais du Petrole v 46 n 4 Jul-Aug 1991 p 439-465 ISSN: 0020-2274
CODEN:
RFPTBH
Publication Year: 1991
Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of improving our understanding of the hydrodynamics in two
commonly
used reactor types: bubble columns and trickle beds. We use two different approaches. For the bubble
column we
develop and present a technique for measurement of liquid velocities and turbulence parameters in order
to provide
much needed data. We then suggest that this, coupled with another experimental technique for evaluation
of voidage
profiles, would yield all the necessary measurements for critical evaluation of the existing two phase flow
models. In
trickle-beds we develop a simple phenomenological model for liquid flow and confront it with the
available data for
pressure drop, holdup and flow regime transition. Based on this we develop a model for liquid distribution
and
suggest that quantification of any such model requires the use of noninvasive imaging technology of
which we give an
example. In English 50 Refs EI Order Number: 91100313157
Subjects: Chemical Reactors; Chemical Equipment--Bubble Columns; Hydrodynamics--Mathematical
Models;
Computer Aided Analysis; Flow of Fluids--Multiphase
Identifiers: Trickle Beds; Computer Aided Radioactive Particle Tracking; Multiphase Reactors;
Backmixing Parameters; Flow Regime Transition; Ergun Coefficients
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TXL
Record 4
Thermal waves in the periodic operation of a trickle-bed reactor
Author(s): Haure, Patricia M.; Bogdashev, S.M.; Bunimovich, M.; Stegasov, A.N.; Hudgins, R.R.;
Silveston, P.L.
Corporate Source: Univ Nacional de Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata, Argent
Source: Chemical Engineering Science Eleventh International Symposium on Chemical Reaction
Engineering -
ISCRE 11: New Horizons for Reaction Engineering Jul 8-11 1990 v 45 n 8 1990 Toronto, Ont, Can p
2255-2261
ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1990
Abstract: Periodic operation of a trickle-bed reactor with on-off liquid flow using SO$-2$/ oxidation over
activated carbon at 26$DGR@C as a test reaction yields a large increase in the oxidation rate. A portion of
this
increase is due to a higher bed temperature. The on-off liquid flow causes a rising temperature front which
is followed
by a falling front in the direction of the liquid flow. These moving waves have been observed and are
predicted by a
dynamic trickle-bed reactor model which allows for gas-liquid mass transfer, product inhibition of
reaction and
evaporation. This model was used without fitted constants, but gave nevertheless a satisfactory
representation of the
experimental data. In English (Author abstract) 12 Refs EI Order Number: 90110059040
Subjects: Chemical Reactors; Sulfur Dioxide--Oxidation; Carbon--Activated; Mass Transfer
Identifiers: Trickle-Flow Reactor; Thermal Waves; Periodic Operation; On-Off Liquid Flow-Cycling
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
Record 5
Novel model for reaction in trickle beds with flow maldistribution
Author(s): Funk, Gregory A.; Harold, Michael P.; Ng, Ka M.
Corporate Source: Univ of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA
Source: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research v 29 n 5 May 1990 p 738-748 ISSN: 0888-5885
CODEN:
IECRED
Publication Year: 1990
Abstract: The effect of liquid maldistribution on reaction in a trickle-bed reactor is examined by using a
discrete
model. It is based on a computer-generated, two-dimensional bed packed with equal-sized spherical
catalyst pellets.
The configuration of the liquid inlet distributor is included in the model. The flow on and intraparticle
diffusion and
reaction in each and every catalyst pellet are sequentially analyzed, leading to predictions of the overall
reactor
behavior. The interplay between flow patterns, wetting on individual pellets, and effectiveness
enhancement is
demonstrated. The present model offers advantages over other conventional models in terms of overall
reaction rate
predictions, the ability in the description of irregular morphological features, the absence of the artificial
backmixing of
materials, and others. In English (Author abstract) 44 Refs
Subjects: Chemical Reactions; Chemical Reactors; Catalysts; Flow of Fluids--Computer Simulation;
Computer
Programming--Algorithms; Catalysis
Identifiers: Trickle Beds; Flow Maldistribution; Trickle Bed Reactors
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 6
Steady-state models for SO$-2$/ oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor
Author(s): Haure, Patricia M.; Hudgins, R.R.; Silveston, P.L.
