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Plastic is a material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic

compounds that are malleable and can be molded into solid objects. Plastics are typically
organic polymers of high molecular mass, but they often contain other substances. They are
usually synthetic, most commonly derived from petrochemicals, but many are partially natural.
Plasticity is the general property of all materials that are able to irreversibly deform without
breaking, but this occurs to such a degree with this class of moldable polymers that their name
is an emphasis on this ability.

Sources of plastics

Plastics can be either found in natural substances or may be man-made. Most of the plastics
used today are man-made. Man-made plastics are known as synthetic plastics.

Natural 'plastic products' occur in such things as animals' horns, animals' milk, insects, plants
and trees.

Animals horns - Casein (glue)

Animals milk - Formaldehyde (glue)
Insects - Shellac (French polishing)
Plants - Cellulose (table tennis balls), Cellulose acetate (cloth, photographic film,
Cellophane (wrapping), Bitumen (roads, flat roofs)
Trees - Latex (rubber)
The main source of synthetic plastics is crude oil. Coal and natural gas are also used. Petrol,
paraffin, lubricating oils and high petroleum gases are bi-products, produced during the refining
of crude oil. These gases are broken down into monomers. Monomers are chemical substances
consisting of a single molecule. A process called Polymerisation occurs when thousands of
monomers are linked together. The compounds formed as called polymers. Combining the
element carbon with one or more other elements such as oxygen, hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine
and nitrogen makes most polymers. There are two types of manmade plastic, thermoplastics
and thermosetting.
Thermoplastics- A polymer that softens and melts gradually when heated and it can be
reshaped when still warm. This plastic has a memory, it returns to its original flat shape when
re-heated. Here are some examples and their uses:
Acrylic available in almost any colour in sheet rod or tube form, can be shaped using a
line bender or vacuum former.
ABS a very commonly used plastic can be injection molded from a powder form.
Styrene very good for vacuum forming

Thermosets- A polymer that cant be reshaped after manufacture. Here are some examples and
their uses:
Urea formaldehyde electric plugs and sockets
Melamine kitchen worktops, unbreakable drink mugs
Polyester resin poured into moulds to make products or for boat repair
Why use plastics?

Plastic are easily formed materials.

The advantage to the manufacturer is that plastic products can be mass-produced and
require less skilled staff.
Plastics require little or no finishing, painting, polishing etc. Plastic is referred to as a
self-finishing material. Particular finishes can be achieved at relatively low cost.
Plastics can be easily printed, decorated or painted.
Plastics are corrosion resistant, and generally waterproof although certain types of
plastics such as UPVC can become brittle and it is possible for the suns rays to cause the
colour of the plastic to fade. It becomes bleached.
Plastics are lighter than metals, giving deeper sections for a given weight, and hence
stronger sections.
Expanded polystyrene
This is used for disposable food packaging, disposable cups, heat insulation and protective
packaging for electrical equipment. Used for protective packaging.

Clear Acrylic (Perspex)

It was first used to make aircraft canopies. It is ten times more impact resistant than glass.
Used for Perspex top of a container
Polystyrene is used to make plates, cutlery and model kits. It is stiff hard and comes in a wide
range of colours.

Nylon is hard, tough, self-lubricating, has a high melting point and has very good resistance to
wear and tear. It has been used to make clothing, bearings and propellers.
The rigid type is used to make pipes, guttering and roofing. It is very lightweight and is resistant
to acids and alkalis. The plasticised type is used for suitcases, hosepipes, electrical wiring and
floor coverings.


High-density polythene has been used to manufacture milk crates, bottles, buckets, bowl and
gear wheels. It is stiff, hard, can be sterilised and is dense.

