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Environmental Planning Board Exam 2013

Review Notes
Prepared by David Garcia
As of 2 June 2013
Updated 14 April 2013


Facts, figures, and others.

PD 1308
2 March 1978 (Repealed and Replaced in 1 June 2013)
A Law Regulating the Environmental Planning Profession in the Philippines

Qualifications for Examination

A citizen of the Philippines;
At least twenty-one (21) years of age; and
A holder of any of the following:
Masteral degree in environmental planning, city and regional planning, or town and country planning, or its equivalent acceptable to the Board;
Bachelor's degree in environmental planning, city and regional planning, or town and country planning, or its equivalent, and with two (2) years of
environmental planning experience certified by a registered environmental planner;
Masteral degree in either architecture, civil engineering, economics, public administration or sociology, and with one (1) year of environmental planning
experience certified by registered environmental planner; or
Bachelor's degree in either architecture, civil engineering, economics, public administration, or sociology, and with two (2) yeas of environmental
planning experience certified by a registered environmental planner

Scope of Practice of EnP

The practice of environmental planning, within the meaning and intent of this Decree shall embrace, inter alia, professional services in the form of technical
consultation, plan preparation, and/or implementation involving the following:

a Development of a community, town, city, or region;

b Development of a site for a particular need such as housing, centers for activities concerned with research, education, culture, recreation, or
government, industrial estates, agriculture, and water resources, including creating a spatial arrangements of buildings, utilities and communication routes;

c land use and zoning plans for the management and development preservation, conservation, rehabilitation, and control of the environment; and

d Pre-investment, pre feasibility, and feasibility studies.

Code of Ethics for Environmental Planners

I Foreword and Construction
II Declaration of Principles
III Responsibility to the Profession and Organization
IV Initiative, Discipline and Responsibility
V Responsibility to Co-Professionals
VI Responsibility to Client
VII Responsibility to the Public and to the Country
VIII Penal Provisions
IX Effectivity

The Professional Agrees to Conduct His/Her in Accordance with the Following:

Client Service
Representation of Qualification
Standards of Practice
Fair Competition
Integrity of the Profession
Professional Development
Public Welfare
Release of Information

Roles of a Planner
Policy Advisor

RA 10587
Law Regulating the Environmental Planning Profession in the Philippines and for other Purposes

is a sequence of deliberate purposeful actions design to solve problems systematically, by foreseeing and guiding change through rational decisions,
reconciling public and private aims, and arbitrating between competing social, economic, political and physical forces

allocates scarce resources, particularly land and other resources, in such a manner as to obtain the maximum practicable efficiency and benefit, for
individuals and for society as a whole, while respecting the news of Nature and the requirements of a sustainable future.

deliberate, organized and continuous process of identifying different elements and aspects of the environment, determining their present state and interaction,
projecting them in concert throughout a period of time in the future and formulating and programming a set of actions or interventions to attain desired
results. Planning pays particular attention to the location, form, intensity and effect of human activities on the built and un-built environments, anticipating
change, and managing such change sustainably.


Facts, figures, and others.

Lands of the Philippines

Forest Lands 50% 15.0 M Ha
A&D lands 47% 14.1 M Ha
Unclassified 3% .9 M Ha
Total 30 M Ha/300,000 sq. km.

Land Tenure System in the Philippines

Outline Format

Sovereign Territory of the Philippines Art 1. Constitution

Aerial Domain
Fluvial Domain
Terrestrial Domain
Ancestral Domain
Certificate of Ancestral Land Title
Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title
Free Patent
Judicial confirmation of title
Lands of the Public Domain
Lands available to the development of national wealth
Non-Disposable Lands
Unclassified Lands Fisheries Act, PD 704 (lease)
National Parks
Forest Lands Permit, License, Stewardship, Lease
Mineral Lands Permit, License, Lease
Alienable and Disposable Lands
Unalienable Agricultural Lands
Agricultural lands for disposition
agricultural lands (lease, sales patent, homestead patent, free patent, judicial confirmation
residential lands (lease, sales patent)
commercial and industrial lands (lease, sales patent)
educational and charitable lands (lease, sales patent)
town sites (sales patent)
Lands for Public Purposes (A&D when purpose/use expires)
Lands for Public Use (A&D when purpose/use expires)
Lands of the Private Ownership
unregistered with claim to title not yet confirmed (confirmation of imperfect title by judicial proceedings)
patrimonial lands held by the state in a private capacity
lands owned by private entities

Administrative Divisions of the Philippines

Autonomous Regions
Provinces and Independent Cities (HUC or independent component)

229 Legislative districts for he House of Representatives

* each with at least 250,000 people
13 Judicial regions for the Regional Trial Courts

Region 17
Province 81
Municipality 1494/1
City 143
Barangay 42028

*The only municipality independent of its region is Pateros

17 Regions of the Philippines

National Capital Region NCR

Cordillera Administrative Region CAR
Ilocos Region Region I
Cagayan Valley Region II
Central Luzon Region III
Bicol Region Region V
Western Visayas Region VI
Central Visayas Region VII
Eastern Visayas Region VIII
Zamboanga Peninsula Region IX
Northern Mindanao Region X
Davao Region Region XI
Caraga Region Region XIII
Autonomous Region in ARMM
Muslim Mindanao

*8 regions in Luzon
*3 regions in Visayas
*6 regions in Mindanao

Information Table about Philippine Regions

Region Regional Center Component Local Government Units

Las Pias
National Capital Region Manila Navotas
Quezon City
Region Regional Center Component Local Government Units

Las Pias
National Capital Region Manila Navotas
Quezon City
San Juan

Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) Baguio Benguet
Mountain Province

Ilocos Norte
Ilocos Region (Region 1) San Fernando, La Union Ilocos Sur
La Union

Cagayan Valley (Region II) Tuguegarao
Nueva Vizcaya

Central Luzon (Region III) San Fernando, Pampanga Nueva Ecija

CALABARZON (Region IV-A) Calamba, Laguna

Occidental Mindoro
Oriental Mindoro
MIMAROPA (Region IV-B Calapan
Puerto Princesa

Camarines Norte
Camarines Sur
Bicol Region (Region V) Legazpi

Western Visayas (Region VI) Iloilo City
Iloilo City
Negros Occidental

Cebu City
Central Visayas (Region VII) Cebu City Lapu-Lapu
Camarines Norte
Camarines Sur
Bicol Region (Region V) Legazpi

Western Visayas (Region VI) Iloilo City
Iloilo City
Negros Occidental

Cebu City
Central Visayas (Region VII) Cebu City Lapu-Lapu
Negros Oriental

Eastern Samar
Northern Samar
Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) Tacloban
Southern Leyte

Isabela City
Zamboanga City
Zamboanga Peninsula (Region IX) Pagadian Zamboanga del Norte
Zamboanga del Sur
Zamboanga Sibugay

Cagayan de Oro
Northern Mindanao (Region X) Cagayan de Oro Iligan
Lanao del Norte
Misamis Occidental
Misamis Oriental

Compostela Valley
Davao City
Davao Region (Region XI) Davao City Davao del Norte
Davao de Sur
Davao Oriental

Cotabato City
General Santos
SOCCSKSARGEN (Region XII) Koronadal
South Cotabato
Sultan Kudarat

Agusan del Norte

Agusan del Sur
Caraga Region (Region XIII) Butuan
Dinagat Islands
Surigao del Norte
Surigao del Sur

Basilan (excluding Isabela City)

Lanao del Sur
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Cotabato City Maguindanao


Income Classification
1st 450 M or more
2nd at least 360 M but less than 450 M
3rd at least 270 M but less than 360 M
4th at least 180 M but less than 180 M
5th at least 90 M but less than 180 M
6th below 90 M

*markers: 90 to 450 M
*intervals: 90 M

33 highly-urbanized
5 independent component
105 component

Creation of Cities
at least 100 M income for the last two consecutive years AND
pop of 150,000 or more OR contiguous territory of 100 sqkm,
areas with island/s are exempted

Income classification
1st 400 M or more
2nd 320 M or more but less than 400 M
3rd 240 M or more but less than 320 M
4th 160 M or more but less than 240 M
5th 80 M or more but less than 160 M
6th below 80 M

*markers: 0 to 400M
*intervals: 80 M

income classification
1st 55 M or more
2nd 45-55
3rd 35-45
4th 25-35
5th 15-25
6th less than 15

*markers: 15M to 55 M
*intervals from 15M: 10 M

Requirements for the Creation of LGUs

unit minimum income minimum population minimum area

municipality 2.5 M 25,000 50 sqkm.
city 100 M 150,000 100 sqkm.
highly urbanized city 50/100M 200,000 100 sqkm.
province 20 M 250,000 2,000 sqkm.
5000 (for HUCs)
2000 (for others)

SEE RA 9009
for cities, from 20 M to 100M

Philippine Transport System

Pan-Philippine Highway
Controlled-access highways
Regional Highways
Provincial Highways
Manila Arterial Road System
Secondary City and Municipal Avenues and Roads

ten radial roads in MARS

six circumferential roads in MARS

Road classification based on administration

city and municipal


ATO System
primary international airports
secondary international airports
trunkline airports/major commercial domestic airports
secondary airports/minor commercial domestic airports
feeder airports

international airports
principal airports/domestic airports
class 1 principal airports
class 2 principal airports
community airports

18 Major River Basins

Cagayan De Oro

Urban Place

density of a least 1,000 persons per sqkm or 10 persons per hectare, with grid-iron or analogous settlement design

central districts/municipalities
street pattern, i.e. network of streets in either parallel or right angle orientation;
at least six (6) establishments (commercial, manufacturing, recreational and/or personal services); and
at least three of the following:
a town hall, church or chapel with religious services at least once a week;
a public plaza, park or cemetery;
a market place or building where trading actives are carried on at least once a week;
a public building like school, hospital, puericulture or health center and library

having at least 1,000 inhabitants which meet the conditions set forth above, and where the occupation of the inhabitants is predominantly non-fishing.


Types of Laws

types of law description

Laws passed by Congress and signed by the President Republic Acts, etc.
Normally bridging the gaps between need for a law and the absence of a law
Executive Order
passed by Congress
Presidential order detailing the implementation of the law where the
Administrative Order authority is specifically given to the President such as the issuance of the
Order by the President as authorized by existing law e.g. to declare a
Presidential Proclamation particular project environmentally critical or types of environmentally-
constrained areas
DAO - known as "delegated law" - Line Department secretary's order
detailing implementation of a particular law, as comprehensive such as the
Department Administrative Order implementing rules and regulations. Normally DAO is subjected to extensive
public consultation, internal legal and administrative reviews then published
in Official Gazette before it has the force of law.
issued by the secretary to inform, to clarify ambiguities in IRR or DAO.
Bureau Directors may also issue memorandum circulars to provide details
Memorandum Circular guidelines, procedures, formats of application letters, approvals,
recommendations, to specify fines and penalties, etc. upon order of the
secretary or if the DAO specifically authorizes the Bureau Director to do so.
Normally issued for internal guidance to set office procedures to improve
Office Memorandum or Circular efficiency. In most cases this is not considered part of the law but sometimes
it is cited as part of the procedural review of the approval process.
Provincial, Municipal, City, Barangay Ordinances should not contravene other legislation and usurp other authorities.

Bodies of Law
Philippine Constitution
Republic Acts
National Land Use Code (but non-exitent)
National Plans
Regional Plans
LGU Plans
Four Great Powers of the State with Respect to Land
Police Power
Power of Taxation
Eminent Domain

List of Republic Acts


A Law Regulating the Environmental Planning Profession in the Philippines and for Other
10587 2013

Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act 10354 2012

National DRRM Act 10121 2010

Free Patent Act 10023 2010

National Cultural Heritage Act 10066 2009

Climate Change Act 9729 2009

Tourism Act 9593 2009

Extending CARP 9700 2009

Renewable Energy Act 9513 2008

Magna Carta for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises 9501 2008

Oil Pollution Compensation Act 9483 2007

Amending Bases Conversion and Development Act 9400 2007

Biofuels Act 9367 2006

Clean Water Act 9275 2004

Chainsaw Act 9175 2002

Philippine Plant Variety Protection Act 9168 2002

Government Procurement Reform Act 9184 2002

National Caves and Cave Resources Management Protection Act 9072 2001

Ecological Solid Waste Management 9003 2001

Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act 9147 2001

Amending Special Economic Zone Act 8748 1999

Fisheries Code 8550 1999

Clean Air Act 8749 1999

National Internal Revenue Code 8424 1997

Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act 8435 1997

National Internal Revenue Code 9224 1997

Philippine Mining Act 7942 1995

Special Economic Zone Act 7916 1994

Amending BOT Law 7718 1994

National Internal Revenue Code 8424 1997

Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act 8435 1997

National Internal Revenue Code 9224 1997

Philippine Mining Act 7942 1995

Special Economic Zone Act 7916 1994

Amending BOT Law 7718 1994

National Integrated Protected Areas System Act 7586 1992

Urban Development and Housing Act 7279 1992

Bases Conversion and Development Act 7227 1992

Department of Energy Act 7638 1992

Law Creating the National Commission on Culture and the Arts 7356 1992

Local Government Code 7160 1991

People's Small-Scale Mining Act 7076 1991

Foreign Investments Act 7042 1991

Toxic Substances and Hazardous Nuclear Waste Control Act 6969 1990

Build-Operate-Transfer Law 6957 1990

Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law 6657 1988

National Building Code 6541 1972

Creating MWSS and Dissolving NAWASA 6234 1971

Atomic Energy Regulatory and Liability Act 5207 1968

Condominium Act 4726 1966

National Air and Water Pollution Control Commission 3931 1964

Prohibition Against Cutting of Trees in Public Roads, Plazas, Etc. 3571 1963

Petroleum Act 387 1949

Civil Code of the Philippines 386 1949

List of Presidential Decrees


Establishing Small-Scale Mining as a New Dimension in Mineral Development 1899 1984

Amendments to PD 705 1775 1981

ECPs and ECAs 2146 1981

Amending PD 1219 permit to gather coral for scienti\ic and educational purposes 1698 1980

Environmental Impact Statement System 1586 1978

Amendments to PD 705 1559 1978

Exploration and Development of Geothermal Resources 1442 1978

Property Registration Decree 1529 1978

Creating the Department of Human Settlements and the Human Settlement Development
1396 1978
ECPs and ECAs 2146 1981

Amending PD 1219 permit to gather coral for scienti\ic and educational purposes 1698 1980

Environmental Impact Statement System 1586 1978

Amendments to PD 705 1559 1978

Exploration and Development of Geothermal Resources 1442 1978

Property Registration Decree 1529 1978

Creating the Department of Human Settlements and the Human Settlement Development
1396 1978

Philippine Environmental Policy 1151 1977

Philippine Environmental Code 1152 1977

National Environment Protection Council 1121 1977

Coral Resources Development and Conservation Decree 1219 1977

Rehabilitation of areas affected by resource users (loggers, miners) and constructors of