Corporate Source: Univ of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont, Can
Source: Chemical Engineering Journal and the Biochemical Engineering Journal v 43 n 3 May 1990 p
121-125
ISSN: 0300-9467 CODEN: CMEJAJ
Publication Year: 1990
Abstract: Published mathematical models for the steady-state operation of integral trickle-bed reactors are
not all
capable of predicting experimental results obtained for the catalytic oxidation of sulfur dioxide over
activated carbon.
Only the model of A.R. Mata and J.M. Smith, which considers variable gas composition within the reactor
as well as
the variability of the wetting efficiency with the liquid flow rate was successful. An empirical relationship
between the
wetting and the liquid flow rate was derived from steady-state data and found to coincide with that of M.
Herskowitz. In English (Edited author abstract) 20 Refs
Subjects: Sulfur Dioxide; Chemical Equipment--Reactors; Mathematical Models--Testing; Carbon--
Activated
Identifiers: Trickle-Bed Reactor; Steady State Models; Catalytic Oxidation; Model Predictions
Classification Codes: 804
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 7
Model for trickle bed reactors in view of changing gas velocity
Author(s): Lekshmi-Narayanan, H.; Pan, Chin-Min; Haure, Patricia M.; Hudgins, R.R.
Corporate Source: Univ of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont, Can
Source: Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering v 68 n 2 Apr 1990 p 327-329 ISSN: 0008-4034
CODEN:
CJCEA7
Publication Year: 1990
Abstract: The trickle-bed reactor model of S. Goto and J.M. Smith is modified to account for changes in
the gas
velocity as a result of the solubility of the active gaseous species in the liquid phase, its rate of uptake by
the liquid,
and the extent of its participation in the reaction. There appear to be practical cases for which changes in
the velocity
of the gas phase should not be ignored. In this note, we examine the conditions under which the constant
gas velocity
assumption can lead to significant errors. In English (Edited author abstract) 2 Refs
Subjects: Chemical Equipment; Chemical Engineering - Mathematical Models; Flow of Fluids
Identifiers: Trickle Bed Reactors; Material Balances; Reversible Reactions
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: T
Record 8
Mathematical modeling of a gas-liquid reaction in an irrigated catalyst bed reactor
Author(s): Klinger, A.V.; Novikov, A.V.; Fedoseeva, T.V.; Popov, O.S.
Corporate Source: Kalininsk Polytechnical Inst, USSR
Source: Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering (English Translation of Teoreticheskie Osnovy
Khimicheskoi Tekhnologii) v 22 n 6 Jul 1989 p 520-525 ISSN: 0040-5795 CODEN: TFCEAU
Publication Year: 1989
Abstract: A mathematical model was proposed to describe the process macrokinetics in a gas-liquid
column-type
reactors with an irrigated catalyst bed and the results of modeling compared with the experimental data.
