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Query Report

______________________________________________________________________

HU: New Hermeneutic Unit


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Edited by: Super
Date/Time: 2017-04-13 00:14:37
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No active filter - use 196 Primary Documents in query

437 Quotations found for query:


("Define" & "Leadership")
______________________________________________________________________

P 1: Leadership and performance meta analysis.pdf - 1:1 [Ullah, Ullah and Durrani (2011..] (2:270-
2:447) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Ullah, Ullah and Durrani (2011) state that leadership is


related to the performance of employees and the participation of employees is
important for organizational development.

P 1: Leadership and performance meta analysis.pdf - 1:2 [ References for the research ..] (4:586-
4:738) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P 1: Leadership and performance meta analysis.pdf - 1:3 [In light of the studys ?nding..] (10:2695-
10:2866) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In light of the studys


ndings, it can be stated that leadership behaviors have a large effect on
organizational performance, which is thought to play a critical role in

P 1: Leadership and performance meta analysis.pdf - 1:8 [Leadership recognition of orga..] (15:2521-
15:2655) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Leadership recognition of organizational citizenship behaviors in performance evaluations in Washington
state healthcare organizations.

P 2: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 2:3 [Kellerman (2004) states


that g..] (15:1091-15:1162) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Kellerman (2004) states that good leadership will leave a person feeling

P 2: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 2:5 [leadership often refers to


lea..] (16:762-16:849) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership often refers to leaders who bully employees, treat them with abuse, act in an

P 2: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 2:11 [toxic leader who


displays all ..] (29:893-29:969) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leader who displays all five behaviors used to define toxic leadership.

P 2: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 2:13 [toxic leadership terms


referen..] (34:1476-34:1564) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leadership terms referenced in this dissertation and demonstrated that this subject

P 2: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 2:65 [industry, and always


make thei..] (131:802-131:884) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

industry, and always make their way to top leadershipas stated by the participant.

P 3: 1451S.pdf - 3:21 [provide support to hypothesis ..] (60:1332-60:1422) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

provide support to hypothesis H3 which states that organizational leadership practices is

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:26 [Burns (1978) and Rost
(1991) d..] (45:494-45:570) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Burns (1978) and Rost (1991) define leadership in terms of a transformational

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:30 [Leadership or Severe
Dysfunc..] (48:1366-48:1449) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership or Severe Dysfunctional Leadership, I will define each term in its own

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:36 [Historical Classifications
of ..] (58:27-58:170) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Historical Classifications of Leadership Theories (Pre 1930)


As previously stated, the foundation for some leadership writings is based on the

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:44 [single statesman type
leadersh..] (78:944-78:1020) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

single statesman type leadership focused theories to the more modern theories

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:50 [A common stated
characteristic..] (89:20-89:104) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

A common stated characteristic attributed to transformational leadership is charisma.

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:51 [Dysfunctional Leadership
Clark..] (89:1613-89:1723) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Dysfunctional Leadership
Clarke (2005) refers to the adoption of negative reinforcement techniques to protect

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:64 [Researchers, Brown and
Trevino..] (120:410-120:488) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Researchers, Brown and Trevino, (2006, pg 595), define Ethical Leadership as:

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:135 [of term toxic or severe
dysfu..] (195:512-195:595) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

of term toxic or severe dysfunctional leadership behaviours when referring broadly

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:139 [leadership did not make
a cont..] (200:358-200:443) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership did not make a contribution (t173 = 0.708, no significance), refer to Table

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:141 [toxic leadership
behaviours we..] (203:878-203:963) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leadership behaviours were two related but separate factors of leadership (refer

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:148 [leadership was to
include some..] (211:1703-211:1782) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership was to include some references by implication to incompetency, or the

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:152 [The omission of any
reference ..] (228:271-228:344) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The omission of any reference to toxic leadership behaviours in any of the

P 5: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 5:156 [reference is made to the
outpu..] (232:21-232:102) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

reference is made to the outputs that can be expected if leadership behaviours are

P 6: Narcissist transformational leaders dissertation 2010.pdf - 6:5 [In the United States, narcissi..]
(21:270-21:352) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In the United States, narcissistic leadership behaviors have had a crippling impact
P 6: Narcissist transformational leaders dissertation 2010.pdf - 6:34 [(2009) found that transformati..]
(93:1202-93:1285) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(2009) found that transformational leadership was equally useful during steady state

P 6: Narcissist transformational leaders dissertation 2010.pdf - 6:39 [leaders transformational lead..]


(170:1352-170:1440) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leaders transformational leadership ability as depicted in the item statement (Samejima,

P 7: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 7:3 [United States military is part..] (13:1435-13:1518) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States military is particularly interested in toxic leadership because of the

P 7: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 7:4 [conducted to define the constr..] (14:502-14:586) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

conducted to define the construct space of multiple negative leadership styles (e.g.,

P 7: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 7:5 [empirically define toxic leade..] (14:679-14:763) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

empirically define toxic leadership and to develop a valid measure of this construct.

P 7: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 7:9 [Hypotheses 5 stated that of th..] (47:479-47:543) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hypotheses 5 stated that of the five toxic leadership dimensions,

P 8: The Dissolution of Effective Leadership- A Multiple-Case Study An_2.pdf - 8:4 [seeks to define the
antecedent..] (12:933-12:1027) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

seeks to define the antecedents that allow destructive leadership to occur by examining leader,

P10: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 10:6 [current state of the toxic lea..] (10:262-10:322) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
current state of the toxic leadership construct is amorphous.

P10: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 10:18 [Hypotheses 6 and 7 stated that..] (58:123-58:175) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hypotheses 6 and 7 stated that toxic leadership would

P10: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 10:20 [the problematic state of narci..] (66:820-66:905) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

the problematic state of narcissistic leadership research, perhaps this concept should

P10: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 10:22 [[Toxic leaders] define leaders..] (79:1340-79:1412) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

[Toxic
leaders]
define
leadership as
being in
control. (p.
2

P10: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 10:25 [Question 1: How would you defi..] (92:790-92:839) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Question 1: How would you define toxic leadership?

P13: 1-s2.0-S187704281002519X-main.pdf - 13:7 [The individual factors have be..] (3:2927-3:3246)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The individual factors have been stated such as lack of trust, fear of loss of
power, lack of social network; and organizational factors as lack of leadership, lack of appropriate reward
system,
and lack of sharing opportunities; and technological factors as inappropriate technology systems, and lack of
training.

P20: gallos2008 toxic and heakthier organizations 2008.pdf - 20:2 [Remember too the schools uniq..]
(5:2609-5:2767) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Remember too the schools unique history that exacerbates its current state: Accumulated pain from
revolving-door leadership and external critiques magnify the

P38: 10.0000@www.infona.pl@generic-A5E06584700F.pdf - 38:1 [This work is based on the auth..]


(2:1743-2:2001) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This work is based on the authors leadership coaching experience along with interviews and observations of
various leaders, followers, and
administrators of higher education institutions, nonprofits, and private companies in the
United States and Europe.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:2 [We can state that each approac..] (10:230-10:362)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

We can state that each approach or theory has brought about a different
perspective in terms of the conceptualization of leadership.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:3 [Maxwell (1993) stated that alt..] (11:2327-11:2527)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Maxwell (1993) stated


that although everyone has an idea of the denition of leadership, few people
actually grasp it, and although many people aspire to be leadership, few manage
to become leaders.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:8 [We can state that each approac..] (13:777-13:911)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

We can state that each approach or theory has brought about a different perspective
in terms of the conceptualization of leadership. T

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:9 [The trait approach, which we r..] (13:1096-13:1275)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The trait approach, which we refer to as the rst approach to leadership, is one ofthe
approaches that scientists became interested in at the beginning of the twentieth
century.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:12 [Stogdill (1948) stated that an..] (14:1380-14:1573)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Stogdill
(1948) stated that an individual cannot be a leader simply by possessing certain
leadership characteristics and that there is no single form of leadership that is valid
in all cases.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:14 [leadership theory is the leade..] (14:1969-14:2052)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership theory is the leadership studies undertaken at the Ohio State University.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:17 [Bass and Riggio (2006) stated ..] (19:968-19:1157)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Bass and Riggio (2006) stated


that the popularity of transformational leadership stems from its emphasis on
internal motivation and the development of followers, and they view this form of

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:18 [An example of sustainer leader..] (19:1588-19:1777)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

An example of sustainer leadership is the following statement of politicians before elections designed to win
votes: if I win the elections,
there will not be any new taxes (Burns, 1978).

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:19 [The last factor refers to a le..] (20:75-20:181) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The last
factor refers to a leadership factor that provides an alternative to these two leadership styles.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:20 [In the ?rst study of distribut..] (21:549-21:630)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In the rst study of distributive leadership, Gibb (1954) stated that distributive

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:29 [ References for the research ..] (42:562-42:714)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:33 [Leadership behavior andjob sat..] (48:894-48:942)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership behavior andjob satisfaction in state

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:40 [leadership and job satisfactio..] (53:494-53:555)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership and job satisfaction in a state government setting.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:49 [and their perception of the ar..] (55:3042-55:3188)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

and their perception of the area vocational technical school directors leadership style in
vocational technical schools in the state of Missouri.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:70 [ References for the research ..] (70:139-70:291)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:90 [ References for the research ..] (93:562-93:714)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
References for the research
Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:91 [It can be stated that results ..] (98:384-98:569)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

It
can be stated that results of the study show that transformational leadership
has a strong effect on organizational culture in terms of the effects of
leadership styles/approaches.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:92 [In this light, it is possible ..] (98:982-98:1163) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In this light, it is possible to state that a professional


management understanding of organizational management has come to the
forefront in recent years, more so than leadership.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:98 [ References for the research ..] (108:586-108:738)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:99 [In conclusion, it can be state..] (111:27-111:125)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In conclusion, it can be stated that leadership types are


signicantly different in their effects.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:102 [ References for the research ..] (120:817-120:969)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
References for the research
Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:105 [ References for the research ..] (134:1-134:194)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
The studys publication type and year
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:124 [Ullah, Ullah and Durrani (2011..] (149:270-149:447)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Ullah, Ullah and Durrani (2011) state that leadership is


related to the performance of employees and the participation of employees is
important for organizational development.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:125 [ References for the research ..] (151:586-151:738)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:126 [In light of the studys ?nding..] (157:2695-157:2866)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In light of the studys


ndings, it can be stated that leadership behaviors have a large effect on
organizational performance, which is thought to play a critical role in
P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:131 [Leadership recognition of orga..] (162:2521-
162:2655) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership recognition of organizational citizenship behaviors in performance evaluations in Washington


state healthcare organizations.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:146 [ References for the research ..] (178:1063-178:1215)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:148 [It is thus possible to state t..] (184:2696-184:2930)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

It is thus
possible to state that leadership styles have been found to reduce organizational stress in some research
studies, but more often, studies have found
leadership styles to have a negative effect on employees stress levels.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:156 [ References for the research ..] (193:240-193:392)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:157 [As previously stated, leadersh..] (198:2443-198:2613)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

As previously stated, leadership behaviors are shaped


according to the current conditions, location and time and the general structure of the organization (Karasu,
2009).
P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:162 [ References for the research ..] (207:1515-207:1658)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:163 [Although this ?nding somewhat ..] (211:1242-


211:1395) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Although this nding somewhat indirectly suggests a positive relationship


between leadership and organizational health, it can be stated that the ndings

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:168 [ References for the research ..] (220:586-220:738)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

References for the research


Sample information
Sample group/sector
Leadership style/approach
Data collection tool(s)
Quantitative values

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:178 [ references for the research,..] (232:646-232:830)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

references for the research,


information on the sample,
the sample group/sector,
the leadership style/approach,
the data collection tool(s) and
the quantitative values.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:179 [behaviors, traits and leadersh..] (237:1447-237:1678)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
behaviors, traits and leadership outcomes of transformational leaders are
reviewed as a whole (Karip, 1998), it could be stated that transformational
leaders provide the opportunity for diversity in conict among their
employees.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:180 [This being the case, it could ..] (237:2015-237:2304)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This being the case, it could be stated that


dissertation results that do not have a publication bias allow diversity between
leadership and conict management; this can be interpreted to mean that such
dissertations observed that leadership has differing impacts on conict
management.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:185 [ references for the research,..] (246:648-246:832)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

references for the research,


information on the sample,
the sample group/sector,
the leadership style/approach,
the data collection tool(s) and
the quantitative values.

