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BRITISH STANDARD BS EN

12591:2000

Bitumen and bituminous


binders - Specifications
for paving grade
bitumens
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The European Standard EN 12591:1999 has the status of a


British Standard

ICS 91.100.60; 93.080.20

NO COPYING WITHOUT BSI PERMISSION EXCEPT AS P E R M I m D BY COPYRIGHT LAW


BS EN 12591:2000

National foreword
This British Standard is the official Enghsh language version of EN 12591:1999.
British Standard BS 3690-1:1989 is partially superseded and is declared obsolescent.
The UK participation in its preparation was entrusted by Technical Committee
B/510, Road materials, to Subcommittee B/510/19, Bitumen and related products,
which has the responsibility to:

- aid enquirers to understand the text;


- present to the responsible European committee any enquiries on the
interpretation, or proposals for change, and keep the UK interests informed;
- monitor related international and European developments and promulgate
them in the UK.

A list of organizations represented on this subcommittee can be obtained on request


to its secretary.
National annex NA (informative) contains the CEN grades preferred for use in the
UK.
Cross-references
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The British Standards which implement international or European publications


referred to in this document may be found in the BSI Standards Catalogue under the
section entitled InternationalStandards CorrespondenceIndex, or by using the
Findfacility of the BSI Standards Electronic Catalogue.
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity
from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, the EN title page,
pages 2 to 19 and a back cover.
The BSI copyright notice displayed in this document indicates when the document
was last issued.

direction of the Sector Amd.No. Date Comments


Committee for Building and Civil
Engineering, was published under
the authority of the Standards
Committee and comes into effect
on 15 May 2000

0 BSI 052000

ISBN 0 680 34714 1


EUROPEAN STANDARD EN 12591
NORME EUROPEENNE
EUROPAISCHE NORM November 1999

ICS 91.100.50;93.080.20

English version

Bitumen and bituminous binders - Specifications for paving


grade bitumens
Bitumes et liants bitumineux - Spbcifications des bitumes Bitumen und bitumenhaltige Bindemittel - Anforderungen
routiers an Strakenbaubitumen

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 19 September 1999.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CENKENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European
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Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographicalreferences concerning such national
standards may be obtained on application to the Central Secretariat or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation
under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the Central Secretariat has the same status as the official
versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece,
Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITE EUROPEEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPAISCHES KOMITEE FOR NORMUNG

Central secretariat: rue de Stassart, 36 8-1050 Brussels

0 1999 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. EN 12591:1999 E
worldwide for CEN national Members.
Page 2
EN 12591:1999

Foreword

This European Standard has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 19, Petroleum
products, lubricants and related products, the secretariat of which is held by NNI.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an
identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by May 2000, and conflicting national standards shall
be withdrawn at the latest by May 2000.

According to the CENKENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the
following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

In this standard, Annexes A and B are normative and Annexes C and D are informative. An
A-deviation is indicated in Annex ZB.
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EN 12591:1999

1 Scope

This European Standard specifies the properties and relevant test methods for paving grade
bitumens which are suitable for use in road construction and maintenance and which are obtained
by refining processes from petroleum crude oils.

Paving grade bitumens in this European Standard are divided into three groups of grades:

(a) Grades designated by nominal penetration at 25 "C from 20 x 0,l mm to 330 x 0,l mm,
specified by penetration at 25 "C and softening point (Table 1).

(b) Grades designated by nominal penetration at 25 "C from 250 x 0,l mm to 900 x 0,l mm,
specified by penetration at 15 "C and dynamic viscosity at 60 "C (Table 2).

(c) Grades designated and specified by kinematic viscosity at 60 "C for soft bitumens (Table 3).

NOTE For the purposes of this European Standard, the term "%(m/m)" is used to represent the mass fraction.

2 Normative references
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This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other
publications. These normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text and the
publications are listed hereafter. For dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of
any of these publications apply to this European Standard only when incorporated in it by
amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the publication referred to
applies.

EN 58, Sampling bituminous binders.

EN 1426, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of needle penetration.

EN 1427, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of softening point - Ring and Ball
method.

EN 12592, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of solubility.

EN 12593, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the Fraass breaking point.

EN 12594, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Preparation of test samples.

EN 12595, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of kinematic viscosity.

EN 12596, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of dynamic viscosity by vacuum


capillary.