The model is
based on mass transfer in liquid films. The process macrokinetics in the reactor, known as a trickle bed
reactor,
were experimentally studied for the case of glucose hydrogenation on a stationary nickel catalyst. In
English (Edited
author abstract) 30 Refs
Subjects: Catalysis; Chemical Equipment - Reactors; Glucose - Hydrogenation; Flow of Fluids - Films;
Catalysts -
Nickel; Mass Transfer - Mathematical Models
Identifiers: Column Reactors; Differential Equations; Gas-Liquid Reactions; Irrigated Packed Bed
Reactors; Liquid Film Mass Transfer; Trickle Bed Reactors
Classification Codes: 802
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Periodic operation of trickle bed reactor for hydrogenolysis in gas-liquid-liquid-solid four phases
Author(s): Yamada, Hiroshi; Goto, Shigeo
Corporate Source: Nagoya Univ, Nagoya, Jpn
Source: Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan v 30 n 3 Jun 1997 Soc of Chemical Engineers, Jpn
Tokyo Japan
p 478-483 ISSN: 0021-9592 CODEN: JCEJAQ
Publication Year: 1997
Abstract: Trickle bed reactors are the most common gas-liquid-solid three-phase reactors involving a solid
catalyst, and gaseous and liquid reactants. If solvents in the liquid phase are indissoluble in each other,
gas-liquid-liquid-solid four phases exist in the reactor. Deprotection of amino acid was studied in a trickle
bed
reactor as a typical example of a four-phase system. A reactant (carbobenzoxy phenylalanine) could be
dissolved in
an organic phase and hydrogenated to a product (phenylalanine) using a Pd/C solid catalyst. Phenylalanine
had
hydrophilic properties and transferred from the organic phase to the aqueous phase. When two liquids
were
continuously introduced into the four-phase reactor, the product (phenylalanine) was deposited on the
surface of the
catalyst and the catalytic activity gradually decreased. Periodic operation was adopted to solve this
problem. Only
distilled water was periodically introduced into the reactor to wash the catalyst, which could be
completely
regenerated after this washing period. The optimal reaction period was determined by simulation to obtain
a high
concentration of the product. In English (Author abstract) 5 Refs. EI Order Number: 97093813539
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Hydrogenation; Solvents; Amino acids; Catalyst activity; Aromatic
compounds; Phase
transitions; Dissolution
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactors; Multiphase reactors
Classification Codes: 802.3
Document Type: JA
Treatment: G
Record 2
Modelling of hydrotreating process in a trickle-bed reactor
Author(s): Kumar, V. Ramesh; Balaraman, K.S.; Rao, V.S. Ramachandra; Ananth, M.S.
Corporate Source: Indian Inst of Technology, Madras, India
Source: Petroleum Science and Technology v 15 n 3-4 Apr-May 1997 Marcel Dekker Inc New York NY
USA p
283-295 ISSN: 1091-6466 CODEN: PSTEFV
Publication Year: 1997
Abstract: Pilot scale hydrotreating experiments have been conducted on straight run high speed diesel oil
(SR
HSDO) using commercially available Co-Mo on Al$-2$/O$-3$/ catalyst. Kinetics of
hydrodesulphurization and
hydrodenitrogenation are studied using the models that took into account the physical and chemical
complexities of
the three phase system. Correlations are developed to predict the product properties based on operating
conditions.
The results show a good agreement with the experimental data. In English (Author abstract) 5 Refs.
Subjects: Diesel fuels; Gas oils; Catalysts; Alumina; Chemical reactors; Reaction kinetics;
Desulfurization;
Correlation methods; Cobalt
Identifiers: Hydrodenitrogenation; Hydrodesulphurization; Trickle bed reactors
Classification Codes: 523
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
Record 3
Analysis of rate enhancement in a periodically operated trickle-bed reactor
Author(s): Gabarain, L.; Castellari, A.T.; Cechini, J.; Tobolski, A.; Haure, P.
Corporate Source: Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata
Source: AIChE Journal v 43 n 1 Jan 1997 AIChE New York NY USA p 166-172 ISSN: 0001-1541
CODEN:
AICEAC
Publication Year: 1997
Abstract: When a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) is operated periodically, the bed is fed with liquid on and off,
while
the gas phase passes continuously. Rates and conversions could be higher than those corresponding to the
steady-state operation. In the `dry cycles' the heat generated by the reaction can drive the vaporization of
the liquid
phase, and a much more rapid `gas phase' reaction may occur. There is a trade-off between the potential
for
hot-spot formation and the fact that overall rates are higher during cycling. A qualitative understanding of
the phase
transition in TBRs is obtained by a simple phenomenological model that takes into account different
transport and
reaction mechanisms occurring in a catalytic particle under different cycling conditions. A mathematical
model is used
to predict results. In English (Author abstract) 16 Refs.
