Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 160

Recommended Practices for

Machinery Installation and


Installation Design
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 686


PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996

American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bdb 96 m 0732290 0553943 585 m

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Recommended Practices for


Machinery Installation and
Installation Design

Manufacturing, Distributionand Marketing Department


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 686
PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996

American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
SPECIAL NOTES
API publications necessarily address problems ofa general nature. With respectto par-
ticular circumstances,local, state, and federal laws and regulations should be reviewed.
API is not undertaking to meet the duties of employers,manufacturers,or suppliers to
warn and properly train and equiptheir employees, andothers exposed, concerning health
and safety risks and precautions, nor undertaking their obligations under local, state, or
federal laws.
Information concerning safety and health risks and proper precautions with respect to
particular materials and conditions should be obtained from the employer, the manufac-
turer or supplier of that material,or the material safety data sheet.
Nothing contained in any API publication is to be construed as granting any right, by
implication or otherwise, for the manufacture, sale, or use of any method, apparatus, or
product covered by letters patent. Neither should anything containedin the publication be
construed as insuring anyone against liability for infringement ofletters patent.
Generally, API standardsare reviewed and revised, reaffirmed,or withdrawn atleast ev-
ery five years. Sometimesa one-time extension of upto two years will be added to this re-
view cycle. This publication will no longer be effect
in five years after its publication date
as an operative API standard or, where an extension has beengranted, upon republication.
Status of the publication can be ascertained fromAthe P I Authoring Department [telephone
(202) 682-8000]. A catalog of API publications and materials is published annually and
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

updated quarterly by API, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.


This document was produced under API standardization procedures that ensure appro-
priate notification and participation in the developmental process and is designated as an
API standard. Questions concerning the interpretation of the content of this standard or
comments and questions concerning the procedures under which this standard was devel-
oped should be directed in writingto the director of the Manufacturing, Distribution and
Marketing Department, American PetroleumInstitute, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington,
D.C. 20005. Requestsfor permission to reproduceor translate all or any part ofthe mate-
rial published herein shouldalso be addressed tothe director.
API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made
by the Instituteto assure the accuracy and reliability of datathe contained in them; however,
the Institute makes no representation,warranty, or guarantee in connection with this pub-
lication and hereby expressly disclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage
resulting fromits use or for the violation of any federal, state, or municipal regulation with
which this publication mayconflict.
API standardsare published to facilitate the broad availability of proven, sound engineer-
ing and operating practices. These standards are not intended to obviate the need for apply-
ing sound engineering judgment regarding when and where these standardsbeshould utilized.
The formulation and publication of API standards is not intended in any way to inhibit any-
one from using any other practices.
Any manufacturer marking equipmentor materials in conformance with the marking
requirements of an API standard is solely responsible for complying with all the applicable
requirements of thatstandard.API does not represent, warrant, or guarantee that such prod-
ucts do in fact conformto the applicableAPI standard.

All rights reserved. Nopart of this work may be reproduced, stored ina retrieval system,
or transmitted by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or other-
wise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Contactthe Publisher, API
Publishing Services, 1220 L Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20005.

Copyright O 1996 American Petroleum Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
FOREWORD
API publications may be used by anyone desiring to do so. Every effort has been made
by the institute to assure the accuracy and reliability of the data contained in them; however,
the institute makes no representation, warranty,or guarantee in connection with this pub-
lication an hereby expresslydisclaims any liability or responsibility for loss or damage re-
sulting from its use or for the violation of anyfederal, state, or municipal regulation with
which this publication may conflict.
Suggested revisions are invited and should be submitted to the director of the Manufac-
turing, Distribution and Marketing Department, American Petroleum Institute, 1220 L
Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.20005.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

iii
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 1"INTRODUCTION ............................................................................ 1.1
CHAPTER 2-RIGGING AND LIFTING ................................................................ 2- 1
CHAPTER 3"JOBSITE RECEIVING AND PROTECTION .................................. 3-1
CHAPTER4"FOUNDATIONS .............................................................................. 4- 1
CHAPTER5-MOUNTINGPLATEGROUTING .................................................. 5-1
CHAPTER&PIPING .............................................................................................. 6- 1
CHAPTER 7-SHAFT ALIGNMENT .................................................................... 7- 1
CHAPTER&LUBRICATIONSYSTEMS ............................................................ 8- 1
CHAPTER9"COMMISSIONING .......................................................................... 9-1

V
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Recommended Practices for Machinery
Installation and Installation Design

Chapter I-Introduction

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 686
PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996