EN 12606-1, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the paraffin wax content - Part 7:
DIN method.

EN 12606-2, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the paraffin wax content - Part 2:
AFNOR method.

EN 12607-1, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the resistance to hardening under
influence of heat and air - Part 7: RTFOT method.

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EN 12591:1999

EN 12607-2, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the resistance to hardening under
influence of heat and air - Part 2: TFOT method.

EN 12607-3, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Determination of the resistance to hardening under
influence of heat and air - Part 3: RFT method.

EN 22592, Petroleum products - Determination of flash and fire points - Cleveland open cup method
(IS0 2592:1973).

EN 22719, Petroleum products and lubricants - Determination of flash point - Pensky-Martens


closed cup method (IS0 2719:1988).

EN IS0 3838, Crude petroleum and liquid or solid petroleum products - Determination of density or
relative density - Capillary stoppered pyknometer and graduated bicapillary pyknometer methods
(IS0 3838 :1983).

EN IS0 4259, Petroleurn products - Determination and application of precision data in relation to
methods of test (IS0 4259:1992/Cor 1:1993).

3 Sampling
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Samples of bulk products shall be taken as described in EN 58. Any additional national
requirements for sampling shall be set out in detail or shall be referred to in a national annex to this
Standard.

Test samples shall be taken from the bulk samples, and prepared for testing, as described in
EN 12594.

4 Properties and test methods

4.1 Paving grades from 20 x 0,l mm to 330 x 0,l mm penetration

NOTE The specifications are separated in two parts:

1. Properties and related test methods;


2. Special national conditions and related test methods.

4.1.1 Properties

4.1.1.1 General

Properties and related test methods are given in Table 1. When tested by the methods given in
Table 1, the various paving grades shall comply with the limits specified in that table.

Special considerations apply to two of the properties given in Table 1, see 4.1 .I
.2 and 4.1 .I
.3.

4.1.1.2 Resistance to hardening

The rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) (EN 12607-1) and the rotating flask test (RFT) (EN 12607-3)
are considered to be equivalent methods. However, for referee purposes, the RTFOT shall be used.

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EN 12591:1999

4.1.1.3 Flash point

Flash point shall be determined by the Cleveland open cup method (EN 22592) for normal
specification purposes.

NOTE The Pensky-Martensclosed cup method (see EN 22719) can be used to investigate possible contamination but is
likely to give lower values.

4.1.2 Special national conditions

4.1.2.1 General

Special national conditions are stated in Annex A, clause A.l. Each country nominated the
properties appropriate to that country. Any such properties nominated by a country are obligatory in
that country.

The properties and related test methods, given in Table A.1, provide for different climatic, traffic and
other conditions across Europe.

Special considerations apply to two of the properties given in Table A.1, see 4.1.2.2 and 4.1.2.3.
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4.1.2.2 Paraffin wax content

Where this property is adopted, both test methods (see EN 12606-1 and EN 12606-2) and
corresponding limits are specified as equal alternatives, as given in Table A.1, and the supplier on
request shall determine the value in accordance with one of alternative methods of his choice.

4.1.2.3 Resistance to hardening: increase in softening point

The three options are separate alternatives, and each country possibly chose only one of them
depending on its climate to assist in controlling rutting deformation and cracking of asphalt mixes.

Options 2 and 3 are provided to permit countries with very hot climates to specify properties which
will assist in controlling rutting deformation of asphalt.

4.2 Paving grades from 250 x 0,l mm to 900 x 0,l mm penetration

NOTE The specifications are separated in two parts:

1. Properties and related test methods;


2. Special national conditions and related test methods.

4.2.1 Properties

4.2.1 .I General

Properties and related test methods are given in Table 2. When tested by the methods given in
Table 2, the various paving grades shall comply with the limits specified in that table.

4.2.1.2 Resistance to hardening

The rolling thin film oven test (RTFOT) (EN 12607-1) and the rotating flask test (RFT) (EN 12607-3)
are considered to be equivalent methods. However, for referee purposes, the RTFOT shall be used.

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EN 12591:1999

4.2.2 Special national conditions

Special national conditions are stated in Annex A, clause A.1. Each country nominated if the
property is appropriate to that country. Where a country states that the property is appropriate to
that country, the property is obligatory in that country.