What is Rubber?
Rubber is a substance made from oil, or different types of fossil fuels.
Natural rubber is made from a runny, milky white liquid called latex that oozes from certain
plants when you cut into them. (Common dandelions, for example, produce latex; if you snap
off their stems, you can see the latex dripping out from them.
Synthetic rubbers are made in chemical plants using petrochemicals as their starting point. One
of the first (and still one of the best known) is neoprene (the brand name for polychloroprene),
made by reacting together acetylene and hydrochloric acid. Emulsion styrene-butadiene rubber
(E-SBR), another synthetic rubber, is widely used for making vehicle tires.
For the rest of this article, we'll concentrate mostly on natural rubber.
Rubber is a unique material. It possesses all the following features simultaneously:

It has low rigidity

It is practically incompressible
It is highly resistant to wear
Its friction is high
It has good corrosion resistance
Hence, generally speaking, a rubber product yields, damps, seals and protects.
Its flexibleIts not transperentIts water proofIt doesn't allow light to pass
Some of The characteristics of rubber are its flexible it rebounds it compresses makes a
great seal, also rubber when Valkanized gets extremely elastic without much
deterioration. Also naterual rubber is not black, natural rubber is a whitish color, carbon
black is added to give it its black color in tires.

Elasticity is a unique and important feature of rubber. Practically, elasticity means that rubber
can be stretched rapidly up to 1,000 % and it still recovers to its original shape. Even if other
materials could be stretched similarly, they do not recover like rubber. Elasticity of rubber
originates from the strong and yielding molecular structures of the material.
Dissipation factor
When rubber is subjected to a force, such as vibration for example, it resists deformation. The
time difference between the application of force and the deformation is called the dissipation
factor of rubber. The dissipation factor is not only influenced by the rubber type, i.e. elastomer,
but also by the composition of the recipe. Internal attenuation transforms into heat. This is
relevant in many applications, such as vibration dampers for instance. When a machine causes
vibration, the vibration causes deformation in the damper. A damper made of rubber with too
high dissipation factor will overheat and deteriorate, it might even break. Accordingly, if the
dissipation factor is too low, the damper might amplify vibration; this may break the machine or
constructions around it.
Rubber is easy to form, but it is practically incompressible. Exactly like water, for example. If
rubber is compressed between two plates, it distends to the sides. If distension to the sides is
prevented by pressing the rubber part in a cylinder, compression does not occur.
Where does rubber come from?
As its name suggests, the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis originally came from Brazil, from where
it was introduced to such countries of the Far East as Malaysia, Indonesia, Burma, Cambodia,
China, and Vietnam. During World War II, supplies of natural rubber from these nations were cut
off just when there was a huge demand from the militaryand that accelerated the development
of synthetic rubbers, notably in Germany and the United States. Today, most natural rubber still
comes from the Far East, while Russia and its former republics, France, Germany, and the United
States are among the world's leading producers of synthetic rubber. The world's largest single
source of latex rubber is the Harbel Rubber Plantation near Monrovia in Liberia, established in
the 1920s and 1930s by the Firestone tire company.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers
of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus
water. Malaysia is one of the leading producers of rubber. Forms of polyisoprene that are used
as natural rubbers are classified as elastomers. Natural rubber is used by many manufacturing
companies for the production of rubber products. Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the
form of the latex from the para rubber tree or others. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn
off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called
"tapping". The latex then is refined into rubber ready for commercial processing. Natural rubber
is used extensively in many applications and products, either alone or in combination with other
materials. In major areas latex is allowed to coagulate in the collection cup. The coagulated lumps
are collected and processed into dry forms for marketing. In most of its useful forms, it has a
large stretch ratio and high resilience, and is extremely waterproof.
Rubber, in one form or another has been used since the times of old, evidence of its use going
back 2,000,000 years or more. In those days the substance was derived naturally from the rubber
tree. Individuals would then use it to make balls, and to waterproof handmade buckets, pails and
more. As time went on more and more uses for rubber was discovered inspiring the invention of
synthetic rubber because the natural alternative could not keep up with the growing demand.
Every year an approximated 4 million tons of natural rubber and 7 million tons of synthetic rubber
are produced to make more than 50,000 different products that we use on a daily basics
Natural rubber production begins with the tapping of the matured rubber trees of South East
Asia and Africa. Workers tap the trees by making an incision which cause the slow flow of the
milky fluid called latex, after enough of the latex is collected in pails the water is then removed
from it and the latex is then turned into raw rubber. There are approximately twenty different
types of synthetic rubber used today including silicone rubber,acrylic rubber and butyl rubber.