1198 1977

Water Code (old) 1067 1976

Tree Planting and Urban Forestry 953 1976

Pollution Control Law 984 1976

Revision of PD 600 979 1976

Philippine Fish Marketing Authority 977 1976

Amends PD 704 provisions on commercial boat license and trawl \ishing 1015 1976

Subdivision and Real Estate Buyer's Protective Decree 957 1976

Sanitation Code 856 1975

Anti-Littering 825 1975

Revised Forestry Code 705 1975

Fisheries Code (old) 704 1975

Preventin and Control of Marine Pollution 600 1974

Creating the Human Settlements and Planning Commission 406 1974

Philippine National Oil Company 334 1973

Creating the Task Force on Human Settlements 419 1973

Integrated Reorganization Plan 1 1972

A Law Regulating the Environmental Planning Profession in the Philippines 1308 1978

List of Other National Policies


Institutionalizing and Implementing Reforms in the Philippine Mining Sector EO 79 2012

Rationalizing Implementation of PD 1586 (EIS System) AO 42 2002

Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework-Air Quality Control Action Plan DENR DAO 200-82 2000

Establishing the Guidelines for Ecotourism Development in the Philippines EO 111 1999

Institutionalizing and Implementing Reforms in the Philippine Mining Sector EO 79 2012

Rationalizing Implementation of PD 1586 (EIS System) AO 42 2002

Integrated Air Quality Improvement Framework-Air Quality Control Action Plan DENR DAO 200-82 2000

Establishing the Guidelines for Ecotourism Development in the Philippines EO 111 1999

Municipal Solide Waste Sanitary Land\ill Site Selection Criteria DENR DAO 98-50 1998

Pollution Adjudication Board EO 102 1987

Omnibus Investments Code EO 226 1987

Authorizing MHS to Enforce Standards for Economic and Social Housing BP 220 1982

Reorganizing the HSRC EO 648 1981

Interagency Committee on Environment LOI 422 1976

Public Land Act CA 141 1936

Cadastral Act Act 2259 1913

Land Registration Act Act 496 1902

Amendments to PD 705 Batas Pambansa 701

EO 277

Subic Watershed Forest Reserve Law Proclamation 926

National Power Corporation to Develop Hydroelectric Facilities CA 120

Energy Conservation Batas Pambansa 33

IRR of the Philippine EIS System DENR DAO 2003-30

International Policies


Basel Convention
UN Millenium Declaration
Johannesburg Plan of Implemetation
Convention on Biodiversity
Montreal Protocol
Conventions in Earth Summit
Man and Biosphere Program
Ramsar Convention
Rio Declaration Rio De Janeiro, Brazil
United Nations Convention to
Combat Deserti\ication in Those
UNCCD Countries Experiencing Serious Paris, France 1994
Drought and/or Deserti\ication,
Particularly in Africa
Kyoto Protocol
Hyogo Framework for Action Kobe, Hyogo, Japan 2005-2015

Sec. 2, Article XII, 1987 Philippine Constitution

Regalian Doctrine
All lands of the public domain, waters, mineral, coal, petroleum, and other mineral oils, all forces of potential energy, fisheries, forests or timber, wildlife,
flora and fauna, and other natural resources are owned by the State. With the exception of agricultural lands, all other natural resources shall not be alienated.
The exploration, development, and utilization of natural resources shall be under the full control and supervision of the state.
Sec 3.
Lands of the public domain are classified into agricultural, forest or timber, mineral lands, and national parks. Agricultural lands of the public domain may be
further classified by law according to the uses to which they may be devoted. Alienable land of the public domain shall be limited to agricultural lands.

Sec 4.
The Congress shall as soon as possible, determine by law the specific limits of forest lands and national parks, marking clearly their boundaries on the
ground. Thereafter, such forest lands and national parks shall be conserved and may not be increased no diminished except by law.

Requisites of a Land Use Policy


Joint Memorandum Circula (JMC) No. 001 series of 2007


defines the individual and joint roles and functions of the Oversight Agencies in relation to planning, investment programming, revenue administration,
budgeting, and expenditure management. This is to facilitate the crafting by LGUs of a plan-based budget, using tools and techniques and adopting strategies
and approaches that harness multi-stakeholder participation; establish strengthen vertical and horizontal linkages among the network of plans, investment
programs and budgets at all levels of the administrative hierarchy; and capitalize on the Local Government Code-mandated structure - the Local
Development Council (LDC) as the principal vehicle for planning and investment programming activities.

Among the significant features of the JMC involves the following:

1. providing opportunities for interface between national
government agencies (NGAs) and local government units
(LGUs), and
2. Strengthening the complementation between provinces and
their component cities

Being at the apex of the 3-tier local government system, the province could be the most effective channel for effecting the integration of plans and planning
processes at the local level.

RA 7160, Sec. 2 [a]

Under the current devolution policy, LGUs are no longer to be treated as subordinates to, but as partners of the national government in the attainment of
national goals.

Synchronized Local Planning and Budgeting Calendar

omnibus invesments code
foreign investments act
RA 7916, Ecozones
RA 9501

Executive Order No. 648

Section V, Article II

The HLURB is
(a) to promulgate zoning and other land use control standards and guidelines which shall govern land use plans and zoning ordinances of local governments

RA 7586


NIPAS category particulars

strict nature reserve

forest reservation essentially of natural wilderness character which has

been withdrawn from settlement, occupancy or any form of exploitation
except in conformity with an approved management plan and set aside as
national park
such to conserve the area or preserve the scenery, the natural and historic
objects, the wild animals and plants therein and to provide enjoyment of
these features in such areas

a relatively large area not materially altered by human activity where

extractive uses are not allowed and maintained to protect outstanding natural
natural park
and scenic areas of national or international significance for scientific,
educational, and recreational use.

a relatively small area focused on protection of small features to protect or

natural monument preserve nationally significant natural features on account of their special
interest or unique characteristics

comprises an area which assures the natural conditions necessary to protect

nationally significant species, group of species, biotic communities, or
wildlife sanctuary
physical features of the environment where these may require specific
human manipulation for their perpetuation.

areas of national significance which are characterized by the harmonious

interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public
protected landscape and seascape
enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and
economic activity of these areas.

an extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited area normally with

difficult access designated as such to protect natural resources of the area
resource reserve for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect
natural monument preserve nationally significant natural features on account of their special
interest or unique characteristics

comprises an area which assures the natural conditions necessary to protect

nationally significant species, group of species, biotic communities, or
wildlife sanctuary
physical features of the environment where these may require specific
human manipulation for their perpetuation.

areas of national significance which are characterized by the harmonious

interaction of man and land while providing opportunities for public
protected landscape and seascape
enjoyment through recreation and tourism within the normal lifestyle and
economic activity of these areas.

an extensive and relatively isolated and uninhabited area normally with

difficult access designated as such to protect natural resources of the area
resource reserve for future use and prevent or contain development activities that could affect
the resource pending the establishment of objectives which are based upon
appropriate knowledge and planning.

an area set aside to allow the way of life of societies living in harmony with
natural biotic area
the environment to adapt to modern technology at their pace.

an area possessing some outstanding ecosystem, features and/or species

of flora and fauna of national scientific importance maintained to protect
nature and maintain processes in an undisturbed state in order to have
strict nature reserve
ecologically representative examples of the natural environment available
for scientific study, environmental monitoring, education, and for the
maintenance of genetic resources in a dynamic and evolutionary state.

for each protected area, there shall be established peripheral buffer zones
when necessary, in the same manner as Congress establishes the protected
buffer zones
area, to protect the same from activities that will directly and indirectly harm

Ancestral lands and customary rights and interests arising shall be accorded
due recognition. The DENR shall prescribe rules and regulations to govern
ancestral lands and rights over them ancestral lands within protected areas; provided that the DENR shall have
no peer to evict indigenous communities from their present occupancy
nor resettle them to another area without their consent.

other categories established by law, conventions, or international agreements

which the Philippine government agency is a signatory

PD 705
Revised Forestry Code

18% slope and above don't classify as A%D

50% slope and above don't classify as grazing land

other areas not to be A&D

areas less than 250 hectares which are far from or not contiguous with, any certified A&D land

isolated patches of forest of at least 5 hectares with rocky terrain, or which protect a spring for communal use

areas which have already been reforested

areas within forest concessions which are timbered or have good residual stocking to support an existing, or approved to be established, wood processing

ridge tops and plateaus regardless of size found within, or surrounded wholly or partly by, forest lands where headwaters emanate

appropriately located road rights-of-way

twenty meter strips of land along the edge of the normal high waterline of rivers and streams with channels of a least 5 meters wide.

strips of mangrove or swamplands at least 20 meters wide, along shorelines facing ocean, lakes and other bodies of water, and strips of land at least 20
meters wide facing lakes

areas needed for other purposes, such as national parks, national historical sites, game refuges and wildlife sanctuaries, forest station sties, and others of
public interest

areas previously proclaimed by the President as forest reserve, national parks, game refuge, bird sanctuaries, national shrines, national historic sites.

PD 1067
The Water Code

banks and shores of

seas, lakes, rivers, streams
easement of
3 meters urban areas
20 meters agricultural areas
40 meters forest areas

RA 9003
Ecological Solid Waste Management of 2000

Ecological solid waste management

the systematic administration of activities which provide for segregation at source, segregated transportation, storage, transfer, processing, treatment, and
disposal of solid ease and all other waste management activities which do not harm the environment

materials recovery facility

includes a solid waste transfer station or sort in station, drop-off center, a composting facility, and a recycling facility

open dump
a disposal area wherein the solid wastes are indiscriminately thrown or dispose of without due planning and consideration for environmental and health

sanitary landfill
a waste disposal site designated, constructed, operated, and maintained in an manner that exerts engineering control over significant potential environmental
impacts arising from the development and operation of the facility

role of LGUS in solid waste management

segregation and collection of solid waste shall be conducted at the barangay level specifically for biodegradable, compostable, and reusable wastes.
Provided, that the collection of non-recyclable materials and special wastes shall be the responsibility of the municipality or city.

components of the local government solid waste management plan

source reduction

segregation of wastes shall be conducted at the source

PD 856
Sanitation Code

Washing clothes or bathing within a radius of 25 meters from any well or other source of drinking water is prohibited
No artesian, deep or shallow well shall be constructed within 25 meters from any source of pollution
No radioactive sources or materials shall be stored within a radius of 25 meters from any well or source of drinking water unless the radioactive source is
adequately and safely enclosed by proper shielding

septic tank
generally rectangular in shape
built of concrete
not constructed under any building and within 25 meters from any source of water supply

burial ground requirements

at least 25 meters distant from any dwelling house and no house shall be constructed within the same distance from any burial ground
no burial ground shall be located within 50 meters from either side of a river or within 50 meters from any source of water supply
graves where remains are buried shall be at least one and a half meters deep and filled well and firmly

RA 7279
Urban Development and Housing Act of 1972

Blighted lands
areas where the structures are dilapidated, obsolete and unsanitary, tending to depreciate the value of the land and prevent normal development and use of
the area

Idle lands
non-agricultural lands in urban and urbanizable areas on which no improvements have been made by the owner

land assembly or consolidation

the acquisition of lots of varying ownership through purchase or expropriation for the purpose of planned and rational development and socialized housing
programs without individual property boundary restrictions.

land banking
the acquisition of land at values based on existing use in advance of actual need to promote planned development and socialized housing programs

land swapping
the process of land acquisition by exchanging land for another piece of land of equal value, or for shares of stock in a government or quasi-government
corporations hose book value is of equal value to the land being exchanged, for the purpose of planned and rational development and provision for
socialized housing where land values are determined based on land classification, market value and assessed value taken from existing tax declarations

on-site developent
the process of upgrading and rehabilitation of blighted slum urban areas with a view of minimizing displacement of dwellers in said areas

professional squatters
individuals or groups who occupy lands without the express consent of the landowner and who have sufficient income for legitimate housing

resettlement areas
areas identified by the appropriate national agency or by the LGU with respect to areas within its jurisdiction, which shall be used for the relocation of the
underprivileged and homeless citizens.
small property owners
those whose real property consists of residential lands not exceeding 300 sqm in highly urbanized cities and 800 sqm in other urban areas

socialized housing
housing programs and projects covering houses and lots or homelots only undertaken by the government or the private sector for the underprivileged and
homeless citizens

all types of buildings and residential units, walls, fences, structures of all kinds of a fixed character or which adhered to the soil.

Modes of Land Acquisition (see Dean Santiago's work)

community mortgage
land swapping
land assembly or consolidation
land banking
donation to the government
joint-venture agreement
negotiated purchase
Shall be resorted to, parcels of land owned by small property owners shall be exempted for
purposes of this Act.

All idle lands in urban and urbanizable areas shall be expropriated and shall form part of the public domain.

Developers of proposed subdivision projects are required to develop area for socialized housing equivalent to 20% of total subdivision area

Basic services
potable water
power, electricity, and an adequate power distribution system
sewerage facilities and an efficient and adequate solid waste disposal system
access to primary roads and transportation facilities

Eviction and Demolotion

railroad tracks
garbage dumps
government infrastructure projects
court order for eviction and demolition

RA 7916
Special Economic Zone Act of 1995

zone particulars

selected areas with highly developed or which have the potential to be

developed into agroindustrial, industrial, tourist/recreational,
commercial, banking, investment and financial centers. An ECOZONE
Special Economic Zones
may contain any or all of the following: Industrial Estates (IEs), Export
Processing Zones (EPZs), Free Trade Zones, and Tourist/Recreational

A tract of land subdivided and developed according to a comprehensive

plan under a unified continuous management and with provisions for basic
Industrial Estate infrastructure and utilities, with or without pre-built standard factory
buildings and community facilities for the use of the community of

a specialized industrial estate located physically and/or administratively

outside customs territory, predominantly oriented to export production.
Export Processing Zone Enterprises located in export processing zones are allowed to import capital
equipment and raw materials free from duties, taxes, and other import

an isolated policed area adjacent to a port of entry (as a seaport) and/or

airport where imported goods may be unloaded for immediate
Free Trade Zone
transshipment or stored, repacked, sorted, mixed, or otherwise manipulated
without being subject to import duties

PD 1586
Establishing an Environmental Impact Statement System including other Environmental Management Related Measures and For Other Purposes
DAO 30, Series of 2001
Environmental Impact Statement System

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

process that involves evaluating and predicting the likely impacts of a project (including cumulative impacts) on the environment during construction,
commissioning, operation and abandonment. It also includes designing appropriate preventive, mitigating and enhancement measures addressing these
consequences to protect the environment and the community's welfare.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)

document, prepared and submitted by the project proponent and/or EIA Consultant that serves as an application for an ECC. It is a comprehensive study of
the significant impacts of a project on the environment. It includes an Environmental Management Plan/Program that the proponent will fund and implement
to protect the environment.

