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The design of chemical processes, products and technologies

that reduces or eliminates the use and generation of
hazardous substances.


Waste Minimisation at Source
Use of Catalysts in place of Reagents
Using Non-Toxic Reagents
Use of Renewable Resources
Use of Solvent Free or Recyclable Environment friendly Solvent systems
Why do we need Green Chemistry ?

Chemistry is undeniably a very prominent

part of our daily lives.
Chemical developments also bring new
environmental problems and harmful
unexpected side effects, which result in the
need for greener chemical products.
A famous example is the pesticide DDT.
Green Chemistry Is About...





Some Aspects of Green Chemistry

Safer Reactions Catalysis

& Reagents
Processes Green Use of
Chemistry Renewable

Energy Feedstocks

Efficiency Waste
Process Minimisation
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry (1-6)
1. Prevention
It is better to prevent waste than to treat or clean up waste after it has been created.

2. Atom Economy
Synthetic methods should be designed to maximise the incorporation of all materials
used in the process into the final product.

3. Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis

Wherever practicable, synthetic methods should be designed to use and generate
substances that possess little or no toxicity to people or the environment.

4. Designing Safer Chemicals

Chemical products should be designed to effect their desired function while minimising
their toxicity.

5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries

The use of auxiliary substances (e.g., solvents or separation agents) should be made
unnecessary whenever possible and innocuous when used.

6. Design for Energy Efficiency

Energy requirements of chemical processes should be recognised for their environmental
and economic impacts and should be minimised. If possible, synthetic methods should be
conducted at ambient temperature and pressure.
The 12 Principles of Green Chemistry (7-12)
7 Use of Renewable Feedstocks
A raw material or feedstock should be renewable rather than depleting whenever technically and
economically practicable.

8 Reduce Derivatives
Unnecessary derivatization (use of blocking groups, protection/de-protection, and temporary modification of
physical/chemical processes) should be minimised or avoided if possible, because such steps require
additional reagents and can generate waste.

9 Catalysis
Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents.

10 Design for Degradation

Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into innocuous
degradation products and do not persist in the environment.

11 Real-time Analysis for Pollution Prevention

Analytical methodologies need to be further developed to allow for real-time, in-process monitoring and
control prior to the formation of hazardous substances.

12 Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention

Substances and the form of a substance used in a chemical process should be chosen to minimise the
potential for chemical accidents, including releases, explosions, and fires.
The major uses of GREEN CHEMISTRY

Global Change
Resource Depletion
Food Supply
Toxics in the Environment
The vast majority of the energy
generated in the world today is
from non-renewable sources that
damage the environment.
 Carbon dioxide
 Depletion of Ozone layer
 Effects of mining, drilling, etc
 Green Chemistry will be essential in
 developing the alternatives for energy
generation (photovoltaics, hydrogen, fuel
cells, biobased fuels, etc.) as well as
 continue the path toward energy efficiency
with catalysis and product design at the
Global Change
 Concerns for climate change,
oceanic temperature, stratospheric
chemistry and global distillation can
be addressed through the
development and implementation of
green chemistry technologies.
Resource Depletion
Due to the over utilization of non-
renewable resources, natural
resources are being depleted at an
unsustainable rate.
Fossil fuels are a central issue.
Resource Depletion
 Renewable resources can be made
increasingly viable technologically and
economically through green chemistry.
 Nanoscience & technology
 Carbon dioxide
 Waste utilization
Food Supply
 While current food levels are sufficient,
distribution is inadequate
 Agricultural methods are unsustainable
 Future food production intensity is
 Green chemistry can address many
food supply issues
Food Supply
Green chemistry is developing:
 Pesticides which only affect target
organisms and degrade to innocuous
 Fertilizers and fertilizer adjuvants that
are designed to minimize usage while
maximizing effectiveness.
 Methods of using agricultural wastes
for beneficial and profitable uses.
Toxics in the Environment
 Substances that are toxic to humans, the
biosphere and all that sustains it, are
currently still being released at a cost of
life, health and sustainability.
 One of green chemistrys greatest
strengths is the ability to design for
reduced hazard.
What is Acid Rain
The term "acid rain" is commonly used to mean the
deposition of acidic components in rain, snow, fog, dew, or dry
The more accurate term is "acid precipitation." Distilled
water, which contains no carbon dioxide, has a neutral pH of 7.
Liquids with a pH less than 7 are acid, and those with a pH greater
than 7 are alkaline (or basic).
"Clean" rain has a slightly acidic pH of 5.6 because carbon
dioxide and water in the air react together to form carbonic acid,
a weak acid, rather than forming strong, harmful acids such as
sulfuric acid or nitric acid.
Various industries, automobiles etc, release acidic oxides
such as sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, hydrogen chloride etc,
into the atmosphere. These oxides dissolve in moisture present in
atmosphere to form corresponding acids, which fall slowly on
earth as acid rain.
Chemical Reactions