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:194 [The stated differences are fou..] (260:167-260:236)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The stated differences are found in terms of leadership skills for job

P39: 10.1007@978-3-319-14908-0.pdf - 39:202 [Referent, 3 Religion, 172, 176..] (274:2499-274:2762)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Referent, 3
Religion, 172, 176
Religious instructors, 230
Require, 6, 9, 194
Resource support, 201
Respect, 3, 68, 1214, 133, 256, 260
Restrictive leadership, 133134
Reward, 8, 11, 226, 246
Risk difference, 21, 22
Risk ratio, 21, 22
Role model, 11, 15

P40: 10.1016@1048-98439590026-8.pdf - 40:1 [Over the last decade, the char..] (2:51-2:274) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Over the last decade, the characteristics that define charismatic leadership have been
the focus of considerable theoretical and empirical analysis (Conger & Kanungo, 1988;
House & Howell, 1992).

P40: 10.1016@1048-98439590026-8.pdf - 40:6 [Sashkin (1988) referred to Lew..] (22:2898-22:3149)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Sashkin (1988) referred to Lewin in emphasizing that


the challenge to current researchers lies in connecting the individual level (e.g.,
characteristics and behaviors) with the organizational level of leadership outcomes.

P41: 13341-15202-1-PB(1).pdf - 41:7 [For ethical leadership mean va..] (6:1586-6:1723) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For ethical leadership mean value are 4.42, which states that employees were agreed by the
question items related to ethical leadership.

P47: aubrey_toxic_leadership.pdf - 47:8 [strategic leader is to define ..] (11:1720-11:1813) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

strategic leader is to define toxic leadership in relationship to its effect on organizations.

P47: aubrey_toxic_leadership.pdf - 47:14 [Wilson-Starks stated that, ?So..] (16:1369-16:1444)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Wilson-Starks stated that, Some members may come to see toxic leadership as

P47: aubrey_toxic_leadership.pdf - 47:15 [FM 6-22 states that direct lea..] (17:656-17:704) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

FM 6-22 states that direct leadership consists of

P48: dinh2014.pdf - 48:5 [In contrast, the processes tha..] (9:905-9:1180) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
In
contrast, the processes that enable leader flexibility and shared leadership may be more dynamic and
compilational, changing
from one instance to the next as individuals experience different affective states and cognitive cues (DeRue
& Ashford, 2010; Lord
et al., 2011).

P48: dinh2014.pdf - 48:8 [s). Hence, although our review..] (20:1336-20:1658) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

s). Hence, although our review makes an effort towards unifying leadership theory
and offers general conclusions on the state ofthe field, we note that a far more comprehensive
understanding ofthe field and its
development can be obtained by including perspectives provided by both academic and organizational
practitio

P48: dinh2014.pdf - 48:9 [StateUniversityLeadershipStudi..] (21:4763-21:5172) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

StateUniversityLeadershipStudies (OSU/LBDQ), and Michigan Leadership Studies, nature and


consequences ofparticipative, shared leadership, delegation, empowermentofleadership, studies
ontask-oriented behaviorand initiating structure, andpeople orrelations-oriented and
individualized considerationbehavior, critical incidents, thehigh-high leader, leadership behavior
taxonomies, and specificta

P48: dinh2014.pdf - 48:11 [Understanding the emergence of..] (24:5261-24:5390) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Understanding the emergence of state goal orientation in organizational work groups: The role of leadership
and multilevel climate

P48: dinh2014.pdf - 48:13 [Leadership research and cognit..] (25:7384-25:7455) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership research and cognitive neuroscience: The state ofthis union.

P48: dinh2014.pdf - 48:15 [005). Leadership and levels of..] (27:3813-27:3877) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

005). Leadership and levels ofanalysis: A state-of-the-science r

P50: gallos2008 toxic and heakthier organizations 2008.pdf - 50:2 [Remember too the schools uniq..]
(5:2609-5:2767) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Remember too the schools unique history that exacerbates its current state: Accumulated pain from
revolving-door leadership and external critiques magnify the

P51: grijalva2014 toxic leadership behavior narcissism and leadership .pdf - 51:3 [ratings was
subordinate report..] (12:2688-12:2834) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

ratings was subordinate reports, self-reported leadership, a mixture of


different report sources; or when the source of the report was not stated.

P52: High_toxicity.pdf - 52:8 [. I was struck by the twiste..] (5:3688-5:3742) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. I was struck by the twisted leadership


reference.

P53: krasikova2013.pdf - 53:1 [By reviewing the current liter..] (2:567-2:837) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

By reviewing the current


literature on destructive leadership and drawing on organizational leadership theory and the more
general research on deviant behaviors in organizations, we identify the underlying features and
mechanisms that define destructive leadership.

P53: krasikova2013.pdf - 53:2 [Given that the primary task of..] (4:545-4:1004) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Given that the primary task of organizational leaders is to act in the interests of the organization (i.e.,
influence followers to
achieve goals espoused by the organization and set new goals for the organization that are
aligned with its interests; eisenhardt, 1989; Mumford, Gessner, Connelly, OConnor, &
Clifton, 1993), we adopt the organization and organizational members as key points of reference when
assessing whether leadership is destructive.

P53: krasikova2013.pdf - 53:5 [Leadership researchers have co..] (18:798-18:1150) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership researchers have commonly used the term leader discretion to refer to a leaders control over his
or her goals or actions (Finkelstein & hambrick,
1990; Kaiser & hogan, 2007) and have pointed out how various contextual factors that limit
leader discretion can materially affect the extent to which the leader engages in certain
actions.
P55: leadershipinorganizationtutorial1.pdf - 55:3 [Leadership emergence refers to..] (2:3882-2:4087)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership emergence
refers to being perceived as leaderlike, usually in a group of
strangers, as discussed in studies of small-group processes
(Bales, 1950; Geier, 1967) and leaderless group discussions

P55: leadershipinorganizationtutorial1.pdf - 55:7 [. However, in their Method sec..] (7:1346-7:1512)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. However, in
their Method section, they stated, Ratings were coded as
measures of leadership effectiveness in cases in which a
leaders effectiveness was assessed

P55: leadershipinorganizationtutorial1.pdf - 55:9 [Group maintenance refers to th..] (9:6126-9:6286)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Group maintenance refers to the degree of harmony, cohesion, and teamwork, and the associated leadership
activities include resolving conict, building trust and

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:26 [Burns (1978) and Rost
(1991) d..] (45:494-45:570) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Burns (1978) and Rost (1991) define leadership in terms of a transformational

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:30 [Leadership or Severe
Dysfunc..] (48:1366-48:1449) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership or Severe Dysfunctional Leadership, I will define each term in its own

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:36 [Historical
Classifications of ..] (58:27-58:170) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Historical Classifications of Leadership Theories (Pre 1930)


As previously stated, the foundation for some leadership writings is based on the

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:44 [single statesman type
leadersh..] (78:944-78:1020) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

single statesman type leadership focused theories to the more modern theories

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:50 [A common stated
characteristic..] (89:20-89:104) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

A common stated characteristic attributed to transformational leadership is charisma.

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:51 [Dysfunctional
Leadership Clark..] (89:1613-89:1723) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Dysfunctional Leadership
Clarke (2005) refers to the adoption of negative reinforcement techniques to protect

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:64 [Researchers, Brown and
Trevino..] (120:410-120:488) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Researchers, Brown and Trevino, (2006, pg 595), define Ethical Leadership as:

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:135 [of term toxic or
severe dysfu..] (195:512-195:595) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

of term toxic or severe dysfunctional leadership behaviours when referring broadly

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:139 [leadership did not
make a cont..] (200:358-200:443) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership did not make a contribution (t173 = 0.708, no significance), refer to Table

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:141 [toxic leadership
behaviours we..] (203:878-203:963) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leadership behaviours were two related but separate factors of leadership (refer

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:148 [leadership was to
include some..] (211:1703-211:1782) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership was to include some references by implication to incompetency, or the

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:152 [The omission of any
reference ..] (228:271-228:344) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The omission of any reference to toxic leadership behaviours in any of the

P56: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 56:156 [reference is made to
the outpu..] (232:21-232:102) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

reference is made to the outputs that can be expected if leadership behaviours are

P58: method-for-measuring destructive-leaders-2011.pdf - 58:4 [ute scales. Thus, we must refe..]


(11:707-11:1111) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

ute scales. Thus, we must refer to our clusters as representing a


taxonomy of destructive leaders rather than of destructive leadership. The numbers of both behaviour-
focused and
personality-oriented scales were sufciently small that our sample to variable ratios for the cluster analyses
were reasonable and
allowed us some sense of condence in the potential stability of our clustering results.

P59: Personality_disorders.pdf - 59:2 [In assessing pathologically ?..] (2:1583-2:1716) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In assessing pathologically awed patterns of leadership behavior the diagnoses call


to mind a statement by Kets de Vries (1995, p.

P59: Personality_disorders.pdf - 59:18 [While a few leadership scholar..] (17:1500-17:1638) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

While a few leadership scholars have credentials in both


management and psychotherapy allowing for reference to and usage of the DSM (e.g.

P61: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 61:3 [United States military is part..] (13:1435-13:1518)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States military is particularly interested in toxic leadership because of the

P61: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 61:4 [conducted to define the constr..] (14:502-14:586)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

conducted to define the construct space of multiple negative leadership styles (e.g.,

P61: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 61:5 [empirically define toxic leade..] (14:679-14:763) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

empirically define toxic leadership and to develop a valid measure of this construct.

P61: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 61:9 [Hypotheses 5 stated that of th..] (47:479-47:543)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hypotheses 5 stated that of the five toxic leadership dimensions,

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:7 [(4) Inclusion ofoutcomes:
Some..] (3:3139-3:3267) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(4) Inclusion ofoutcomes: Some definitions of destructive leadership explicitly refer to outcomes (e.g.,
Einarsen et al., 2002),

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:8 [An interesting discussion
can ..] (3:3357-3:3547) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

An interesting discussion can be


undertaken regarding the question as to whether or not the conceptualization ofdestructive leadership
should refrain from
including references to outcomes.

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:9 [Following this summary and
con..] (4:1-4:125) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Following this summary and consistent with the definition ofleadership by Yukl (2006), we will define
destructive leadership

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:10 [(2) Supervisor: While many
def..] (4:815-4:933) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(2) Supervisor: While many definitions of leadership in general do not define who exerts the influence, a
definition on

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:11 [(4) Perceived hostility
and/or..] (4:2052-4:2185) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(4) Perceived hostility and/orobstructiveness: As stated before, destructive leadership should be defined
bythe nature ofthetarget

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:13 [Some conceptualizations
oflead..] (4:3278-4:3594) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Some conceptualizations ofleadership explicitly refer to the individual level relationships


(e.g., LeaderMember Exchange; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) whereas others imply group level relationships (i.e.,
the leader
behaves the same towards all members of his/her group, e.g., transformational leadership: Bass, 1985).

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:14 [We assume that destructive
lea..] (4:3596-4:3885) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

We assume that
destructive leadership can refer to both levels, in the sense that leaders might target only one or few
members oftheir group,
and/oronlyone orfew members oftheirgroup perceive destructive leadership, ortheyare generallydestructive
towards all of
their followers.

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:15 [Skogstad, Einarsen,
Torsheim, ..] (4:4154-4:4341) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, Aasland, and
Hetland (2007) argue in this direction and state that destructive leadership can take both active, manifest as
well as passive,
indirect forms.