Environmental Compliance Certificate (ECC)

document issued by the DENR/EMB after a positive review of an ECC application, certifying that based on the representations of the proponent, the
proposed project or undertaking will not cause significant negative environmental impact. The ECC also certifies that the proponent has complied with all the
requirements of the EIS System and has committed to implement its approved Environmental Management Plan

Certificate of Non-Coverage (CNC)

a certification issued by the EMB certifying that, based on the submitted project description, the project is not covered by the EIS System and is not required
to secure an ECC.

Initial Environmental Examination (IEE) Report

document similar to an EIS, but with reduced details and depth of assessment and discussion.

Environmentally Critical Area (ECA)

area delineated as environmentally sensitive such that significant environmental impacts are expected if certain types of proposed projects or programs are
located, developed or implemented in it.

Environmentally Critical Project (ECP)

project or program that has high potential for significant negative environmental impact

Project Description
document, which may also be a chapter in an EIS, that describes the nature, configuration, use of raw materials and natural resources, production system,
waste or pollution generation and control and the activities of a proposed project. It includes a description of the use of human resources as well as activity
timelines, during the pre-construction, construction, operation and abandonment phases

Co-located projects/undertakings
projects, or series of similar projects or a project subdivided to several phases and/or stages by the same proponent, located in contiguous areas.

Projects Classified According to Scope

category description

Environmentally Critical Projects (ECPs)

Category A
with significant potential to cause negative environmental impacts

Projects that are not categorized as ECPs, but which may cause negative
Category B environmental impacts because they are located in Environmentally Critical
Areas (ECAs)

Projects intended to directly enhance environmental quality or address

Category C
existing environmental problems not falling under Category A or B

Category D Projects unlikely to cause adverse environmental impacts

Proponents of co-located or single projects that fall under Category A and B are required to secure ECC.
Projects under Category C are required to submit PD
Projects classified under Category D may secure a CNC. The EMB-DENR, however, may require such projects or undertakings to provide additional
environmental safeguards as it may deem necessary.

DAO 37, series of 1996

Environmental Impact Statement System

Heavy Industries
Non-ferrous industries
Iron and steel mills
Petroleum and petrochemical industries, including oil and gas
Smelting plants
Resource-extractive industries
major mining and quarrying project
forestry projects
major wood processing projects
introduction of fauna (exotic animals) in public/private forests
forest occupancy
extraction of mangrove products
fishery projects
Infrastructure projects
major dams
major power plants (fossil-fueled, nuclear fueled, hydroelectric, or geothermal)
major reclamation projects
major roads and bridges
Golf-course projects


areas declared by law as national parks, watershed reserves, wildlife preserves, and sanctuaries

aesthetic potential tourist spots

habitat for any endangered or threatened species of indigenous Philippine wildlife (flora and fauna)

unique historic archaeological or scientific interest

traditionally occupied by cultural communities or tribes (indigenous cultural communities)

frequently visited and/or hard-hit by natural calamities (geologic hazards, floods, typhoons, volcanic activity, etc.)

critical slopes

prime agricultural lands

recharge areas of aquifers

water bodies characterized by one or any combination of the following conditions

tapped for domestic purposes
within the controlled and/or protected areas declared by appropriate authorities
which support wildlife and fishery activities

mangrove areas
with primary pristine and dense young growth
adjoining mouth of major river systems
near or adjacent to traditional productive fry or fishing grounds
natural buffers against shore erosion, strong winds and storm floods
on which people are dependent for their livelihood

coral reefs
with fifty percent (50%) and above live coralline cover
spawning and nursery grounds for fish
natural breakwater of coastlines


ECPs or projects within ECAs which were operational prior to 1982 except in cases where their operations are expanded in terms of daily production
capacity or area, or the process is modified;
Countryside business and barangay entities (CBBEs) covered by RA 6810, otherwise known as the Magna Carta for Countryside and Barangay Business
Enterprises (Kalakalan 20), and registered with the Department of Trade and Industry between 1991 to 1994, inclusive. Provided that, unless otherwise
amended by law, non-coverage of such CBBEs shall only subsist for a five (5)- year period beginning from its date of registration.

RA 8371
Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997

Ancestral Domains
all areas belonging to Indigenous Cultural Communties/Indigenous Peoples (ICCs/IPs) comprising lands, inland waters, coastal areas, and natural resources
therein, held under a claim of ownership, occupied or possessed by ICCs/IPs, themselves or through their ancestors, communally or individually since time

Ancestral Lands
land occupied possessed and utilized by individuals, families and clans who are members of the ICCs/IPs since time immemorial

Time immemorial
a period of time when as far back as memory can go

Concept of Ancestral Lands/Domain

Ancestral lands/domains shall include such concepts of territories which cover not only the physical environment but the total environment including the
spiritual and cultural bonds to the area which the ICCs/IPs possess, occupy and use and to which they have claims of ownership.

Indigenous concept of ownership

Indigenous concept of ownership sustains the view that ancestral domains and all resources found therein shall serve as the material bases of their cultural
integrity. The indigenous concept of ownership generally holds that ancestral domains are the ICCs/IPs private but community property which belongs to all
generations and therefore cannot be sold, disposed or destroyed.

Rights to ancestral domains

develop lands and natural resources
stay in the territories
in case of displacement
regulate entry of migrants
safe and clean air and water
claim parts of reservations
resolve conflict
transfer land/property

Responsibilities of ICCs/IPs to their ancestral domains

maintain ecological balance
restore denuded areas
observe laws

Recognition of ancestral domain rights

Certificate of Ancestral Domain Title (CADT)

right to participate in decision making
right to determine and decide priorities for development

RA 9593
Tourism Act OF 2009

The Philippine Tourism Authority is reorganized as the Tourism Infrastructure and Enterprise Zone Authority (TIEZA).

The Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation is reorganized as the Tourism Promotions Board (TPB).

Attached agencies and corporations

Duty Free Philippines Corporatin
Intramuros Administration
National Parks Development Committee
Nayong Pilipino Foundation
Philippine Retirement Authority
Philippine Commission on Sports Scuba Diving

Tourism Enterprise Zones, NIPAS with ecotourism potential, in coordination with DENR

Tourism Infrastructure Program


tourism development plans

Every province, city or municipality in which tourism is a significant industry shall had a permanent position for a tourism officer.

Tourism Enterprise Zones

Any geographic area with the following characteristics may be designated as TEZs:

The area is capable of being defined into one contiguous territory

It has historical and cultural significance, environmental beauty, or existing or potential integrated leisure facilities within its bounds or within reasonable
distances from it.
It has or it may have strategic access through transportation infrastructure, and reasonable connection with utilities infrastructure systems
It is sufficient in size, such that it may be further utilized for bringing in new investments in tourism establishments and services; and
It is in a strategic location such as to catalyze the socio-economic development of neighboring communities.

Lands identified as part of a TEZ shall qualify for exemption from the coverage of RA 7279 (UDHA) and RA 6657 (CARL) subject to rules and regulations
to be crafted by the TIEZA, HUDCC and DAR

TEZ Operator, which shall administer the TEZ and supervise its activities.

RA 9184
Government Procurement Reform Act

Bid and Award Procedures

Preparation of Project Procurement Management Plan
Pre-Procurement conference
Application for eligibility/expression of interest
Eligibility evaluation
Issuance of bid documents
Site inspection
Pre-bid conference
Submission/opening of bids
Bid evaluation
Bids and awards committee deliberation and approval of resolution of award
Contract preparation and approval
Issuance of notice to proceed

Contents of Bidding Documents

Approved budget for the contract
instruction to bidders
terms of reference
Eligibility requirements
Plans and Technical Specifications
Form of bid, price form, list of goods or bill of quantities

Bid Docs
Delivery time or completion schedule
form and amount of bid security
form and amount of performance security and warranty
form of contract and general and special conditions of contract

The laws below have yet to be detailed in this reviewer. - D. Garcia, 14 April 2014

RA 10587
A Law Regulating the Environmental Planning Profession in the Philippines

RA 10354
Responsible Parenthood and Reproductive Health Act

RA 10121
National DRRM Act

RA 10023
Free Patent Act

RA 10066
National Cultural Heritage Act

RA 9729
Climate Change Act

RA 9593
Tourism Act

RA 9700
Extending CARP

RA 9513
Renewable Energy Act

RA 9501
Magna Carta for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises

RA 9483
Oil Pollution Compensation Act

RA 9400
Amending Bases Conversion and Development Act

RA 9367
Biofuels Act

RA 9275
Clean Water Act

RA 9175
Chainsaw Act

RA 9168
Philippine Plant Variety Protection Act

RA 9184
Government Procurement Reform Act

RA 9072
National Caves and Cave Resources Management Protection Act

RA 9003
Ecological Solid Waste Management

RA 9147
Wildlife Resources Conservation and Protection Act

RA 8748
Amending Special Economic Zone Act

RA 8550
Fisheries Code

RA 8749
Clean Air Act

RA 8424
Amending the National Internal Revenue ode

RA 8435
Agriculture and Fisheries Modernization Act

RA 9224
National Internal Revenue Code

RA 7942
Philippine Mining Act

RA 7916
Special Economic Zone Act

RA 7718
Amending BOT Law

RA 7586
National Integrated Protected Areas System Act

RA 7279
Urban Development and Housing Act

RA 7227
Bases Conversion and Development Act

RA 7638
Department of Energy Act

RA 7356
Law Creating the National Commission on Culture and the Arts

RA 7611
Strategic Environmental Plan for Palawan Act

Environmental Monitoring and Evaluation System

Environmentally Critical Areas Network

refers to the life-sustaining interrelationships and interactions of organisms with each other and with their physical surroundings

The SEP shall have as its general philosophy, the sustainable development of Palawan. It shall have the following features

ecological viability
social acceptability
integrated approach

RA 7160
Local Government Code

RA 7076
People's Small-Scale Mining Act

RA 7042
Foreign Investments Act

RA 6969
Toxic Substances and Hazardous Nuclear Waste Control Act

RA 6957
Build-Operate-Transfer Law

RA 6657
Comprehensive Agrarian Reform Law

Philippine Agenda 21

PA 21 provides the policy framework of the country's strategy for sustainable development

five goal elements

Poverty Reduction
Social Equity
Empowerment and Good Governance
Peace and Solidarity
Ecological Integrity


Principles of Sustainable Development

Primacy of Developing Human Potential
Holistic Science and Appropriate Technology
Cultural, Moral, and Spiritual Sensitivity
National Sovereignty
Gender Sensitivity
Peace, Order, and National Unity
Social Justice, Inter and Intra-Generational and Spatial Equity
Participatory Democracy
Institutional Viability
Viable, Sound, and Broadbased Economic Development
Sustainable Population
Ecological Soundness
Biogeographical Equity and Community-Based Resource Management
Global Cooperation

Thrusts for the Philippine Environment

1 Sustainable and more productive utilization of natural resources to promote investments and entrepreneurship
2 Promote responsible mining that adheres to the principles of sustainable development: economic growth, environmental protection and
social equity. Responsible mining reduces poverty and benefits local and indigenous communities
3 Focus and strengthen the protection of vulnerable and ecologically fragile areas, especially watersheds and areas where biodiversity is
highly threatened
4 Create healthier environment for the population
5 Mitigate the occurrence of natural disasters to prevent the loss of lives and properties

1 Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2 Achieve universal primary education
3 Promote gender equality and empower women
4 Reduce child mortality
5 Improve women's reproductive health (improve maternal health)
6 Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other diseases
7 Ensure environmental sustainability
8 Develop global partnership for development

Millennium Summit
6-8 September 2000
New York
United Nations Millennium Declaration

followed by World Summit, 2005

Agenda 21

nonbinding, voluntarily implemented action plan of the United Nations with regard to sustainable development
product of the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)
Social and Economic Dimensions
Conservation and Management of Resources for Development
Strengthening the Role of Major Groups
Means of Implementation


Rio Summit 1992 Rio Declaration, Agenda 21

UNCED/Earth Summit/Rio Conference

Rio + 5 1997 Resolution (S-19/2)

UN General Assembly

Rio + 10 2002 Johannesburg Plan of Implementation

World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD)/ Earth Summit 2002
Johannesburg, South Africa

Agenda 21 for Culture 2002

Porto Alegre, Brazil

Rio + 20 2012 The Future We Want

UN Conference on Sustainable Development

Rio Declaration on Environment and Development

27 Principles

important government agencies concerning spatial planning, their mandates, organizational structures, among others.



Council Composition

from: http://www.hudcc.gov.ph/AboutCouncil.aspx?name=Council%20Composition

Key Shelter Agencies

HGC Home Guaranty Corporation

HLURB Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board
NHA National Housing Authority
NHMFC National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation
HDMF Home Development Mutual Fund
SHFC Social Housing Finance Corporation


Local Development Councils
as per Title Six, Sections 106 to 115

meets once every six months or as often as may be necessary

executive committee
sectoral or functional committees
Barangay Development Council
Punong Barangay, head
Representatives of nongovernmental organizations operating in the barangay, who shall constitute not less than one fourth (1/4) of the members of the fully
organized council
representative of the congressman

City of Municipal Development Council

Mayor, head
All punong barangays in the city or municipality
chairman of the committee on appropriations of the sangguniang panlungsod or sangguniang bayan concerned
congressman or his representative
representatives of nongovernmental organizations operating in the city or municipality, as the case may be, who shall constitute not less than one-fourth (1/4)
of the members of the fully organized council.