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Reaction kinetics; Vaporization; Thermal cycling; Phase transitions;
Catalysts; Particles
(particulate matter); Mathematical models; Mass transfer
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactors; Hot spot formation; Dry cycles
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 4
Continuous lumping model for simulation of hydrocracking
Author(s): Laxminarasimhan, C.S.; Verma, R.P.; Ramachandran, P.A.
Corporate Source: Indian Oil Corp, Faridabad, India
Source: AIChE Journal v 42 n 9 Sep 1996 AIChE New York NY USA p 2645-2653 ISSN: 0001-1541
CODEN: AICEAC
Publication Year: 1996
Abstract: Hydrocracking of vacuum gas oil is an important chemical process involving complex reaction
mixtures.
The reaction is carried out in a trickle-bed reactor, considering reaction kinetics along with such
hydrodynamic
effects as mass transfer, intraparticle diffusion, and partial wetting. Since reaction kinetics is critical to
modeling and
simulation of a hydrocracking reactor, a modeling approach needs to capture the complex chemistry of the
process,
along with the elegance of the solution method. The complex chemistry of hydrocarbon is represented by
an elegant
continuous lumping approach to modeling. The true boiling point of the mixture is used as the
characterization
parameter. Since the rate constant of hydrocracking is assumed to be a monotonic function of the true
boiling point, it
is possible to reformulate mass-balance equations in terms of rate constant as a continuous variable. A
novel
distribution function p(k,K), which determines the fractional yield distribution of species, was formulated
based on
data from the cracking patterns of various model compounds. Resulting integrodifferential equations are
solved
numerically to obtain yields of various fractions as a function of reactor residence time. Model predictions
are
compared with limited published data to show the utility of the model. In English (Author abstract) Refs.
EI Order
Number: 96103358237
Subjects: Hydrocracking; Computer simulation; Mathematical models; Gas oils; Reaction kinetics;
Hydrodynamics;
Chemical reactors; Integrodifferential equations; Probability; Computational fluid dynamics
Identifiers: Continuous lumping model; Vacuum gas oil; Complex reaction mixtures; Trickle bed reactor;
Hydrodynamic effects; Mass balance equation; Fractional yield distribution
Classification Codes: 802.2
Document Type: JA
Treatment: T
Record 5
Interfacial mass transfer in trickle-bed reactor modelling
Author(s): Toppinen, S.; Aittamaa, J.; Salmi, T.
Corporate Source: Abo Akademi, Abo, Finl
Source: Chemical Engineering Science v 51 n 18 Sep 1996 Pergamon Press Inc Tarrytown NY USA p
4335-4345
ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1996
Abstract: A rigorous steady-state model was written for trickle-bed reactors. The mass and heat transfer
resistances both between the gas phase and the liquid phase and between the liquid phase and the catalyst
surface
are included in the reactor model. The mass transfer is modelled using both the Maxwell-Stefan equations
and the
effective diffusivity method. The numerical solution of the model is discussed. The reactor model was
attached to a
flowsheet simulator that provided all the required physical property and phase-behaviour calculations.
Finally, an
industrial hydrogenation reactor was simulated as an example. The simulation results were used to
examine the
importance of local mass and heat transfer resistances in the reactor. In English (Author abstract) 24 Refs.