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:19 [Reasons for non-inclusion in
o..] (7:3823-7:4670) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Reasons for non-inclusion in our meta-analysis were: The articles reported no quantitative data (e.g., review
or
theoretical articles as well as qualitative papers were excluded), the study did not refer to hierarchical
relationships (e.g., some
studies referred to peer, rather than leadership behavior), the study did not use behavior as a unit
ofmeasurement (e.g., some
studies focused on traits), the study did not take place in a formal work context (e.g., some studies
comprised samples in
mentoring relationships), the article was not written in English, the study did not include a form ofdestructive
leadership (see
above, we excluded studies that used laissez-faire leadership as a form ofdestructive leadership), or the study
did not refer to
personal leadership (e.g., some studies comprised structural or HRM type ofleadershi

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:22 [While using self-report data
o..] (13:209-13:478) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

While using self-report data only is a clear limitation, the


issue lies in the nature of the research: A lot of the constructs summarized under destructive leadership
explicitly refer to the
perception ofleaderhostilityas a definingattribute ofdestructive leaders

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:24 [As stated before, some
concept..] (14:4557-14:4670) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

As stated before, some conceptualizations of destructive leadership explicitly or implicitly include the notion
of

P62: schyns 2013 toxic leader its effect meta analysis - Copy.pdf - 62:29 [. Leadership and levels
ofanal..] (21:243-21:307) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. Leadership and levels ofanalysis: A state-of-the-science revie


P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:7 [(4) Inclusion ofoutcomes: Some..]
(3:3139-3:3267) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(4) Inclusion ofoutcomes: Some definitions of destructive leadership explicitly refer to outcomes (e.g.,
Einarsen et al., 2002),

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:8 [An interesting discussion can ..] (3:3357-
3:3547) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

An interesting discussion can be


undertaken regarding the question as to whether or not the conceptualization ofdestructive leadership
should refrain from
including references to outcomes.

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:9 [Following this summary and con..] (4:1-
4:125) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Following this summary and consistent with the definition ofleadership by Yukl (2006), we will define
destructive leadership

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:10 [(2) Supervisor: While many def..]
(4:815-4:933) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(2) Supervisor: While many definitions of leadership in general do not define who exerts the influence, a
definition on

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:11 [(4) Perceived hostility and/or..]
(4:2052-4:2185) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(4) Perceived hostility and/orobstructiveness: As stated before, destructive leadership should be defined
bythe nature ofthetarget

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:13 [Some conceptualizations oflead..]
(4:3278-4:3594) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Some conceptualizations ofleadership explicitly refer to the individual level relationships


(e.g., LeaderMember Exchange; Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) whereas others imply group level relationships (i.e.,
the leader
behaves the same towards all members of his/her group, e.g., transformational leadership: Bass, 1985).

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:14 [We assume that destructive lea..]
(4:3596-4:3885) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

We assume that
destructive leadership can refer to both levels, in the sense that leaders might target only one or few
members oftheir group,
and/oronlyone orfew members oftheirgroup perceive destructive leadership, ortheyare generallydestructive
towards all of
their followers.

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:15 [Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, ..]
(4:4154-4:4341) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Skogstad, Einarsen, Torsheim, Aasland, and


Hetland (2007) argue in this direction and state that destructive leadership can take both active, manifest as
well as passive,
indirect forms.

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:19 [Reasons for non-inclusion in o..]
(7:3823-7:4670) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Reasons for non-inclusion in our meta-analysis were: The articles reported no quantitative data (e.g., review
or
theoretical articles as well as qualitative papers were excluded), the study did not refer to hierarchical
relationships (e.g., some
studies referred to peer, rather than leadership behavior), the study did not use behavior as a unit
ofmeasurement (e.g., some
studies focused on traits), the study did not take place in a formal work context (e.g., some studies
comprised samples in
mentoring relationships), the article was not written in English, the study did not include a form ofdestructive
leadership (see
above, we excluded studies that used laissez-faire leadership as a form ofdestructive leadership), or the study
did not refer to
personal leadership (e.g., some studies comprised structural or HRM type ofleadershi

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:22 [While using self-report data o..]
(13:209-13:478) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

While using self-report data only is a clear limitation, the


issue lies in the nature of the research: A lot of the constructs summarized under destructive leadership
explicitly refer to the
perception ofleaderhostilityas a definingattribute ofdestructive leaders

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:24 [As stated before, some concept..]
(14:4557-14:4670) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

As stated before, some conceptualizations of destructive leadership explicitly or implicitly include the notion
of

P63: schyns2013 bad toxic leaders and outcomes .pdf - 63:29 [. Leadership and levels ofanal..]
(21:243-21:307) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. Leadership and levels ofanalysis: A state-of-the-science revie

P65: stein2007 toxic leaders .pdf - 65:3 [In the literature on leadershi..] (5:423-5:632) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In the literature on leadership, Lipman-Blumen (2005) refers


to toxic leaders, Krantz (2006) talks about the toxicity of the betrayal of
leaders (2006: 235), while Offerman (2004) refers to toxic followers.

P67: The Dissolution of Effective Leadership- A Multiple-Case Study An_2.pdf - 67:4 [seeks to define
the antecedent..] (12:933-12:1027) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

seeks to define the antecedents that allow destructive leadership to occur by examining leader,

P70: toxic-triangle - Copy.pdf - 70:5 [Then we define the term and de..] (1:1984-1:2156) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Then we define the term and develop the concept of the toxic trianglea
confluence ofleader, follower, and environmental factors that make destructive leadership possible.

P70: toxic-triangle - Copy.pdf - 70:9 [Destructive leadership can als..] (3:2229-3:2348) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Destructive leadership can also be defined with reference to its principal direction ortarget: toward
oneself(personal

P70: toxic-triangle - Copy.pdf - 70:10 [Based on the foregoing discuss..] (4:693-4:809) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Based on the foregoing discussion, we define destructive leadership in terms offive features, summarized in
Table 1.

P72: TOXIC LEADERSHIP TRACING THE DESTRUCTIVE TRAIL - Copy.pdf - 72:2 [Reed (2004) stated
that in a m..] (5:1532-5:1729) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Reed (2004)
stated that in a military organization, toxic leaders erode unit cohesion and reduce team spirit and
under worst case scenarios, toxic leadership could even lead to mutiny and death.

P74: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 74:6 [current state of the toxic lea..] (10:262-10:322) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

current state of the toxic leadership construct is amorphous.

P74: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 74:18 [Hypotheses 6 and 7 stated that..] (58:123-58:175) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hypotheses 6 and 7 stated that toxic leadership would

P74: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 74:20 [the problematic state of narci..] (66:820-66:905) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

the problematic state of narcissistic leadership research, perhaps this concept should

P74: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 74:22 [[Toxic leaders] define leaders..] (79:1340-79:1412) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

[Toxic
leaders]
define
leadership as
being in
control. (p.
2

P74: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 74:25 [Question 1: How would you defi..] (92:790-92:839) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Question 1: How would you define toxic leadership?

P78: 10.1108@09534810810856435.pdf - 78:4 [Conclusions and future researc..] (17:1711-17:1871)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Conclusions and future research


This study serves as a reference for fostering innovation in technological rms through
a style of leadership that improves OP.

P79: Book Learning Organization.pdf - 79:41 [Harburg served as a pilot and ..] (335:265-335:494)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Harburg
served as a pilot and aircraft commander in the United States Air
Force and was a faculty ofcer at the Air Force Academy, where he
directed the industrial and organizational psychology and honors
leadership curricula.

P81: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 81:3 [Kellerman (2004)


states that g..] (15:1091-15:1162) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Kellerman (2004) states that good leadership will leave a person feeling

P81: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 81:5 [leadership often refers


to lea..] (16:762-16:849) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership often refers to leaders who bully employees, treat them with abuse, act in an

P81: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 81:11 [toxic leader who


displays all ..] (29:893-29:969) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leader who displays all five behaviors used to define toxic leadership.

P81: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 81:13 [toxic leadership terms


referen..] (34:1476-34:1564) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leadership terms referenced in this dissertation and demonstrated that this subject
P81: 10.0000@scholarworks.waldenu.edu@generic-8910C2BD5359.pdf - 81:65 [industry, and always
make thei..] (131:802-131:884) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

industry, and always make their way to top leadershipas stated by the participant.

P82: 1451S.pdf - 82:21 [provide support to hypothesis ..] (60:1332-60:1422) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

provide support to hypothesis H3 which states that organizational leadership practices is

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:26 [Burns (1978) and Rost
(1991) d..] (45:494-45:570) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Burns (1978) and Rost (1991) define leadership in terms of a transformational

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:30 [Leadership or Severe
Dysfunc..] (48:1366-48:1449) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership or Severe Dysfunctional Leadership, I will define each term in its own

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:36 [Historical
Classifications of ..] (58:27-58:170) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Historical Classifications of Leadership Theories (Pre 1930)


As previously stated, the foundation for some leadership writings is based on the

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:44 [single statesman type
leadersh..] (78:944-78:1020) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

single statesman type leadership focused theories to the more modern theories

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:50 [A common stated
characteristic..] (89:20-89:104) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
A common stated characteristic attributed to transformational leadership is charisma.

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:51 [Dysfunctional
Leadership Clark..] (89:1613-89:1723) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Dysfunctional Leadership
Clarke (2005) refers to the adoption of negative reinforcement techniques to protect

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:64 [Researchers, Brown and
Trevino..] (120:410-120:488) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Researchers, Brown and Trevino, (2006, pg 595), define Ethical Leadership as:

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:135 [of term toxic or
severe dysfu..] (195:512-195:595) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

of term toxic or severe dysfunctional leadership behaviours when referring broadly

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:139 [leadership did not
make a cont..] (200:358-200:443) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership did not make a contribution (t173 = 0.708, no significance), refer to Table

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:141 [toxic leadership
behaviours we..] (203:878-203:963) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leadership behaviours were two related but separate factors of leadership (refer

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:148 [leadership was to
include some..] (211:1703-211:1782) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership was to include some references by implication to incompetency, or the

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:152 [The omission of any
reference ..] (228:271-228:344) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The omission of any reference to toxic leadership behaviours in any of the

P84: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 84:156 [reference is made to
the outpu..] (232:21-232:102) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

reference is made to the outputs that can be expected if leadership behaviours are

P85: Narcissist transformational leaders dissertation 2010.pdf - 85:5 [In the United States, narcissi..]
(21:270-21:352) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In the United States, narcissistic leadership behaviors have had a crippling impact

P85: Narcissist transformational leaders dissertation 2010.pdf - 85:34 [(2009) found that
transformati..] (93:1202-93:1285) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(2009) found that transformational leadership was equally useful during steady state

P85: Narcissist transformational leaders dissertation 2010.pdf - 85:39 [leaders transformational


lead..] (170:1352-170:1440) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leaders transformational leadership ability as depicted in the item statement (Samejima,

P86: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 86:3 [United States military is part..] (13:1435-13:1518)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States military is particularly interested in toxic leadership because of the

P86: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 86:4 [conducted to define the constr..] (14:502-14:586)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

conducted to define the construct space of multiple negative leadership styles (e.g.,

P86: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 86:5 [empirically define toxic leade..] (14:679-14:763) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

empirically define toxic leadership and to develop a valid measure of this construct.

P86: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 86:9 [Hypotheses 5 stated that of th..] (47:479-47:543)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hypotheses 5 stated that of the five toxic leadership dimensions,

P87: The Dissolution of Effective Leadership- A Multiple-Case Study An_2.pdf - 87:4 [seeks to define
the antecedent..] (12:933-12:1027) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

seeks to define the antecedents that allow destructive leadership to occur by examining leader,

P89: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 89:6 [current state of the toxic lea..] (10:262-10:322) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

current state of the toxic leadership construct is amorphous.

P89: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 89:18 [Hypotheses 6 and 7 stated that..] (58:123-58:175) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hypotheses 6 and 7 stated that toxic leadership would

P89: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 89:20 [the problematic state of narci..] (66:820-66:905) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

the problematic state of narcissistic leadership research, perhaps this concept should

P89: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 89:22 [[Toxic leaders] define leaders..] (79:1340-79:1412) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

[Toxic
leaders]
define
leadership as
being in
control. (p.
2
P89: umi-umd-5358.pdf - 89:25 [Question 1: How would you defi..] (92:790-92:839) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Question 1: How would you define toxic leadership?

P93: 1-s2.0-S1048984307001464-main(1).pdf - 93:5 [The implied leadership model u..] (6:934-


6:1145) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The implied leadership


model uses charisma as its frame of reference: strong personalities inspire staff (and sometimes students),
resulting in improved school climate, conflict resolution, and better outcomes.

P94: 1-s2.0-S1048984309000964-main.pdf - 94:1 [One reason for this state ofaf..] (1:1897-1:2034)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

One reason for this state ofaffairs stems from an omission oftheory that integrates both microlevel and
macro-level leadership inuences

P94: 1-s2.0-S1048984309000964-main.pdf - 94:8 [erest. In their study, leaders..] (7:782-7:901)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

erest. In their study, leadership endorsement also refers to individuals' attitudes toward
individual in-group leaders.