Provincial Development Council

Governor, head
Chairman of the committee on appropriations of the sangguniang panlalawigan
Congressman or his representative
Representatives of nongovernmental organizations operating in the province, who shall constitute not less than one-fourth (1/4 of the members of the fully
organized council

Council Proper or Full Council
Executive Committee
Sectoral Committees
Development Administration
Economic Development
Social Development
Infrastructure Development
Advisory Committee
RDC Special Committees
Affiliate Committees

Functions of Local Development Councils

1 Formulate long-term, medium-term, and annual socioeconomic development plans and policies;
2 Formulate the medium-term and annual public investment programs;
3 Appraise and prioritize socioeconomic development programs and projects;
4 Formulate local investment incentives to promote the inflow and direction of private investment capital;
5 Coordinate, monitor, and evaluate the implementation of development programs and projects; and
6 Perform such other functions as may be provided by law or competent authority

Functions of Barangay Development Council

Mobilize people's participation in local development efforts;
Prepare barangay development plans based on local requirements;
Monitor and evaluate the implementation of national or local programs and projects; and
Perform such other functions as may be provided by law or competent authority

Goals or KRAs of Planning

Empowerment of People

Major Schools of Thought in Planning

Instrumentalist View
Planning as Communicative Action
Critical or Radical Planning
Systems Theory of Planning
Planning as Social Physics
Planning and Social Darwinism
Planning as Social Engineering

Theory Particulars/Keywords Author/s

No need for theory

Guides to successful action
Instrumentalist View John Dewey
How theory works is the standard.
Results are what count; what matters is what

transitive, dialogues, collaboration, democracy,

Communicative Planning Jrgen Habermas

social learning, social reform, social mobilization

Radical Theory of Planning John Friedmann
knowledge, policies, action dynamics

promotes human growth

Model of a Cybernetic System

flows, inputs and outputs

Systems Theory of Planning iteration Norbert Wiener

description, modelling, projection, synthesis,


Planning Approaches Emanating from Schools of Thought

Traditional Planning
Rational-Adaptive Planning
Strategic Planning
Incremental Planning
Equity Planning

Three Actors in Governance

Civil Society
Business Sector

Evolution of Modern Urban Planning Models

1 Conditions that gave rise to Modern Planning Profession
2 City Beautiful Movement
3 Regional Planning and New Towns Movement
4 City Functional Movement
5 City Efficient Movement
6 New Urbanism or Neo-Traditionalism
7 Environmental Planning

Beautiful Burnham, Corbusier

Regional and Town Geddes, Clarences, Wrights
Urbanism/Traditinalism Jacobs, Duany
EnP Carson, McHarg


Expanded Summary

Conditions that gave rise to Modern Planning Profession

Modern Planning Profession was a response to unmanaged urbanization, population explosion, environmental degradation in industrial cities
Conservation and Parks Movement (The Rise of Landscape Architecture, USA)
Public Health Epidemiologists and Sanitation Professionals as Earliest Planners
Garden City Movement (Sir Ebenezer Howard and his disciples in UK)

City Beautiful Movement

a response to urban decay and urban blight during the Industrial Revolution
Daniel Hudson Burnham - Masterplanning or Tradition Planning or Imperative Planning or Command Planning
Le Corbusier - Radiant City led to Skyscraper Cities and the common form for template for CBDs

Regional Planning and New Towns Movement

Reconceptualized the city in relation to its peripheries; tried to address economic polarization, inter-area imbalance, regional divergence
new towns movement in America led to "urban decentralization" or 'sprawl', spurred on by the popularity of the automobile; "the car is king" mentality.

City Functional Movement

a reaction to over-emphasis of CBM on 'form' over function
euclidean zoning - exclusionary zoning, separated incompatible land uses
utilities-based linear city (Don Arturo Soria y Mata)
Linear Industrial City (Tony Garnier)

City Efficient Movement

attempted to rationalize urban planning in relation to economic production that had been decentralized by transportation and communication technologies
transport planning
ekistics - integrated economics, sociology, and physical design in human settlements planning
urban renewal and gentrification- addressed the "hollowing out" of historic city cores by means of revitalization but also resulted in massive urban slum
deletions, giving rise to advocacy or activist or equity planning

New Urbanism or Neo-Traditionalism

combated indiscriminate, inhuman 'urban renewal' and sought to revive the lost art of "place-making" and 'community-building'
neotraditional neighborhoods
smart growth and 'compact development'
cultural heritage conservation

Environmental Planning
placed ecology and environmental constraints at the center of planning
Ian McHarg's sieve mapping and rise of GIS
ecosystem-based planning
ecological footprinting
eco-anarchism and anti-urbanism
disaster management - mitigation, risk-reduction, and prevention
sustainable cities

Movements and Figures

3 Magnets by Ebenezer Howard

Conservation and Parks Movement

Frederick Law Olmsted Sr.,

Garden City Movement

Sir Ebenezer Howard (1850-1928)

City Beautiful Movement

Daniel Hudson Burnham (1846-1912)
Charles-Edouard Jeanneret (1887-1965) - Le Corbusier
Radiant City (Le Ville Radieus)
Une Ville Contemporaine (Contemporary City)

Regional Planning and the New Towns Movement

Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959) - Broadacre City
freeways + feeder roads
Henry Wright (1878-1936)
regional plan
Clarence Stein
co-founded the Regional Planning Association of America
with Henry Wright and Lewis Mumford
pursued Howard's Garden City ideas
efforts were cut short by "Great Depression."
Six Principles of New Towns Movement
Plan simply, but comprehensively
Provide ample sites in the right places for community use
Put factories and other industrial building where they can be used
without wasteful transportation of people and goods
Cars must be parked and stored (not on the streets!)
Bring private and public land into relationship
Arrange for the occupancy of houses
Clarence Perry (1872-1944)
Neighborhood unit
Sir Patrick Geddes (1854-1932)
Father of Regional Planning
introduced concept of "region" to planning and city architecture
Folk Work Place
Survey Analysis Plan
coined the terms city-region and conurbation
life cycle of cities
sprawling mass
amorphic spread
Sir Leslie Patrick Abercrombie
Abercrombie Plan - County of London Plan (1943) and Greater London Regional Plan (1944)
commissioned by UK government to redesign HK after WWII
commissioned by Ethiopia Empereor Haile Selassie (Ras Tafari)
to draw up plans for the capital of Addis Ababa.
Lewis Mumford (1895-1990)
Last of the Great Humanists
Father of HIstorical-Sociological Approach to Planning
Technics and Civilization (1934)
The Culture of Cities (1938)
City in History (1961)
Benton MacKaye (1879-1975)
father of the Appalachian Trail
townless highway
one of the founders of the Regional Planning Association of America (1923)
The New Exploration: A Philosophy of Regional Planning (1928)
prominent in regional conservationism
applied the transect to vast river valleys
regional ecology tied to natural systems
cyclical time and organic interaction with landscape versus
industrial time and engineering
ridge land areas offer indigenous balance
valleys filled with industrial excess
conservative effort based on radical analysis

City Functional Movement

movement meant to respond to every aspect of city problems
focus on utility infrastructure and on land use zoning rather than master planning
zoning originated in New York city in 1916 by Edward Bassett as "the first attempt to control land use by a municipal government."

Don Arturio Soria y Mata (1844-1920)

Ciudad Lineal - linear city
linear utility lines
Tony Garnier (1869-1948)
industrial utopias that would help control unchecked urban growth and keep the working classes in line
Une Cite Industrielle (1917-1918) - modern linear industrial city
removed churches or law enforcement buildings, in hope that "man
could rule himself."
Thomas Adams became after of urban planning
formed town planning institute of Canada in 1919
saw fundamental conflict between right to life versus rich to property
belonged to British liberal tradition, not socialism/communism
town plan should provide for the proper and efficient carrying-on of business

City Efficient Movement

spurred by US Federal Highway Act of 1916 and Interstate Act of 1956
Rapkin (1954) - developed transport and land use study. "Trafffic is a function of land use."
Dr. Francis Stuary Chapin Jr. (1888-1974)
First to write comprehensive textbook on Urban and Regional Planning
five goals of spatial planning
Planning relies more and more on positivist and empirical methods:
attempted to address the elements of 'uncertainty' and 'extraneous factors' in planning for human settlements
Regional Science and Regional Economics
spatial interaction - push and pull factors, centrifugal and centripetal forces
spatial modelling
gravity model
Konstantinos Apostolos Doxiadis

ekistic elements

ekistic logarithmic scale

1 anthropos
2 room
3 house
4 house group (hamlet)
5 small neighborhood (village)
6 neighborhood
7 small polis (town)
8 polis (city)
9 small metropolis
10 metropolis
11 small megapolis
12 megalopolis
13 small eperopolis
14 eperopolis
15 ecumenopolis

Suburbanization and Amorphic Sprawl

hollowing out of cities
amorphic sprawl

Urban Renewal Movement in North America, 1950s-70s

Rober Moses, New York
Ed Logue

Urban renewal through gentrification was initially called 'racist and 'segregationist' and contributed to Civil Rights protest led by Dr. Martin Luther King.
James Baldwin called 'urban renewal' as 'Negro removal.'

Manuel Castells: Gentrification as upscale neighborhoods of gays, bohemians, hipsters, artists, and yuppies

Often "center less" and "soul-less" - as against New Urbanism

Gentrification is focused on "comfort/convenience" while New Urbanism is focused on "community."

Social Protest Movements and the Rise of Advocacy or Activist Or Equity Planning
gentrification and large-scale demolition of slums and black neighborhoods in the 1960s gave rise to the advocacy or activist or equity school of planning
and the applied disciplines of
community development and conflict management
asserts that planning process should take the side of the poor, the last, the least, and the lost
Planners should work for the redistribution of power and resources to the powerless and the disadvantaged
action > activist > mobilization
goals are social justice
Paul Davidoff (1965) - father of "advocacy planning"
development of plural plans rather than a unitary plan
claimed that "public interest" is not scientific but is political
Saul David Alinsky - Conflict Pragmatics, Conflict Confrontation
highlight victimization of the last, least, lost
mosquito-like mass mobilizitaon that dares the state to live up to its

New Urbanism or NeoTraditionalism

Jane Jacobs (1916-2006)
co-founded the movement of "New Urbanism" also called "Neo-
strong critic of urban renewal policies
wrote "The Death and Life of Great American Cities" (1961)
In The Economy of Cities (1969), Jane Jacobs asserts that diversity in geographic concentration, not geographic specialization, spurs urban growth.
diversity and proximity are key
building cities for people against cities for cars
dense and mixed-use neighborhoods
Andres Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Leon Krier, Rob Krier, Daniel Solomon, Stefanos Polyzoides, Elizabeth Moule
suburbs are anomie, apolitical, antisocial

Environmental Planning
Rachel Louise Carson (1907-1964)
first modern "eco-feminist" who sparked the environmental movement
in the United States. American biologist
advocacies led to the formation of US Environmental Protection
Agency, Environmental Impact Assessment System, Council of
Environmental Quality, Environmental Defense Fund
Ian L. McHarg (1920-2001)
First modern environmental planner who introduced ecological planing primarily through map overlays that graphically integrate environmental
constraints mapping, sieve analysis, multidisciplinary suitability analyses to identify land development constraints,
use of EIS
Design with Nature (1969)
form must follow more than just function; it must also respect the natural environment in which it is placed

Six Evils of Industrial Cities

Overcrowding and Traffic Congestion
Pollution and Urban Heat island Effect
Waste and Environmental Decay
Amorphic Sprawl, Scattered Development
Leapfrog Development, checkerboard development
economic polarization resulting in mass poverty and urban blight in primate cities

Dr. Herbert J. Gans

pioneer of "Policy Planning" and "Blueprint Planning"
James Howard Kunstler
The Geography of Nowhere, the Rise and Decline of America's
Man-Made Landscape 1993

industrial cities are not self-sustaining

industrial cities as urban ecosystems
resource flows
urban heat island effect
Jean Gottman
sprawling metropolis with more than 10 million population

false urbanization
refers to the unexpected large-sale migration of rural people into urban areas even though factories and urban firms have yet no available employment
for unskilled labor force with low education. This can happen in big or small cities.

premature urbanization

What makes a city different

spatial proximity
historical association
concentration of socioeconomic activity
centers of creativity
social practices and the built environment

Theories of Spatial Planning

Theories of Spatial Equilibrium
Regional Planning Theories

Theories of Spatial Equilibrium

Agricultural Land Rent
Central Place Theory
Urban Bid-Rent Theory
Range and Threshold
Rank-Size Rule

Theory Particulars/Keywords Author/s

Agricultural Land Rent Johann Heinreich von Thnen, 1842
Central Place Theory Walter Christaller, 1933
Urban Bid-Rent Theory William Alonso, Richard E. Muth, Edwin S. Mills
Range and Threshold Brian JL Berry
Rank-Size Rule George Kingsley Zipf

Regional Planning Theories

Theory Particulars/Keywords Author/s

Theoretical Basis for Urban Development

Neo-Classical Economics reduction of disparities and gaps

agri dev in developing countries

industrialization in develop countries

Agriculture vs Industry Debate (Balanced vs
Unbalanced Growth) unbalanced - leading sectors of economy

balanced - few sectors with had absorptive

capacity for modern technology

Rural vs Urban Development

centralization - central authority controls economy

and polity
Centralization vs Decentralization
decentralization - limited power of central
authority; decision-making and responsibility by
local communities

Regional Development Policy and Practices in the

Philippine Context
industrialization in develop countries
Agriculture vs Industry Debate (Balanced vs
Unbalanced Growth) unbalanced - leading sectors of economy

balanced - few sectors with had absorptive

capacity for modern technology

Rural vs Urban Development

centralization - central authority controls economy

and polity
Centralization vs Decentralization
decentralization - limited power of central
authority; decision-making and responsibility by
local communities

Regional Development Policy and Practices in the

Philippine Context
Von-Thunen's Theory of Agricultural Location Johan Heinrich Von Thnen
Bid Rent Theory

centrifugal forces emanate

Growth Pole and Growth Center firms or industries that are propulsive Perroux and Boudeville
large cities

sites near metropolitan areas enjoy high

Comparative Advantage David Ricardo
comparative advantage

Core - propulsive
Core Periphery Concept John Friedmann
Periphery - dependence

Polarization and Trickle Down Effect swash and backwash Albert Hirschman

Cumulative Causation multiplier effect Gunnar Myrdal

Industrial Location
transport, labor, agglomeration are least
some are nearer materials, others are nearer
Least cost approach Weber
material index
optimum location is a function of aggregate
Market area approach Losch and Hooever
demand and maximum profits
Profit maximizing approach where revenues - cost is highest Isaard and Greenhut
traditional to modern
Structural Change Model W. Arthur Lewis
rural-urban migration

Walt Rostow
Rostovaian Model: Stages of Economic Growth

Traditional Society
Pre-condition for Take-off
Drive to maturity
Age of High Mass Consumption

Theories of Urban Growth and Urban Land Use

Human Ecology Chicago School of Urban Sociology

Concentric Ring Model Ernest W. Burgess, US
Concentric Zone Model Peter Mann, UK
Sector/Radial/Axial Model Homer Hoyt
Multiple Nuclei Model Edward Ullman and Chauncy Harris
Inverse Concentric Zone Third World Countries
Latin American Model

Human Ecology
Roderick McKenzie, Amos H. Hawley, Robert Park, Everett Hughes
Assimilation and Accommodation
Survival of the Fittest

Concentric Ring Theory

Ernest W. Burgess (1925)
Transition Zone
Blue-Collar Residential
Middle-Income Residential
High-Income Residential

Concentric Zone Model

Peter Mann (1965)
took Burgess's model and created pie slices

Sector or Radial Model

Homer Hoyt (1939)
growth and organization along transport lines

Axial Model
commercial development follows transport routes
travel time rather than transport cost is the important determinant of
land use

Multiple Nuclei Model

Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman (1945)
uses gridiron
The CBD was not the sole generator of change, urban growth takes place around several distinct nuclei
certain activities require highly specialized facilities
certain activities cluster because they profit from mutual association
certain activities repel each other and will not be found in the same area
certain activities could not make a profit if they paid the high rent of the most desirable locations
multi-centric or multi nodal

Galactic City
Pierce F. Lewis
leapfrog development
edge cities form in suburbs
doughnut shape

Hybrid Model
Walter Isard (1955)
combines concentric, sector, and zonal models of american planners