EI
Order Number: 96093332245
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Mass transfer; Heat transfer; Maxwell equations; Diffusion in gases;
Diffusion in
liquids; Computer simulation; Physical properties; Thermodynamic properties; Reaction kinetics;
Mathematical
models; Flowcharting
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactors; Rigorous steady state model; Effective diffusivity method
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: GT
Record 6
Three-phase reactor model for hydrotreating in pilot trickle-bed reactors
Author(s): Korsten, Hans; Hoffmann, Ulrich
Corporate Source: TU Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Ger
Source: AIChE Journal v 42 n 5 May 1996 AIChE New York NY USA p 1350-1360 ISSN: 0001-1541
CODEN: AICEAC
Publication Year: 1996
Abstract: A three-phase reactor model for describing the hydrotreating reactions in a trickle-bed reactor
was
developed. It includes correlations for determining mass-transfer coefficients, solubility data, and
properties of the
compounds under process conditions. The model, based on the two-film theory, was tested with regard to
the
hydrodesulfurization of vacuum gas oil in a new high-pressure pilot plant operated under isothermal
conditions. The
sulfur content of the product oil was found to depend strongly on the gas/oil flow ratio within the reactor.
This is due
to the inhibiting effect of hydrogen sulfide on the chemical reaction rates described by Langmuir-
Hinshelwood
kinetics. The poor conversion which, in contrast to industrial plants, is often observed in pilot plant
reactors can be
explained by incomplete catalyst wetting produced by low liquid velocities. The simulation shows a good
agreement
with the experiments carried out in a wide range of temperature, pressure, space velocity and gas/oil ratio.
In
English (Author abstract) Refs. EI Order Number: 96063207522
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Computer simulation; Chemical reactions; Correlation methods; Mass
transfer;
Solubility; Physical properties; Sulfur; Hydrogen sulfide; Reaction kinetics; Wetting
Identifiers: Three phase reactor model; Hydrotreating reaction; Pilot trickle bed reactors; Mass transfer
coefficient; Hydrodesulfurization; Vacuum gas oil; Two film theory; Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: G
Record 7
Modelling of a trickle-bed reactor: II. The hydrogenation of 3-hydroxypropanal to 1,3-propanediol
Author(s): Valerius, G.; Zhu, X.; Hofmann, H.; Arntz, D.; Haas, T.
Corporate Source: Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen, Ger
Source: Chemical Engineering and Processing v 35 n 1 Jan 1996 p 11-19 CODEN: CENPEU
Publication Year: 1996
Abstract: 1,3-Propanediol can be synthesized by the hydrogenation of 3-hydroxypropanal over a nickel
catalyst.
The aim of the investigation was to obtain information about the mass transfer and degree of wetting in a
trickle-bed
reactor. The model for the concentration and temperature profiles in a pilot reactor employed was based
on kinetic
measurements in an autoclave. Two different approximations of the overall catalyst effectiveness factor
were used:
(1) the effectiveness factors of dry, half wetted and totally wetted slabs were weighted as proposed by
Beaudry,
Mills and Dudukovic: (2) a new cylinder shell model was used, leading to one-dimensional mass balance
equations
inside the porous catalyst particle for all possible values of the external wetting efficiency on the particle
scale. In
English (Author abstract) 14 Refs. EI Order Number: 96033109343
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Mathematical models; Hydrogenation; Organic compounds; Mass transfer;
Wetting;
Reaction kinetics; Catalysts; Nickel; Temperature measurement; Composition
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactor; Hydroxypropanal; Propanediol; Effectiveness factor; Cylinder shell
model; Mass
balance equations; Acrolein; Spinning basket reactors
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: T
Record 8
Modelling of a trickle-bed reactor: I. Extended definitions and new approximations
Author(s): Valerius, G.; Zhu, X.; Hofmann, H.
Corporate Source: Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen, Ger
Source: Chemical Engineering and Processing v 35 n 1 Jan 1996 p 1-9 CODEN: CENPEU
Publication Year: 1996
Abstract: Important ideas in the modelling of trickle-bed reactors given in the literature are summarized,
partly
extended and placed into context which, in future, will hopefully lead to a more satisfactory theory about
the
important physical and chemical processes in this type of reactor. Based on the common behaviour of
different
reaction systems and results of previous investigations, general model equations are formulated, which
seem to be
applicable to many reactions in a trickle-bed reactor. A new approximation for the overall catalyst
effectiveness
factor - the so-called cylinder shell model - is presented, which leads to one-dimensional mass balance
equations
inside the catalyst for all possible values of the external wetting efficiency on a particle scale. In English
(Author
abstract) 16 Refs. EI Order Number: 96033109342
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Mathematical models; Reaction kinetics; Approximation theory; Catalysts;
Wetting;
Mass transfer; Solubility; Gases; Catalyst deactivation
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactor; Cylinder shell model; Mass balance equations; Effectiveness factor;
Gaseous
reactant; Mass transfer resistance
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: T
Record 9
Dynamic modelling of catalytic three phase reactors
Author(s): Warna, J.; Salmi, T.