American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b
96
0732290 0 5 5 L 9 ~ 8Ob7

CONTENTS
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Page
CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION
1.1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 1-1
1.2 AlternativeInstallation ...................................................................................... 1-1
1.3 Conflicting Requirements .................................................................................. 1-1
1.4 Definitions ........................................................................................................ 1-1

iii
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b96 m 0732270 0553749 TT3 m

Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design


CHAPTER 1-INTRODUCTION

1.1 Scope timated relative changes in shaft centerlines from ambient


conditions to operating conditions.
1.1.1
PURPOSE
1.4.3angularmisalignment: The anglebetweenthe
These recommended practices (W) are intended to pro- shaft centerline of two adjacent shafts. This angle is nor-
vide recommended procedures,practices, and checklists for mally reportedin slope of millimeters of change per decime-
the installation and precommissioning of new and reapplied ter of linear distance (mils per inch) (1 mil = 0.001 inch).
machinery for petroleum, chemical, and gas industry ser-
1.4.4blowdownsystem: Aclosedsystemconnected
vices facilities. Ingeneral, these recommendedpractices are
to a machine used todepressure and decontaminatethe ma-
intended to supplement vendorinstructions and the instruc-
chine preparatory to maintenanceactivities; also known as a
tions provided by the original equipment manufacturer
maintenance dropout system.
(OEM) should becarefully followed with regard to equip-
ment installation andcheckout. 1.4.5 bolt bound: Where any holddown bolt is not free
Most major topics of these recommended practices are in the bolt hole, so that the ability to move the moveable ele-
subdivided into sections of Installation Design and In- ment in a machinery train horizontally or axially i&onstrained.
stallation with the intent being that each section can be re- 1.4.6 breakout spool: A short, flanged length of pipe
moved and used as needed by the appropriate design or immediately connected to the machinery piping flanges.
installation personnel. Lengths vary with thesize of the pipe but range from 15 cen-
timeters (6 inches) to 1 meter (3 feet). The purposes of this
1.1.2EQUIPMENTCLASSIFICATION
spool are to facilitate machinery installation, allow piping
These recommended practices are intended to address modification to reduce pipestrain, isolate the machinery, fa-
those installation and construction procedures associated cilitate commissioning activities such as flushing or blowing
with all machinery. Additional special purpose require- lines, and allow removal of temporary inlet strainers; also
ments are covered at the end of each section as required. known as a dropout spool.
1.4.7cementatiousgrout: Atype of grout material
1.2AlternativeInstallation that is portland cement based.
The installation contractor or design contractor may of- 1.4.8combinationmisalignment: When the center-
fer alternative methods of equipment installation
as mutually lines of two adjacentshafts are neither parallel norintersect.
agreed upon by the user andequipment manufacturer. This misalignment is normally described in both angular and
offset terms.
1.3ConflictingRequirements
1.4.9condensingservice: A gasstream that con-
Any conflicts between these recommended practices tains a vapor component thatmay condense to a liquid dur-
and/or the manufacturers recommended procedures shall be ing startup, operation, or shutting-down of a compressor or
referred to the owners designated machinery representative blower. Thismay include pure vapors such as refrigerants as
for resolution beforeproceeding. well as hydrocarbon gas streams. When condensate is pre-
sent in the gas stream, the term wer gas may be used. Wet gas
1.4 Definitions may also be used as a synonym to condensing service.
1.4.1 alignment: Theprocess of reducing the mis- 1.4.10 dead-leg: A lengthof piping withnoflow.
alignment of two adjacent shafts connected by
a coupling so 1.4.1 1 designated machinery representative:
that the center of rotation for each shaft
as near
is collinear as The personor organization designatedby the ultimate owner
practical during normaloperation. of the equipment to speak on his behalf with regard to ma-
Note:Most misalignmentis combination misalignment,It can be resolved chinery installation decisions, inspection requirements, and
into a parallel offset at a given point alongt h e fixed machine centerline and
angular misalignment in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The offset
so forth. This representative may be an employee of the
is dependent on the location alongthe fixed machine centerline whereit is owner, a third party inspection company, or an engineering
measured. normally the centerof the coupling spacer. contractor as delegated by the owner.
1.4.2 ambient offset: The practice of misaligning two 1.4.12 drop point: A vertical section of oilmist distri-
shaft centerlinesat ambient conditions to account for the es- bution piping that is usually smaller in diameter than the
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1-1
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 96 m 0732290 0553950 715 m