P94: 1-s2.0-S1048984309000964-main.pdf - 94:10 [l. Expressive culture relates ..] (9:3824-9:4043)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

l. Expressive culture relates


to values in the organization concerned with leadership, interpersonal relationships, and affect; instrumental
culture refers to the
organization's focus on structure, policies, and rules.

P94: 1-s2.0-S1048984309000964-main.pdf - 94:11 [. Forexample, Bono, Foldes,Vin..] (11:4500-


11:4705) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. Forexample, Bono, Foldes,Vinson and Muros (2007) demonstrated thattransformational leadership can lead
to members reporting positive emotional states, resulting in higher satisfaction and performance.
P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:1 [Sternberg Despite its importan..]
(2:84-2:216) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Sternberg Despite its importance to the United


States and the world, the study of leadership is a neglected eld
within psychology.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:2 [he United States became a grea..]


(5:88-5:184) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

he United States became a great nation because of


the leadership skills of the Founding Fathers.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:4 [United States presidential ele..]


(6:1042-6:1201) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States presidential election of 2004 taught us anything, it was that half the nation has a radically
different
notion of leadership than the other half.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:6 [following the terrorist attack..]


(8:143-8:297) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

following the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001,


I am hopeful that psychology is on the verge of making
great strides in leadership studies.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:19 [After surveying research from ..]


(14:1174-14:1442) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

After
surveying research from 1904 to 1947, he stated, The
evidence suggests that leadership is a relation that exists
between persons in a social situation, and that persons who
are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders
in other situations (p.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:22 [So do most of the other oft-ci..]


(14:3234-14:3485) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

So do most of the other oft-cited reviews of leader


qualities, such as the review in which Mann (1959) stated
that a number of relationships between an individuals
personality and his leadership status in groups appear to be
well established (p.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:25 [For example, Ed Fleishman,


one..] (15:1156-15:1399) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For example, Ed Fleishman, one of the


major contributors to the Ohio State University program,
noted that Lewins classic study of leadership climate
(Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939) greatly inuenced his own
dissertation (also a classic; E.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:30 [A review of leadership studies..]


(19:2237-19:2315) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

A review of leadership studies with particular


reference to military problems.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:32 [But the statement can be inter..]


(21:228-21:352) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

But the
statement can be interpreted in many different ways,
depending, at least in part, on what one means by
leadership.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:34 [We refer to this as a heroic c..]


(22:2415-22:2469) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

We refer to
this as a heroic conception of leadership.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:35 [He stated that It becomes cle..]


(22:3968-22:4124) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
He stated that It becomes clear that an adequate
analysis of leadership involves not only a study of leaders,
but also of situations (Stogdill, 1948, pp.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:40 [For this reason, he eschewed t..]


(24:2049-24:2283) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For this reason, he eschewed the


type of leadership training that the Ohio State University or
University of Michigan studies may have suggested
(Fiedler, 1972, 1973) or selection techniques that the earlier
trait research favored.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:46 [The heroic model, with its sea..]


(26:5460-26:5720) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The heroic model, with its search for a general trait of


leadership, as well as the investigations of leader behavior
at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan
assumed a degree of invariance across situations that is
seldom, if ever, observed.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:48 [Consider, for example, conside..]


(27:2348-27:2620) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Consider, for example,


consideration and initiating structure, the two dimensions
identied in the Ohio State University studies, or their
counterparts, employee-centered and production-centered
concepts, used extensively in leadership training (Blake &
Mouton, 1964).

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:50 [(2001) discussed what they cal..]


(29:3453-29:3695) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(2001) discussed what they called a connectionist-based model of leadership prototype generation to
emphasize how perceptions ofleadership are contingent on the
context and the dynamic states in which such mental representations are created.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:51 [Grint (2005) stated that it o..]


(30:600-30:702) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Grint (2005) stated that it only requires


the good follower to do nothing for leadership to fail (p.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:52 [Although leadership studies da..]


(30:2649-30:3007) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Although leadership studies dating back to the early 20th


century focused more on the leader than on the context of
leadership in which it was observed (Ayman, 2003; Avolio,
Sosik, Jung, & Berson, 2003; Day, 2000), there have been
some important inquiries into what constitutes leadership
throughout human history that included reference to the
context.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:53 [Yet, even though the construct..]


(31:5844-31:6094) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Yet, even though the construct of integrity may be seen as desirable and universal
across cultures, other scholars have acknowledged that it
could be observed in a variety of forms and still be referred
to as high-integrity leadership (Bass, 1997).

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:56 [Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May ..]


(34:2372-34:2609) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May & Walumbwa, 2005) has


attempted to take on the challenge of including up front the
core facets described above in explaining what constitutes
what they have referred to as authentic leadership development.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:58 [Gardner (1990) described over ..]


(35:5059-35:5148) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Gardner (1990) described over 15 years ago in his book On Leadership, in


which he stated,

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:71 [state of affairs is that leade..]


(47:1689-47:1875) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
state of affairs is that leadership scholars over the years
may have been asking questions that have no general
answers, thereby adding complexity but not clarity to our
understanding.

P100: []_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 100:93 [Heiser APA Presidential


Award ..] (60:3462-60:3644) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Heiser APA Presidential Award for Advocacy, the APA State Leadership Award, and the Distinguished
Contributions to Clinical Psychology Award from the
Division of Clinical Psychology.

P101: [C._(Charles)_R._(Richard)_Snyder,_Dr._Shane_J._Lo(BookFi.org).pdf - 101:292 [The faculty and


staff of Baylo..] (424:603-424:984) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The faculty and staff


of Baylor University support the mission statement "to educate men and women
for worldwide leadership and service by integrating academic excellence and
Christian commitment within a caring community." Accordingly, they have developed a strengths-based
development program that incorporates Chapel Friday
StrengthsQuest Presentation.

P102: [Charmine_Hartel,_Neal_M._Ashkanasy,_Wilfred_Zerbe(BookFi.org).pdf - 102:8 [She is author of


three books a..] (21:2348-21:2620) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

She is author of three


books and over 40 refereed journal articles, which have appeared in journals
such as the Journal of Management, Academy of Management Review,Applied
Psychology: An International Review, Leadership Quarterly, and Journal of
Applied Psychology.

P102: [Charmine_Hartel,_Neal_M._Ashkanasy,_Wilfred_Zerbe(BookFi.org).pdf - 102:240 [The Ohio


State University lead..] (349:489-349:614) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The Ohio State University leadership studies identified the


behavior factor of consideration for group members (Bass, 1990).

P102: [Charmine_Hartel,_Neal_M._Ashkanasy,_Wilfred_Zerbe(BookFi.org).pdf - 102:242 [Jones (2001)


highlighted the d..] (350:103-350:355) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Jones (2001) highlighted the difficulty of focusing on the
traits and behaviors of individuals when he stated that leadership "occurs only
when followers believe they have found in some individual a solution to the
problems that confront them" (p.

P103: [David_H._Cropley,_Arthur_J._Cropley,_James_C._Kau(BookFi.org).pdf - 103:214 [It is true that


there has been..] (312:2042-312:2320) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

It is true that there has been some effort in recent years to encourage creativity in these institutions: For
instance, in the United States in
1990, the National Science Foundation (NSF) established the Engineering
Coalition of Schools for Excellence and Leadership (ECSEL).

P104: [David_M._Messick,_Roderick_M._Kramer]_The_Psychol(BookFi.org).pdf - 104:4 [Goethals thus


suggests that Fr..] (17:902-17:1208) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Goethals thus suggests that Freud presaged the idea of charismatic leadership, highlighted
the role of storytelling as a form of communication, emphasized the common social identity of leaders and
their followers, and he glimpsed the
importance of what we now refer to as procedural justice in leadership.

P104: [David_M._Messick,_Roderick_M._Kramer]_The_Psychol(BookFi.org).pdf - 104:5 [Hackman


questions the assumpti..] (17:1644-17:2062) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hackman questions the assumption that excellent team performance is the


product of excellent leadership, an assumption he refers to as the "leader
attribution error." In chapter 6, Hackman reviews evidence that suggests
that leaders may provide the conditions under which teams may excel or
fail, but that these conditions should not be confused with "causes" in the
traditional social science sense of the word. H

P104: [David_M._Messick,_Roderick_M._Kramer]_The_Psychol(BookFi.org).pdf - 104:12 [Thus, popular


leadership books..] (48:2676-48:2858) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Thus, popular leadership books are a


reflection of the production and consumption of these culturally ambient
aspects of leadership, a mirror image of how we as a society define and

P104: [David_M._Messick,_Roderick_M._Kramer]_The_Psychol(BookFi.org).pdf - 104:14 [Leaders: The


Strategies for Ta..] (56:45-56:417) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Charge/The 4 Keys to Effective Leadership


Leadership 101: Inspirational Quotes and Insights for Leaders
Learning to Lead: A Workbook on Becoming a Leader
Managing by Values
Net Gain: Expanding Markets Through Virtual Communities
The New American Democracy
Nixon's Ten Commandments of Statecraft: His Guiding Principles of Leadership

P104: [David_M._Messick,_Roderick_M._Kramer]_The_Psychol(BookFi.org).pdf - 104:17 [After all, high


levels of soci..] (82:1967-82:2174) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

After all, high levels of social identification, coupled


with the leader's prototypical position, ensure that the influence process
associated with such leadership is referent informational influence (e.g.,

P104: [David_M._Messick,_Roderick_M._Kramer]_The_Psychol(BookFi.org).pdf - 104:19 [This is


because the overarchin..] (85:979-85:1285) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This is
because the overarching common group identity and the diachronic process of leadership emergence
legitimize the status quothere exists what
social identity theory refers to as a social change belief structure without
cognitive alternatives (Tajfel & Turner, 1986; also see Hogg & Abrams,
1988).

P104: [David_M._Messick,_Roderick_M._Kramer]_The_Psychol(BookFi.org).pdf - 104:48 [It is bad


enough that analytic..] (149:1914-149:2191) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

It is bad enough that analytic intelligence, the kind of thing often referred to as "IQ," is so widely viewed as
wired in at birth; it is even more troublesome that trainable leadership and
interpersonal skills sometimes are labeled in a way to suggest that they are
as well.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:1 [ (New horizons


in leadership..] (5:762-5:856) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(New horizons in leadership studies series)


Includes bibliographical references and index.
P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:2 [Price, of the
threevolume ref..] (11:2657-11:2747) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Price, of the threevolume reference


work The International Library of Leadership (2004).

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:3 [He is coeditor


of the three ..] (12:1930-12:2087) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

He is coeditor of the three


volume reference set The International Library of Leadership and of The Quest
for Moral Leaders: Essays in Leadership Ethics.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:4 [He is the


author of The Strate..] (13:1129-13:1374) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

He is the author of The Strategic


Use of Referendums: Power, Legitimacy, and Democracy (Palgrave, 2003); his
article on the role of morality, selfinterest, and leaders in international affairs
was published in Leadership Quarterly in 2006.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:7 [She cited


leadership scholar J..] (21:1446-21:1878) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

She cited leadership


scholar Jerry Hunt, who stated: What is missing, in addition to quantity of
theoretical formulations or models is a grand or generalized theory of lead
ersubordinate relationships if such a theoretical development is possible.
Likewise, Sorenson quoted Ralph Stodgills assertion that the endless accumu
lation of empirical data has not produced an integrated understanding of
leadership.
7

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:8 [ciic application


of his argume..] (23:49-23:538) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

ciic application of his argument to the matter at hand: It should be clear by


now, he wrote, that debates about the meaning of prevailing methodologies,
or general theories of a ield are not exclusive to leadership studies. Given the
present state of the ield of leadership studies, he concluded, it does not seem
either possible or preferable to design a general theory of leadership that deter
mines who is out and who is within a discipline as has happened in economics.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:9 [I dont think


we should be de..] (23:2004-23:2377) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

I dont think we should


be developing a theory, but rather looking at what we already have and thinking
about how to put the pieces together. What is needed is a serious discussion
of the state of the ield and how we might help pull it together, not under one
theory, but as a web of approaches and perspectives and problems that constitute
leadership studies.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:12 [On the other


hand, James MacGr..] (25:727-25:927) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

On the other hand, James MacGregor Burns, although he selected the term
general theory of leadership as the groups objective, made statements that
appeared to belie a strict reading of the term.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:17 [Later, drawing


upon his initia..] (47:1849-47:2059) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Later, drawing upon his


initial essay on leadership created in February as a starting point and interpolat
ing insights from the Mount Hope and Seattle discussions, Burns crafted a
statement of leadership.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:26 [Ralph Stogdill


(1974) in the H..] (66:2859-66:3363) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Ralph Stogdill (1974) in the Handbook of Leadership wrote, the endless accumulation of empirical data has
not
produced an integrated understanding of leadership. In 1977, James Hunt a
noted leadership scholar and future editor of Leadership Quarterly stated
What is missing, in addition to quantity of theoretical formulations or models
is a grand or generalized theory of leadersubordinate relationships if indeed,
such a theoretical development is possible (Hunt and Larsen 1977).