Corporate Source: Abo Akademi, Abo, Finl
Source: Computers & Chemical Engineering v 20 n 1 Jan 1996 Pergamon Press Inc Tarrytown NY USA p
39-47
ISSN: 0098-1354 CODEN: CCENDW
Publication Year: 1996
Abstract: Dynamic models were developed for three phase slurry and trickle bed reactors operating in
non-isothermal conditions. The model equations for the gas, liquid and catalyst phases consisted of
parabolic partial
differential equations (PDE) and ordinary differential equations (ODE), which were converted to ODEs
using finite
difference approximations for the spatial derivatives. The ODEs were solved by a stiff ODE solver
(LSODE) using
the backward difference method. The numerical strategy proved to be reliable. The reactor simulation
programs
were included in a flowsheet simulator. The use of the programs was illustrated with two case studies:
oxidation of
SO$-2$/ and hydrogenation of toluene. The example simulations showed that the dynamic approach
provides a
meaningful path to the steady state of the reactor and gives valuable information of the reaction dynamics.
In English
(Author abstract) Refs. EI Order Number: 95112929965
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Computer simulation; Mathematical models; Partial differential equations;
Finite
difference method; Approximation theory; Numerical methods; Hydrogenation; Toluene; Oxidation;
Sulfur dioxide;
Convergence of numerical methods; Catalysis
Identifiers: Catalytic three phase reactors; Trickle bed reactors; Ordinary differential equations; Backward
difference method; Flowsheet simulator
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 10
Simulation of non-ideal flow in a trickle bed hydrotreater by the cross-flow model
Author(s): Tsamatsoulis, Dimitris; Papayannakos, Nikos
Corporate Source: Univ of Athens, Athens, Greece
Source: Chemical Engineering Science v 50 n 23 Dec 1995 Pergamon Press Inc Tarrytown NY USA p
3685-3691
ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN: CESCAC
Publication Year: 1995
Abstract: The cross-flow model is used for the description of non-ideal behaviour of the liquid flow in a
bench scale
hydrotreater. Experimental data were received at reaction conditions using non-porous particles of various
sizes.
Total and static holdup and film thickness are correlated with liquid velocity and particle size. Mass
transfer
characteristic parameters are also correlated with liquid flow, particle size and bed porosity. System
response
simulation to stepwise feed tracer concentration change and best fit to experimental data yield the values
of model
parameters. In English (Author abstract) 17 Refs. EI Order Number: 96012991042
Subjects: Flow of fluids; Mathematical models; Computer simulation; Chemical reactors; Particles
(particulate
matter); Mass transfer; Particle size analysis; Fluidized beds; Porosity; Films
Identifiers: Non-ideal flow; Trickle bed hydrotreater; Cross-flow model; Non-porous particles; Mass
transfer
characteristic parameters; Bed porosity; System response simulation; Feed tracer concentration change;
Model
parameters; Liquid velocity
Classification Codes: 631.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: ATX
Record 11
Multicomponent mass and energy transport on different length scales in a packed reactive distillation
column for heterogeneously catalysed fuel ether production
Author(s): Sundmacher, Kai; Hoffmann, Ulrich
Corporate Source: Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Ger
Source: Chemical Engineering Science Chemical Reaction Engineering: Science & Technology
Proceedings of the
13th International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering. Part A Sep 25-28 1994 v 49 n 24A Dec
1994
Baltimore, MD, USA 2 Pergamon Press Inc Tarrytown NY USA p 4443-4464 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN:
CESCAC
Publication Year: 1994
Abstract: A reactive distillation column was operated which was packed with acid ion exchange rings
catalysing the
production of the octane enhancer methyl-tert.-butylether (MTBE) from methanol (MeOH) and isobutene
(IB). Two
types of catalytic rings were used: a block polymer (BP) with a capacity of 4.54 meq(H$+$PLU$/)/g and a
glass
supported precipitated polymer (GPP) with a capacity of 0.9 meq(H$+$PLU$/)/g. Fluid dynamic
experiments with
pure MeOH and pure MTBE show that the catalytic packings, which are located in the upper column
section, work
under trickle flow conditions. Nonreactive distillation experiments reveal sustained macroscale
oscillations of fluxes,
pressure and temperature that are caused by the distillation behaviour of the binary mixture MeOH/IB.
