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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

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Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews


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Role of smart grid in renewable energy: An overview


M.S. Hossain a, N.A. Madlool b,n, N.A. Rahim a, J. Selvaraj a,n, A.K. Pandey a,
Abdul Faheem Khan a
a
Centre of Research UMPEDAC, Level 4, Wisma R&D, University of Malaya, 59990 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
b
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kufa, 21 Kufa, Najaf, Iraq

art ic l e i nf o a b s t r a c t

Article history: Smart grid engineering is the key for a benecial use of widespread energy resources, it is a modernized
Received 28 August 2014 electrical grid that uses analog or digital information and communications technology. Renewable energy
Received in revised form itself a thrust area of research due to its availability, applicability and environmental friendly nature and
31 May 2015
the application of smart grid in renewable energy makes it vast and more promising. This fusion enables
Accepted 18 September 2015
the efcient use of renewable energies which is a key challenge for now. The present review paper
attempts to investigate the role of smart grid in the renewable energy. The introductory section sets the
Keywords: role of renewable energy and distributed power in a smart grid system. Subsections cover the concept
Renewable energy and availability of renewable energies, renewable energy power calculation formulae, smart grid con-
Smart grid system
cepts and its feasibility, case studied as performed by different researchers around the World, discussion
Renewable power
and future recommendations and nally the conclusions from the study. To achieve this, articles from
Energy
different sources such as internet, reports, conferences and journals of Elsevier, Springer, Tailor and
Franacis, Wiley and many more have been collected and reviewed. This paper concludes that renewable
energies can be used efciently and in a smart way by using the smart grids. However, the smart grid
technology is not mature enough and needs more research on the same.
& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169
2. Renewable energy: basic concepts and availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169
2.1. Hydro energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1169
2.1.1. Hydropower technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1170
2.1.2. Sizes and capacities of hydroelectric facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1170
2.1.3. World hydroelectric capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1170
2.2. Wind energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1170
2.2.1. Wind turbine technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1171
2.2.2. Investigation the power generated from wind turbine plant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1171
2.3. Solar energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1172
2.3.1. Photovoltaic technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1172
2.3.2. World photovoltaic power stations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1172
2.3.3. Concentrating solar thermal power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1172
2.4. Biomass energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1173
2.4.1. Biomass technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1173
2.4.2. Biofuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1173
2.4.3. Ethanol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
2.4.4. Biodiesel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
2.4.5. Biopower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174
2.5. Geothermal energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1174

n
Corresponding authors.
E-mail addresses: naseer.alkhalidi@uokufa.edu.iq (N.A. Madlool), jeyraj@um.edu.my (J. Selvaraj), adarsh@um.edu.my (A.K. Pandey).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.09.098
1364-0321/& 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1169

2.5.1. Geothermal technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175


2.5.2. Direct-use of geothermal technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
2.5.3. Electricity generation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
2.5.4. Investigate the World Geothermal electric capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1175
3. Renewable energy power calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1176
4. Smart grid: an overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1176
4.1. Substation automation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1178
4.2. Network reliability. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
5. Case studies on smart grid: renewable energy perspective. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1180
6. Conclusions, current trends and future recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
6.1. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
6.2. Current trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1182
6.3. Future recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
Acknowledgment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1183

1. Introduction generate, stepped up to a higher voltage at which it connects to


the transmission network. The transmission network will move
Energy is able to do the work. In science, energy can be neither the long distance, sometime across international boundaries, until
created nor be destroyed, just transformed into another form. it reaches its wholesale customer (usually the company that owns
Energy and its conversion are vital for all life in the world and the the local distribution network) [4]. On arrival at a substation, the
basic part of the energy conversion includes into useable energy power will stepped down from a transmission level voltage. As it
production. During this process, the energy can be transformed exits the substation, it enters the distribution wiring. Finally, upon
into several different forms. The different form of energy can get arrival at the service location, the power is stepped down again
from nonrenewable and renewable energy sources. The most uses from the distribution voltage to the required service voltage [5].
energy sources are form nonrenewable fossil fuels, oil, natural gas In this paper attempt has been made to present the overview of
and coal. Another nonrenewable source is element uranium whose smart grid technology and its role in renewable energy. Section 1
can be created hug heat and ultimately electricity. Fossil fuels and represents the introductory part, Section 2 represent the basic
nuclear energy are the leading energy sources and can be stored in concept of renewable energy technologies, their sizes and capa-
many countries. The uses of fossil fuels have almost been double cities and worldwide availability. Section 3 presents the basic
from 630,000 to 121,000 TW h and the uses of coal and natural gas renewable energy formulae with examples, Section 4 presents an
has also increased in the year 19732010. However, the uses of overview of the smart grid technology, Section 5 presents the case
nuclear energy are much lower than the fossil fuels, about studies as presented by the different researchers around the world
84000 TW h in 2010 [1]. and nally the conclusions, current trends and future recom-
The use of renewable energy increased greatly just after the mendation from the study has been presented in the last i.e.
rst big oil crisis in the late seventies. Although in most power Section 6.
generating systems, the main source of energy (the fuel) can
manipulate, this is not true for solar, water and wind energies [2].
The solar energy is the main source for renewable energy which
2. Renewable energy: basic concepts and availability
can be used directly as Bioenergy and other related renewable
sources. Where a small part of the solar energy that reaches the
There are many renewable energy sources available in the
surface of the earth is used in photosynthesis. The irradiation solar
world. The basic part of these kind of energy sources are free and
energy to energy stored in the biomass is only 4.66%. According
available. Here will be described all the renewable energy tech-
to International Energy Agency, about 15,000 TW h was used for
nologies and worldwide their production capacity.
energy purposes in 2010. Where wind energy utilization was
574 TW h in 2012 and the hydropower was 3438 TW h in 2010.
However, the utilization of solar energy is very low, about 2.1. Hydro energy
100 TW h [1].
The main problems with these renewable energy sources are The hydropower main source is water, which is sinuous and
cost and availability; wind, hydro and solar power are not always then converted into electricity. The power of water is called
available where and when needed. Unlike conventional sources of hydroelectric or hydropower. In hydro power plant, the water is
electric power, these renewable sources are not dispatch able the reserved or storing from river by using a dam that water will
power output cannot control. Daily and seasonal effects and lim- through a turbine. When turbine spanning, the generator produ-
ited predictability result in intermittent generation. Smart grids cing electricity [6].
promise to facilitate the integration of renewable energy and will There is another type of hydroelectric plant which is called
provide other benets as well [2]. A smart grid is an electrical grid pumped storage and that can be able to storage power. This sys-
that uses information and communication technology. The infor- tem will work in the turbine by pumping the water from the river
mation about the behaviors of suppliers and consumers, which is or from lower to upper reservoir and the generator spin the tur-
automated fashion to improve the efciency, reliability, econom- bine backward. This process will be running continuously and
ics, and sustainability of the production and distribution of elec- produces more power which will be ready to use. Electricity
tricity [3]. Most smart grids are located aside from closely popu- generated from the generators because that spins the turbines
lated areas, near a fuel source and at a dam site, to take advantage forward. The power production from the big, minor or micro-
from the renewable energy sources. They are usually quite large to hydroelectric plants which will be enough electricity for a farm,
take benets of the economies of scale. The electric power, which ranch and house.
1170 M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

Fig. 1. Diagram of a hydroelectric power plant [7].