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:36 [Cognitive


theories of leadersh..] (74:2699-74:3118) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Cognitive theories of leadership perceive behavior
as being due to internal factors of individuals, and both leaders and followers
are perceived through the lens of individuals that may be affected by learning,
culture, past history, psychology, emotion, and anything that alters their con
scious state such as drugs, hunger, or perceived threats (Green and Mitchell
1979; Calder 1977; Ayman and Chemers 1983).

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:66 [Im plicit


leadership theories..] (129:850-129:1137) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Im
plicit leadership theories refer to individuals preconceptions regarding leaders
traits, abilities, and behaviors and these implicit theories are inluenced both by
individual factors, such as personality traits and individuals values, as well as
cultural values and beliefs.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:95 [theory group,


and it serves as..] (167:2255-167:2487) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

theory group, and it serves as part of the justiication of the place within leadership studies of
what James MacGregor Burns refers to as the key elements of leadership: power, motivation,
leaderfollower relations, and values.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:108 [Lest it


appear that we have st..] (187:1112-187:1332) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Lest it appear that we have strayed too far from causality, change and leader
ship, let us not forget the numerous references, albeit cursory and oblique, to
LaoTsu, Taoism and Confucius in leadership scholarship. Pe

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:116 [Among the


agreements that help..] (207:1473-207:1972) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Among the agreements that help to illuminate the nature of so


cial change leadership in the studied communities, Ospina and her colleagues
have identiied a worldview composed of implicit assumptions about the nature
of knowledge, change, humans and the world; articulated formulations of the
expected outcomes of change, mediated through levers of personal and organi
zational power; and a set of ethical references or core values of social justice
that help anchor decisions and actions.
P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:117 [Leadership
from this per spec..] (208:96-208:255) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership from this per


spective is not only necessary and possible, to restate the Mount Hope challenge
put to the scholars, but ubiquitous and emergent.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:118 [states that


leadership happens..] (213:622-213:852) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

states that leadership happens when members of a community create a shared


understanding of the moral obligations each has with the others to make sure
that these demands are taken care of, so that the common cause is realized.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:120


[Contemporary dominant mental m..] (219:601-219:860) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Contemporary dominant mental models of leadership are shifting gradually,


but most people still carry (and use in practice) a perspective of leadership as
personal dominance and interpersonal inluence, to use Draths knowledge
principles as reference. Th

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:129 [This brings


us to our suggesti..] (237:1509-237:1713) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This brings us to our suggestions for ways in which contextual factors in any
leadership situation can be taken into account which is as close as we can
come to a theoretical statement about context.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:130 [Yet Wren


and Faier recognize t..] (239:608-239:818) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Yet Wren and Faier recognize


that an inability to generalize at some level beyond the idiosyncratic and the
localistic dooms any pretence to a theoretical statement about the role of context
in leadership.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:134 [For example,


we have Tom Wren..] (240:829-240:1045) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For example, we have


Tom Wrens dialogue with Liz Faier on context, and Michael Harveys account
of our Mount Hope papers, framed as a story about the beginnings of leadership
in some primordial state of nature.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:135 [First,


because we started the ..] (242:1748-242:2108) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

First, because we started the Mount Hope project with a stateof


nature question: What is it about the human condition that makes leadership
possible? Hobbes offers a theory of human nature based on common wants,
needs, dispositions, conlict, power, liberty, equality, and justice many of the
same elements of leadership discussed by the GTOL group.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:136 [This idea of


leadership applie..] (242:2270-242:2435) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This idea of
leadership applies to the sovereign of a state or to the volunteer who stepped
into the street to direct trafic during the 1965 blackout in New York.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:143 [The amazing


events that unfold..] (258:1393-258:1699) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The amazing events that


unfolded in Montgomery and the state and nation are that the people in action
embraced every major aspect of leadership and integrated it: individual leader
ship, collective leadership, intragroup and intergroup conlict, conlict of
strongly held values, power aspects, etc.

P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:147 [116 referent


power 85, 170 rel..] (267:1233-267:1419) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

116
referent power 85, 170
relational dimension of leadership 1913
relativists 689
religion 3, 4, 11, 89, 1467
republics 79, 81, 86, 127
resource availability/distribution 16970
P106: [George_R._Goethals,_Georgia_Jones_Sorenson]_A_Que(BookFi.org).pdf - 106:150 [113 theatre
state 87 theoret..] (268:1562-268:1740) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

113
theatre state 87
theoretical matrix 32, 579
theory of leadership
deinitions 4854
generalizations 46, 47, 5054, 21112
nature of 58, 4671
roles of 467, 4950

P108: [Howard_Morgan,_Marc_J._Rosenberg,_Marcia_Conner,_(BookZZ.org).pdf - 108:41 [Harburg


served as a pilot and ..] (335:265-335:494) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Harburg
served as a pilot and aircraft commander in the United States Air
Force and was a faculty ofcer at the Air Force Academy, where he
directed the industrial and organizational psychology and honors
leadership curricula.

P109: [Ivanka_Menken]_Organizational_Behavior_and_Leader(BookFi.org).pdf - 109:100 [LEADERSHIP


GUIDE Open Expressi..] (297:59-297:2158) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

LEADERSHIP GUIDE Open Expression 63


Leadership Guide Organizational Behavior 31
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Organizational Behavior 14
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Organizational Development 22
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Organizations form 37
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Outcomes 131
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Personal Power Managers 85
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Physical proximity 253
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Power 87
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Quality of Work Life 24
LEADERSHIP GUIDE RACI Matrices 155
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Redeploy 167
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Report 281
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Requisites 208
LEADERSHIP GUIDE seamless 162
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Service Level Packages 132
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Simple Slides 101
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Skill uptake 230
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Skill Variety 28
LEADERSHIP GUIDE SMART KPIs 224
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Statement 262
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Status 282
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Step 122, 124
Leadership Guide Supporting Documents 143
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Tactics of Influence 94-6
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Task 182
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Team goals 43
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Teams 38
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Theory 19-20
LEADERSHIP GUIDE thermodynamics 198
LEADERSHIP GUIDE time 228
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Tips 89
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Top management 104
LEADERSHIP GUIDE TOPGRADING 159
LEADERSHIP GUIDE TRUST BUILDING 247
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Types of Change 108
LEADERSHIP GUIDE VALUES 231
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Whats 75
LEADERSHIP GUIDE 36, 60, 195, 232, 250
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Business Relationship Management 9
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Display 248
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Serve 221
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Task 204
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Team members 52
LEADERSHIP GUIDE Time 74
leadership/management 167
leadership skills 5, 10, 34, 175, 183, 198
leadership success 205
leadership toolkit 7
letters 171-2
liability 2
life 52, 178, 182, 184, 195-6, 205-6
Lincoln 165
link 3, 47, 284
list 36, 168, 175-6, 201, 259, 266, 279
listeners 260-2, 265-6
listening 42, 189-90, 194, 269
LOS 136, 140
love 3, 190, 195, 220

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:8 [She recently


oversaw the desig..] (16:1881-16:2041) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

She recently oversaw the design, delivery, and evaluation of a multiyear leadership
development initiative with one of the United States largest organizations.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:11 [He currently is


a professor an..] (19:953-19:1177) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
He currently is a professor
and chair ofthe Department ofManagement in the School of Global
Management and Leadership at Arizona State University, and an
afliated faculty member of the Department of Management of the
W

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:13 [. His research


interests focus..] (19:1223-19:1539) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. His research interests


focus largely on leadership across levels of analyses, especially leadership at strategic levels and leadership in
virtual contexts, and also
include cross-cultural issues in leadership, as evidenced by his involvement as a country coinvestigator for
the United States in the GLOBE
project

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:25 [But


developing what we refer t..] (88:457-88:584) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

But developing what we


refer to as collective leadership identities goes against the grain of
most people and organizations.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:27 [). To


underscore the criticali..] (98:1263-98:1399) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

). To underscore the criticality ofthis relationship, the initiative referred to mission leadership
as the central developmental targ

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:29 [Build


capacity in the organiz..] (99:1-99:67) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Build capacity in the organization refers to leadership capacity,

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:32 [There is a


strong argument tha..] (100:1546-100:1766) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

There is a strong argument that the individual


and increasingly the relationalapproaches to leadership may
be insufcient to address the complexity involved in translating
missions from statement to strategic action.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:35 [These


strategic priorities ser..] (115:1886-115:2168) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

These strategic priorities served as the foundation for leadership


development processes that included identication of ten key experiences that define an RBC leader, as well
as the cross-unit talent
management processes required to provide high potentials with the
experiences. A

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:66 [Building on


senior leadership..] (244:611-244:821) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Building on senior leaderships


vision and strategic direction for the posttransition organization,
managers and supervisors developed business unit or functional mission statements to guide employee
behavior.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:67 [In the United


States, corporat..] (247:246-247:397) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In
the United States, corporate scandals that are associated with leadership failures have fueled legislative
reactions, such as the SarbanesOxley Act.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:88 [In the


individualistic United ..] (312:1592-312:1744) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In the individualistic United States, leadership development tends to emphasize practical experience and the
development of the individual, whereas other

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:92 [Leaders need


to remember that ..] (321:2129-321:2429) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leaders need to remember that most traditional leadership theories


were developed and tested on White males from the United States or
other Anglo-Saxon cultures, cultures that are characterized by low
power distance, low uncertainty avoidance, fairly high masculinity,
and very high individualism.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:95 [Glopats need


the most sophisti..] (331:885-331:1041) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Glopats
need the most sophisticated, expert cross-cultural leadership competencies, skills, and abilities, which might
best be referred to as transcultural.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:96 [Most ofthe


leadership research..] (332:634-332:762) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Most ofthe leadership research during the past 50 years was conducted in the Westthe United States,
Canada, or Western Europe.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:103 [Craig


Johnsons chapter (Chapt..] (361:287-361:409) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Craig Johnsons chapter (Chapter Seven) states that ethical leadership is one of the most important
challenges for leaders.

P110: [Jay_A._Conger,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Practice_of_(BookFi.org)(1).pdf - 110:105 [Effectiveness


ofIn?uence Tacti..] (379:2270-379:2376) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Effectiveness ofInuence Tactics in the United States and China. Leadership Quarterly, 2000, 11, 251266.

P117: [Mark_Parkinson]_How_to_Master_Psychometric_Tests(BookFi.org).pdf - 117:58 [Introduction


The Leadership St..] (185:597-185:684) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Introduction
The Leadership Style Questionnaire (LSQ) contains 30 pairs of
statements.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:9 [Bruce


Avolio was the previous ..] (13:1116-13:1245) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Bruce Avolio was the previous Codirector of the Global Center for Leadership
Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:12 [She is


also a consultant who h..] (14:1017-14:1180) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

She is also a consultant who helps develop programs on ethics and leadership
for universities, companies, and government agencies in the United States and
abroad.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:15 [Kahai


is an Associate Professo..] (15:1744-15:1883) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Kahai is an Associate Professor of MIS and a Fellow of the Center


for Leadership Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:26 [were


brought together at the 1..] (22:1643-22:1931) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

were brought together at the 11th annual Kravis-de Roulet conference to address
critical issues about the current state of thinking on leadership and provide future directions for bridging the
gap between leadership research and theory and
leadership development in actual organizations.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:27 [The


chapters they wrote ask an..] (30:816-30:1040) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The chapters they wrote ask and answer questions about the
current state of the eld and provide future directions for research to help bridge
the gap between leadership researchers and leadership development practitioners.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:28


[current state ofleadership dev..] (30:1287-30:1364) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

current state ofleadership development by examining its underlying processes.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:31 [. This


is apuzzling state ofaf..] (38:1431-38:1570) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
. This is apuzzling state ofaffairs
when one considers the critical role that leadership plays in organizations and the
broader society.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:36 [A


research question to pursue ..] (43:2300-43:2469) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

A research question to pursue from this theoretical perspective is whether a leaders ego state is related to
the complexity of how leadership is constructed or enacted.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:37 [Do


those with more advanced eg..] (43:2471-43:2579) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Do those with more


advanced ego states have a broader repertoire of leadership strategies at their disposal?