Inverse Concentric Model

It is not true that the rich are moving away from the central city as in
Burgess' Concentric Model
It is the poor who are moving away from the Central City
Elite keeps stranglehold of Central City
Social status declines with increasing distance from the center
Southeast Asia, LDCs

Urban Patterns in South and Southeast Asian Cities by Terry G. McGee

Bazaar City
Colonial City
Planned City

African Model
More complex because of influence of local cultures on urban development
difficult to group cities into one or two comprehensive models

Latin American Model

"City Life" is the cultural norm in Latin America. Most people live in primate cities
Latin American cities are vibrant, dynamic, an increasingly specialized
Outside the CBD, the dominant component is a commercial spine surrounded by the elite residential sector

Synthesis: Forces Shaping a City


Stages of Urban Growth

export specialization
export complex
economic maturation
regional metropolis
national/international metropolis
technical/professional virtuosity

Causes of Decline
Failure of Momentum
Lack of Natural Advantages
Lack of Cultivate Talent/Urban Management
Economic Restructuring

Post Industrial Cities

information revolution
tertiary, quaternary, and quinary services
sprawl and more damage to nature

Edge Cities
Joel Garreau

Urban Ratchet Effect

Once cities reach a certain size (250,000), they will not experience major population losses. Areas of the city will age and decline and neighborhoods may
suffer, but the urban area will see a shift in the spatial location of population, jobs, etc., not an absolute loss.
Industrial diversification
Political Power
Sunk costs
customers drive rim location
large areas have more entrepreneurship

Optimum Size of the City by Leo H. Klaassen

must be large enough to take investment decisions of an economic size to have a common approach to and awareness of its problems
at least one growth pole
supply its own industry
homogeneous economic structure
200,000 to 600,000 inhabitants
limit on population size
equilibrium point

Stages of Urban Development Model: A Cycle

Klassen, van den Berg, A. Champion

counter urbanization or disurbanization

Urbanization of Developed and Developing Countries: Comparative Imbalance


Measures of Development

Traditional Economic Measures


Human Development

Inequality Measurement
Gini Coefficient
0 perfect equality
.2-.35 relatively equitable
.5-.7 highly unequal
1 perfec tinequality

Economic Planning

System of National Accounts

Y = C + I + G + (EX-IM)

= national income + depreciation (about 12%) + (indirect taxes - subsidies) + net factor payments to the rest of the world + other

GDP production approach

sums up the 'value added' at each stage of production, or take the value of final sales

Environmental Accounting: Critique of System of National Accounts

minus depreciation of physical capital or consumption of fixed a capital
minus depletion of ENR stocks
minus cost of remedial/corrective/curative spending to address current environmental damages and pollution as well as preventive, aversive, defensive,
precautionary expenditure

ENP (environmentally-adjusted national product)
EDP (environmentally-adjusted domestic product)

Local economic accounting

L + N = C + I + G + (E-M)

L +N+M=C+I+G+E
left side is local value added
right side is local final demand

total output =total outlays

Strategic Resources: The Six M's

Dr. Michael Porter, Harvard University Business School

Materials Land, buldings, location

Manpower/Labor skilled laborers, available workforce
Machine tools, technology
Markets viable and sustainable market for products
Management organization, skilled managers
Money capital institutions, debt/ borrowed funds

Components of Economic Development Strategy

Locality Development (The Built Environment

Business Development (The Demand Side)
Human Resource Development (The Supply Side)
Community-Based Employment (The Neighborhood Dimension)

Classification of Firms/Enterprises

Scale Employment Size Capitalization Assets

Cottage Nothing specific not more than P1.5M
Micro Scale Less than 10 workers not more than P3M
Small Scale Enterprise 10-99 employees P3M-P15M
Medium Scale Enterprise 100-199 employees P15M-P100M
Large Scale Enterprise 200 or more employees Above P100M

Classification of Light, Medium, and Heavy Industries based on Degree of Hazard and Pollution

Heavy Hazardous industries pose fire and health hazards

i.e. their wastes have large amounts of combustible and
toxic materials
Pollutive industries discharge large amounts of air, water,
and solid pollutants
Medium Non-hazardous industries discharge amounts of
combustible or toxic wastes
Light Non-pollutive industries-emit little or negligible amounts
of these pollutants

Sectors of the Economy

Primary "agricultural economy"

extracting natural resources from the Earth or exploiting its
renewal elements
agriculture (cultivation, animal husbandry, livestock and

Secondary "industrial economy"

processing, production of commodities with value-added
crafts and cottage industries
food processing and manufacturing
mining & quarrying, construction
transportation, gas, utilities

Tertiary "service economy"

commerce - wholesale and retail trade, export and import
hotels and restaurants
health care and social services
banking and finance, real estate and insurance
government services
architectural, surveying, advertising, legal services
personal beauty and grooming services
telecommunications and broadcast communications

Quaternary "knowledge economy"

"high-tech" industries: biotechnology, nanotechnology,
automation, robotics, mechatronics, pneumatics, etc.
financial and technical consulting; engineering design,
planning design
business process outsourcing
information technology, information generation, medical
computer software development, CGI and animation

Quinary "Experience Economy,"Pleasure Economy"

"High-touch" Design businesses: high fashion,
haute couture, jewelry design, bodywork
cultural arts and cultural services
tourism: medical tourism, historic-cultural tourism,
eco-tourism, sex tourism

Key Steps in Economic Planning

Calculate location quotients to assess industry concentration

Assess key trends, sources of competitive advantage, specialized needs and location factors
Determine structural changes shaping economy
Determine locality's role in regional economy
Determine industries to retain and support
Determine emerging and fast-growing industries to foster and attract.
Business development is directed towards five goals:
Encourage business start-ups
Attract relocating firms to the area
Retain and/or expand existing businesses
Increase entrepreneurship and innovation
Foster public-private partnerships

sufficiency level of productive output of the local economy in relation to its domestic
specialization proportion of a single sector of the local economy to the entire local economy
concentration proportion of a single sector to the total regional/national activity within that
economic involves the transformation of the economic base of an economy

traditional agriculture > agro-processing economy > agroindustrial manufacturing/other industries > agroindustrial manufacturing/other industries/services

Economic Base Model - Assumption

Dr. Richard E. Klosterman

The local economy is divided into two sectors - basic, nonbasic

A change in the basic sector will lead automatically to a change in the same direction in the nonbasic sector

Economic base multiplier

Base multiplier is the ration of the total economic activity to the basic economic activity
changes in base multipliers can mean change in demand for infra, etc.

Location Quotient
LQ = local employment in industry i/ total local employment in all industries
divided by
national employment in industry i
total national employment in all industries

Minimum Requirements Approach

Constant Share Method

Area-Ratio Method (Step-Down)

Shift-Share Analysis
national share
industry mix
local or regional shift

Keynesian Income Multiplier

Walt W. Rostow's Theory of Economic Modernization in Linear Stages (1960)

Traditional Society
Pre-conditions for Take-Off
Take-off Period
Drive to Maturity
Age of High Mass Consumption

Virtuous Cycle of Growth

investments by government or private sector
direct job creation
increased local spending by workers
increased job creation
increased local demand for goods and services

Cycle of Poverty: Rostow

low production
low incomes
low savings
low investments
low capital formation

Cycle of Poverty: Simon Kuznets

Basic Concepts Related to Poverty

Poverty incidence
Subsistence Incidence
Poverty Gap
Poverty Severity

Causes of Poverty (World Bank)

Limited land tenure or shelter security

Poor quality of life
Lack of income
Social deprivaton
Responding to Basic Needs of the Poor

Acceleration of asset reform

Provision of human development services/social services
Livelihood and employment
Social protection and security from violence
Participation and empowerment of the poor

Measuring Inequality
Lorenz curve
Gini coefficient
0 Perfect equality
0.2-0.35 relatively equitable income distribution
0.5-0.7 highly unequal income distribution
1 perfect inequality

input-output model
Wassily Leontief
Primary suppliers
intermediate suppliers
intermediate purchases
final purchasers

categories can over lap

transactions table
direct requirements table

Regional Economic Models Inc (REMI)

Regional Input-Output Modeling System (RIMS) - US Departent of Commerce
Social Accounting Matrices
CGE - Computable General Equilibrium

Planning for Agricultural Development

Computing for Food Sufficiency in a Locality

calculate for volume of production - area planted x yield/hectare
crop productivity = yield/hectare
demand for food crop = per capita consumption / x population in intake of food stuff a given year

Food requirement standards for rice, etc.

sufficiency level = volume of production minus actual demand

annual food threshold = pre capita per day food cost x 365 days

Planning of Food Systems

address globalization of food systems

preparedness for food emergencies
prevent food contamination
policies and zoning provisions to protect farmland
encourage use of organic agriculture
build wharves and fish landing ports for subsistence fishermen
promote producer's markets to help local farmers; local purchasing can create economic impact
simpler regulations for retail and day markets for natural and local food
ethnic and native cuisine can contribute to cultural vitality

Value-Chain Analysis
Dr. Michael Porter

Five primary activities that form the sequence of the value chain
1. inbound logistics
2. operations converting inputs to the product/service
3. outbound logistics collect, store, and distribute the product/service
4. marketing and sales means and incentives to buy
5. service enhancements/maintenance of the value of the product/service

Four Major Planning Areas of Logistics

Customer service goals

Facility location strategy
Inventory strategy
Transportation strategy

Logistics or SIPOC Framework

Philippine Agriculture 2020
Plan from National Academy of Science and Technology

Organize and manage agriculture as business

Alleviate poverty through asset reform
Nurture the values of nature and community in our people

Planning of Commercial Space

Gravity model as applied to commerce

CBDs and office parks
urban forestry

Strategies to Develop CBDs

Historic preservation
waterfront development
special activity generators
office park development
indoor shopping centers
transportation enhancements

Planning of Industrial Space

Agglomeration, Localization, and Urbanization

Agglomeration economics

Agglomeration cycle
location of factories
local networks
local culture, infrastructure, institutions
city = city branding
external attraction
stagnation and crises
a new start

economies of scale internal to the firm

refers to reductions in unit costs of production as a result of larger
designed scale of output within the firm

localization economies internal to industry

refers to declining average costs of firms as a result of economic and
geographic concentration, proximity or density of economic activity

urbanization economies external to both firm and industry

refers to declining average costs of firms as cities increase their
population and population-related service activities. Note that this
is a benefit for the whole community, not from the actions of
individual firms

economies of urbanization
diseconomies of urbanization

Industrial Dispersal in the Philippnies

PD 1 Integrated Reorganization Plan (IRP) of 1972, delineated 11 'regions' in the Philippines

PD 24 Industrial Dispersal, 1973, aimed to decongest Metro Manila by banning the location of new heavy industries within a 50-kilometer radius of Rizal
Park (Luneta)

NLEX and SLEX made Calamba and Angeles regional industrial hubs
National Industrial Policy of 1973
promoted industries outside Metro Manila
identified potential urban centers for industrial and infrastructure development
became the national development strategy of government since late seventies

Industrial Dispersal - Concentrated Decentralization

Spatial Strategies
Regional Industrial Center (later called Regional Agri-Industrial Centers)
Special Economic Zone (Ecozone)
Export Processing Zone (outside customs territory)
Free Trade Zone
Industrial Estate (minimum size of 50 hectares of contiguous land with facilities to
accommodate at least 5 locators
Growth Corridor semi urbanized, requires strong concentration
Northwestern Luzon
South Cotabato-Davao-Zamboanga
West Central Luzon (Bulacan-Pampanga-Bataan-Zambales)
Countrywide Agro-industrial Development (Corazon Aquino)
Balanced Agro-industrial Development

Project Development and Management

a goal-oriented continuing intervention (long-term) for a major social sector/need/concern, which can extend beyond tenure of office of government
authorities, and can consist of many component projects.

a problem-solving endeavor with specific tasks and target outputs, for a definite sub-sector or segment of population, in a defined area or location, within a
specified time frame.
One-time activity.

Classification of Projects
according to objectives
new, improvement, or replacement
number of purposes
multi-goal, complementary, or mutually-exclusive
period of implementation
methodology and process

NEDA'S Project Classification

S Stand-alone it can produce output on its own
R Required provides the enabling mechanism for other projects to produce output
C Companion its ability to produce output depends on the success of another project
It has to be packaged with the other project that provides the "enabling mechanism."

Project Planning
Rational determination of how to initiate, sustain, and terminate a project
develop the plan in a required level of detail with accompanying milestones and the use of available tools
must be preceded by a comprehensive development plan (for public sector planning)
or a strategic plan (for private sector planning)

Stages of Project Development

1 Identification stage
2 Preparation Stage - pre-feasiblity and feasibility studies
3 Proposal appraisal and financing
4 detailed design and engineering
5 project implementation stage
6 monitoring and formative evaluation
7 terminal evaluation or ex-post facto

Project Cycle by NEDA

Preinvestment Phase
Project Identification
Project Preparation
Project Appraisal and Financing

Investment Phase
Detailed Engineering and Design
Project Implementation

Postinvestment Phase
Project operation
Ex-post evaluation

ADP Project Cycle

1 Project concept
2 Prefeasibility
3 Feasibility
4 Design and engineering
5 Implementation
6 Monitoring and evaluation
7 Project concept

Sources of Project Ideas

promising investment opportunities

development constraints/issues
national, region, local development plan
sectoral studies
investment plan
special studies, subnational sties
technical linkages
industry linkages
industry studies or market studies
may come from politicians, local officials, advocacy groups, civil society

a mechanism through which a collection of buyers and sellers interact and engage in exchange. The decisions make in markets result from the interaction of
millions of people, each motivated by their own interest.

consumer demand or final demand
producer demand of intermediate demand

Estimating Past and Present Demand

first hand data
secondary data
interviews and special surveys
historical data coverage
intentions and needs assessment
push analysis
planning standards
market testing
availability of institutions
user's behavior change
price fluctuations

Judgmental or Intuitive Approach in Demand Analysis

Delphi Approach
surveying or polling experts

Statistical Demand Analysis

Time-series analysis
seasonal analysis
trends and price analysis
sectoral forecasting

assume future change of same percentage or amount increase
plot historical data
fit a curve to data
derive equation of the fitted curve
use the equation to calculate future values

Identifying Supply Sources

know current sources of goods and services
compare supply with respect to volume of output, distribution, service area, others

Other Market Considerations

competitiveness of the product
government policies
marketing program

Technical Analysis
operational feasibility
technical feasibility
schedule feasibility

size or scale
timing of implementation

auxiliairy engineering projects

cost of equipment and machinery
labor requirements
waste disposal
schedule of resource requirements
construction schedule
cost estimation
ballpark figures
preliminary cost estimates