2.1.1. Hydropower technology


A short description of hydropower technology. In the future for
Smart Grid system, hydropower could be an important storage Fig. 2. Hydroelectricity generation grows steadily by region [11].
resource and this is a part of renewable energy which will be a
good market in the power semiconductor. The hydro power sta- Table 1
Ten of the largest hydroelectric producers as at 2009 [6,12].
tion will be dened as three types that will convert mechanical
energy moving water into electrical energy [5]: Country Annual hydro- Installed Capacity % of total
electric production capacity factor capacity
1) Conventional storage, (TW h) (GW)
2) Pumped storage and
China 652.05 196.79 0.37 22.25
3) Run of the river. Canada 369.5 88.974 0.59 61.12
Brazil 363.8 69.080 0.56 85.56
Whereas, in next future using tidal for generating potential United States 250.6 79.511 0.42 5.74
Russia 167.0 45.000 0.42 17.64
electricity, not yet widely used. These generated power will be
Norway 140.5 27.528 0.49 98.25
more powerful than solar and wind energy. Another renewable India 115.6 33.600 0.43 15.80
energy is the wave source which is also in experimental level and Venezuela 85.96 14.622 0.67 69.20
it will be a very interesting part of semiconductor system. Fig. 1 Japan 69.2 27.229 0.37 7.21
Sweden 65.5 16.209 0.46 44.34
shows a whole system of hydropower facilities [7].

2.1.2. Sizes and capacities of hydroelectric facilities A hydroelectric plant is little operating at its full power rating
The worldwide only three hydroelectric facilities are in opera- over a full year. The ratio between installed capacity and annual
tion about 10 GW and above. They are Itaipu Dam at 14 GW, Guri at average power rating is the capacity factor. The installed capacity
10.2 GW and Gorges 3 Dam at 22.5 GW. However, it is a common is the sum of all generator nameplate power ratings. Table 1,
view that the largest hydroelectric power plant facilities will be shows the ten countries hydroelectricity installation and produc-
producing huge amount of power [8]. Present in these kind of tion capacity [6].
power station with advanced facilities and their production
sometime more than double from their installed capacity which is 2.2. Wind energy
larger than a nuclear power station.
Wind power is generated from air ow, using the turbine to
2.1.3. World hydroelectric capacity produce mechanical to electrical energy. Here some example of
The world hydroelectric capacity is ranking based on annual wind power utilization in windmills, wind pumps, sail for pro-
energy production and installation rate. In globally 16 percent of pelling ships etc.
electricity consumption form Hydro, which is rapidly increasing There are hundreds of individual wind turbines in large wind
during the year from 2003 to 2009 [9]. Whereas, the electricity farms that are connected to the stimulating power transmission
production 3427 terawatt-hours in 2010. network. It is steadier, stronger, and less visual impact of offshore
32 percent of global hydropower is produced by 150 countries wind, while considerably higher cost of construction and main-
tenance. The small onshore wind farm is adapted for isolated loca-
where are located in the Asia-Pacic region in 2010. Same year, the
tions. Producing electricity through small domestic wind turbines is
biggest country in China has the largest hydroelectric power plant
becoming more and more prevalent in utility companies [13].
and their production about 721 terawatt hours, where domestic
Wind power is an alternative source to fossil fuels. Where,
electricity used only 17 percent. Hydroelectric power is the main
wind power is plentiful, renewable, no emission and used the little
internal stimulating energy production in some countries, for land for installation as well [4]. This is a better effect on the
instance, Brazil, Canada, New Zealand, Norway, Paraguay, Aus- environment than other power sources. Most than a quarter of
tralia, Switzerland, and Venezuela. Some other countries from the electricity is generated from wind in Denmark in 2011. Wind
hydroelectric dams can produce electricity about 100 percent in power is being used economically by 83 countries all over the
Paraguay and 90 percent is exported to Brazil and Argentina, and world. Wind energy productions were more than 2.5% of total
9899% of electricity is produced from hydroelectric sources in global electricity use in 2010, and growing rapidly at over 25%
Norway [10]. Fig. 2, shows the current and future hydro power yearly. The cost per unit of energy production almost equals the
generated by those regions [11]. cost of new coal and natural gas installation [14].
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1171

Fig. 3. Wind turbine power plant ow diagram [14].