1-2 RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE
API 686/PIP RElE 686

main oil mist header. This piping rises out of a tee in the API Standard 676 rotary positive displacementpumps, API Standard 680
reciprocating air compressors, and NEMAframe motors.
main oil mist header, turns horizontally, and extends down-
ward to the machinery being lubricated. 1.4.23 general purpose: Refers to anapplicationthat
1.4.13 elastomericcoupling: Acoupling that ob- is usually spared or is in noncritical service.
tains its flexibility from the flexing of an elastomeric ele- 1.4.24grout: Anepoxy or cementatious material used
ment. to provide a uniform foundation support and load transfer
1.4.14 engineering designer: Theperson or organi- link for the installation of rotating machinery. This material
zation charged with the project responsibility of supplying is typically placed between apiece of equipmentsconcrete
installation drawings and procedures for installing machin- foundation and its mounting plate.
ery in a user facility after machinery has been delivered. In 1.4.25 grout pin: A metallic pin or dowel used to tie
general, but not always, the engineering designer specifies an epoxy grout pourto its concrete foundation to preventde-
machinery in the user facility. lamination (or edge lifting) due to differential thermal ex-
1.4.15 epoxy grout: A type of grout material that con- pansion between the grout and the concrete.
sists of a resin base that is mixed witha curing agent (hard- 1.4.26 head box: A device used to funnel grout into a
ener) and usually an aggregate filler. baseplate grout fill-hole so as toprovide a static head to aid
1.4.16equipmentuser: Theperson or organization in filling all baseplate cavities with grout.
charged with operationof the rotating machinery. In general, 1.4.27 isolation block valve: Avalveused to isolate
but not always, the equipment user owns and maintainsthe a process machinepreparatory to maintenance. Also known
rotating machinery after the project is complete. as a block valve or solation valve.
1.4.17equipmentinstaller: Theperson or organiza- 1.4.28mechanicalpipinganalysis: An analysis of
tion charged with providing engineering services and labor the piping connected to a machine to determine the stresses
required to install machinery in a userfacility after machin- and deflections of the piping resulting from dynamic load-
ery has been delivered. In general, but not always, the in- ings such as pulsating flow. Determination ofthe type, loca-
staller is the project construction contractor. tion, and orientation of piping supports and piping guides
1.4.18 equipment train: Two or more rotating equip- results from this analysis.
ment machinery elements consisting of at least one driver 1.4.29minimumflowbypass: (See recycle line.)
and one driven element joined
together by a coupling.
1.4.30 mounting plate: A device used to attach equip-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.4.19 final alignment: The aligning oftwo adjacent ment to concrete foundations; includes both baseplates and
machinery shafts after the measurement of piping-imposed soleplates.
strains on the machinery are verified as being within the
specified tolerances. 1.4.31 nonslam check valve: Amechanically or hy-
draulically balanced check valve thatallows closure of the
1.4.20 flexible-element coupling: Atypeofrotating valve in a controlled fashion. Wafer-style center-guided
machinery coupling thatdescribes both disk and diaphragm spring-loaded split-disc check valves or tilting-disc check
couplings. A flexible-element coupling obtains its flexibility valves are representative designs.
from the flexingof thin disks or diaphragm elements.
1.4.32 NPS: Nominalpipe size.
1.4.21gearcoupling: Atype of rotating machinery
coupling that obtains its flexibility by relative rocking and 1.4.33 oilmistapplicationfittings: Longpath ori-
sliding motion between mating, profiled gear teeth. fices that causethe small oil droplet size in the header (dry
mist) to be converted to largersize oil droplets (wet mist)
1.4.22generalpurposeequipmenttrains: Those to lubricate the bearings. Oil mist applicationfittings are also
trains that have all general purpose elements in the train. known as reclassifiers.
They are. usuallyspared, relatively small in size (power), or
in noncritical service, They are intended for applications 1.4.34 oilmistdistributor block Asmallrectangu-
where processconditions will not exceed48 bar gauge(700 lar block that has four or more holes drilled and tapped in
pounds per square inch gauge) pressure or 205C (400F) opposite faces. Drop points terminate in distributor blocks.
temperature (excluding steam turbines), or both, and where An oil mist distributor block may also be described as an oil
speed will not exceed5000 revolutions per minute(RPM). mist manifold block.
Note: General purpose equipment trains have all elements that are either 1.4.35 oil mistconsole: Asystem consisting of the
manufacturers standardor m covered by standardssuch as the following: oil mist generator,oil supply system, air filtering system, oil
ANSVASME B.73 horizontal pumps, small API Standard610 pumps, fans, mist header outlet, and necessary controls and instrumenta-
API Standard 61 1 steam turbines, API Standard 672 air compressors.API
Standard 677 general purpose gears, API Standard674 reciprocating pumps, tion. Air and oil enter the console to produce oil mist.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 1 1-3
-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.4.36 oil mist generator: A device located inside the itive pressure. Machinery lubrication is provided