These
oscillations were also detected in the reactive distillation process with the highly stable, but less active
GPP catalyst.
The local compositions and temperatures from the nonoscillatory reactive distillation experiments with the
BP catalyst
are subjected to a detailed analysis of microscale solid-liquid and vapour-liquid transport resistances based
on the
Generalised Maxwell-Stefan approach. It turns out that the mass transport resistances inside the catalyst
can vary
significantly along the packing. The main mass transport resistance at the vapour-liquid interface is
located on the
liquid side. In English (Author abstract) 18 Refs. EI Order Number: 95042664673
Subjects: Ethers; Energy transfer; Mass transfer; Distillation columns; Catalysis; Methanol; Block
copolymers; Fluid
dynamics; Packing; Distillation; Composition; Catalysts
Identifiers: Fuel ether; Catalytic ring; Packed reactive distillation column; Glass supported precipitated
polymer;
Acid ion exchange ring; Octane enhancer methyl tertiary butyl ether; Isobutene
Classification Codes: 804.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
Record 12
Modelling of biodegradation processes in trickle-bed bioreactors
Author(s): Hekmat, D.; Vortmeyer, D.
Corporate Source: Technical Univ of Munich, Munich, Ger
Source: Chemical Engineering Science Chemical Reaction Engineering: Science & Technology
Proceedings of the
13th International Symposium on Chemical Reaction Engineering. Part A Sep 25-28 1994 v 49 n 24A Dec
1994
Baltimore, MD, USA 2 Pergamon Press Inc Tarrytown NY USA p 4327-4345 ISSN: 0009-2509 CODEN:
CESCAC
Publication Year: 1994
Abstract: This paper deals with the mathematical modelling of a biological process to remove organic
compounds
from industrial waste gas. Modelling results will be compared with experimental data from measurements
utilizing a
laboratory-scale trickle-bed bioreactor. In such an apparatus, the biodegradation of the organic pollutants
takes
place via aerobic oxidation in biofilm, which is immobolized on a packing material. Two organic
compounds were
chosen as model pollutants, i.e. ethanol and polyakylated benzenes. In addition, data from the literature of
a third
compound, dichloromethane, will be analysed. The mathematical model used in this work is based on the
stationary
differential mass balances along the reactor height together with the corresponding reaction terms. The
experiments
with ethanol reveal that over a large range of gas inlet concentrations, the rate limiting factor of the
degradation
process is oxygen limitation. The reason for this is the small partition coefficient of ethanol resulting in
large liquid
concentrations. Thus, the pollutant is mineralized at a relatively high rate until dissolved oxygen inside the
biofilm is
depleted. In these cases, model calculations with a zeroth-order reaction term describe the experimental
data well.
The experiments with polyalkylated benzenes reveal that substrate limitation occurs within the relevant
range of gas
inlet concentrations. The reason for this is the large partition coefficient resulting in small liquid
concentrations. Thus,
first-order reaction applies. Again, a rather good agreement of model and experiment is achieved. The
analysis of the
data of dichloromethane yields kinetic data within the transition regime of first-order and zeroth-order
reaction rates.