the production of this type of rubber consists of the adding of materials like petroleum, crude oil
and different types of gases.
Today, rubber is as widely used as wood and this is largely due to its beneficial proprieties like
strength, long lasting, water resistance and heat resistance all these benefits makes this material
perfect for tire production, in fact a large percentage of rubber production goes into the
automotive industry. Other benefits like being non slip, soft, durable, resilient makes this
material the first choice for playground equipment, shoes, mats, flooring, healthcare supplies,
household supplies, balls, toys and thousands of other rubber products. Rubber comes in a large
variety of colors, styles and textures making it extremely diverse. Used rubber tires are often
recycled to make other items like mulch, shoes, bags, jewelry and coats. It is safe and reliable and
seen as a valuable material by many.
The physical and chemical properties of a material dictate what we use it for. Even if you know
absolutely nothing about the real-world uses of rubber, you can probably make some very good
guesses. For example, everyone knows rubber is strong, stretchy, flexible (elastic), durable, and
waterproof, so it's no surprise to find it used in things like waterproof clothes and wellington
boots, sticking plasters, and adhesives.
The most important use of rubber is in vehicle tires; about half of all the world's rubber ends up
wrapped around the wheels of cars, bicycles, and trucks! You'll find rubber in the hard, black
vulcanized outsides of tires and (where they have them) in their inner tubes and liners. The inner
parts of tires are usually made from a slightly different, very flexible butyl rubber, which is highly
impermeable to gases (traps them very effectively), so tires (generally) stay inflated for long
periods of time.
The fact that rubber can be made either soft or hard greatly increases the range of things we can
use it for. Soft and stretchy latex is used in all kinds of everyday things, from pencil erasers,
birthday balloons, and condoms to protective gloves, adhesives (such as sticky white PVA), and
paints. Harder rubbers are needed for tougher applications like roofing membranes, waterproof
butyl liners in garden ponds, and those rigid inflatable boats (RIBs) used by scuba divers. Because
rubber is strong, flexible, and a very poor conductor of heat and electricity, it's often used as a
strong, thin, jacketing material for electrical cables, fiber-optic cables, and heat pipes. But the
range of applications is truly vast: you'll find it in everything from artificial hearts (in the rubber
diaphragms that pump blood) to the waterproof gaskets that seal the doors on washing
machines! Neoprene (polychloroprene) is best known as the heat-insulating, outer covering of
wetsuitsbut it has far more applications than most people are aware of. Medical supports of
various kind use it because, tightly fitted, it compresses and warms injured bits of your body,
promoting faster healing. Since it's flexible and waterproof, it's also widely used as a building
material, for example, as a roof and floor sealant, and as a spongy absorber of sound and
vibration in door and window linings. Although the world has a vast appetite for new rubber, we
also produce a huge quantity of rubber waste, especially from discarded vehicle tiresand that's
becoming an important raw material in its own right. According to the Rubber Manufacturers
Association, the United States alone produced almost 270 million waste rubber vehicle tires in
2011, which is about a third of all the tires used worldwide. While some of these are retreaded
and others are ground up to make a low-grade aggregate that can be used for the floors in things
like children's playgrounds, over half of them are wasted (either burned as a fuel or buried in
landfills). Rubber manufacturers have recently turned their attention to recycling tires in all kinds
of new ways, making everything from mouse mats and sports bags to shoe soles and car
NR = Natural Rubber
Natural rubber is, as its name suggests, a natural material produced from the sap of a rubber
tree. The most common application of NR is car tires, but it is also used to produce technical
rubber products. NR has good mechanical properties. Due to its high wear resistance, it is often
used in the tube of material handling hoses and in many other components in the mining
industry. Additionally, NR is often used in vibration damping solutions due to its advantageous
properties. NR works well in low temperatures, but its toleration of high temperatures is limited
compared to most synthetic rubbers. Additionally, NR is not compatible with oxidising
environments, oils, or solvents.
IR = Isoprene Rubber
Isoprene rubber and natural rubber are used in same applications requiring tear resistance,
tensile strength, or wear resistance. IR is a synthetic elastomer with a similar chemical
construction as NR. The difference is that IR does not contain proteins or resins found in NR. IR is
more pure and homogeneous than NR due to its synthetic production process. However, the
physical properties of IR are slightly weaker.
SBR = Styrene Butadiene Rubber
Styrene butadiene rubber was developed to compensate the natural rubber deficit resulting from
the World War I and II. Without fillers SBR is a weak material. However, by using correct fillers,
the chemical and physical properties of SBR can get close to NR. In comparison to NR; SBR has
almost similar wear resistance and better heat toleration properties, but toleration of low
temperatures and tensile stress are weaker.
BR = Butadiene Rubber
Butadiene rubber is highly resilient and its tolerance of low temperatures is excellent. At its own
BR is difficult to process. Consequently, it is usually mixed into a compound with NR or SBR. The
use of BR improves wear resistance, resilience and low temperature tolerance of a compound.