After Technical Study, Project Screening

not require EIA
requires EIA
impacts unclear

Environmental Analysis
Consistency with Local Land Use and Zoning
Land Acquisitions and Relocations Required
Farmland conversion
community disruption and environmental justice
noise/water/air quality/hazardous materials
impacts on wetlands and on ecologically-sensitive areas
impacts on endangered species
flooding impacts
impacts on navigable waterways and coastal zones
impacts on historic properties and parklands
impacts on traffic and parking
impacts on energy production and consumption
impacts caused by construction
visual impacts
impacts on safety and security
impacts on secondary development
public notification

Criteria for Determining Whether a Project is Covered by EIS

Characteristics of Project Undertaking
Location of the Project
Nature of the Potential Impact

EA is before project implementation

Conducting the EIA and determine if the project is viable using the following
magnitude of impact
extent of impact
duration of impact

Social Study
Seeks to ensure that a project design reflects the needs, demands, and capacities of those to be affected or influenced by the strategies, policies, programs,
and projects
Helps to show if a project would create a positive or negative social impact. It attempts to improve project design and effectiveness through an analysis of the
project's social impact on targeted beneficiaries
2 types
social impact assessment
stakeholder analysis or distributional analysis

Social Design
in-depth analysis and working with target populations with regard to specific project design options
optimize the overall project design
develop appropriate project implementation strategies
provide a detailed social justification for the project
identify major social risks that may affect project implementation

Financial Study
stream of benefits
attractiveness to investors
commercial profitability

Cash Flow Statement

Financial Receipts
less: changes in accounts receivables
residual values
total inflows
Financial Expenditures
investment opportunities
new investment
existing assets
operating expenditures
raw material
skilled labor
unskilled labor
less: changes in account payable
less: changes in cash balance
total outflow
net cashflow

Components of Cash Flow Statement

Investment Plan
Opportunity Cost of Existing Assets
Cessation of project operations

Cash Flow Table

item year 1 n
cash inflow
cash outflow
net cash flow

i interest rate period

n number of interest rate periods
P present sum of money
F future sum of money
A a uniform end-of-period cash receipt or disbursement
G uniform arithmetic gradient increase in period-by-period payments or disbursement

present value
test of liquidity
test of debt-service
test of profitability
break-even analysis
pay back period
accounting rates or return

Economic Study
Finance covers decisions and transactions internal to an economic unit
Economics covers processes and decisions internal as well as external to the economic unit, including those that impact on the whole community, territory,
or society

Economic Analysis: Distortions

Absence of competitive markets
Monopoly externality (market power of certain firms)
Import and export tax for traded goods (transfer prices) - insurance, freight
Foreign exchange externality
Labor externality (divergence between market wage and cost of employment)
Environmental externality (e.g. pollution and congestion)
No reflection of environmental and societal values, etc

Cost-Benefit Analysis
Pareto efficiency

Welfare Economics - Hicksian Model

gainers fully compensate losers and still be better off

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Public Project based on NEDA

Estimate national economic parameters (usual provided by NEDA)
estimate economic conversion factors for each line in the financial cash flow
apply the national economic parameters to the financial cash flow
include other economic costs or benefits (e.g. environmental)
determine economic viability using indicators like NPV and Economic IRR

check Net Present Value (NPV)

check Internal Rate of Return (IRR)
check Benefit-Cost Ratio (or profitability index)

economic rate of return

externalities are considered here

Organization and Management

Administrative Arrangements
Project Management
Contracts Management
Human Resource Development
compliance with legislation, standards, inspection, and enforcement
evaluation, research, and replanting
public information

Example of Division of Responsibilities

Project Team Leader
Engineering Specialists
Environmental Specialists
Financial Specialists
Economic Specialists
Social/Institutional Specialists
Administrative Staff

Project Appraisal
Risk analysis
identify hazards
social/human activity
characterize risks
risk=hazard x exposure
control risks

Financing Sources
Commercial loans
foreign investment
investment bank
bonds and stocks may be floated by LGU
mutual funds
interpersonal loans
supporting resources

Project Implementation Plan

PERT-CPM Network Chart
Work Breakdown Structure - clear lines of authority and responsibility
responsibility assignment matrix
resource allocation matrix
GANTT chart
record keeping

Contract Management
Principles of contract law
bidding process and evaluation
contract and procurement strategies
selection of source and contractors
worker safety considerations
product liability
uncertainty and risk management
conflict resolution

Methods of Research and Tools of Environmental Planning

Eight Areas for Environmental Research

Natural Environment
1 Air Quality and Climate
2 Water Quality
3 Ecosystems, Habitat, and Wetlands
4 Noise and Waste
Human Environment
5 People, Communities, Neighborhoods
6 Environmental Justice
7 Cultural, Historic, Archaeological, and Scenic Resources
Integrated Decision-making
8 Integrated Transportation and Environmental Decision-Making

General Types of Research

Basic Research
pure/fundamental research
descriptive research
explanatory research
Applied Research
action research
exploratory research
evaluation research

Scientific Research Process


Types of Data
discrete or scale
time series or panel (longitudinal)
cross section

Five General "Rules" of Statistical Inference

State hypotheses clearly.
Understand the nature and limits of the statistical tests
Utilize visual representations
Use an alternative method
Determining conclusions

Sampling Frame
a list of all the individuals (units) in the population from which the sample is taken

List of Sampling Method

Simple Random
Stratified Random
Systematic Random
Convenience sampling
Purposive sampling
Quota sampling


Population Projection

estimate, project, forecast, targets

Evaluating Forecasts
methodologically sound
internal consistency
external consistency

Participatory Social Analysis

Contract, Scoping Phase
Assessment Phase
Evaluation Phase

Other Tools
developing the problem tree
Process diagramming
community mapping
scenario analysis
universal assumptions
method-based assumptions
local area-baed assumption
regional-based assumptions
vision-reality gap matrix

Goals-Options Matrix
column headings: effectiveness, consistency with other objectives, cost

Logframe or ZOPP

Description Indicators Means of Verification Assumptions


Critical Path Method

Shewhart and Deming Chart for Quality Control
Modeling and Simulation

Decision Tools in Plan Evaluation

cost-benefit analysis
cost-effectiveness analysis
planning balance sheet
goal achievement matrix
multi-criteria analysis
cost-revenue analysis/fiscal impact analysis

Social Planning

people's capacities
public service

to increase income
to meet needs
to build capacities

Basic Material Needs

Health Care
Shelter and Sleep
Sex and Pro-creation

Basic Human Needs

Communion with Nature

Pres. FVR Minimum Basic Need (MBN)

Food and Nutrition
H20 and Sanitation
Peace and Order

Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of needs


Millennium Development Goals

Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Achieve universal primary education
Promote gender equality and empower women
Reduce child mortality
Improve women's reproductive health
Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria, and other diseases
Ensure environmental sustainability
Develop global partnership for development

Empowerment by the World Bank

access to information
inclusion and participation
local organizational capacity

Development as Capacity Building

Measures of Development

Social Capital
scientific study of the characteristics and patterns of human population

Sources of Population Data

NSO Census of Population (every 10 years)
National Statistics Office surveys (every 3 years)
Vital registration system (Local Civl Registrar)
LGU barangay counts

different age-groups have different needs to be addressed in planning and development

Demographic Concepts
population size/level
population composition/structure
population growth
population distribution
median age
sex ratio

Sources of population Change


Types of Housing
single-detached, stick-built
row houses (socialized housing)
modular homes (duplex, triplex, quadriplex)
apartment complex
townhouses (medium-rise)
high-rise condominium
manufactured housing - prefabricate
mobile housing
converted-use property
cooperative housing - time-share

Neighborhood as Social Region


Clarence Perry, Principles of Neighborhood unit

Community Development

Neighborhoods break down

loss of community spirit
failure of leadership
decline of altruism
selfish interests
resistance of youth against "social homogenization"
self-centered lifestyles of urbanites and "yuppies"
urban anomie - the individual is overcome by anonymity
feels like a faceless, nameless statistic, unconnected to everyone else
centeredness on families
social networks

Broken Windows Theory

one broken window leads to another broken window

Other Subsectors in Social Planning

Use of Planning Standards


DepEd Standard classroom-student ratio is 1:50 PLEASE VERIFY

Teacher-Student Ratio

level standard ratio

kindergarten 1:30
elementary 1:45
secondary 1:40
college 1:25
graduate school 1:15

Elementary Schools
maximum distance: 3-km walk or 30 minutes by PUV

Hospitals and Health Care

25 beds 1.5 hectares
100 beds 1.5 hectares
200 beds 2.5 hectares
300 beds 3.5 hectares

more than or equal to 35kms away from existing government hospital

less than 3 kms but more than 3 hours away by usual mode of travel
less than 35 and less than 3 hours away by usual mode of travel

catchment population parameters

more than or equal 75,000
less than 75,000 but more than 25,000
less than 25,000

Rural Health Unit Personnel Standards

Municipal Health Officer 1:20,000
Nurse 1:20,000
Rural Sanitary Inspector 1:20,000
Rural Midwife 1:3,000-5,000 population, depending on terrain

Police-Protective Services
1 policeman per 500 population for highly urbanized cities (HUCs)
1 policeman per 1,000 population for other cities and municipalities
1 PNP station per city/municipality minimum

per municipality/city at least 1 fire station with adequate personnel, equipment, and facilities
1 municipal fire marshall
1 fireman per 500 population for HUCs
1 fireman per 2000 population for other cities and municipalities

1 jail for every district, city, and municipality

headed by a jail warden trained by BJMP

minimum of 500 sqm per 1000 population for a town park

miminum of 5000 sqm or half-hectare as open play field/athletic field

at least 30% of the entire gross area of an open-market subdivision kept as unbuilt and 6% as open space (PD 957).

Social Welfare Services

One Day Care per barangay as per RA 6972
One Senior Citizen Care Center per city/municipality as per RA 7876

Transport Planning

Transport Planning Process

preparation of the land use, transport and travel inventories of the study area;
analysis of present land use and travel characteristics
forecast of land use and travel characteristics
development of land use allocation and travel demand models
setting of goals and formulation of transport alternatives designed to accommodate the projected travel demands and land use changes
plan synthesis and forecast
testing and evaluation of alternative transport plans
plan adoption and implementation
continuing study

Four-Step Planning Model

trip generation
trip distribution
modal split
trip assignment

Land Administration and Management

Land Administration
the process of determining, recording and disseminating information about the tenure, value and use of land when implementing land management policies
(UNECE, 1996)

LA in the philippines focuses

mapping and survey
land classification
original titling
transfers of title
land information and records
land taxation

Components of Land Administration

Information Management

LA component subcomponents core ideal

adjudication of existing rights
allocation of land
juridical delimitation of parcels holding and registration of rights in land
demarcation of boundaries
land use development
regulatory development and use of land
land use restrictions
revenue collection and production
fiscal incentive to consolidate/redistribute/use land for a economic utility of land
particular purpose
juridical cadastre
information management fiscal cadastre multi-purpose cadastre
other information systems

Principle Areas
land values
land ownership
land use

Land Policy
whole complex of socio-economic and legal prescriptions that dictate how the land and the benefits from the land are to be allocated (UN ECE, 1996)

Land Management
The management of all aspects of land including the formation of land policies (Dale and McLaughlin 1988)
managing the use and development of land resources in a sustainable way (Bill Robertson, 1998)

Land Management System Framework

Land Tenure
Land Ownership and Transfer
Land Titling and Registration
Land Subdivision

Government Land Management Activities

land use allocation
land conversion or reclassification
land acquisition
land assembly or consolidation
land banking
land swapping
land disposition
sales patent
homestead patent
free patent
voluntary confirmation
compulsory confirmation
land development and its regulation
conservation of lands

Land Tenure
The act, right, manner or term of holding a landed property
including customary land tenure

Bundle of Rights
possess and use
grant easements

Land Tenure Process

Cadastre parts

fiscal for taxation
legal for marketing

Lands that are not surveyed cannot be disposed or alienated, neither can it be registered for the simple reason that said land cannot be identified with

Surveys standards is currently governed by the Manual on Land Surveys, Land Management Bureau, Department Administrative Order (DAO) No
98-12 and DAO 07-29 (Revised Regulations on Land Surveys of the DENR).

Manual of Land Use Mapping, brother!

Two types of surveys


Free patents
untitled residential lands, town sites, and delisted military camps (in zoned residential areas);

Special patents
public schools, public parks, municipal halls and other government properties/assets in public lands; for public use or public purposes

Forms of Government Control on Land Ownership and Use

Eminent Domain
Police Power

Disposal of Public A&D

Transport Planning

Traffic Impact Assessment

1 Determining if TIA is warranted
2 Traffic Impact Analysis
3 Identifying menu of mitigating measures
4 Establishing institutional mechanism
5 Preparation of TIA report
Local Government Machinery

Bond Flotation
LGUs can issue bonds
regulated byBSP and SEC

Documentary requirements
project pre-FS
full blown FS
government clearances
sanggunian approval and certification that project is in the LDP and PIP
COA-audited financial statements for the past three hers
COA-audited SRE for the past five years and interim SRE for the current year.
sanggunian authorization for the LGu to engage the services of a bond issuance team (trustee, bond counsel, underwriter and guarantor)
features of the bond offering
final local bond terms approved by the Sanggunian Panlalawigan and Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinans
Official Statements of LGU on the Bond Offering

Collateral Requirements for Bonds

Assignment of 20% of the LGUs IRA
Assignment of 20% of the LGUs Income
Assignment of profits or income of the project to be financed
Assignment of other special taxes
Mortgage of the machinery and equipment purchased out of loan proceeds
Mortgage of the project to be financed out of the proceeds of the loan
Mortgage of the properties which are not being utilized for public or government purposes
hold out on deposits

3 Phases of the BOT Process

Phase I Project Formulation
Phase II Project Proponent Selection
Phase III Project Implementation

Geospatial resource mapping can be BOT


List of National Level Plans

Philippine Development Plan 2010-2016
National Framework for Physical Planning 2001-2030
Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2004-2010
National Urban Development & Housing Framework 2009-2016
Tourism Master Plan, Forestry Master Plan, Medium Term Agricultural Development Plan, etc.