Thus, no significant difference is observed with the model calculations using either reaction order. The
mathematical
model presented can serve as a basis or proper design, up-scaling, and control strategies of trickle-bed
bioreactors.
In English (Author abstract) 21 Refs. EI Order Number: 95042664666
Subjects: Biodegradation; Mathematical models; Industrial waste treatment; Bioreactors; Oxidation;
Biofilms;
Ethanol; Benzene; Oxygen; Reaction kinetics; Chlorine compounds
Identifiers: Polyalkylated benzene; Dichloromethane; Mass balance; Trickle bed bioreactor;
Mineralization
Classification Codes: 802.2
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 13
Experimental and modeling study of kinetics and selectivity in the oxidation of a poly($alpha@-olefin)
lubricant
Author(s): Koh, Choon-Seok; Butt, John B.
Corporate Source: Northwestern Univ, Evanston, IL, USA
Source: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research v 34 n 2 Feb 1995 ACS Washington DC USA p
524-535
ISSN: 0888-5885 CODEN: IECRED
Publication Year: 1995
Abstract: A major means of lubricant oil degradation is by oxidation in the presence of metal surfaces that
can have
catalytic activity. In this work an experimental and modeling study has been carried out on the oxidation
kinetics and
selectivity of a typical poly($alpha@-olefin) (PAO) lubricant in the presence of both inert (glass) and
active (brass,
steel) surfaces in the temperature range 170-240 $DGR@C. Inhibition of the reaction by zinc dialkyl
dithiophosphate (ZDP) has been investigated. A batch recycling trickle-bed reactor system has been
developed
which provides reliable data on intrinsic chemical kinetics. Reaction rates are a strong function of
temperature, with
products appearing in the order of water, carbon dioxide, aldehydes, ketones, acids, and alcohols in both
gas and
liquid phases. Significant changes in viscosity and molecular weight were observed for T $GRT 200
$DGR@C. A
four-lump (PAO, carbonyl-containing compounds in the liquid phase, gaseous products, and deposits)
kinetic model
has been developed that gives good agreement with experimental results, including oxidation rate
promotion by
metals and inhibition by ZDP. In English (Author abstract) 48 Refs. EI Order Number: 95032625608
Subjects: Lubricants; Reaction kinetics; Catalyst selectivity; Oxidation; Degradation; Surfaces; Catalyst
activity;
Chemical reactors; Viscosity; Molecular weight; Mathematical models; Composition
Identifiers: Poly(alpha olefin) lubricant; Catalytic metal surfaces; Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate; Batch
recycling
trickle bed reactor; Chemical kinetics; Reaction rates
Classification Codes: 607.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: TX
Record 14
Partial wetting and forced reaction mixture transition in a model trickle-bed reactor
Author(s): Ruzicka, Jiri; Hanika, Jiri
Corporate Source: Czech Acad of Sciences, Czech
Source: Catalysis Today Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Dynamics of Catalytic
Systems Aug
29-Sep 3 1993 v 20 n 3 Aug 19 1994 Prague, Czech Repub Elsevier Science Publishers B.V. Amsterdam
Neth p
467-484 ISSN: 0920-5861 CODEN: CATTEA
Publication Year: 1994
Abstract: The model trickle-bed reactor had a trickle bed simulated as a vertical string of commercial
catalyst
cylindrical pellets. This paved the way for the separation and control of hydrodynamic regime effects to
focus on the
effects of mass and heat transfer and the influence or the model system used. The novel fixation of the
catalyst pellets
was to avoid their intrusion into the pellets which was the drawback of previous experimental
arrangements. In
English 12 Refs. EI Order Number: 94112441235
Subjects: Chemical reactors; Wetting; Catalysts; Mass transfer; Heat transfer; Packed beds; Mathematical
models;
Combustion; Hydrodynamics
Identifiers: Trickle bed reactor; Light off
Classification Codes: 802.1
Document Type: JA
Treatment: X
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