2.2.1. Wind turbine technology over the world. In Germany is the third country that used the
A wind turbine can be dened as the tool that changes the wind power as a main supply for power. In April, 2010, Germany
energy of the kinetic from the wind, which is sometimes known as launched its rst the offshore wind park, which is called Alpha
the wind energy, into automatic power throughout procedures Ventus in the North Sea. Though offshore wind is considered a
named the wind power. In the case of the mechanical power is main growth place for a government, it aims to produce
employed in producing electricity, the tool might be referred to as 7.6 Gigawatts of wind energy established by 2020. Hence, one
a wind power plant or wind turbine. As the mechanical power is obstacle is evolved is that the loss of grid connections from the
conducted to impel machinery, to pumping water or crush grain North Sea coast to the main markets of southern Germany. Ger-
or, the tool known as a windmill. In the same lines, it may be many's wind power strategy is continuously faced with critics
known a cartridge clip if it used for charging the batteries. proclaiming that it has a high cost and being unsteady. In addi-
Accordingly, the growth of windmill and up-to-date it's engi- tion, those inquirers claim that these wind patterns are irregular.
neering. The wind turbine energy production in vertical axis and The fourth mast using the wind power energy is Spain. In order to
variety of horizontal kinds. The minor turbines are devoted for apply the target of producing, even more of the national, elec-
uses like charging batteries or sub-power for boats. Moreover, the tricity demand from wind power, Spain needs a valid and plan-
big connected arrays of turbines are considered under the present ned grid framework work to support a sector that increased 11
increasingly signicant provider of wind power-produced elec- percent in 2011. The fth most using the wind-power energy is
tricity [15]. India. In 1990s witnessed the begging of using wind energy in
Fig. 3 below indicates a wind-turbine energy plant employed India. The subcontinent is a relative factor in this eld, but soon it
the active power in wind for conveying the monotonous power.
will become the fth largest wind power market all over the
Wind power can be considered as a live source of energy and even
world. Thus, in 2011, INDIA HAD 16,084 MW of wind power
in the ancient days wind was utilized as a normal source of power.
productivity. The sixth most using the wind power energy is
This power was exploited for carrying out a wind range of auto-
France with a growing wind power potential, and of 6800 MW. In
matic works. It can be regarded as the smoothest forms of energy
2011, France encountered many problems regarding the wind
that is used to produce the power. There are no signicant useless
power installation, i.e., the lack of protection zones and grid
supplies from wind turbines throughout operations in comparison
connections whereby wind turbines are not permitted. The
with other energy sources. Thus, the approximate every year wind
seventh most using the wind-power energy is Italy. The Italian
energy attainable on earth is about 13  1012 kW h, the same to
government, in 1999, planned to launch 2500 MW of wind power
1500 power stations delivering 1000 MW of energy.
by 2010. Italy increased this intent in 2007 and by 2011; it had
6747 MW of wind power amount supported by the worlds most
2.2.2. Investigation the power generated from wind turbine plant
The world largest wind energy generated in China by the generous feed in tariffs for electricity produced by wind farms.
report of the Global Wind Energy Council and cannot compare The eight most using the wind power energy is the United
these production to other countries wind power around the Kingdom. U.K plans to extend up to 29,000 MG of volume by
world. In China, it is estimated that about less than 80 or above 2020 with a cost of a cost of around 159 billion dollars. The ninth
wind turbine farms are presently working. However, the rst most using the wind power energy is Canada. The Canadian wind
lasting magnetic rising wind turbine was recorded in China. This energy association has a prospective strategy for producing
turbine permits the electricity production even at low wind power through wind energy. They aim to produce 55,000 MW by
speeds within a function 62,733 MW. China nowadays becomes 2025 to suggest 20% of the country's energy requirements. This
the biggest wind energy produced over the United States com- would also redeem 17 megatons of greenhouse gas set forth
paring with 2010. Recently, wind energy has grown spectacularly every year. Finally is Portugal, which is scaled secondly compar-
the entire world. Now, it is regarded as one of the backbone basis ing with Denmark due to wind power's participation to elec-
of the economic development in more than 12 turbine plants tricity supply; with 15 percent of the country's power produced
doing business. China has an excellent wind power potential as a out of the wind. Furthermore, it is also planned to raise its wind
result of a large land mass and long coastline means. On the other energy from 3535 MW in 2009 to 5300 MW by 2012 [14]. Fig. 4
hand, the United States can be considered the second best wind shows the global wind power generation forecasted in GW from
power generated country is the United States. The country's 2010 to 2015. Where, Asia is the rst largest region for wind
generated electricity is generated by wind power is about 3%. power production. While, some other regions: Europe, America is
Despite ve states in the US, the level is up 10 percent, Texas also increasing the production of wind energy as well [16].
includes the greatest wind energy range with 10,400 MW. If we Table 2 shows the world ten countries wind energy production
consider Texas as the country would be the sixth wind energy all in 2011 [17].
1172 M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

Fig. 4. Global wind energy annual market forecasting (GW) [16].

Table 2
Production wind energy worldwide in 2011 [17].

Country Produced wind electricity (MW) Year

China 62,733 2011


United States 46,919 2011
Germany 29,060 2011
Spain 21,674 2011
India 16,084 2011
France 6800 2011
Italy 6747 2011
The United Kingdom 6540 2011
Canada 5265 2011
Portugal 4083 2011

2.3. Solar energy Fig. 5. Simplied schematics of a grid-connected residential PV power system [22].

Solar energy comes from sunlight as a conversion way. This countries. Also for those stand-alone systems allows activated at
energy converted into photovoltaic direct energy or indirectly night and those of limited sunlight can be applied. Fig. 5 shows an
concentrated power of solar. The solar concentration systems, the example a residential photovoltaic grid connected system [22].
large amount of sunlight obtains energy through a small beam by
using mirror, lenses or tracing systems. Photovoltaic uses the
photoelectric effect to convert light into electric current [18]. 2.3.2. World photovoltaic power stations
In 1980s the rst solar power concentrated commercial plant The list below shows, photovoltaic power stations that are over
were established. The world largest concentrated solar panel 50 MW in current net capacity in Chart 4. Most are unique pho-
installation with 354 MW in Mojave Desert of California. Another tovoltaic power stations and others are groups of co-located plants
two biggest solar power station in Spain, which is Solnova and that are separate transformer connections to the grid by various
Andasol about 150 MW respectively. However, the world's largest independent power productions. In April, 2013 plants have a
photovoltaic power station in the United Stated in Agua Caliente combined capacity of over 4 GW on this list. The list indicates that
Solar project, which is more than 250 MW and the next is in the almost 1/3 of total global capacity of utility-scale plants of more
Charanka Solar Park in India about 221 MW respectively [19]. than 10 MW, reported some 12 GW by Wiki-Solar at the end of
February 2013 [20]. The largest photovoltaic power station and
2.3.1. Photovoltaic technology capacity in the world shown in Table 3.
In photovoltaic technology, the solar cell can be described as a Fig. 6 shows global solar power generation capacity in GW form
device that produces, direct current and power uctuating with 2004 to 2013. The report shows that the Germany is leading the
the ux of sunlight. Practically, this normally demands shifting to solar power generation followed by Italy while, China is the third
wanted voltages or similar current (AC) by using of converters. largest solar power generation country by 2013 [41].
Inside the solar modules, the solar cell is collaborating as coined.
They are connected to form series to an inverter. Besides, an
inverter produces AC power by using a desired voltage after the 2.3.3. Concentrating solar thermal power
want to change the frequency and phase [20,21]. The concentrating solar power system is capable to store
These powers come through from wired to smart grid to dis- thermal and electric energy over up to a 24 h period. At pick hour
tribute many residential systems and this a big electric market for it will be high performance of power, electricity or thermal energy
a developed country. The grid connected photovoltaic systems are and demand occurs at about 5 pm. These power systems can be
utilized for storing the energy. There will be many applications used abound 35 h for storing thermal and electrical energy
such systems as like satellites and lighthouses, batteries or power respectively. Table 4 shows a largest operational solar thermal
generators are usually launched as backups in developing power station location and their capacity [42].
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1173

Table 3
World's largest photovoltaic power stations (50 MW or larger) [23].