by the nor-
oil mist console that combines oil and air to make oil mist. mal ring oilor submerged bearing lubrication. This prevents
Typical oil mist generators utilizea venturi to achieve mix- contamination that couldbe caused by infiltration of corro-
ing of the oil and the air. sive agents or condensation of ambient moisture. Purge mist
1.4.37 oil mist: A dispersion of oil droplets of1-3 mi- may also be described aswef sump mist lubrication.
cron size in an air stream. 1.4.47 recycle line: A line from the discharge of a
1.4.38 oil mistsystem: A systemdesignedtopro- pump, blower,or compressor routed back to the suction sys-
duce, transport, and deliver oil mist from
a central location to tem. A recycle line will usually include control elements
a remote bearing housing. This system consists of the oil such as meters or valves.The recycle line may connectdi-
mist console, distribution piping headers and laterals, appli- rectly into the suction lineor may connect into suction ves-
cation fittings,and the lubricant supply tank and pump. sels or liquid knock-out vessels and may include a cooler.
Also known as bypass line, minimumflow bypass, or kick-
1.4.39 oil mist header: A networkofpipingthrough back line.
which the oil mist is transported from the console whereit
is made to the machinery bearing housing where it is used. 1.4.48specialpurposeequipmenttrains: Equip-
ment trains with driven equipment that is usually not spared
1.4.40 operating temperature (thermal) alignment:
is relatively large in size (power), or is in critical service.
A procedure to determine the actual change in relative shaft
This category is not limited by operating conditions or speed.
positions within a machinery train from the ambient (not
running) condition and the normal operating temperature Note: Special purpose equipment trains will be defined by the user. In
general, any equipment train suchas an API Standard 612 turbine, API Stan-
(running) conditionby taking measurements from startup to dard 618 reciprocating compressor, API Standard 613 gear, API Standard
normal operating temperature while the machine(s) is (are) 617 centrifugal compressor, or equipment with a gas turbine in the train
operating, or after the shafts havebeen stopped but the ma- should be considered to be special purpose.
chines are still near operating temperature. 1.4.49specialpurposeapplication: An application
1.4.41 paralleloffsetmisalignment: The distance for which the equipment is designed for uninterrupted, con-
between two adjacent and parallel shaft centerlines. Thisoff- tinuous operation in critical service and for which there is
set is normally describedin a unit (millimeters or mils) at the usually no spare equipment.
flex element location.
1.4.50 static piping analysis: An analysisofthepip-
1.4.42pegtest: A testperformed onopticalleveling ing system connected toa machine to determine forces and
equipment to ensure that the instrument is properly adjusted moments on nozzle connections causedby various loading
and its lineof sight is coincident to true earth level. conditions such as pipe weight, liquid loads, and thermal ex-
1.4.43preliminaryalignment: Thealigningoftwo pansion or contraction. These forces and moments are com-
adjacent machinery shafts before the measurement of piping pared to vendor-allowable loads or national standards to
strain on the machinery. ensure that nozzle loadings meet guidelines. This analysis
includes specificationof pipe anchors, guides, supports,and
1.4.44 pulsation analysis: An analysis of thepiping sometimes spring supports and expansionjoints to control
system connected toa machine to determine the acoustical strain. Where large vertical piping displacements occur, ma-
and mechanical effects of pulsating flow. For small machines chinery may sometimes be mounted on spring-supported
a pulsation analysis may consist of comparison to other in- baseplates to reduce nozzle loading.
stallations and/or useof proprietary pulsation device design
charts, formulas,or graphs. For large, complicated machines 1.4.51 suction knockout vessel or liquid dropout
a pulsation analysis may consist ofa detailed digital or ana- vessel: A vessel located in the suction line to a com-
log modeling of the machine and the piping. Unless other- pressor or blower used to separate any entrained liquid from
wise specified, API Standard 618 should be used to provide the gas stream. It may contain a demister mat and/or cen-
guidance for the pulsation analysis. trifugal separators to aid in this separation. Usually the com-
pressor or blower takes suctionfrom the top of the knockout
1.4.45 pure mist: The application ofoilmistto a ma- vessel.
chinery bearing housing to lubricate antifriction bearings.
The oil mist passes through the bearing elements, and oil 1.4.52tabletopfoundation: Anelevatedthree-di-
droplets coalesce outof the air stream. All oil is drained from mensional reinforced concrete structure that consists of large
the machinery bearing housing, and complete lubrication is beams or a thick slab connecting the tops of the supporting
provided by the mist alone. Pure mist may also be described columns. The mechanical equipment is supported by the
as dry sump lubrication. large beams or the slab located at the top of the structure.
1.4.46 purge mist: The application of oil mist to a ma- 1.4.53 total indicated runout (tir): The runout of a
chinery bearing housingor reservoir to provide a slight pos- diameter or face determinedby measurement witha dial in-