The property, given in Table A.2, provides for different climatic conditions accross Europe.

When tested by the methods given in Table A.2, the limits given in that table shall apply.

4.3 Special national conditions regarding paving grades from 250 x 0,l mm to 330 x 0,l mm
penetration

This grade is specified in both of the 20 to 330 and 250 to 900 ranges, in 4.1 and 4.2 respectively.
Each member country stated, in Annex A, whether this grade shall be specified according to 4.1 or
4.2.

4.4 Paving grades designated and specified by viscosity at 60 "C

Properties and related test methods are given in Table 3. When tested by the methods given in
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Table 3, the various paving grades shall comply with the limiting requirements specified in that table.

4.5 Density for all paving grades

Density is not specified, but it shall be determined, when necessary, in accordance with
EN IS0 3838.

4.6 Precision and dispute

4.6.1 All of the test methods referred to in this standard include a precision statement. In cases of
dispute, the procedures described in EN I S 0 4259 for resolving the dispute, and interpretation of the
results based on test method precision shall be used.

4.6.2 The test methods referred to in this standard are those to be used in cases of dispute, with the
exception of those described in 4.1 .I
.2.

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Page 10
EN 12591:1999

ANNEX A (normative)

Special national conditions

Special national conditions: national characteristic or practice that cannot be changed even over a
long period, e.g. climatic conditions, electrical earthing conditions. If it affects harmonization, it forms
part of the European Standard or Harmonization document.

For the countries in which the relevant special conditions apply, these provisions are normative, for
other countries, they are informative.

A.l Special national conditions relative to Tables 1 and 2

Special national conditions based on climatic and traffic conditions apply to grades from
20 x 0,l mm to 330 x 0,l mm penetration. These are indicated in Table A.1.

Special national conditions based on climatic and traffic conditions apply to grades from
250 x 0,l mm to 900 x 0,l mm penetration. These are indicated in Table A.2.
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Where a country states that the property is appropriate to that country, this property is obligatory in
that country.

A.2 Choice of the table for the paving grade bitumen with a penetration value of 250 x 0,l mm
to 330 x 0,l mm

The following countries chose the specification from Table 1 (conforming to 4.1) for the grade
250/330: AT, BE, CZ, DK, DE, FR, GB, IT, IE, NL, NO, PT, ES, CH, SE

The following country chose the specification from Table 2 (conforming to 4.2) for the grade
250/330: FI

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EN 12591:1999

ANNEX B (normative)

Calculation of the penetration index

B.l General

This annex specifies the procedure to be used for calculating the penetration index of paving grade
bitumens when required in relation to the specification for resistance to hardening given in Table A . l
for grades between 20 and 330.

B.2 Definition

For the purposes of this annex, the following definition applies:

8.2.1
penetration index
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IP
indication of the thermal susceptibility of a bituminous binder.

8.3 Principle

The penetration index ( I p ) is calculated from the values of penetration at 25 "C, 100 g, 5 s,
determined in accordance with EN 1426, and the softening point, determined in accordance with
EN 1427.

NOTE 1 It is based on the following hypothesis of Pfeiffer and Van Doormael:

a) At the temperature of the softening point, the penetration of a bitumen is 800 x 0,l mm;
b) When the logarithm of penetration is plotted against temperature, a straight line is obtained, the slope A of which is
defined by:

PO-lp) 1
A= X-
(lO+Ip) 50

NOTE 2 A penetration index of zero is attributed to a bitumen with a penetration at 25 "Cof 200 x 0,l mm and a softening
point of 40 "C.

8.4 Determination

Calculate the l p from the following equation:

where:
tRas is the softening point in degrees Celsius;
P is the penetration at 25 "C in 0,l mm.

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BS EN 12591:1999

B.5 Expression of results

Report the penetration index as the value, calculated according to B.4, rounded to the nearest 0,l of
a unit.

B.6 Precision

B.6.1 Repeatability

The difference between two successive test results, obtained by the same operator with the same
apparatus under constant operating conditions on identical test material would, in the long run, in
the normal and correct operation of the test method, exceed 0,3 in only one case in twenty.

B.6.2Reproducibility
The difference between two single and independent results obtained by different operators working
in different laboratories on identical test material would, in the long run, in the normal and correct
operation of the test method, exceed 0,5in only one case in twenty.
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EN 12591:1999

ANNEX C (informative)

Complementary information on selection of grades and tendencies

NOTE This annex gives information on the basis for selection of the grades defined in this European Standard, the status
of certain of the properties and test methods, and proposed development of this European Standard.