Philippine Development Plan (2010-2016)

In Pursuit of Inclusive Growth

Macroeconomic Policy
Competitive Industry and Services Sectors
Competitive and Sustainable Agriculture and Fisheries Sector
Accelerating Infrastructure Development
Towards a Resilient and Inclusive Financial System
Good Governance and the Rule of Law
Social Development
Peace and Security
Conservation, Protection and Rehabilitation of the Environment and Natural Resources

National Framework for Physical Planning (2001-2030)

Part I Vision and Principles
Part II The Planning Environment, Challenges and Strategies
Part III Land Use Policy Guidelines

Four Land Use Policy Parts

Protection Land Use
Production Land Use
Settlements Development
Infrastructure Development

Part I: Vision and Principles

Food Security
Environmental Stability and Ecological Integrity
Rational Urban Development
Spatial Integration
Equitable Access to Physical and Natural Resources
Private-Public Sector Partnership
People Empowerment
Recognition of the Rights of Indigenous People
Market Orientation

Part II: The Planning Environment, Challenges and Strategies

limited physical and economic resources
increasing demands from a growing population
increasing urban population, density and demand for urban services
unplanned expansion of settlement areas
declining agricultural productivity
land degradation
limited access to land
outdated land use plans
increasing role of local government units in planning
lack of institutional linkages

geographically-fragmented islands are economically integrated
social, cultural, political and economic interaction takes place beyond local, regional and even national boundaries
comparative advantages and regional resource endowments are fully harnessed without destroying their assimilative and regenerative capacities
access to productive opportunities and minimum desirable levels of social welfare is guaranteed.

promotion of national dispersion through regional concentration
strengthening of urban-rural linkages
resource area-based development
installation of mechanisms for effective regional development

Part III: Land Use Policy Guidelines

Settlements Development
Planning within the context of a national network of settlement
Spatial distribution and planning for future population growth
Housing and informal settlements
Environmental impacts'
Food security and land conversion

Production Land Use

Food security
implement SAFDZs
identify agri lands
marginal lands
infra support
Levels of production and productivity
potential areas
water security
tourism areas
Competitive and strategic industrialization
review performance of industrial areas
alternative uses for nonperforming industrial areas
growth of IT
market-oriented dispersal strategy at the regional/national level
utilize local development and land use plans
solicit the inputs and participation of the private sector
Environmental impacts
proper location of production activities
adopt and implement land use policies and zoning regulations

Protection Land Use

Nondemarcation of boundaries of protection areas
conflict resolution within protection areas
disaster mitigation, use of resources, and its impact on protection
information, education, and communication campaign

Infrastructure Development
Strategic role of infrastructure
national dispersal through regional concentration
Inter-modal transportation systems
increased access
compatibility of infra with local land use and development plans,
protect infrastructure right-of-way
Food security and agrarian reform objectives
prioritize and implement strategic rural/regional infra
protection and disaster mitigation
infra compatibility with NIPAS and other production areas
incorporate disaster mitigation principles in infra development
local and private sector participation
promote local and private sector participation in infra planning and

National Urban Development and Housing Framework


Framework Vision Towards 2016

Vision and Guiding Principles
strategic character
focus on drivers
institutional considerations
medium- to long-term perspective
Context and Strategic
recognized the arena of urban competition and build on strengths
identify strategic priorities
emphasize short-term actions without losing sight of strategic objectives
continue to work with the decentralized bureaucracy and local autonomy
enhance coordinative mechanisms at various levels
enhance participatory governance
reorient political leaders
Elements of a Framework
the urban system
urban competitiveness
poverty reduction
housing and communities
housing affordability and delivery
sustainable communities
performance-oriented governance
Using the Framework
formal adoption of the framework by HUDCC
formal adoption of the framework's strategic recommendations and
policies in the MTPDP
formal adoption of specific strategic recommendations and policies, along
with corresponding actions or PPAs, of the framework in corresponding
national government agency sectoral plans, and cascaded into the regional
and local agency offices
for HUDCC, to champion the strategic recommendations across national
and local government agencies and organizations. This requires close
coordination with NEDA.
Strategic Recommendations
urban competitiveness
poverty alleviation
housing affordability and delivery
sustainable communities
performance-oriented governance

Time Frames
CLUP 10 to 30 years
CDP 3 to 6 years
ELA 3 years
LDIP 3 years
AIP 1 year

Rationalized Local Planning System of the Philippines (2005)

Planning Structure
Mandated Plans
Planning Process
Implementation Tools

Planning Structure
Political Component
Technical Component

Mandated Local Plans

Comprehensive Land Use Plan
Comprehensive Development Plan

Planning Process (4 Modules)

1 Generation of Planning Database
2 Formulation and/or Revision of Goals
3 Formulation of the Physical Plan
4 Formulation of the Sectoral Development Plan
*planning process has to be participatory

Planning Process (Expanded Modules)

Generation of Planning Database
Updated ecological profile of the area
local development indicators table
accomplished problem solution matrix
Formulation and/or Revision of Goals
revalidated/revised vision statement
vision elements and their respective descriptors and success indicators
vision-reality gaps transformed into sectoral goals
Formulation of the Physical Plan
Land Use Plan
Policy Maps
Zoning Ordinance
Formulation of the Sectoral Development Plan
Development Plan
3-Year ELA with LDIP
Annual Investment Plan (AIP)
Suggested Legislative Measures

Implementation Tools
Authority Levers
zoning ordinance
eminent domain
public capital investments
co-management arrangements
Other Tools

Provincial Development and Physical Framework Plan

Guidelines on Provincial/Local Planning and Expenditure Management


The Planning Environment
Development Issues, Goals, Objectives/Tragets
Strategies, Programs, Projects, and Activities

Expanded Summary
Historical Background
Plan Objectives and Context
Coverage of the Plan
Outline of the Plan
The Planning Environment
Location, Land Area, and Political Subdivisions
Population and Settlements
Physical Resources
Transportation and Access
Income, Employment, Service Access, and Poevery
Land Use and Physical Franework
Development Issues, Goals, Objectives/Targets
Development Issues and Problems
Development Goals, Objectives/Targets
Strategies, Programs, Projects, and Activities
Strategies, Programs, Projects, and Activities
Summary of Strategies and PPAs

Comprehensive Land Use Plan

Sec. 20c, LGO

The local government units, shall, in conformity with existing laws, continue to prepare comprehensive land use plans enacted through zoning ordinances
which shall be the primary and dominant bases for the future use of land resources: Provided, that the requirements for food production, human settlements,
and industrial expansion shall be taken into consideration in the preparation of such plans.

The CLUP is not an executory plan but rather a guide or framework for more detailed planning of the area. From the above definition, the following
functions of the CLUP can be inferred:

1. It interprets higher level policies such as those embodied in the national,

regional and provincial physical framework plans.

2 It provides a basis for medium term development planning, investment

programming and development regulation

3. It establishes policies and general proposals for strategic areas to guide the
provision of infrastructure and utility systems

4. As a strategic plan, the CLUP identifies action areas which require a

greater degree of attention than other areas thereby focusing investments
and other intervention measures in those areas for greater impact.

Rationale for the Formulation/Revision of a Comprehensive Land Use Plan

1 Achieve an improved quality of life

2 Guide the orderly development of a city/municipality to
promote the health, safety, welfare and convenience of the
3 Promote sustainable development
4 Preserve special natural features and environmentally critical
5 Translate socio-economic policies into physical policies and plans
6 Comply with the requirements of Article 41 of the Implementing Rules
and Regulations of the Local Government Code of 1991
(Sec. 20, RA 7160)
7 Provide guidelines for the appropriate use of natural resources
8 Allocated land for settlements; industries and other urban uses on land
least suitable for agricultural and farming uses
9 Serve as basis for reclassifying and converting land
10 Reflect changes in the physical, social, and economic characteristics of
the community
11 Incorporate changes in the goals and objectives of the community

Linkage of the Comprehensive Land Use Plan to the Provincial Physical Framework Plan (PPFP) and other Plans

1 Provincial plans shall promote the goals and objectives provided for in the national and regional plan and shall provide the guidelines for the preparation
of city and municipal plans.

2 The city and municipal Comprehensive Land Use Plans shall be consistent with and supportive of the goals and objectives in the provincial plan and
shall provide the guidelines for the development of plans for parts of the city or municipality such as the barangay

3 The barangay plan and other area specific plans, such as heritage area plan, ancestral domain plan etc., shall be consistent with the vision, planing goals
and objectives set forth in the city or municipal plan of which it forms part and shall furthermore, provide the guide to plans of smaller scale such as
neighborhood or community

4 All local plans shall be consistent with the existing national agency plans, i.e. Tourism Master Plan, Forestry Master Plan, Medium Term Agricultural
Development Plan, etc.

5 All local plans shall conform with set national planing goals, policies, as well as planning guidelines and standards promulgated by HLURB as much as

Approaches to CLUP Formulation

Bottom-Up Approach (Integration of Barangay Development Plans)
Top-Bottom Approach

Planning Area
Defined by the cities'/municipalities's political boundaries. This includes all component barangays and the city/municpal waters extending 3 kilometers from
shoreline for coastal LGUs. Thus, the CLUP shall cover both land and water resources of the city/municipality

Planning Period
Covers a planning period of 10 years at the minimum
Volumes of a CLUP
Comprehensive Land Use Plan
Zoning Ordinance
Sectoral Studies
a documentation of the supporting studies that were undertaken to
arrive at the resultant CLUP

HLURB 12-Step Land Use Planning

1 Getting Organized
2 Identifying Stakeholders of the CLUP
3 Setting the Vision (of the LGU)
4 Analyzing the Situation (within the LGU)
5 Setting the Goals and Objectives of the CLUP
6 Establishing the Desired Development Thrust and Defining
the Spatial Strategies
7 Drafting the Land Use Plan
8 Drafting the Zoning Ordinance (ZO)
9 Conducting the Public Hearing on the Draft CLUP and ZO
10 Review, Adoption, & Approval of the CLUP and ZO
11 Implementing the CLUP
12 Monitoring, Reviewing, & Evaluating the CLUP

HLURB Standards
Residential Standards for BP 220 and PD 957, minimum 32 m2 per household to lot area and 24 m2 floor area.
Industrial 2.5 hectares per 000 population
Commercial 1.5%-3.0% of total built-up area
Roads 1.0km / 1.0ha (1,000 m X 10 m) for every 100 hectares
Other Infrastructure 0.38 hectares per 000 population; 5.7 hectares per 15,000 population
Hospitals/Health facilities 0.40 hectares per 000 population
Schools 0.80 hectares per 000 population
Daycare 0.166 hectares per 000 children of age bracket
Recreational Open Space 0.10 hectares per 000 population
0.05 hectares of city/municipal park per 000 population
0.05 hectares of athletic field per 000 population
Government / Administrative Area 0.5 hectares per 000 population

General Outline of a Municipal-Level Comprehensive Land Use Plan

Planning Process and Methodology
General Development Framework
Development Needs and Physical Constraints
Generation and Evaluation of Spatial Alternatives
Preferred Spatial Strategy
Land Use Policies
Water Use Policies
CLUP Implementation

Four Land Use Policy Areas

Protected Areas
Protected Agricultural
Environmental Constrained Areas
forestland (slope is greater than 18%)
waterfalls (escarpments and waterfalls with 40-meter buffer zones)
fault zones (buffer zones of 40 meters)
geohazard areas
Permanent Forest
virgin or old-growth forest
primary broadleaf forest
areas above one thousand meters elevation
areas with very steep gradients
National Parks
Watershed or water catchment reserve
section of forestland with an area of 100-meter radius around rivers and
springs which serve as catchment for water sources being tapped for domestic
water supply and irrigation.
critical river watersheds
integrated social forestry
forestland buffer zones

Settlement Areas
Urban (town center/s)
Rural (upland, coastal, lowland)
Indigenous people's settlements

High Density Residential (refer to building, structural and sanitary codes, clean air and water acts)
Low Density Residential (refer to previous)
Socialized housing (BP 220)
(public) open spaces (refer to local ordinances)
temporary residences (UDHA)

Infrastructure Areas
Transport network
Social infrastructure
Economic infrastructure
Administrative Support

Pedestrian and bicycle network (refer local ordinances)

water, sewage, power, SLF (refer to SWMA, Water and Sanitation Codes)
social support services (refer to DILG regulations, LGC)
air/sea ports and depots (building code, DPWH regulation)
road, rail, and river network (building code, DPWH regulation)

Production Areas
Business District/Tourism (through local ordinances)
SAFDZ (through AFMA, Fisheries Code, CARL)
Non-SAFDZ, but Agricultural (AFMA, CARL)
Mining Areas (Mining Law)
Industrial Estates and Special Economic Zone (PEZA)
Production Land Use - NPAAAD
Agrarians Reform Communities (ARCs)
Agricultural Estates
agroindustrial estates
ranches and fishponds

Specialized Uses or Integrated Mixed Use Areas

Higly-densified and dynamic locations with multiple uses
Military reservations that include residential and even limited commercial functions
scientific institutions and special study areas that house many functions
others, as justified by the planner.

Combined Policy Areas

Policy areas may occasionally have overlaps or shared users (e.g. protective areas and settlements)
Buffer zones
multiple use zones
access corridors

Tools to Evaluate Land Use Plan

Financial Analysis
Economic Analysis
Environmental Impact Assessment
Social Impact Assessment

Standard Colors of Land Use Map

Red shades commercial
Yellow shades residential
Violet shades industrial
Blue institutional
light Green open spaces
dark green forest
light blue tourism
pink entertainment

Land Capability Classes

class description
very good land; can be cultivated safely, requiring only simple but good
farm management practices
good land, can be cultivated safely, require easily applicable conservation
moderately good land; must be cultivated with caution, requires careful
management and complex conservation practices
fairly good land; must be cultivated with extra caution; require careful
D management and complex conservation practices for safe cultivation; more
suitable for pasture or forest
level to nearly level; too stony or very wet for cultivation; limited to pasture
or forest with careful management
steep land; very severely eroded; shallow; not for cultivation; limited to
pasture or forest with careful management
level land; wet most of the time and cannot be economically drained, suited
for fishpond or recreation
very hilly and mountainous, barren and rugged; should be reserved for
recreation and wildlife for reforestation

Review on R1, R2, R3


land use tools objectives advantages disadvantages

land use Too rigid
intensity externalities are minimized Land speculation increases
regulation of density land values increased social externalities, segregating
zoning floor-area ratios low-cost land use tool people by social status
bulk effective tool due to government sterile environment due to separation
building size police power (Euclid v. Amber) of land uses
minimum size lot traffic increases
paving requirements infrastructure is provided
subdivision control provision of curbs, sidewalks, synchronization of development and
increases housing costs
internal servers, water lines capital investment
housing ordinances
sign ordinances
other regulations tree ordinances
grading ordinances
building permits

LGU Authority Levers for Land Use Plan Implementation

Zoning (locational clearance)
Subdivision (deeds of restrictions)
Building Regulation (building permit, building code oversight)
Environmental Law Enforcement Ordinances - trees, signs, grading, air quality

Basic Taxes
Special Levies on Property - Idle Lands Tax
Impact Fees
Special Benefit Levy
Special Education Fund

Fee Simple Purchase
Eminent Domain
Conservation Easements

Public Investment
Local Development Investment Program/Annual Investment Plan

Private Investment Incentives

Fiscal Policies
Joint Ventures
B-O-T Schemes


Concerns Regulated by Zoning

Zone identification
type of land use
permitted uses by right
intensity of use
density limitations, minimum and maximum lot size, area and width lot coverage
maximum coverage, floor area ratio bulk
building size and building height
from setback, back setback, side setback, one side
parking regulatons
sign regulations
right-of-way width
cartway width
curb requirements
fence regulations
storage requirements
landscape ordinance
permitted uses by special exception

Specialized Zoning Techniques

Planned Unit Development (PUD) - mixes land uses
Overlay Zoning
historic districts
heritage conservation
tourism zones
geohazard zones
performance zones - focus on impacts not uses
Agricultural Zoning
leads to food security

Other Land Use Implementing Tools

Taxes and Impact Fees - Internalize Costs

Development Agreements - Reduces legal costs
Transfer of development rights (TDR)
incorporates a market mechanism to mitigate whatever financial burden local law might have imposed on property.