PV power station Country DC peak power Notes References


(MWp)

Agua Caliente Solar Project USA 250 AC 397 MW when complete [24]
Charanka Solar Park India 221 Completed 2012 [25,26]
Golmud Solar Park China 200 Completed 2011 [23,2729]
Mesquite Solar project USA 150 up to 700 MW when complete
Neuhardenberg Solar Park Germany 145 Completed September 2012. A group of 11 co-located plant by the same [30]
developer but with different IPPs
Templin Solar Park Germany 128.48 Completed September 2012 [31]
Toul-Rosires Solar Park France 115 Completed November 2012 [32]
Perovo Solar Park Ukraine 100 Completed 2011 [33]
Sarnia Photovoltaic Power Plant Canada 97 Constructed 20092010 [34,35]
Montalto di Castro Photovoltaic Power Italy 84.2 Constructed 20092010
Station
Finsterwalde Solar Park Germany 80.7 Phase I completed 2009, phase II and III 2010 [35]
Okhotnykovo Solar Park Ukraine 80 Completed 2011
SolarparkSenftenberg Germany 78 Phase II and III completed 2011, another 70 MW phase planned [36]
Lieberose Photovoltaic Park Germany 71.8 [37,38]
Rovigo Photovoltaic Power Plant Italy 70 Completed November 2010 [39,40]
Olmedilla Photovoltaic Park Spain 60 Completed September 2008
Strasskirchen Solar Park Germany 54
Puertollano Photovoltaic Park Spain Opened 2008

Fig. 6. Global solar power generation capacity (GW) [41].

2.4. Biomass energy Biomass, in the general sense, can be described as a biologically
produced content founded on hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. The
The biomass is also a renewable energy and that can be dened approximate biomass output approaches 146 billion tons a year,
as a biological material. Where the biomass energy came from mostly composed of wild plant outgrowth [52].
living or recently living organisms. Furthermore, this energy came In general, biofuels are sorted into two main divisions rested
from plants and some plant-derived materials, which is called upon the source of biomass. Producing biofuels the main sources
lignocelluloses [49]. The biomass energy used as direct application taken from corn starch and sugarcane etc. The sugarcane has
and producing heat by combustion and indirect process as biofuel. natural bioethanol and alcohol that can make fuel. That fuel also
During the biofuel process conversion, it will maintain by various can be used to directly produce electricity or act as an additive to
methods into: chemical, thermal and biochemical etc. gasoline shows in Fig. 7. Though, utilizing food -based resource for
fuel production leads to food, lack problems [53]. The second
2.4.1. Biomass technology generation of biofuels exploits nonfood-based biomass origins
Concerning the biomass-organic issue, many types is there such as agriculture and municipal waste. It mostly consists of
nominally plants, remaining from woods and agriculture. Power, lignocelluloses biomass, which is not edible and is a low-value
waste for many industries, despite of being the favored alternative
fuels and chemicals can be produced by using the organic com-
economic production of second generation, biofuel is not yet
ponent of municipal and industrial wastes. As it is known, wood
performed because of the technological issues. These issues are
had been manipulated to supply heat for older ages, which is
mainly related to chemical inertness and structural rigidity of
resulting in growing the use of biomass technologies. In 2007,
lignocelluloses biomass. At bellow, a short denition product from
Energy Information Administration reports that 53% of all
biomass resources [5456].
renewable energy expended in the U.S were biomass-based [50].
Furthermore, biomass technologies break down organic materials 2.4.2. Biofuels
to discharge reservoir energy out of the sun. The course which is Biofuels are produced from biomass in liquid or gaseous fuels.
adopted here relied on the class of biomass, and its designed end- It plays an important role in transportation, and some for elec-
use [51]. tricity production. Wider use of biofuels brings a great deal of
1174 M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

References

[44,45]
[43]

[46]

[48]
[47]
Manchasol-1 completed January 2011, with 7.5 h heat storage Manchasol-2 completed April 2011, with 7.5 h heat storage
Extresol 1 completed February 2010, Extresol 2 completed December 2010, Extresol 3 completed August 2012, with 7.5 h

Aste 1A Completed January 2012, with 8 h heat storage, Aste 1B Completed January 2012, with 8 h heat storage
Helioenergy 1 completed September 2011, Helioenergy 2 completed January 2012
Palma del Rio 2 completed December 2010, Palma del Rio 1 completed July 2011

Fig. 7. Flow diagram of the whole process of energy from biomass system [57] with
permission from Elsevier.
Solacor 1 completed February 2012, Solacor 2 completed March 2012

benet for our energy security, economic growth, and environ-


Helios 1 completed May 2012 Helios 2 completed August 2012

mental. New forms of biofuels are the main biofuels research at


present. For instance, ethanol and biodiesel, and biofuels conver-
sion processes [58,59].
Completed 2011, with 7.5 h thermal energy storage

Completed December 2011, with 7.5 h heat storage

2.4.3. Ethanol
Ethanol alcohol is composed of the starch of corn grain ori-
ginally. Generally employed as an addition to petroleum-based
fuels for decreasing noxious air emissions and increasing octane.
Nowadays, probably 1/2 gasoline sold in the US, and 510% are
ethanol among them [60].

2.4.4. Biodiesel
thermal energy storage
Collection of 9 units

The benets of biodiesel for air quality are meaningful even


small utilize. Under the condition of a catalyst for forming ethyl or
Completed 2010

methyl ester, biodiesel is obtained by means of the process that


the compounds organically-derived oils with alcohol (ethanol or
methanol). The biomass-derived ethyl or methyl esters can be
Notes

together with conventional diesel, or as an entire user fuel [61].


Fig. 8 shows the global biofuels production in 2013. Where, North
Torre de Miguel Sesmero
Mojave Desert California

America is ranked No. 1 for biofuels and Ethanol production in


Alczar de San Juan

Alczar de San Juan

2013, as reported form world energy review 2014. However, the


San Jos del Valle

rest of the world, producing very little amount of biodiesel and


Palma del Ro

Puerto Lpice

Ethanol [62].
El Carpio
Country Location

Granada
Seville

2.4.5. Biopower
cija

Bio power is the production of electricity or heater from bio-


mass resources. Bio power technologies with 10 Gigawatts of
installed capacity are priority options in the US currently. It
Spain
Spain
Spain

Spain
Spain
Spain
Spain
Spain
Spain
Spain
USA

includes precise combustion, co-ring, and anaerobic digestion


Largest operational solar thermal power stations [42].

[50]. We can see the world biomass power station and their
Palma del Rio Solar Power Station
Solar Energy Generating Systems

Helioenergy Solar Power Station

capacity from Table 5.