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
1-4 RECOMMENDED
686/PIP
PRACTICE
API RElE 686
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

dicator (also known as total indicator reading).The indica- 1.4.55 warmup line: A line used to purge warm or hot
tor reading impliesan out-of-squareness equal tothe read- fluid througha process machine. The intention is to heat up
ing or an eccentricity equal to half the reading. or maintain the temperature of a machine to a temperature
1.4.54vendor: The agencythat manufactures, sells, greater than the surrounding ambient temperature.
and provides service support for the equipment.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
Recommended Practicesfor Machinery
Installation and Installation Design

Chapter 2-Rigging and Lifting

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department


--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 686


PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996

4
American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 2--RIGGING AND LIFTING
1.1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 2-1
1.2 PreplanningtheLift .......................................................................................... 2-1
1.3 LiftingtheMachinery ........................................................................................ 2-1

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 9 b m 0732290 0551955 2 T 7 m

Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design


CHAPTER 2-RIGGING AND LIFTING

1.1 Scope the proximity to important structures, pipe racks, and over-
head electrical services. OSHA 1926.550 gives clearance re-
1.1.1 This chapter provides general guidelinesfor rigging quirements for electrical services.
and lifting of machinery from shipping trucks, railcars, and d. Setup timefor the lifting equipment and overall duration
so forth, onto the foundation or platform. of the lift.
Note: This chapter is intended to be used for all machinery. Even small Note: Coordinate with the plant traffic control personnel for any roadway
pumps canbe damaged by improper lifts.The extent of the rigging and lift- blockages.
ing plan can be reduced when specified by the user. The lifting plan for
small machinery could be in the form of a site meeting at the start of con- e. Check route to be taken when bringing machinery to fi-
struction, if agreed to by the user. However, if not specified otherwise, this
nal location. Checkfor overhead clearance, turn radius, road
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

section shall be used forall machinery.


bed, and so forth.
1.1.2 This chapter is intended to supplement the rules and
regulations that the rigging and lifting subcontractor must abide1.2.3 The installer shall check site plans for underground
by, such as state or local government inspections and permits, piping, sewers,electrical cables, or other utilities in the area
OSHA 1926, SubpartsH and N, and ASMWANSIB30. of lift. Outrigger cribbing pads shall be used
to eliminate any
damage to roads andalso to reduce the possibility of outrig-
gers breaking through soft ground, reducing the capabilities
1.2 PreplanningtheLift of the crane.
Note: Many lifts are made from unpavedareas. Point loads fromcrane tires
1.2.1 The installer shall be responsible for obtaining the and outriggers candamage underground utilities. Review potential problem
areas with a civil engineer to determine if the ground coveris adequate.
following as a minimum:
a. Shipping and net weights of each separate component of 1.2.4 The installer shall confirm that floor slabs on which
the machinery or machinery package. the crane may sit have cured adequately. Confirm that ma-
chinery foundationshave cured andgrout preparationshave
b. Manufacturer drawings indicating the location of lifting been completed.
lugs/points, the expected load at each point, and the center
1.2.5 If the machinery will be set in a partially completed
of gravity.
structure, or if structural members must be removed to lower
Note: Lifting lugs are often provided on machinery to lift individual com-
ponents and are not intended tobe. used to lift the entire machine (that is, lift-
the machinery intothe structure, the lifting plan must be re-
ing lugson WP-II motor air housings cannot be used to lift the entire motor). viewed and approved by the structural engineer responsible
for the design of the structure. Temporary shoring, bracing,
c. Manufacturers recommendations for the lift including
or supports shall be reviewed and approved by the structural
the use of spreader bars, slings, and so forth.
engineer.
1.2.2 The installer shall prepare a rigging and lifting plan 1.2.6 The installer shall confirm that all equipment is up
of action that includes the following:
to date with respectto permits andinspections.Request that
a. A rigging plan showing the lifting points and including the rigging spreader bars, slings, cables, and so forth, are
the loadcapacities of spreader bars, slings, cables, shackles, field inspected just prior to the lift being started. Refer to
hooks, rings, and so forth. Load capacities shall be based OSHA 1926, SubpartsH and N, for inspection requirements.
upon a minimum safety factor of 1S . Plans shall also be 1.2.7 The installer shall hold a prelift meeting with the
made for lifting crated equipment. user and manufacturer (if required) to ensure the
thatplan of
Note: When the safety factor of 1.5 results in the selection of a more ex- action is agreed to and understood.
pensive crane, the selection maybe reduced upon an appropriate engineer-
ing review and agreement by both the installer and the user designated
representative.
b. The selected lifting equipment and confirmation that the 1.3 Liftingthe Machinery
load and lift radius are within the capacity and range ratings
of the manufacturer of the lifting equipment. 1.3.1 The installer shall verify that the cables and slings
c. layout sketches showing thesetup location for the lifting are bearing only on the intendedlift points andare not trans-
equipment in relationship to the initial pick pointof the load mitting any loads onto auxiliary piping, instruments, chain
and its final installation point. Thesketch should also show guards, and so forth.
2- 1
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API R P t b 8 b 9b m 0732290 055L75b L33 m