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:81


[Training & Development journal..] (177:211-177:322) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Training & Development journal recently reported on the state


of leadership and executive development programs:

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:84 [Even


informal, conversational ..] (189:811-189:972) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Even informal, conversational descriptions ofleadership, at least implicitly, refer to clusters ofbehavior that
seem (perhaps intuitively) consistent or related

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:85 [(e.g.,


McGregor, 1960), initia..] (191:2787-191:3015) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(e.g., McGregor, 1960), initiating structure behavior as documented in the


Ohio State leadership studies (e.g., Fleishman, 1953; Halpin & Winer, 1957;
Schriesheim, House, & Kerr, 1976), task-oriented leadership identied in the

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:94 [For


example, Honan (1998) stat..] (228:1487-228:1624) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For example, Honan (1998) stated that there are


nearly 700 leadership development programs at American academic institutions
today (p.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:97 [s. The


?rst objective was to e..] (234:1374-234:1544) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

s. The rst objective was to examine the presence of leadership development programs at highly ranked
institutions of higher education in the United
States as rated by U.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:100


[Category 2 refers to programs ..] (237:544-237:646) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Category 2 refers to programs with leadership courses as their


primary base of leadership development.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:105


[Leadership studies as we know ..] (251:386-251:561) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership studies as we know it today emerged from social science research conducted primarily in the
United States and almost exclusively
since the turn of the 20th century.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:106


[United States range fromthe in..] (251:615-251:898) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States range fromthe individualistic (and thus leader-focused) nature ofthe
American experience, the relative stability of the American economy and democratic system, neoliberalism
(DeMott, 1993), and the stream ofleadership funding
from American foundations and governmen

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:107


[The ?rst large-scale research ..] (251:1229-251:1306) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The rst large-scale research projects on leadership in the United States were
P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:108
[empirical study of leadership,..] (251:1698-251:1801) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

empirical study of leadership, notably, Ohio State, Southern Illinois at Carbondale, and Michigan State.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:109 [ice.


Internships in local, sta..] (257:2112-257:2238) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

ice. Internships in local, state, national, and international venues undergirded


coursework on political action and leadership

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:110


[Kellogg Foundation evaluation ..] (258:1575-258:1931) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Kellogg Foundation evaluation (Zimmerman-Oster & Burkhardt, 1999a,


1999b), that demonstrated some positive leadership development outcomes for
program graduates, a smaller scale evaluation of graduates from Fort Hays State
Universitys program also found some evidence of successful outcomes for leadership studies graduates
(Brungardt & Crawford, 1996).

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:119


[Optimization in this context, ..] (276:1673-276:1893) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Optimization in this context, of course, refers to interventions


intended to enhance the effectiveness and efciency with which leaders execute
various activities required for successful performance in leadership roles.

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:124


[compared to subordinates, 133 ..] (302:226-302:458) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

compared to subordinates, 133


leaderbehavior and, 151152
leadership development for, 162
relationship management, 143
researching and teaching, 13, 191
Ford, Henry, 31, 33
Formal authority, 42
Fort Hays State University, 231

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:125


[Military, information dissemin..] (303:1590-303:1755) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Military, information dissemination, 5051


Mission statements, university, 229
Monitoring, employee, 7677, 80
Moral leadership, see Ethics
Morale, 44
Motivation

P120: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2) - Copy.pdf - 120:126


[Scienti?c method, 12, 184 Scuz..] (304:1681-304:2483) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Scientic method, 12, 184


Scuzzballs, 155156
Selection, 241, 246248
Self-awareness, 93, 95, 217
Self-condence, 36, 4243
Self-enhancement motive, 117
Self-management skills, relational, 141
Self-managing work teams, 172
Self-other ratings, 9596
Self-presentation, 117118
Self-promotion, 117
Self-reference effect, 120121
Self-reection, 244245
Self-regulation, 251
Servant leadership, 230
Service learning, 230, 233
Shared leadership, 53, 171174
Simplication, 39
Single-action learning, 110111
Situational management, 254255
Skill, 3840
Skill training, 190
Snowballs, 153154
Social capital, 22, 131, 144
Social change model, 215, 227
Social interventions, 251252
Social network analysis, 24
Social networks, 22
Social skills, 140, 141
Social systems, 5457, 63

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:9 [Bruce Avolio


was the previous ..] (13:1116-13:1245) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Bruce Avolio was the previous Codirector of the Global Center for Leadership
Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:12 [She is also a


consultant who h..] (14:1017-14:1180) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

She is also a consultant who helps develop programs on ethics and leadership
for universities, companies, and government agencies in the United States and
abroad.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:15 [Kahai is an


Associate Professo..] (15:1744-15:1883) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Kahai is an Associate Professor of MIS and a Fellow of the Center


for Leadership Studies at the State University of New York at Binghamton.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:26 [were


brought together at the 1..] (22:1643-22:1931) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

were brought together at the 11th annual Kravis-de Roulet conference to address
critical issues about the current state of thinking on leadership and provide future directions for bridging the
gap between leadership research and theory and
leadership development in actual organizations.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:27 [The chapters


they wrote ask an..] (30:816-30:1040) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The chapters they wrote ask and answer questions about the
current state of the eld and provide future directions for research to help bridge
the gap between leadership researchers and leadership development practitioners.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:28 [current state


ofleadership dev..] (30:1287-30:1364) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

current state ofleadership development by examining its underlying processes.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:31 [. This is


apuzzling state ofaf..] (38:1431-38:1570) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. This is apuzzling state ofaffairs


when one considers the critical role that leadership plays in organizations and the
broader society.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:36 [A research


question to pursue ..] (43:2300-43:2469) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

A research question to pursue from this theoretical perspective is whether a leaders ego state is related to
the complexity of how leadership is constructed or enacted.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:37 [Do those


with more advanced eg..] (43:2471-43:2579) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Do those with more


advanced ego states have a broader repertoire of leadership strategies at their disposal?

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:81 [Training &


Development journal..] (177:211-177:322) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Training & Development journal recently reported on the state


of leadership and executive development programs:

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:84 [Even


informal, conversational ..] (189:811-189:972) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Even informal, conversational descriptions ofleadership, at least implicitly, refer to clusters ofbehavior that
seem (perhaps intuitively) consistent or related

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:85 [(e.g.,


McGregor, 1960), initia..] (191:2787-191:3015) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(e.g., McGregor, 1960), initiating structure behavior as documented in the


Ohio State leadership studies (e.g., Fleishman, 1953; Halpin & Winer, 1957;
Schriesheim, House, & Kerr, 1976), task-oriented leadership identied in the

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:94 [For example,


Honan (1998) stat..] (228:1487-228:1624) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For example, Honan (1998) stated that there are


nearly 700 leadership development programs at American academic institutions
today (p.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:97 [s. The ?rst


objective was to e..] (234:1374-234:1544) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

s. The rst objective was to examine the presence of leadership development programs at highly ranked
institutions of higher education in the United
States as rated by U.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:100 [Category 2


refers to programs ..] (237:544-237:646) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Category 2 refers to programs with leadership courses as their


primary base of leadership development.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:105 [Leadership


studies as we know ..] (251:386-251:561) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership studies as we know it today emerged from social science research conducted primarily in the
United States and almost exclusively
since the turn of the 20th century.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:106 [United


States range fromthe in..] (251:615-251:898) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States range fromthe individualistic (and thus leader-focused) nature ofthe
American experience, the relative stability of the American economy and democratic system, neoliberalism
(DeMott, 1993), and the stream ofleadership funding
from American foundations and governmen

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:107 [The ?rst


large-scale research ..] (251:1229-251:1306) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The rst large-scale research projects on leadership in the United States were
P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:108 [empirical
study of leadership,..] (251:1698-251:1801) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

empirical study of leadership, notably, Ohio State, Southern Illinois at Carbondale, and Michigan State.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:109 [ice.


Internships in local, sta..] (257:2112-257:2238) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

ice. Internships in local, state, national, and international venues undergirded


coursework on political action and leadership

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:110 [Kellogg


Foundation evaluation ..] (258:1575-258:1931) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Kellogg Foundation evaluation (Zimmerman-Oster & Burkhardt, 1999a,


1999b), that demonstrated some positive leadership development outcomes for
program graduates, a smaller scale evaluation of graduates from Fort Hays State
Universitys program also found some evidence of successful outcomes for leadership studies graduates
(Brungardt & Crawford, 1996).

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:119


[Optimization in this context, ..] (276:1673-276:1893) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Optimization in this context, of course, refers to interventions


intended to enhance the effectiveness and efciency with which leaders execute
various activities required for successful performance in leadership roles.

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:124 [compared


to subordinates, 133 ..] (302:226-302:458) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

compared to subordinates, 133


leaderbehavior and, 151152
leadership development for, 162
relationship management, 143
researching and teaching, 13, 191
Ford, Henry, 31, 33
Formal authority, 42
Fort Hays State University, 231
P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:125 [Military,
information dissemin..] (303:1590-303:1755) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Military, information dissemination, 5051


Mission statements, university, 229
Monitoring, employee, 7677, 80
Moral leadership, see Ethics
Morale, 44
Motivation

P121: [Susan_Elaine_Murphy,_Ronald_E._Riggio]_The_Future(BookFi.org)(2).pdf - 121:126 [Scienti?c


method, 12, 184 Scuz..] (304:1681-304:2483) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Scientic method, 12, 184


Scuzzballs, 155156
Selection, 241, 246248
Self-awareness, 93, 95, 217
Self-condence, 36, 4243
Self-enhancement motive, 117
Self-management skills, relational, 141
Self-managing work teams, 172
Self-other ratings, 9596
Self-presentation, 117118
Self-promotion, 117
Self-reference effect, 120121
Self-reection, 244245
Self-regulation, 251
Servant leadership, 230
Service learning, 230, 233
Shared leadership, 53, 171174
Simplication, 39
Single-action learning, 110111
Situational management, 254255
Skill, 3840
Skill training, 190
Snowballs, 153154
Social capital, 22, 131, 144
Social change model, 215, 227
Social interventions, 251252
Social network analysis, 24
Social networks, 22
Social skills, 140, 141
Social systems, 5457, 63

P123: 0195187520re.pdf - 123:7 [These are commonly referred to..] (21:1211-21:1572) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
These are commonly referred to as positive organizational
scholarship (POS), emanating primarily from a research group at the University of Michigan (see Cameron,
Dutton, & Quinn, 2003), and our positive organizational behavior (POB), arising from the University of
Nebraskas
Gallup Leadership Institute (Luthans, 2002a, 2002b, 2003; Luthans & Avolio,
2003).

P123: 0195187520re.pdf - 123:38 [This involves what we have ref..] (58:185-58:381) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This involves what we have referred to as bringing the future back to the present and moving from the
actual self to the possible self
in authentic leadership development (Avolio & Luthans, 2006).

P123: 0195187520re.pdf - 123:120 [Even the variables of gratitud..] (200:500-200:620) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Even the variables of gratitude and forgiveness are frequently referred


to in the literature on leadership spirituality.

P123: 0195187520re.pdf - 123:124 [However, more elaborate and di..] (202:2101-202:2337) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

However, more elaborate and diversified measures and


approaches are necessary to assess the various dimensions of spirituality as
a state, such as preliminary ones emerging in the leadership literature (Fry,
Vitucci, & Cedillo, 2005).

P123: 0195187520re.pdf - 123:128 [Luthans (2006) define authenti..] (204:376-204:800) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Luthans (2006) define authentic leadership development, or what they simply call ALD, as the process that
draws upon a leaders life course, psychological capital, moral perspective, and a highly developed
supporting
organizational climate to produce greater self-awareness and self-regulated
positive behaviors, which in turn foster continuous, positive self-development resulting in veritable,
sustained performance (p.