Extresol Solar Power Station
Solnova Solar Power Station
Andasol solar power station

Solacor Solar Power Station


Helios Solar Power Station
Manchasol Power Station
Valle Solar Power Station

Aste Solar Power Station

2.5. Geothermal energy

Geothermal energy is a type of thermal energy. It is derived


from the earth and store inside automatically. The temperature of
the matter depends on the energy of the thermal energy. The
earth's crust has the geothermal energy that includes the imagi-
Capacity (MW) Name

native formation of the planet (20%) and radioactive decay of


minerals (80%) [67,68].
The thermal energy is produced by the radioactive decompose
and temperature gets 5000 C (9000 F) at the earths heat. The heat
evolves directly from the core to the encompassing cooler rock. In
Table 4

354
150
150
150

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

the case of high degrees and load, the rock will be melted and
producing magma convention comes up due to it's slighter than the
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1175

Fig. 8. World biofuels production by region [62].

Table 5
World biomass power stations and capacity [63,64].

Rank Station Country Capacity Ref


(MW)

1 Tilbury B Power Station United 750 [63,65]


Kingdom
2 Alholmens Kraft Power Finland 265 [65]
Station
3 Poaniec Power Station Poland 205 [64]
4 Rodenhuize Power Station Belgium 180 [64]
5 Wisapower Power Station Finland 150 [66]
Fig. 9. Sketch of an atmospheric exhaust geothermal power-plant [73].

concrete rock. Thus, water from the magma and heat from the rock exhausts or atmospherically (back-pressure) [72]. It is noted that
on the outer surface up reaches to 370 C (700 F) [69]. atmospheric exhaust turbines are easier and less price. The steam,
Hot springs, geothermal energy was used for washing for many coming directly from dry steam wells or, after separation, from wet
years in the Paleolithic times and for space warming in Roman wells, is going under a turbine and burned out into the atmo-
times, but only now it is better recognized for electricity genera- sphere shown in Fig. 9 [73].
tion. It is estimated that about 10,715 MW (MW) of geothermic In this type of unit, steam using (from the same inlet load) per
power worldwide is online in 24 countries. Additionally, kilowatt-hour provided is nearly double of that of a diminished
28 Gigawatts of geothermal heating volume are established for unit. Nerveless, the atmospheric exhaust turbines are very bene-
area heating, spas, space heating, industrial strategies, desalination cial as pilot plants, stand-by plants, in the case of tiny supplies
and agricultural uses [70]. from disconnected seedbeds, and for creating electricity from
examining wells throughout eld development 6. In addition, they
2.5.1. Geothermal technologies are also practiced when the steam has a great non-condensable
In general, geothermal technologies employs the pure, main- steam content ( 412% by weight). The atmospheric exhaust units
tainable heat from the Earth, so the geothermal resources, invol- can be constructed and installed very quickly and put into
ving the heart reserved in deep ground hot water and rock, existed operation in less more than 1314 months from their organized
a few miles under the Earth's surface. That extremely high-tem- date. This kind of device is usually presented in 10 MWe size [73].
perature, dissolved rock is famous as magma located bottomless in
the Earth [71]. 2.5.4. Investigate the World Geothermal electric capacity
The International Geothermal Association (IGA) referred that
2.5.2. Direct-use of geothermal technologies 10,715 MW (MW) of geothermal energy in 24 countries are found
The hot water on the Earth's surface might be adopted for online. This is anticipated to produce 67,246 GW h of electricity in
various commercial and industrial uses. Direct-use benets 2010 [92], which represent a 20% up in online volume since 2005.
involve drying crops, heating buildings, heating water at sh IGA plans to increase to 18,500 MW by 2015 because of the pro-
farms, and other industrial usages like boiling milk [71]. jects under consideration are located in places previously pro-
posed to have little notable resources [74].
2.5.3. Electricity generation Recently, 2012, U.S has become number one in the world of geo-
It basically occurs in traditional gas turbines and dual plants thermic electricity output with 3086 MW of launching capacity from
relaying on the properties of the geothermal resource. Addition- 77 power plants. The largest group of geothermic power companies
ally, classical steam turbines need liquids at temperatures reaching over the world is found at The Geysers where it is a geothermic major
minimum 150 C and only present with either compressing in California [75]. Philippines scones number one regarding the
1176 M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

highest production with 1904 MW of capacity online of geothermic electrical grid that uses analog or digital information and com-
power producing about 27% of Philippine electricity generation [74]. munications technology. In renewable energy, smart grid is a
Fig. 10 shows the world geothermal electricity production and instal- sector or a communication area that can connect the production
lation capacity based on forecasting report [76]. from renewable energy sources to the grid. However, the com-
Table 6 indicates the geothermal energy and its production munication in between renewable energy production to smart grid
volume for a few selected countries in the world. brings many challenges such as stability issues, complicated
operating process and remote control together. The electrical
power system is a principal structure of modern society. This
3. Renewable energy power calculation power distribution network reaches all most every home, ofce,
factory and institution in developed countries and developing
Table 7 identies some formulas and examples of the renew- countries such as Malaysia, China and India. Electrical power and
able energy. Where, it is very easy to nd the renewable energy distribution is a combined complex system and no single entity
power calculation. For the example, it shows a clear concept to use has complete control of these multi-scale, nor does any such entity
those formulas in a practical way. There are several equations, but have the ability to evaluate, monitor and manage them in real
these are the basic equations for renewable energy. time. The grid is not only electrical transmission system from
power plants to the substation, but it also covers the distribution,
electricity from the substations to the individual user. There will
be many challenging processes and technology are included in the
4. Smart grid: an overview
smart grid system, such as monitoring and analysis, automation or
control (active control of high voltage device, robustness, relia-
The grid is a network of line that can cross each to form a
bility, security and efciency etc), integration and control of dis-
connection to another connection. A smart grid is a modernized
tributed energy resources such as micro grid, renewable energies,
solid oxide, fuel cells, battery storage systems etc. There will be
needed advance satellite, communications and computers for
installing several devices, such as phasor measurement units
(PMU), digital frequency recorders (DFR), dynamic swing records
(DSR) and need global positioning system (GPS). The wide area
management systems (WAMS) devices will be installed for big
area such as New York area. Now those devices need protection
and security. For security reason need to develop integrated,
metric analysis and their corresponding states. Another important
need to develop consumers and economic factors for potential
electricity markets. These technologies are covered transmission,
sub-transmission and distribution in smart grid system [83].
The worlds power grids were designed without time-to-time
when they grew. Grid connections began between the generating
stations and the loads of point-to-point. Generally, loads could be
Fig. 10. The world geothermal electricity production and installation capacity [76]. restricted large consumers, for instance, a factory, streetcar line

Table 6
Installed geothermal electric capacity [74,77,78].