2-2 PRACTICE686/PIP RElE 686


API RECOMMENDED

1.3.2 Lift pints for individual machinery pieces shall not Note: Care must beexercised in lifting skid-mounted equipment where
part
of the machinery or its auxiliaries have been removedfor shipment, thus
be for liftingmachineryskids or This can apply changing the centerof gravity.
to lifting lugs thatmay be found on motors, gear boxes, cas-
1.3.4 The installer shall keep other subcontractor and plant
ings, inspection covers, andso forth. When in doubt, consult
personnel from working underthe lift and keep them a safe
the manufacturer.Do not use equipment shafts for lift points.
distance away until the machinery is secured in place on its
1.3.3 For baseplate- or skid-mounted machinery, only use foundation or structure.
lift points on the baseplate or skid. DO not use the machin- 1.3.5 For sleeve bearing machinery without thrust bearings,
ery as a lift point unless approvedby the manufacturer. the rotor shall be blockedto restrict axial travel prior to lift.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
Recommended Practices for Machinery
Installation and Installation Design

Chapter 3 4 o b s i t e Receiving and Protection

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE686
PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPsb8b 76 9 0732270 0553958 Tob m

CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 3-JOBSITE RECEIVING AND PROTECTION
1 . 1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 3-1
1.2 Responsibility .................................................................................................... 3-1
1.3 Preplanning ........................................................................................................ 3-1
1.4 Jobsite ReceivingandInspection ...................................................................... 3-1
1.5 GeneralInstructions-JobsiteProtection ............................................................ 3-2
1.6 Lubricants andPreservatives .............................................................................. 3-3
1.7 Bolts .................................................................................................................... 3-4
1.8 Spare Parts, Special Tools, and Miscellaneous Loose Items .............................. 3-4
1.9 Auxiliary Piping for Rotating Equipment .......................................................... 3-4

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
1.10 Compressors-General ........................................................................................ 3-5
1.11 Reciprocating Compressors ................................................................................ 3-5
1.12 Centrifugal Compressors .................................................................................... 3-5
1.13 Fans and Blowers ................................................................................................ 3-6
1.14 Gearboxes ............................................................................................................ 3-6
1.15 Pumps-General .................................................................................................. 3-6
1 .16 Centrifugal Pumps .............................................................................................. 3-6
1 .17 Vertically Suspended Pumps .............................................................................. 3-6
1 .18 Reciprocating Pumps .......................................................................................... 3-7
1.19 Steam Turbines .................................................................................................... 3-7
1.20 Motors.................................................................................................................. 3-7
1.21 Instrumentation on Packaged Machinery ............................................................ 3-8
APPENDIX A-CHARACTERISTICS OF CONVENTIONAL STORAGE
PRESERVATIVES .......................................................................... 3-9
APPENDIX B-MACHINERY .. 3-1 1
RECEIVING AND PROTECTION CHECKLIST
APPENDIX C-INERT GAS PURGE MAINTENANCE LOG .............................. 3-17

iii
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b!b 9b m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0553959 942 m

Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design


CHAPTER 34OBSITE RECEIVING AND PROTECTION
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.1 Scope a. Visually inspect components for physical damageor con-


tamination by opening packages and crates. Hermetically
1.1.1 This recommended practice (W) defines the mini- sealed containers should not be opened, but visually in-
mum requirements for protecting project machinery and re- spected for damage and the hermetic seal maintained.
lated components from deterioration while in field storage, b. Verify that shipping protection has been applied and is
after installation, and during the period prior to commis- still in effect.
sioning. c. Verify that shop inspection has been completed and that
1.1.2 In all cases where the manufacturers requirements the vendor has supplied the purchase order documentation
or recommendations differ from the instructions provided in and packing lists.
this document, the users designated representative shall be d. Verify that loose components and separate packages
consulted to determine which takes precedence. match the packing lists.
e. Verify that special handling instructions are provided and
1.1.3 An inspection and protective maintenance program carried out.
shall be initiated and maintained by the users designated f. Verify proper identification of the components.
representativefor stored and installed equipment until it is g. Perform visual inspection of componentsfor compliance
turned over to thecare, custody, and control of the user. with projectrequirements.
h. Inspect carbon steelor other ferrous flange facesfor dam-
age and coat with type B, A,or D preservative, unless prohib-
1.2 Responsibility ited by process application (see note 1). Reinstall protective
Overall responsibility for protecting project machinery covers. Where car seals on inspection coversor flanges have
from deterioration in the field, per this recommended prac- been specified, inspect thecar seals for integrity(see note 2).
tice, rests with the construction manager and his designated Note I: Preservative types are described in Appendix A. Final selectionof
representative until the machinery is turned over to the user. the preservative depends on the type of storage (indoor, outdoor, sheltered),
weather conditions, and atmospheric corrosion potential. Equipment data
sheets and manufacturers instructions shall be reviewed to determine if
there are specific preservative requirements. Referto the notes in Appendix
1.3
Preplanning A for additional details.

Note 2: Use caution with soft-gasketed flanges. Soft gaskets may absorb
1.3.1 Verify that all procurement schedules, shipping lists, water and corrode carbonsteel flanges.
manufacturers storage recommendations, installation man-
uals, and drawings have been forwarded to the designated i. Verify that plugs and capsare in place, desiccants are un-
machinery representative. saturated, and equipment is lubricated, as required. Non-
1.3.2 Review weights, configuration,and method of ship- metallic (such as plastic) plugs and caps shall not be used.
ping before arrival at the jobsite. Determine type of equip- j. Verify that inert-gas-purged equipment still has the re-
ment requiredto unload the shipment,(that is, forklift,boom quired pressure applied. Reportfailures to the manufacturer
truck, crane, and so forth) and schedule accordingly. and request corrective action. This equipment shall remain
sealed unless otherwise instructed by the designated ma-
Note: SeeAPI RP 686/PIP RElE 686, Chapter 2-Rigging and Lifting, for
further details. Care must be taken to ensure that safe and appropriate rig- chinery representative.
ging procedures are followed. k. Inspect grout surfaces for properfactory blasting and
1.3.3 When specified, schedule the manufacturers repre- coating.
sentative for receiving inspection. Schedule users inspec- 1. Tapped openings in the stuffing boxes and gland plates
tors, where required, suchas rotating equipment, instrument, shall be closed and sealed with pipe plugs. Plug material
and electrical engineers. shall be of the same or better than seal gland plate metal-
lurgy. As a minimum, the plugs shall bestainless steel.
m. When specified, impact-measuring devices shall be in-
1.4 Jobsite Receiving and Inspection spected to determine if the equipment has been exposed to
any excessive shock loads. Where required, the manufactur-
Upon arrival of the machinery or portions thereof at the ing representative shall be present.
jobsite: n. Record all inspections (refer to Appendixes B and C).

3-1
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 96 m 0732290 0551960 664 m

3-2 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE
686/PIP RElE 686

o. Report any damageto the shipping company and vendor Note: Third party storage facilities may prove to be the most economical
method for equipment requiring clean, dry,and climate-controlled condi-
immediately. Ensure that any claim forms required by the tions. On an existing site, the user may be able to provide some storage
fa-
shipper or vendor are completed. cilities.

i.5.6 Temporary protective coverings shall allow free air


circulation to prevent humidity condensation andcollection
1.5 General Instructions-Jobsite of water.
Protection