P124: 0761954929.pdf - 124:8 [In this section I describe and..] (32:1883-32:2162) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In this section I describe and analyse the restructuring of state


education from the administration of education through to the impact of
site-based performance management, and how this connects with the
promotion of a preferred model of leadership in educational institutions.
P124: 0761954929.pdf - 124:21 [position themselves regarding ..] (52:292-52:505) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

position themselves regarding leadership, and whether a headteacher is


positioned by the economic interests that control the state or is capable
of agency through exercising professional judgement and discretion.

P124: 0761954929.pdf - 124:26 [(1999) used 20 out of 34 studi..] (66:1104-66:1421) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(1999) used 20
out of 34 studies of transformational leadership (6 qualitative and 15 quantitative) to identify 13 different
types of effects: effects on students, effects
on perceptions of leaders, effects on behaviour of followers, effects on
followers psychological states and organisational-level effects (p.

P124: 0761954929.pdf - 124:29 [The background to this work is..] (88:1337-88:1819) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The background to this work is a commitment by Gronn to biographical


methods and he argues in favour of conceptualising leadership pathways
as a career, and in so doing states that this must: first, allow for those
who have ambition and plan their career as well as those who experience serendipity; and, second, while
there are some leaders who are able
to reflect upon and be explicit about their career as it forms, it is more
usual to consider career pathways in retrospect.

P124: 0761954929.pdf - 124:39 [Researchers who are interested..] (115:1161-115:1509) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Researchers who are interested in leadership effects of headteachers and principals emphasise that context
does need to be taken into
account; as Hallinger and Heck (1996b) state: the principals role is best
conceived as part of a web of environmental, personal, and in-school relationships that combine to influence
organizational outcomes (p.

P124: 0761954929.pdf - 124:57 [States story, School Leaders..] (192:232-192:286) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

States story, School Leadership and Management, vol.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:1 [Sternberg Despite its importan..]


(2:84-2:216) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Sternberg Despite its importance to the United


States and the world, the study of leadership is a neglected eld
within psychology.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:2 [he United States became a


grea..] (5:88-5:184) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

he United States became a great nation because of


the leadership skills of the Founding Fathers.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:4 [United States presidential ele..]


(6:1042-6:1201) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States presidential election of 2004 taught us anything, it was that half the nation has a radically
different
notion of leadership than the other half.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:6 [following the terrorist attack..]


(8:143-8:297) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

following the terrorist attacks on the United States in 2001,


I am hopeful that psychology is on the verge of making
great strides in leadership studies.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:19 [After surveying research


from ..] (14:1174-14:1442) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

After
surveying research from 1904 to 1947, he stated, The
evidence suggests that leadership is a relation that exists
between persons in a social situation, and that persons who
are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders
in other situations (p.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:22 [So do most of the other oft-ci..]


(14:3234-14:3485) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
So do most of the other oft-cited reviews of leader
qualities, such as the review in which Mann (1959) stated
that a number of relationships between an individuals
personality and his leadership status in groups appear to be
well established (p.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:25 [For example, Ed Fleishman,


one..] (15:1156-15:1399) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For example, Ed Fleishman, one of the


major contributors to the Ohio State University program,
noted that Lewins classic study of leadership climate
(Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939) greatly inuenced his own
dissertation (also a classic; E.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:30 [A review of leadership


studies..] (19:2237-19:2315) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

A review of leadership studies with particular


reference to military problems.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:32 [But the statement can be


inter..] (21:228-21:352) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

But the
statement can be interpreted in many different ways,
depending, at least in part, on what one means by
leadership.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:34 [We refer to this as a heroic c..]


(22:2415-22:2469) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

We refer to
this as a heroic conception of leadership.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:35 [He stated that It becomes


cle..] (22:3968-22:4124) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

He stated that It becomes clear that an adequate


analysis of leadership involves not only a study of leaders,
but also of situations (Stogdill, 1948, pp.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:40 [For this reason, he eschewed


t..] (24:2049-24:2283) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For this reason, he eschewed the


type of leadership training that the Ohio State University or
University of Michigan studies may have suggested
(Fiedler, 1972, 1973) or selection techniques that the earlier
trait research favored.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:46 [The heroic model, with its sea..]


(26:5460-26:5720) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The heroic model, with its search for a general trait of


leadership, as well as the investigations of leader behavior
at Ohio State University and the University of Michigan
assumed a degree of invariance across situations that is
seldom, if ever, observed.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:48 [Consider, for example,


conside..] (27:2348-27:2620) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Consider, for example,


consideration and initiating structure, the two dimensions
identied in the Ohio State University studies, or their
counterparts, employee-centered and production-centered
concepts, used extensively in leadership training (Blake &
Mouton, 1964).

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:50 [(2001) discussed what they


cal..] (29:3453-29:3695) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(2001) discussed what they called a connectionist-based model of leadership prototype generation to
emphasize how perceptions ofleadership are contingent on the
context and the dynamic states in which such mental representations are created.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:51 [Grint (2005) stated that it o..]


(30:600-30:702) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Grint (2005) stated that it only requires
the good follower to do nothing for leadership to fail (p.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:52 [Although leadership studies


da..] (30:2649-30:3007) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Although leadership studies dating back to the early 20th


century focused more on the leader than on the context of
leadership in which it was observed (Ayman, 2003; Avolio,
Sosik, Jung, & Berson, 2003; Day, 2000), there have been
some important inquiries into what constitutes leadership
throughout human history that included reference to the
context.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:53 [Yet, even though the


construct..] (31:5844-31:6094) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Yet, even though the construct of integrity may be seen as desirable and universal
across cultures, other scholars have acknowledged that it
could be observed in a variety of forms and still be referred
to as high-integrity leadership (Bass, 1997).

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:56 [Gardner, Avolio, Luthans,


May ..] (34:2372-34:2609) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May & Walumbwa, 2005) has


attempted to take on the challenge of including up front the
core facets described above in explaining what constitutes
what they have referred to as authentic leadership development.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:58 [Gardner (1990) described


over ..] (35:5059-35:5148) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Gardner (1990) described over 15 years ago in his book On Leadership, in


which he stated,

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:71 [state of affairs is that leade..]


(47:1689-47:1875) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

state of affairs is that leadership scholars over the years


may have been asking questions that have no general
answers, thereby adding complexity but not clarity to our
understanding.

P125: 1[]_american_psychologist_leadership(BookFi.org).pdf - 125:93 [Heiser APA Presidential


Award ..] (60:3462-60:3644) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Heiser APA Presidential Award for Advocacy, the APA State Leadership Award, and the Distinguished
Contributions to Clinical Psychology Award from the
Division of Clinical Psychology.

P126: 110-Coaching-Biographies-(GRANT).pdf - 126:10 [leader development and leaders..] (19:3930-


19:4239) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leader development and leadership development (conceptual context); (2) reviewing how state-of-the-art
development
is being conducted in the context of ongoing organizational work (practice context); and (3) summarizing
previous
research that has implications for leadership development (research context).

P126: 110-Coaching-Biographies-(GRANT).pdf - 126:42 [Design/methodology/approach: A..]


(66:3392-66:3566) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Design/methodology/approach: A review of the literature was


undertaken to assess the current state of leadership coaching for physicians and non-medical health care
leaders.

P126: 110-Coaching-Biographies-(GRANT).pdf - 126:58 [It refers to Ronald Haifetz wh..] (88:2080-


88:2251) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

It refers to Ronald Haifetz who in "The Work of Leadership," has discussed the adaptive traits of leaders that
include vision, and the ability to ask the right questions.

P128: 98944E8Ad01.pdf - 128:2 [Attempts to define and study l..] (8:153-8:203) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Attempts to define and study leadership and culture

P128: 98944E8Ad01.pdf - 128:4 [While Schein (1985) states tha..] (12:1000-12:1085) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

While Schein (1985) states that "leadership and culture are two sides of the same
co

P128: 98944E8Ad01.pdf - 128:15 [leadership studies began, ther..] (35:349-35:430) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership studies began, there has been a quest to adequately define the concept.

P128: 98944E8Ad01.pdf - 128:21 [MLQ has been utilized to exami..] (46:96-46:183) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

MLQ has been utilized to examine leadership in over 1,000 firms in the United States and

P131: BK-POsitive Organizational Behavior.PDF - 131:106 [Quinn (1996) finds something s..]
(91:2749-91:2841) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Quinn (1996) finds something similar in his research on the


fundamental state of leadership.

P131: BK-POsitive Organizational Behavior.PDF - 131:147 [In a similar vein, the leaders..] (105:2636-
105:2850) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In a similar vein, the leadership


literature often makes the claim that transformational leaders often exhibit
energizing emotions in order to arouse similar emotional states among their
followers (Avolio, 1999).

P131: BK-POsitive Organizational Behavior.PDF - 131:176 [Attempts to more clearly descr..]


(126:2394-126:2541) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Attempts to more clearly


describe and define ethical leadership led us to develop the ethical leadership construct and an instrument
to measure it.

P131: BK-POsitive Organizational Behavior.PDF - 131:339 [and cardiovascular health 184 ..] (227:503-
227:703) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
and cardiovascular health 184
and collective thriving 812
and emotional contagion 78
and job performance 25, 78
and leadership style 92
and mood states 889
and thriving at work 78
and vigor 86

P131: BK-POsitive Organizational Behavior.PDF - 131:352 [and home life 95 and leadershi..]
(239:1751-239:1847) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

and home life 95


and leadership style 92
and mood states 8890, 946
and physical strength 26,

P134: CM_BK-The Change Models.pdf - 134:100 [and leadership positions with ..] (306:219-306:311)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

and leadership positions with IBM and Minnesota state government before starting her business

P134: CM_BK-The Change Models.pdf - 134:159 [2 years Workshop for union/m..] (464:1164-
464:1268) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

2 years Workshop for union/management leadership group to determine the desired state and initial plans

P134: CM_BK-The Change Models.pdf - 134:252 [Virtual work, 584 Visibility, ..] (756:1230-756:1451)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Virtual work, 584


Visibility, 94
Vision, 526
Visionary leadership, 82
Vision Conference, 208
Vision crafting, 527
Visioning, 333, 527
Vision ofsuccess, 341
Vision Statement, 153
Visual Explorer, 27, 603607, 619,
P135: Disentangling.pdf - 135:1 [In a recent critique of state-..] (2:637-2:756) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In a recent critique of state-of-research on transformational leadership, Knippenberg and Sitkin raise similar
concerns.

P137: g12.pdf - 137:106 [Quinn (1996) finds something s..] (91:2749-91:2841) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Quinn (1996) finds something similar in his research on the


fundamental state of leadership.

P137: g12.pdf - 137:147 [In a similar vein, the leaders..] (105:2636-105:2850) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In a similar vein, the leadership


literature often makes the claim that transformational leaders often exhibit
energizing emotions in order to arouse similar emotional states among their
followers (Avolio, 1999).

P137: g12.pdf - 137:176 [Attempts to more clearly descr..] (126:2394-126:2541) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Attempts to more clearly


describe and define ethical leadership led us to develop the ethical leadership construct and an instrument
to measure it.

P137: g12.pdf - 137:339 [and cardiovascular health 184 ..] (227:503-227:703) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

and cardiovascular health 184


and collective thriving 812
and emotional contagion 78
and job performance 25, 78
and leadership style 92
and mood states 889
and thriving at work 78
and vigor 86

P137: g12.pdf - 137:352 [and home life 95 and leadershi..] (239:1751-239:1847) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

and home life 95


and leadership style 92
and mood states 8890, 946
and physical strength 26,

P142: High_toxicity.pdf - 142:8 [. I was struck by the twiste..] (5:3688-5:3742) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. I was struck by the twisted leadership


reference.

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:26 [Burns (1978) and
Rost (1991) d..] (45:494-45:570) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Burns (1978) and Rost (1991) define leadership in terms of a transformational

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:30 [Leadership or
Severe Dysfunc..] (48:1366-48:1449) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership or Severe Dysfunctional Leadership, I will define each term in its own

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:36 [Historical
Classifications of ..] (58:27-58:170) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Historical Classifications of Leadership Theories (Pre 1930)


As previously stated, the foundation for some leadership writings is based on the

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:44 [single statesman
type leadersh..] (78:944-78:1020) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

single statesman type leadership focused theories to the more modern theories

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:50 [A common stated
characteristic..] (89:20-89:104) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

A common stated characteristic attributed to transformational leadership is charisma.