Country Capacity (MW) Capacity (MW) Capacity (MW) Capacity (MW) Percentage of national elec- Percentage of global geother-
2007 2010 2013 2015 tricity production mal production

United States 2687 3086 3389 3450 0.3 29


Philippines 1969.7 1904 1894 1870 27 18
Indonesia 992 1197 1333 1340 3.7 11
Mexico 953 958 980 1017 3 9
Italy 810.5 843 901 916 1.5 8
New Zealand 471.6 628 895 1005 10 6
Iceland 421.2 575 664 665 30 5
Japan 535.2 536 537 519 0.1 5
Iran 250 250
El Salvador 204.2 204 204 204 25
Kenya 128.8 167 215 594 11.2
Costa Rica 162.5 166 208 207 14
Nicaragua 87.4 88 104 159 10
Russia 79 82 97 82
Turkey 38 82 163 397
Papua-New Guinea 56 56 56 50
Guatemala 53 52 42 52
Portugal 23 29 28 29
China 27.8 24 27 27
France 14.7 16 15 16
Ethiopia 7.3 7.3 8 7.3
Germany 8.4 6.6 13 27
Austria 1.1 1.4 1 1.2
Australia 0.2 1.1 1 1.1
Thailand 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1177

Table 7
Basic formulas for renewable energy [5,7982].

Name of Renewable The energy generates equation Example


energy

Hydropower (Water The power available from falling water can be calculated from The power is calculated for a turbine that is 85% efcient, with water at
energy) the ow rate and density of water, the height of fall, and the 62.25 pounds/cubic foot (998 kg/cubic meter) and a ow rate of 2800 cubic-feet/
local acceleration due to gravity. In SI units, the power is: second (79.3 cubic-meters/second), gravity of 9.80 m/s2 and with a net head of
480 ft (146.3 m).
P Q gh In SI units:
where Power MW 0:85  99879:39:80146:3
1000000

P is power in watts Which gives 96.4 MW.

is the dimensionless efciency of the turbine

is the density of water in kilograms per cubic meter

Q is the ow in cubic meters per second

g is the acceleration due to gravity

h is the height difference between inlet and outlet
Wind turbine (Wind Consider the power available from the wind: the wind power For a VAWT with 40 tall wings and a 30 diameter arc, the swept area
energy) equation: A 12 ft2 1.1 m2
P 1AV 3 Wind speed @ 15 mph 6.7 m/s
2
Where So the Wind Power at 15 mph is: P 1/2(1.2)(1.1)(6.7)3 198 W
 P power in watts Consider if the wind speed doubles to 30 mph (13.4 m/s)notice that the power
 The air density (1.2 kg/m3 @ sea level and 20 C) increases more than 8 times!
 A The swept area of the turbine blades (m2 square meters) Wind Power at 30 mph P 1/2(1.2)  (1.1)  (13.4)3 almost 1600 W.
 V wind speed ( meters per second)
Solar energy For solar energy, all of these electrical units of measure are This equation is simple load analysis but for solar PV power, we can use this
used together to determine the Volts, Amps and Watts for any formula, as for:
particular solar electric application.
P VI One single solar panel from type standard 150 W/24 V can deliver a power of
150 W per hour, considering full sunshine.
Where One solar panel of 150 W/24 V produce between 150 W  4 h 600 W h and
150 W  6 h 900 W h.
 P is power (W) One battery of 12 V/110 Ah has a capacity of 12 V  110 Ah 1320 Wh
 V is voltage (Volt)
 I is current (amp)
Biomass energy The most commonly used approach to determining a CHP Consider a gas turbine CHP system that produces steam for space heating with
(Combined heat and power) systems efciency is to calculate the following characteristics:
total system efciency.
P
WE Q TH Fuel Input (MMBtu/hr) 41
3 Q FUEL
Electric efciency: Electric Output (MW) 3.0
WE 
EE P Q  Thermal Output (MMBtu/hr) 17.7
Q FUEL  TH

Where Using the total system efciency metric, the CHP system efciency is 68 percent
(3.0  3.41317.7)/41).
 o is total system efciency Using the effective electric efciency metric, the CHP system efciency is 54
 WE is net useful power output percent (3.0  3.413)/(41  (17.7/0.8).
 QTH is net useful thermal outputs
 QFUEL is total fuel input
 EE is Effective electric efciency
 p is equals the efciency of the conventional technology
Geothermal energy The theoretical efciency of the cycle may be calculated from A power plant is operated with a steam temperature of 1000oF and a condenser
the following formula: temperature of 100oF. Calculate the theoretical efciency.
 
TCE T hTh T l Ts 1000 460 1460 R

Where Tc 100460 560 R


 
 TCE Theoretical cycle efciency Efficiency 1460  560=1460  100 61:6%
 Th absolute temperature of the steam leaving the boiler R
 Tl absolute temperature of the condenser R

and substations for residences. Both of the decisions for the human's control. It is so convenient for mortal to utilize grid for
locations and power plants of customers depend upon the topol- automatic circuit breakers at strategic points in case of emergency.
ogy of the network [84]. With the development of technology, there are multifarious kinds of
There are separate hierarchies for the connections: the greater devices for solving that problem. For instance, telemetry, remotely
and power is being transported, the long distance and the greater activated switches, and centralized control rooms. Utilize the Recloser-
the voltage. There is an indispensable for segments interfaces to circuit breaker to close and restore the circuit timely [86].
keep switching, circus-breakers, and transformers. Over time, A compact outlook of a smart grid structure is in Fig. 11. In the
connections transform into the star topologies from a substation at gure, the offshore wind farm, solar plants, fossil fuel based power
the center of each star, and redundant links for the higher levels of plants and power, heat are the distributed generation units which
the hierarchy [85]. may be found in any grid system. The smart grid (SG) manages the
The network controls and the power-transmission network should generation parts by using remote monitoring and control that are
be located in parallel. At rst, the control network utilized for auto- considered as an intelligent node where using AMI (advanced
mated switches, for example, electromechanical meters for voltage, metering management) or SCADA (Supervisory control and data
current, phase, and volt ampere reactive (VAR) measurement, and acquisition) operation. Generally SG is operated as transmission
1178 M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

and distribution network. Another operation of SG involves smart 4.1. Substation automation
homes and intelligent building through a smart meter to micro-
grids, household and electrical vehicles etc. All these components The substation is equivalent to the electric power grid in
need accurately performed in a grid system to consumption using miniature, which is surrounded by a fence. All the elements of the
the communication and will be more efcient [87]. grid-expect generators and customers include conductors,
Fig. 12, a complete smart grid map will show a power genera- switches, breakers, regulators, power-factor controls, and sensors-
tion, transmission, distribution and customer sections. The dia- lots of sensors. The wiring for these devices would have been
gram represents ows of electricity generation and communica- being appropriate points into their hubs recently. Then the hubs
tion. The power production section consists of several sources, would be connected into a central building and owing to the
including renewable energies. The T&D section consists substation control building everything would be onto the remote microwave
and control center which is connected with wired or wireless link or T1 line. Here too nice acronyms that are supervisory control
sensors. The controller contains switches, meters technical which and data acquisition (SCADA) in Fig. 13. A serious candidate should
is now being managed features of a smart grid. be made in one place for the substation to put all the devices on
From Fig. 12, it can be seen refer to the process that is trans- one measurement and control network [88].
forming the patchwork of the local devices, telemetry, and remote All sensors, actuators, and intelligent devices in the substation
controls into the beginning of the Smart Grid network. That will be would be linked by principal designers through a denite
held at the situation of solitude, persistent hum, and a faint smell industrial-grade Ethernet. A local or remote server could assess
of ozone in a substation [84]. the situation of the substation continuously and adapt to the

Fig. 11. Advance system production and distribution of a smart grid structure [87] with permission from Elsevier.