EPDM = Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer Rubber

Ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber is commonly used in seals and cable protectors due
to its excellent weather and ozone resistance properties. EPDM also has good chemical and heat
resistance properties. However, EPDM does not tolerate oils or fuels.
NBR = Nitrile Rubber
Nitrile rubber has good physical properties, high resistance of oils and fuels, as well as relatively
good heat resistance. Hence, it is often used in hoses, bellows, or seals that transport or come in
to contact with fuels and oils. The cold, weather and ozone resistance properties of NBR are poor,
but they can be improved with correct compounding.
CR = Chloroprene Rubber
Chloroprene rubber has good mechanical strength, weather resistance and fire resistance
properties. It is also resistant to splatters of certain oils. However, it does not tolerate any
aromatic oils. CR can be used in seals, vibration dampers and hoses, for example.
IIR = Isobutylene Isoprene Rubber
Isobutylene isoprene rubber has a special property, its air and gas permeability is very low.
Hence, it is widely used on the inside of car tyres and in gas masks. Additionally, IIR tolerates
heat, it is elastic, and it has good ozone and weather resistance. IIR is therefore also used in steam
hoses and gas bellows.
CSM = Chlorosulphonated Polyethylene Rubber
Chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber is inflammable, because it contains high amounts of
chlorine. It has excellent ageing, weather and ozone resistance properties. Additionally, it is
resistant to wear, heat and chemicals. Hence, CSM is typically used in hoses and seals that come
into contact with chemicals.
Q = Silicone Rubber
Silicone rubber is inorganic. Unlike the carbon chains of organic elastomers, the chemical
structure of silicone rubber consists of silicon-oxygen links. This enables the wide operating
temperature range for silicone rubber, the temperatures ranging from -100C up to +300C.
Additionally, the electrical properties and ozone resistance of silicone rubber are good. Thus, it
is often used in cable protectors and special seals. Silicone rubber is also used in pharmaceutical
and alimentary applications due to its neutral odour and taste.
FPM = Fluorinated Propylene Monomer Rubber
Fluorinated propylene monomer rubber has rather poor low temperature resistance and
mechanical properties. However, the chemical resistance of FPM is superb. Thus, it is used in
special seals, hoses and other products that come into contact with aggressive chemicals.
ACM = Acrylic Rubber
Acrylic rubber has excellent chemical resistance and it tolerates oils even in high temperatures.
Additionally, the weather and ozone resistance of ACM is good, but the toleration of steam and
low temperatures is poor. ACM is rather difficult to process, but it is used in special hoses and
seals in demanding environments.
123 A. Mabini St., Mandaluyong City

A Written Report


Plastics and Rubbers

Prepared by: Submitted to:

Josefa Carmelli A. Abejar Engr. Cardenas

Jelannie Tirado (Professor)
(BSNAMarE 3-B)