Types of Zoning

Euclidean or Conventional Zoning

Restrictions (exclusionary, height, bulk)
Performance Zoning (based on standards)
energy use
aesthetics (visual impacts)
Cluster zoning or mixed use or transect zoning (from New Urbanism)
incentives such as density bonuses for mixture of uses
complementarity of uses
to preserve open space
continuum of 6,3,-dimensional development standard zones from rural to urban space
Form-based zoning
regulates building form, not land use
for better urban design and aesthetics
Spot Zoning
up zoning a small parcel to a level above that of the surrounding land
in a way that's unreasonable or arbitrary and
not in accord with a comp. plan.
at macro-scale, it can result positively in "mixture of uses"
but can also end up negatively.
arbitrary on the part of zoning officers - can be a cause of graft.

Subdivision Control
Regulatory process that controls the creation of new land parcels
subdivision platting based on the administrative authority to record property plats and deeds

Floor-Area Ratio as Density Control in Zoning

units per hectare persons per hectare

low density 35 and below 210 and below
medium density 36 to 150 211-900
high density 151 and above 900 and above
units per hectare persons per hectare
low density 35 and below 210 and below
medium density 36 to 150 211-900
high density 151 and above 900 and above

Density bonuses can be given by LGUs to PUDs and to innovative projects which try to preserve as much unbuilt land in its site development (more than
30% of the total area).

Comprehensive Development Plan

Environmental Management

Making the CDP

Generating the Planning Data Base
Vision and Goal Setting/Re-validation/Revision
Preparation of the Multi-Year Comprehensive Development plan
Preparation of the Local Development Investment Program
Plan Implementation

Sectoral Components
Health and Nutrituion
Social Welfare and Development
Public Order and Safety
Sports, Recreation, Arts and Culture
agricultural crops
fisheries (inland, marine, brackish)
mining and quarrying
electricity, water, gas, utilities
wholesale and retail trade
transportation and communication
finance, insurance, and related services
economic support
irrigation systems
power generation (mini-hydro)
roads, bridges, ports
flood control and drainage
waterworks and sewerage systems
social support
public socialized housing
facilities for the age, infirm, disadvantaged sectors
public administrative support
government buildings
freedom parks and public assembly areas
Environment and Natural Resources
lands of the public domain
private and alienable and disposable lands
ancestral domain
forest lands
protection forests
production forets
mineral lands
metallic mineral lands
non-metallic mineral lands
parks, wildlife and other reservations
water resources
freshwater (ground, surface)
marine waters
air quality
waste management
organization and management
fiscal management
legislative output
LGU-Civil Society Organizations - Private Sector Linkages

Planning Period
3 years for short term
6 years for medium term

Contents of the CDP

1. Preliminary Pages
resolution adopting the CDP
table of contents
list of tables
list of figures
list of boxes
2. Quick Facts about the LGU (Brief and preferably in bullet form only)
Brief Historical Background
Geo-physical characteristics
location and total land area
Population and Demographic Profile
total population
male and female
urban and rural
school-age population by level
by sex
dependent population, male and female
labor force, male and female
population density
poverty incidence
Social Services
number of schools, hospitals, day care centers
major economic activities
number of business establishments by industry sectors
transport and utilities
major circulation network
sources of water
power supply
communication facilities
solid waste management
general air quality
general water quality
institutional machinery
political subdivisions (districts, barangays)
organizational structure

3. Matrix of Local Development Indicators

4. Comprehensive Development Plan

Vision-Reality Gap Analsyis
Cross-Sectoral/ Special Issues and Concerns
Sectoral Development Plans
Social Development Plan
Economic Development Plan
Infrastructure and Physical Development Plan
Environmental Management Plan
Institutional Development Plan
Each sectoral development plan includes
objectives and targets
programs and projects
proposed legislations
project ideas of project briefs/profiles
5. Local Development Investment Program
list of programs and projects with their corresponding costs
to be funded from local sources ranked by level or urgency
list of programs and projects with their corresponding costs
to be funded from other sources, i.e., province, national
government, private sector, foreign donors, grants, loans, etc.
6. Glossary of Terms
Executive Legislative Agenda (ELA)

planning and budgeting tool
transparency and accountability tool
social mobilization tool
performance management tool
communication tool
convergence tool

12-Step ELA Formulation Process

1 Planning to Plan
2 Prioritizing Issues
3 Consulting with Stakeholders
4 Defining/Re-visiting the LGU Vision and Mission
5 Formulating Goals and Objectives
6 Prioritizing Programs and Capacity Development Needs
7 Determining Legislative Requirements
8 Building Commitment
9 Securing Endorsement and Approval
10 Moving the ELA into Action
11 Popularizing the ELA
12 Managing and Sustaining ELA Implementation

Format of the ELA

LGU Vision and Mission Statement
Brief Profile of the LGU
Development Goals and Strategies (per sector)
Priority Human Resource/Capacity Development Needs and Interventions
Priority Legislative Requirements
Resource Mobilization Strategies
Plan Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation

ELA Agenda Cycle

ELA Preparation
ELA Implementation
ELA Performance Management

Project Development and Management

NEDA Project Development Cycle

Design and Engineering
Ex-Post Evaluation

ADB Project Development Cycle

Project Concept
Design and Engineering
Monitoring and Evaluation

Prefeasibility Studies
rapid analysis of demand
alternative technical schemes to meet the demand
implementation and operating costs of each alternative (based on cost standards(
benefits derived
cost and benefit comparisons to ascertain financial and economic feasibility of each alternative
plan for subsequent stages of project development

*after the Pre-FS

reject/defer conduct of FS/implement/immediately conduct FS

Feasibility Studies
scope of study
program of work
resource requirements
participating entities

*study elements
institutional study
economic study
financial analysis
social study/social impact assessment
environmental study/impact assessment
technical aspects/operations study (operations, techniques, schedule)
market study

EIA Process
Develop Purpose and Need
Public and Agency Scoping
Issue Identification
Alternative Development
Data Collection
Impact Assessment/Mitigation Planning Process
Identify Preferred Alternative
EIS/EA (Process and Documentation)
Public Meeting/Hearing

Government Procurement Process

Procurement by Electronic Means

PhilGEPS (Philippine Government Electronic Procurement System)

Normal Procurement
Preparation of Bidding Documents
Invitation to Bid
Receipt and Opening of Bids
Bid Evaluation
Award, Implementation and Termination of the Contract

Summary of Processes


list of programs and

projects with
Generating the corresponding costs Develop Purpose Preparation of Generation of
Getting Organized Planning to Plan
Planning Database to be funded from and Need Bidding Documents Planning Database
local sources ranked
by level or urgency

list of programs and

projects with their
corresponding costs
to be funded from
Identifying the Vision and Goal-
other sources, i.e. Public and Agency Formulation and/or
Stakeholders of the Seting/Re- Prioritizing Issues Invitation to Bid
province, national Scoping Revision of Goals
CLUP validation/Revision
government, private
sector, foreign
donors, grants,
loans, etc.

Preparation of the
Setting the Vision of Multi-Year Consulting with Receipt and Formulation of the
Issue Identification
the LGU Comprehensive Stakeholders Opening of Bids Physical Plan
Development Plan

Analyzing the Preparation of the Defining/Re-visiting Formulation of the

Situation within the Local Development the LGU Vision and Bid Evaluation Sectoral
LGU Investment Program Mission Development Plan

Setting the Goals

Formulating Goals
and Objectives of Plan Implementation Data collection Post Qualification
and Objectives
the CLUP

Establishing the
Prioritizing Award,
Desired Assessment/
Programs and Implementation, and
Development Thrust Mitigation Planning
Capacity Termination of the
and Defining the Process
Development Needs Contract
Spatial Strategies

Drafting the Land Identify Preferred
Use Plan Alternative

Drafting the Zoning Building ES/EA (Process and

Ordinance Commitment Documentation)

Conducting the
Public Hearing on Public Meeting/
Endorsement and
the Draft CLUP and Hearing

Review, Adoption
Moving the ELA
& Approval of the Decision
into Action
Drafting the Land Identify Preferred
Use Plan Alternative

Drafting the Zoning Building ES/EA (Process and

Ordinance Commitment Documentation)

Conducting the
Public Hearing on Public Meeting/
Endorsement and
the Draft CLUP and Hearing

Review, Adoption
Moving the ELA
& Approval of the Decision
into Action

Implementing the Popularizing the


Managing and
Reviewing, &
Sustaining ELA Implementation
Evaluating the


National Framework for Physical Planning (NFPP)


Vision and Principles

Food Security
Environmental Stability and Ecological Integrity
Rational Urban Development
Spatial Integration
Equitable Access to Physical and Natural Resources
Private-Public Sector Partnership
People Empowerment
Recognition of Rights of Indigenous People
Market Orientation

4 Major Land Use Policy Areas


Philippine Development Plan


Plan Chapters
In Pursuit of Inclusive Growth
Macroeconomic Policy
Competitive Industry and Services Sector
Competitive Agriculture and Fisheries Sector
Accelerating Infrastructure Development
Towards a Resilient and Inclusive Financial Sectdor
Good Governance and Rule of Law
Social Development
Peace and Security
Conservation, Protection, and Rehabilitation of the Environment and Natural Resources

Philippine Agenda 21

The Guiding Principles

poverty reduction
social equity
empowerment and good governance
peace and solidarity
ecological integrity


land use planning (LUP)

refers to the rational and judicious development, utilization and management of land resources in a sustainable manner to ensure that needs of the present
generation can be met without jeopardizing the needs of the future generations.

environmental planning
refers to activities concerned with the management and development of land, as well as the preservation, conservation, and rehabilitation of the human

environmental planner
refers to a person engaged in the practice of environmental planning and duly registered with the Board of Environmental Planning in the manner herein

land use planning (LUP)

refers to the rational and judicious development, utilization and management of land resources in a sustainable manner to ensure that needs of the present
generation can be met without jeopardizing the needs of the future generations. In the context of municipal land use planning exercise in the Philippines,
land use planning is divided into 2 activities:
(a) municipal-wide or general land use planning
(b) poblacin or urban land use planning.

sustainable development
means meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the needs of the future generations

land use plan

refers to the rational approach of allocating available land resources as equitably as possible among competing user groups and for different functions
consistent with the development plan of the area and the Program under this Act (UDHA, 7279)

comprehensive land use plan

refers to a document embodying specific proposals for guiding, regulating growth and/or development. The land use plan allocates and delineates different
land uses in a community and the structures built upon them. The term "comprehensive" means that the plan not only encompasses all geographical parts of
the local government tunic but also includes the different sectors such as physical, environmental, social, economic, administrative, and fiscal matters (Sec.
C.1, p.6, Vol. 5 HLURB CLUP Formulation Guidelines, 1997)

general land use plan

deals primarily with the non-urban large scale uses such as croplands, forests, pasture lands, mining/quarrying areas and swamplands, with areas occupied
by structures treated collectively as "built-up" areas

urban land use plan

basically concerned with the location intensity and amount of land development required for various space-using functions such as residential, commercial,
industrial, institutional, recreation and other activities found in the urban areas. It is concerned with the proper allocation of land areas for these urban uses
based on soil suitabilities, prescribed space standards and various land allocation criteria such a site and accessibility standards and land use compatibility

urban land use planning

involves the allocation of land areas for such space using functions of city life as residential, commercial, industrial, institutional, recreational and other
activities in the "built environment".

urban areas
refers to all cities regardless of their population density and to municipalities with population density of at least five hundred (500) persons per square
kilometer (Sec 3. v, Art 1, RA 7279, 1992)

urbanizable areas
refers to sites and lands which, considering present characteristics and prevailing conditions, display marked and great potential of becoming urban areas
within the period of five (5) years (Sec. 3.w, Art. 1, RA 7279, 1992)

urban form
pertains to the way future population and related activities are organized and distributed over the municipal territory, taking into account the need to retain
some areas in their open character and to ensure safe and sustainable environments for human habitat.

urban land supply management strategies

in-filling of vacant urban lands
urban renewal or redevelopment
agricultural land conversion

urban land demand-management strategies

improved rural services
new alternative centers
relocation of resettlement

zoning ordinance
an implementing tool of the CLUP which provides the different land use districts of the city/municipality. The boundary description of the various zoning
districts and the allowable or permitted uses per zoning district. The CLUP becomes enforceable with the enactment of the zoning ordinance and thus
becomes the basis for the issuance of locational clearance. (p. 64, Sec. I, HLURB CLUP Formulation Guidelines, 1997)

Question: how is zoning enforced through the assessor's office

land registration
process of official recording of rights in land through deeds or titles on properties
answers the WHO and HOW (subject-right)

a methodically arranged public inventory of data concerning properties within a certain country or district, based on a survey of their boundaries
answers the WHERE and HOW MUCH (right-object)
core basis of a land administration system and is defined a a parcel-based and up-to-date land information system containing record of interests in land
two parts: map and registers
the basic building block in any land administration system

land administration
is the process of is the process of determining, recording, and disseminating information about the tenure, value, and use of land when implementing land
management policies (UNECE, 1996)

land policy
whole complex of socio-economic and legal prescriptions that dictate how the land and the benefits from the land are to be allocated (UN ECE, 1996)
land management
The management of all aspects of land including the formation of land policies (Dale and McLaughlin 1988)
the prices soy managing the use and development of land resources in a sustainable way (Bill Robertson, 1998)

land tenure
The act, right, manner or term of holding a landed property
including customary land tenure

Government Procurement Policy Board (GPPB)

town planning
is the art and science of ordering the use of land and siting of buildings and communication routes so as to secure the maximum practicable degree of
autonomy, convenience and beauty

urban and regional planning

an art of anticipating change, and arbitrating between the economic, social, political and physical forces that determine the location, form, intensity, and
effect of urban development; it is concerned with providing the right site at the right time, in the right place for the right people (John Ratcliffe).

an attempt to formulate the principles that should guide us in creating a civilized physical background for human life whose main impetus is foreseeing and
guiding change (Brian McLoughlin)

refers to the scientific, orderly, and aesthetic disposition of land, buildings, resources, facilities and communication routes, in use and in development, with a
view to obviating congestion and securing the maximum practicable degree of economy, efficiency, convenience, sound environment, beauty, health and
well-being in urban and rural communities" (Canadian Institute of Planners, ca. 1919)

the unified development of urban communities and their environs and of states, regions, and the nation as a whole as expressed through determination of the
comprehensive arrangement of land uses and land occupancy and their regulation"
(American Institute of Certified Planners - AICP)