Fig. 12. The Smart Grid extends measurement and control across generating stations, the distribution network, and power consumers [87] with permission from Elsevier.
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1179

Fig. 13. Substations are shifting toward the use of networks for the interconnect of their equipment [88].

Fig. 14. PRP and HSR redundancy standards can differ in network topology [88].
1180 M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

control properly. However, the principle became more compli- implemented in order to avoid negative effects from commu-
cated after the addition of a connection with the needs for nication latencies.
knowledgeable, certain response and the desire of avoiding Many countries in Europe are using smart communication in
incompatibilities among equipment vendors. The industry pro- smart grid. In other countries, such as the US, underway extension
duced IEC 61850 (a standard for power-utility network) to address their smart communication system. Some newly developed
these problems [88]. countries such as Korea and Taiwan under constructing the smart
The standard is facile for interoperability and specifying a meter system. Some regions such as Indonesia and Vietnam are
protocol stack for regional area network (LAN). Making response- still in long term planning to setup these systems. Here below
time requirements for critical transaction, for example, transfer- describing some countries smart grid system and their case study
ring real-time data sample and getting safety-critical commands to to develop better grid and technology system to guide renewable
circuit breakers. Only IEC 61850-compliant network ample head- energy power disturbances in smart grid.
room to perform a substation's and protection functions is not RedFlow Company (2012) did a survey on utility owned smart
enough [88]. grid and smart cities trial in Australia from 1 March to 31 May
2012. The government of Australia has been chosen 100 million
4.2. Network reliability (Australian dollar) investment on a smart grid project across ve
sites: Newcastle, Sydney and the Upper Hunter region. Their main
Network reliability in SG as the continuous electricity supply focus was building a smart city to apply adding a chain new
for the customers. Its already dened the smart grid transmission technology energy supply. This project includes smart sensors,
and distribution. If there is a network problem between trans- new backend IT systems, smart meters and a communication
mission and distribution, the connection will go through by pass to network. The RedFlow Company successful to supply 61 energy
the consumers. There will be many reasons by affected the net- storage systems in Newcastle, Scone and Newington in Sydney.
work reliability such as: faults in transmission parts or the gen- Another 40 energy system was installed in Newcastle and 20
eration, force Majeure included weather conditions, earthquakes, systems in Scone has been operated. Their future motivation, they
external causes faults due to third parties, poor condition of the will reduce in peak demand, network reliability, and energy supply
grid, design or network operation etc. With this reason an electric with peak price, the combined benet between consumer, retail
grid is unreliable to the customers. There are also signicant risks and network sectors, large capacity storage and optimization of
of nancial and economic loss of power grid equipment. In this renewable energy source value [94].
section will introduce an electric grid network topology [8992]. Ann Cavoukian, Information and Privacy commission, Ontario,
A network-based substation SCADA system creates some fas- Canada in 2011 supported a case study on Hydro One company
cinating possibilities: for example, a cracked connector or failed smart grid solution in Ontario. This company vision was increasing
transceiver bringing down an entire substation. Accordingly, utility the leading role in providing electricity from different supply
operators and equipment developers have resorted to network sources in Ontario. They're focused on innovating and establishing
redundancy, and have codied their thinking in another standard, as electricity grid with modern, exible and smart system. The
IEC 62439 High Availability Automation Networks [93]. electricity distribution in smart grid will be the leading in the form
The standard, as currently amended, permits a blend of two of renewable energy such as wind, solar and biomass. These
different redundant-network schemes: Parallel Redundancy Pro- advanced technologies and other feature of the smart grid to build
tocol (PRP) and the high-availability seamless redundancy (HSR) in a benet to Hydro One and customers. The most important
Fig. 14. The former standard species a star topology with advantage of Hydro One will improve the analysis, automation and
redundant switches so that there are two paths to each node, remote control of the distribution grid. Most of the electrical dis-
while the latter can be used with either a star or bi-directional ring tribution grid includes a central software component that is called
topologies [88]. a distribution management system. The Hydro One provides a
powerful network planning and operations tool that will help to
monitor the grid, telemetry and information about power ow
5. Case studies on smart grid: renewable energy perspective with real time observation [95].
Ssu-Han Chen (2012) and his research team proposed a
The renewable energy distribution in the smart grid system is methodology that will describe the technology fronts evaluation
one of the most signicant role, which is developing the use of temporal gaps in smart grid in Taiwan. They compared the tem-
renewable energy in energy management systems. A smart grid is poral gaps between two specialties, United States and the global
the visualized exible communication network of the future smart grid technology. The technology fronts have four types:
increase in distributed energy resources such as wind, solar, hydro frontrunner, follower, unique and behinder. Their results showed
power etc. The development of renewable, efcient energy use the US technology fronts can be described as front-runners or
and smart management systems has been utilized to exchange of unique, whereas they are the leading position in developing of
fossil fuel, which reduce climate change and increasing demand smart grid technology [96].
for energy and economic growth. The use of smart system as an Daphne Ngar-yin Mah (2012) and his research team did a case
effective part reviewed by many countries for increasing energy study of the development of smart grids in Korea by governing the
efciency and its issues of sustainable development. A smart sys- transition of socio-technical system. They did an investigation on
tem which is smart meter has two ways of communication net- two different studies: one is the development of smart grid in
work established relation between energy utilization and users. Korea, based on macroeconomic policy and the other is the gov-
The smart meter is a next generation component of smart grid ernment approach to mobilize the private sector and consumer
systems because it can incorporate information technology into participation. They also exposed a major obstacle in the electricity
the grid. Using appropriate devious to collect data from customers, market and public distrust about the smart grid development in
which can manage by utility companies and make more efcient Korea. With the respect of policy change in a smart grid system
way to advise users to consume the power wisely. This is the smart using price setting mechanisms and consumer engagement are
way by using smart meter to help the consumers a better feedback given priority in this study. In Korea, smart grid development and
or understanding of their energy consumption based on long term understanding approaches by some companies are included
power users. However, smart appropriate control must be KEPCO, KPX, LG, Samsung and Hyundai. The approached model
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1181