When CO2 reacts with water, carbonic acid is formed.

CO2 (g)+H2O(l)-

When SO2 reacts with water, sulfurous acid and sulphuric acid
are formed.
SO2 (g)+H2O(l)-
2SO2 (g)+2H2O(l) + O2-

When NO2 reacts with water, nitric acid is formed.

How does Acid Rain affect us

It kills micro-organisms
It poisons plants
It damages metals and limestone
It kills fish

Areas of acid-rains are thickly populated cities,

internal combustion engines (used by
population) on roads emit pollutants like CO,
CO2; while large no. of industries around them
emit pollutants like CO2, CO, SO2, NO in the
atmosphere, which are absorbed by moisture,
present in air, forming various acids.
The Effects of Acid Rain
Acid rain has a significant effect on ecosystems around the world.

1. Acid rain is responsible for polluting lakes and other water systems. As a lake
becomes more acidic, fish and water populations are the first to suffer. Many types
of small organisms that form the basis of the lake's food chain are also affected. As
fish stocks decrease, so do populations of other water birds that feed on them.
2. Acid rain is also responsible for the destruction of many trees and the forest in
which they reside. The acid also reacts with many nutrients the trees need, such as
calcium, magnesium and potassium, which in turn takes away the food supply for
the tree.
3. Lowering the pH of rain-water changes the rate of metabolism of organism
4. Causes irritation to eyes and mucus membrane
5. Causes damage to buildings, rock, causing faster weathering of these
6. Dissolve salts, and metal like Al, which passes into the lake, where they cause toxic
effects to aquatic life
7. Monuments made of Calcium Carbonate (limestone and marble) will react with acid
rain to form Gypsum
8. Increases the oxidation rate of metals such as copper and bronze
Ozone layer depletion
O3, an allotrope of oxygen is produced in the upper layer about 20 km
above the earths surface, in the atmosphere from oxygen gas by the
absorption of ultraviolet Light

3 O2 2O3
Ozone is quite destructive to fabrics, rubber goods, crops etc. However
ozone checks the entry of UV light from sunlight, otherwise sunlight could
destroy many of the organic materials necessary for life.

Importance of ozone layer

It absorbs most harmful UV light from the sun. These UV light if comes to
the earth damage the plants, cause diseases like skin cancer in animal and
human, ultimately cause the gradual destruction of life on the earth.
Cause of depletion of ozone layer
Chlorofluro carbons (CFCs ) are the exhausts of supersonic aircraft and jumbo jets flying
in the upper atmosphere. These got accumulated at high altitude and undergo
decomposition, under the influence of UV radiation. Main decomposition product is
chlorine. Each atom of chlorine released react with more than 105 molecules of ozone
converting ozone into oxygen. Gradual depletion of ozone layer takes place and the
effective capacity of ozone layer to stop UV radiation from entering the environment

Typical reactions are

CFCl3(g) CFCl2(g) + Cl2(g) ; CF2Cl2(g) CF2Cl + Cl(g)
O3(g) O2(g)+ O(g)
Cl (g) + O3(g) ClO (g)+ O2(g)
O(g) + ClO (g) Cl (g) + O2(g)
Cl (g) + O3(g) ClO (g)+ O2(g)