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:51 [Dysfunctional
Leadership Clark..] (89:1613-89:1723) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Dysfunctional Leadership
Clarke (2005) refers to the adoption of negative reinforcement techniques to protect

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:64 [Researchers, Brown
and Trevino..] (120:410-120:488) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Researchers, Brown and Trevino, (2006, pg 595), define Ethical Leadership as:

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:135 [of term toxic or
severe dysfu..] (195:512-195:595) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

of term toxic or severe dysfunctional leadership behaviours when referring broadly

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:139 [leadership did not
make a cont..] (200:358-200:443) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership did not make a contribution (t173 = 0.708, no significance), refer to Table

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:141 [toxic leadership
behaviours we..] (203:878-203:963) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxic leadership behaviours were two related but separate factors of leadership (refer

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:148 [leadership was to
include some..] (211:1703-211:1782) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

leadership was to include some references by implication to incompetency, or the

P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:152 [The omission of any
reference ..] (228:271-228:344) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The omission of any reference to toxic leadership behaviours in any of the


P144: Leet 2011 Toxic leadership on orgl effectiveness dissertation.pdf - 144:156 [reference is made
to the outpu..] (232:21-232:102) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

reference is made to the outputs that can be expected if leadership behaviours are

P146: Main book Luthons Avalio.pdf - 146:7 [These are commonly referred to..] (21:1211-21:1572)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

These are commonly referred to as positive organizational


scholarship (POS), emanating primarily from a research group at the University of Michigan (see Cameron,
Dutton, & Quinn, 2003), and our positive organizational behavior (POB), arising from the University of
Nebraskas
Gallup Leadership Institute (Luthans, 2002a, 2002b, 2003; Luthans & Avolio,
2003).

P146: Main book Luthons Avalio.pdf - 146:38 [This involves what we have ref..] (58:185-58:381)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This involves what we have referred to as bringing the future back to the present and moving from the
actual self to the possible self
in authentic leadership development (Avolio & Luthans, 2006).

P146: Main book Luthons Avalio.pdf - 146:120 [Even the variables of gratitud..] (200:500-200:620)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Even the variables of gratitude and forgiveness are frequently referred


to in the literature on leadership spirituality.

P146: Main book Luthons Avalio.pdf - 146:124 [However, more elaborate and di..] (202:2101-
202:2337) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

However, more elaborate and diversified measures and


approaches are necessary to assess the various dimensions of spirituality as
a state, such as preliminary ones emerging in the leadership literature (Fry,
Vitucci, & Cedillo, 2005).

P146: Main book Luthons Avalio.pdf - 146:128 [Luthans (2006) define authenti..] (204:376-204:800)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Luthans (2006) define authentic leadership development, or what they simply call ALD, as the process that
draws upon a leaders life course, psychological capital, moral perspective, and a highly developed
supporting
organizational climate to produce greater self-awareness and self-regulated
positive behaviors, which in turn foster continuous, positive self-development resulting in veritable,
sustained performance (p.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:129 [Even in the


United States, whe..] (127:1593-127:1820) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Even in the United


States, where women have been graduating with advanced professional degrees in record
numbers, the number in senior leadership positions remains lowonly 3 percent of Fortune
500 companies have female CEOs.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:140 [Canada, like the


United States..] (132:62-132:457) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Canada, like the United States, is becoming an increasingly


diverse society with population trends that will continue to have
a major impact on Canadian workplaces.When Gordon Nixon
assumed the leadership of the Royal Bank of Canada as CEO,
he created a diversity council as the first step in a drive to
effectively manage a workforce that reflects the makeup of
the banks customer base.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:359 [forming stage


The first stage ..] (376:196-376:342) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

forming stage
The first stage of group development in which
people join the group and then define the
groups purpose, structure, and leadership

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:450 [Define leader


and leadership.] (488:1-488:30) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Define leader and


leadership.
P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:451 [Define leader
and leadership.] (489:105-489:135) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Define leader and


leadership.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:455 [Leadership


studies conducted a..] (492:2016-492:2241) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Leadership studies conducted at the University of


Michigan at about the same time as those being done at Ohio State also hoped to identify
behavioral characteristics of leaders that were related to performance effectiveness.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:456 [The keys were to


(1) define th..] (493:2181-493:2347) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The keys were to (1) define those leadership styles


and the different types of situations, and then (2) identify the appropriate combinations of
style and situation.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:457 [had everything


he needed to de..] (495:554-495:644) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

had everything he needed to define the specific contingencies for leadership effectiveness.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:459 [Another


approach to understand..] (496:1946-496:2225) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Another approach to understanding leadership is path-goal theory, which states that the
leaders job is to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support
needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the goals of the group or organization.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:470 [Define leader


and leadership.] (507:204-507:232) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Define leader and leadership.


P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:471 [Early attempts to
define leade..] (507:545-507:672) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Early attempts to define leader traits were unsuccessful although later attempts found
seven traits associated with leadership.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:475 [Define leader


and leadership a..] (508:1230-508:1301) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Define leader and leadership and explain why managers should be leaders.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:477 [Forming is the


first stage of ..] (509:1079-509:1231) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Forming is the first stage of group


development during which people join a group and
then help define the groups purpose, structure, and
leadership.

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:521 [For team efforts


to work, howe..] (584:860-584:1043) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

For team efforts to work, however, entrepreneurs must shift from the traditional commandand-control style
to a coach-and-collaboration style (refer to the discussion of team leadership

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:555 [Behavioral


theories of leaders..] (657:4144-657:4370) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Behavioral theories of leadership, 462464,


462E17-2
managing power, 472473
Ohio State studies and, 463
University of Iowa studies and, 462463
University of Michigan studies and, 463
Benchmark The standard of excellence

P147: MANAGEMENT-11th-Edn-by-Stephen-P-Robbins-Mary-Coulter.pdf - 147:559 [development in


which people jo..] (661:3505-661:3616) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
development in which people join the group
and then define the groups purpose,
structure, and leadership, 347

P148: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 148:3 [United States military is part..] (13:1435-13:1518)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

United States military is particularly interested in toxic leadership because of the

P148: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 148:4 [conducted to define the constr..] (14:502-14:586)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

conducted to define the construct space of multiple negative leadership styles (e.g.,

P148: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 148:5 [empirically define toxic leade..] (14:679-14:763)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

empirically define toxic leadership and to develop a valid measure of this construct.

P148: Schmidt_umd_0117E_15049.pdf - 148:9 [Hypotheses 5 stated that of th..] (47:479-47:543)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Hypotheses 5 stated that of the five toxic leadership dimensions,

P149: the_toxic_triangle_-__destructive_leaders_vulnerable_followers_and_conducive_environments.
(2).pdf - 149:5 [Then we define the term and de..] (1:1984-1:2156) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Then we define the term and develop the concept of the toxic trianglea
confluence ofleader, follower, and environmental factors that make destructive leadership possible.

P149: the_toxic_triangle_-__destructive_leaders_vulnerable_followers_and_conducive_environments.
(2).pdf - 149:9 [Destructive leadership can als..] (3:2229-3:2348) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Destructive leadership can also be defined with reference to its principal direction ortarget: toward
oneself(personal
P149: the_toxic_triangle_-__destructive_leaders_vulnerable_followers_and_conducive_environments.
(2).pdf - 149:10 [Based on the foregoing discuss..] (4:693-4:809) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Based on the foregoing discussion, we define destructive leadership in terms offive features, summarized in
Table 1.

P150: Thoroughgood, Padilla, Hunter & Tate (2012).pdf - 150:4 [toxictriangle model to define ..]
(2:130-2:245) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

toxictriangle model to define destructive leadership and highlight the role ofsusceptible followers in the
process

P150: Thoroughgood, Padilla, Hunter & Tate (2012).pdf - 150:5 [). From this perspective, dest..]
(2:2742-2:2827) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

). From this
perspective, destructive leadership refers to something that leaders do.

P167: SSRN-id2849335.pdf - 167:2 [This study will also give some..] (2:2048-2:2381) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This study will also give some guidance to all stakeholders


including the government, State bank of Pakistan and other interested persons to know that how ethical
leadership style best suites their organization and how making it a part of their organizational structure
could
result in business success and its sustainability.

P168: 1-s2.0-S1048984313000593-main.pdf - 168:2 [As Gooty and colleagues (2010)..] (2:2901-


2:3145) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

As Gooty and colleagues


(2010) in their recent review of the affective elements of leadership so articulately stated, leader positive
moods engender
favorable outcomes for all parties, whereas leader negative moods seem to be detrimental (p.

P168: 1-s2.0-S1048984313000593-main.pdf - 168:7 [Applied to a leadership contex..] (2:5802-2:5973)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos
Applied to a leadership context, we may posit that followers who are in a positive affective state are more
likely to recall events
that reflect favorably on the leader. T

P168: 1-s2.0-S1048984313000593-main.pdf - 168:17 [. Leadership, affect and emoti..] (16:753-


16:815) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. Leadership, affect and emotions: A state ofthe science revie

P169: 1-s2.0-S1048984313001252-main.pdf - 169:7 [. Leadership and levels ofanal..] (16:436-16:500)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

. Leadership and levels ofanalysis: A state-of-the-science revie

P173: Differentiated leader-member exchange and group effectiveness_ a.pdf - 173:11 [In the
leadership literature, ..] (48:548-48:625) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In the leadership literature, implicit leadership theories (ILTs) refer to the

P173: Differentiated leader-member exchange and group effectiveness_ a.pdf - 173:14 [(2004)
showed that the Ohio St..] (55:1273-55:1342) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

(2004) showed that the Ohio State leadership behaviors, the forgotten

P173: Differentiated leader-member exchange and group effectiveness_ a.pdf - 173:22 [In their study,
differentiated..] (70:761-70:848) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In their study, differentiated leadership referred to the case when the leader exhibits

P175: hogan2001 toxic measurement.pdf - 175:1 [We define leadership as the ab..] (1:1586-1:1629)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

We define leadership as the ability to build

P180: 1-s2.0-S1048984308001604-main(1).pdf - 180:1 [Department ofBehavioral Scienc..] (1:109-


1:209) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Department ofBehavioral Sciences and Leadership, United States MilitaryAcademy, WestPoint, NY, USA

P180: 1-s2.0-S1048984308001604-main(1).pdf - 180:10 [220) appropriately refers to t..] (9:4125-


9:4506) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

220) appropriately refers to this state as the edge of chaos. Similarly, the loose-tight model of
leadership (Peters & Waterman, 1982; Sagie, 1997; Sagie, Zaidman, Amichai-Hamburger, Te'eni, & Schwartz,
2002) suggests that a
pairing of participative (loose) and directive (tight) leader behaviors can create a dynamic environment
where greater leadermember cooperation can grow.

P183: 10.1016@j.leaqua.2013.06.001(1).pdf - 183:2 [The framework proposes five co..] (3:673-3:986)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

The framework proposes five concise webs of belief, as a simplified and direct way to sort through the
plethora of
effective leader knowledge, skills, and dispositions, referred to in this framework as leadership capacities, to
provide a focus and
starting point for training and developing 21st century leaders.

P183: 10.1016@j.leaqua.2013.06.001(1).pdf - 183:6 [Bennis (1998) described the in..] (5:230-5:325)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Bennis (1998) described the inevitable evolution ofleadership to a more organic state and form.

P183: 10.1016@j.leaqua.2013.06.001(1).pdf - 183:10 [Using the five webs ofbeliefas..] (17:728-


17:948) (Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

Using the five webs ofbeliefas a backdrop to the contexts ofongoing


work initiatives, assignments, and roles, the individual leader can engage in state-of-the-art leadership
development in real time
and in real place

P191: Managing Toxic Leadership 2011.pdf - 191:1 [This work is based on the auth..] (3:1743-3:2001)
(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

This work is based on the authors leadership coaching experience along with interviews and observations of
various leaders, followers, and
administrators of higher education institutions, nonprofits, and private companies in the
United States and Europe.

P192: Personality_disorders.pdf - 192:2 [In assessing pathologically ?..] (2:1583-2:1716) (Super)


Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

In assessing pathologically awed patterns of leadership behavior the diagnoses call


to mind a statement by Kets de Vries (1995, p.

P192: Personality_disorders.pdf - 192:18 [While a few leadership scholar..] (17:1500-17:1638)


(Super)
Codes: [Define] [Leadership]
No memos

While a few leadership scholars have credentials in both


management and psychotherapy allowing for reference to and usage of the DSM (e.g.