Fig. 15. Smart grid system approach understands in Korea [97] with permission from Elsevier.

shows in Fig. 15. Frist of this model is included macroeconomic


policies, the presence of public distrust, a distorted tariff system,
and an experiment of a remote island. The second of this model is
broad range connection between the government and the elec-
tricity sector, which is included consumers and global companies
in the smart grid development. Third is various multi-level that
will comprise of the landscape level at the macro level, the regime
level at the meso level and the niche level at the micro level [97].
Daphne Ngar-yin Mah (2013) and his research team did a case
study of large smart grid demonstration and the role of the state in
sustainable energy transitions in Japan. They found, the Japanese
smart grid model is developed for government-led, community-
oriented and business-driven, which is the literature based energy
governance by shedding light on the mechanisms of the role of
government in smart grid diffusion. This case study gives a better Fig. 16. Power grid frequency without control [101] with permission from Elsevier.
understanding of the complexity and variety for a more effective
sustainability transition [98]. systems could be outweigh and the cost to upgrade the system
Satya Pogaru (2013) and his research team was investigating smarter [100].
the impacts of modeling variables, demand response in smart grid Kilkki (2014) and his research team did a case study about
in the USA. They developed a demand response program based on agent-based modeling and simulation of a smart grid, its com-
modeling and simulation variables in smart grid capability which munication effects on frequency control in Finland. Their study
can be implemented by a utility into an electricity distribution contains a model is designed for reproducing system-level
grid. This motivation can implement the robustness of different behaviors in the smart grid by applying accurate frequency con-
demand response design to undetermined factors that may step trol system. The results indicate that the proposed model for
up rebounds [99]. functional frequency control in the smart grid and will be
Arif and Mounir (2013) did a case study about effects of smart expanded for additional aspects of smart grid operation. Below to
grid technologies on capacity and energy savings in Oman. In their Figs. 16 and 17 are showing the grid frequency behavior without
investigation carried out to evaluate the long-term load manage- and with control. In Fig. 12, shows a demand response to tradi-
ment benets of smart grid. They calculated the cost of generation, tional control and failure, where without any control correction
transmission and distribution using the concept of asset distribu- the production of power generation is disconnected and the
tion in a power system. With this result, the cost benets are frequency level goes to  0.8 Hz and settles at  1.6 Hz. In Fig. 13,
compared with an estimate cost the grid to make it smarter. This shows demand response with GPRS communication control with
result shows that the long-term load management of smart grid packet loss, where the packet loss is 20% and the response to the
1182 M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184

network communication and smart meter and so on. The next


section will give some conclusions and future recommendation
regarding this study.

6. Conclusions, current trends and future recommendation

This section deals with the conclusions of the study and future
recommendations for the research.

6.1. Conclusions
Fig. 17. Power grid frequency demand side load control [101] with permission from
Elsevier.
This review article shows the concept and availability of
renewable energy and the role of smart grid in renewable energy.
All renewable energy concepts, present scenarios and their avail-
ability are described one by one. The concept of smart grid and
works of different authors on smart grid in renewable energy has
been reviewed and presented. As far as renewable energy is con-
cerned, the main production is electrical power, which is going to
be utilized and applied in smart grid technology. The main con-
clusions obtained from the study are given as below:

 The literature review about basic sources of renewable energies,


smart grid systems, and communication and transmission
technology innovation, energy recovering and several other
important ndings shows that smart grid technology has good
potential to be applied in renewable energies to use them in an
efcient way. Smart grids are already in use in some of the
Fig. 18. The number of articles published for smart grid and renewable energies for
the period from 2000 to 2016. Source: Science Direct, solar, wind, hydroelectricity, countries and can be used in other countries too for the sus-
biomass and geothermal energy. tainable development of the countries.
 The grid should be updated for maintaining multifarious sour-
frequency variation without any latency presented with com- ces of electricity allocated in space and nd ways of managing
municating the control [101]. these by more complicated systems.
Jessica Daz (2014) and his research team did a case study agile  The implementation of research activities on groundbreaking
product line architecting in a smart grid system in Spain. They technologies for the promotion and progress of renewable
developed Product Line Architecture (PLA) framework with the energy sources with a denite focus on geothermal and solar
help of Agile Product Line Engineering (APLE) for power metering will be the goal of the future laboratory.
management applications for smart grid. It is very easy and  The lessons of the case studies are that, it needs more attention
adaptable program and already uses several companies in Spain. In about a country smart grid development, which depends on the
their nding the APLE supported the successful development and government policies.
evaluation of the power metering management application. The  The smart grid will be an alternation process in the future,
grid system is a complicated a broad range of energy resources communication and information technology from the present
which from large generating systems to the smaller generation power system. It will be more developed architecture, better
system. During these processes need to apply PLA with respect to performance and design to look smart grid at various applica-
APLE the system will be more exible to solve the complicity. They tions where power fault and security has been given more
promote the integration method of renewable energy resources priority in the future smart grid system.
and the possibility is successful. They suggested future work on  This paper not only be useful for the engineers for the man-
proving exibility form feature to user stories and architecture and agement of the electricity produced, researchers for their future
code to test of Agile Software Development [102]. research, but will also assist policy makers in making the
Mart van der Kam and Wilfried van Sark (2015) did research on appropriate policy for the Nation.
electric vehicles with photovoltaic power and vehicle to grid
technology in a micro-grid in Netherland. They presented a model
6.2. Current trends
for developing self-consumption of photovoltaic power by smart
charging of electric vehicles and vehicle to grid technology. The
Fig. 18 shows the number of articles published between the
simulation results show the self-consumption increased and
years 2000 to 2016 on the application of smart grid in renewable
demand peaks decrease, which is the benets of smart charging
with PV power. It is also recommended for different renewable energies. It included all the articles published in smart grid with
energy sources that can be combined with transport technologies solar, wind, hydroelectricity, biomass and geothermal energy.
to reduce any negative impact on the existing energy infra- Fig. 18 shows that from the year 2000 onwards, research articles
structure [103]. continuously increasing which shows the interest of researchers
This section presented a case study review on a smart grid around the world in this particular area. As can be seen from
system with respect to different countries and authors opinion Fig. 18, in the recent years from 2010 onwards there is signicant
and discussion from which it is clear that the smart grid is rapidly growth in the research article which makes this topic the thrust
improving depending on the advances in power electronics, smart area of research.
M.S. Hossain et al. / Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 60 (2016) 11681184 1183

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