Also emission of nitric oxide by high flying supersonic aircraft is responsible for ozone
NO (g) + ClO (g) Cl (g) + NO2(g)
Cl (g) + O3(g) ClO (g)+ O2(g)
How ozone is being reduced
Ultraviolet light splits O2 molecules into atoms. The atoms are extremely
reactive free radicals.
O2 + UV light 2 O
The free radicals react with oxygen molecules to produce ozone
O2 (g) + O(g) O3 (g)

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) or freons

Used as a propellant in spray cans, in old refrigerators and air conditioners, in
fire extinguishers and as a solvent
When CFCs reach unfiltered UV rays, the weakest bond, the C-Cl bond, breaks
and creates a very reactive chlorine atom. They catalyze the reaction that
converts ozone to diatomic oxygen
CCl2F2 + UV light CClF2 + Cl
The chlorine free radical reacts with ozone
Cl + O3 ClO + O2
The newly formed ClO free radical can react with O
ClO + O O2 + Cl
The Effects of Ozone layer depletion
With the depletion of atmospheric ozone layer, the extent of UV
radiation over the earths atmosphere increases. UV rays are
harmful for humans life.

1. They cause skin cancer,

2. Swelling of skin
3. Sunburns
4. Burning sensation
5. Skin aging
6. Leukamia
7. Lung cancer
8. Dizziness
9. And may even lead to death
Why Ozone layer depletion mainly occurs over Antarctica

In Antarctica the condition are quite different. During winter

season, polar stratosphere clouds, a special type of clouds are
formed over Antarctica. These clouds play an important role
in ozone depletion. On the surface of polar stratosphere clouds
ClONO2 is formed which undergoes two important
transformations. It gets hydrolysed

ClONO2 + H2O HOCl + HNO3

ClONO2 + HCl Cl2 + HNO3
In the above two reaction hypochlorous acid and molecular
Chlorine are formed which under mild condition are converted
into reactive Chlorine atoms, a reactive species to initiate
ozone depletion.
Green house effect
When greenhouse gases in the atmosphere trap energy from the
sun, this causes the Earths temperature to increase. This increase in
temperature is known as the greenhouse effect. CO2 gas in the
atmosphere perform the major role of heating up the atmosphere,
due to trapping up of infrared rays from the sun. the sunrays consist of
UV, IR, and visible radiations. The ozone layer absorbs most of the UV
radiation and allows visible and IR radiations to pass through towards
the earth. Since IR rays are of short wave length, they can easily pass
through the CO2 layer in the atmosphere. This IR rays cause heating
effect to the objects on the earth and the atmosphere on the earth. If
large amount of CO2 present in the atmosphere, it causes greater
heating up of the earth atmosphere. Hence the temp. of the earths
atmosphere increases. Every year the world-wide concentration of CO2
is increasing of a rate of 0.75 ppm, and the temperature is rising at a
rate 0.05 C per year, if this continues, the word will go on warming up
more and more. This would ultimately melt glaciers, polar ice caps and
result in flooding of many low line areas.
Gases in the atmosphere

These rays of light hit the
earth and reflect back
towards space in the form
of UV as well as Infrared (IR)
Objects in the greenhouse absorb the light, become warmer and radiate
heat. The radiated heat cannot pass back through the glass. The energy is
trapped inside the greenhouse and the temperature increases. So green
house gases are called so because they keep some heat in the atmosphere to
sustain life as a green house does to sustain life in glass house when it is cold
Other major green house gases are methane, nitrous oxide, CFCs, ozone.
The effect of Global warming on the climate
1. Since ocean acts as reservoir of heat, therefore the sea level will rise
due to expansion of sea water at increased temperature. Bangladesh or
Goa may totally submerged
2. Due to global warming increase in temp. leads to increase in rainfall
but not evenly in all the parts. In the area where less rainfall occurs,
plants will not grow, in the part where heavy rain fall occurs, the
chances of soil erosion becomes prominent and washing away of the
fertile top soil hampers the plant growth
3. An increase in temp. leads to volume expansion. As a result the pH and
the concentration of salt in sea water changes