C.1 Selection of grades

The general principle adopted was to provide a range of grades suitable for the manufacture of the
asphalts used, and the climatic and traffic conditions encountered, in all the Member States. It is
compulsory for the full specification to be published in all CEN countries. However, it is permitted for
each country to define the most suitable grades for use in that country.

With the exception of the 30/45 and 40/60 grades, all of the grades in the 20/30 to 250/330 range
were defined by harmonizing similar but not identical grades formerly valid in member states. The
30145 and 40160 grades were initially adopted to provide for the special requirements of
Gussasphalt and hot rolled asphalt respectively.
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C.2 Paraffin wax content (EN 12606-1 and EN 12606-2)

It is intended that this compositional requirement will be replaced in due course by functional
properties. To this end, work programmes have been undertaken and the results will be considered
for a future revision of this standard.

C.3 Low temperature properties

It is intended to evaluate alternative techniques to Fraass breaking point (EN 12593) for specifying
low-temperature properties of paving grade bitumens. To this end, work programmes have been
undertaken and the results will be considered for a future revision of this standard.

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BS EN 12591:1999

ANNEX D (informative)

Codes for the representation of names of countries

The codes for the representation of names of countries are presented with the alpha-2 code
conforming to EN I S 0 3166-1.I)

Austria AT
Belgium BE
Czech Republic cz
Denmark DK
Finland FI
France FR
Germany DE
Greece GR
Iceland IS
Ireland IE
Italy IT
Luxembourg LU
Netherlands NL
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Norway NO
Portugal PT
Spain ES
Sweden SE
Switzerland CH
UK GB

EN I S 0 3166-1:I997,Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions - Part 1:
Country codes (IS0 3166-1:1997).

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EN 12591:1999
ANNEX ZB (informative)

A-deviations

A-deviation: National deviation due to regulations, the alteration of which is for the time being
outside the competence of the CENKENELEC member.

This European Standard does not fall under any Directive of the EC.

In the relevant CENlCENELEC countries these A-deviations are valid instead of the provisions of
the European Standard until they have been removed.

Deviation for Sweden [VAG 94 (ROAD 94), General Technical Construction Specifications for
Roads, Chapter 6, Bitumen bound layers, Swedish national Road Administration, Publ.1994: 261.

Table 2
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The value for dynamic viscosity at 60 "C for the grade 330/430 is changed from 12 to 15.

Annex A, A.l

The values for dynamic viscosity, 60 "C minimum, in Pa's, with test method EN 12595, applicable in
Sweden are the following :

Grade I 20130 I 30/45 I 35/50 I 40/60 I 50/70 I 70/100 1 100/150 I 160/220 I 250/330
Dynamicviscosity 1 440 1 260 1 225 1 175 I 200 1 120 1 80 I 43 I 18

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BS EN 12591:1999

Bibliography

EN 1425, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Characterization of perceptible properties.

prEN 12597:1996, Bitumen and bituminous binders - Terminology.


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Page 18
EN 12591:1999

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BS EN 12591:1999

ANNEX NA (informative)

CEN grades preferred for use in the UK

Generally, grades specified in Table 1 of this s.mdard will be the most suitable for use in the climate
of the UK.

Table NA.l compares the CEN grades specified in Table 1 of this standard with the pre-existing
British Standard grades, and denotes those which are the main grades expected to be used, i.e. the
so called preferred grades.

Table NA.l

Grades in BS 3690, denoted Grades in EN 12591 (which are Preferred CEN grades
by mid-penetration, with specified by range of denoted thus
penetration range in brackets penetration) 0

15 (10-20)
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25 (20-30) 20/30
30/45
35 (28-42)
35/50
50 (40-60) 40/60 0
50/70
70 (60-80) I I I

I 160/220 I I
200 (170-230)
250/330
300 (255-345)

Reference should be made to the relevant British Standard for information on the CEN grades of
bitumen suitable for particular applications. For example; BS 594-1 and BS 4987-1, give advice on
the CEN grades of bitumen suitable for the various types of asphalt and macadam, respectively,
specified therein.

OBSI 05-2000
BS EN
12591:2000
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