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
1.5.7 The installer shall attempt to preserve and maintain
1.5.1 Manufacturers or vendorsrecommendations for the integrity of the delivery packaging wheneverappropri-
storage and protectivecare shall be reviewedby a user desig- ate. Replace packaging materialafter inspection.Review the
nated representative and shall be strictly followed when trans- integrity of control boxes and panels with
respect to weather
mitted to the field. If the manufacturers recommendations are protection. Store indoors if required.
not available, the information includedin this recommended 1.5.8 All carbon and low alloy steel shall be protected
practice shallbe used as a minimum acceptable guide. from any contact with corrosive atmospheres or wet atmo-
1.5.1 .I Review the procurement documents to determine spheres so as to prevent rustformation.
if the equipment had been prepared for a predetermined stor-
1.5.9 Painted surfaces shall not require additional protec-
age period. For example,if the equipment was procured per tion but shall be examinedperiodically for signs of rusting.
4.4.1 of APIStandard Paragraphs, preparation for shipment
Touch up, using the manufacturers recommended methods
would be suitable for six months of outdoor storage from and materials, shall be performed within apractical and rea-
time of shipment, with no disassembly required before op- sonable period oftime.
eration, except for inspection of bearings andseals. In such
cases, redundant preparation procedures would be postponed 1.5.1 O All items with machined surfaces shall be stored so
until the initial time period runs out. that the machined surfaces can be examined periodically
(monthly) for signs of rust.
Note: It is recommended that where machines are to be partially or com-
pletely disassembled for storage preservationor inspection by the contrac-
1.5.1 1 Any special parts and tools for construction purposes
tor or user, the vendors service representative should be on site to ensure
the accuracy of the work and the preservation of the warranty. that accompany vendor shipments shall be tagged, protected,
and stored per the vendors and/or users recommendations.
1.5.1.2 Protective storage requirements for specific items All tags must be stainless steel and wired to the specialorpart
of equipment such as pumps, blowers, fans, compressors, and tool. Paper tagsare not permitted.
gear boxes are foundin subsequent sections of this procedure.
1.5.12 Keep the storage area and equipment clean by pro-
1.5.2 Records documenting the following information are viding physical protection and covering when work operations
to be kept by field material control personnel using the such as concrete chipping, sanding, painting, and rigging are
forms referenced: performed in the area. Stainless steel shall be protected from
a. Conditions of equipment and materials upon arrival at the weld splatter and grindingdust of low alloysteel.
jobsite before and after unloading. Use the checklist in Ap-
15 13 Periodic rotation of equipment will bediscussed in
pendix B.
subsequent sections. In all cases, determine that all shipping
b. Maintenance and storage procedures followed,and dates blocks on rotating components have been removed and that
maintenance was performed. See forms provided in Ap- there is adequate lubrication before rotation. Determine that
pendixes B and C of this chapter. any desiccant bags or protectiveplastics are clear of moving
1.5.3 All equipment and material shall be stored free from parts. To rotate the shaft, use a tool such as a strap wrench
direct ground contact and away from areas subject to pond- that will not mar machinedsurfaces.
ing water. As a minimum, laydown areas shall be graveled
1.5.14 Preservatives and/or storage lubricants can ad-
areas.
versely affect the safety and operating life of equipment if
1S.4 For outdoor storage, even cross-cut timber with at they react with the process fluid or operating lubricant. Spe-
least a 10 centimeter x 10 centimeter (4 inch x 4 inch nomi- cific examples are (a) grease- or oil-based products in con-
nal) cross section, laid flat and level, shall be used for lay- tact with components to be installed in oxygen or chlorine
down. Equipment weight shallbe considered when selecting service, (b) preservatives contaminating interiors of fluo-
timber size.Warped timber or telephone poles are not accept- rochlorohydrocarbon refrigeration compressors, and (c) hy-
able. Timbers shallbe placed perpendicularto major support drocarbon flush oil contaminating synthetic oil passages.
structures and shall be full width of the skidor baseplate. The installer shallensure that all preservative andstorage
1.5.5 Indoor storage should be used whenever possible. lubricants are suitable for the specific application.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*btYb 9 b m O732290 0553963 5T0 m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES
FOR MACHINERYINSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER
3 3-3

15 1 5 Unless otherwise specified, special purpose equip- 1. Oil mist lubrication connections on equipment pur-
ment shall be stored witha positive pressure, 2-3 millime- chased for permanent oil mist lubrication shall be used.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ters Hg (1-2 inches W.C.), dry nitrogen purge (see note 1). 2. Equipment purchaser shall have specified to equip-
The equipment shall have a temporary gauge to determine ment vendor that oil mist preservation will be utilized on
purge pressure. Remove the temporary gauge before startup. the equipment.
The equipment shall be inspected weekly to ensure that 3. Cavities not normally mist lubricated during perma-
purge integrity is maintained.If a positive pressure cannot nent operation will need to be fitted with supply and vent
be maintained, purgeat a rate of 2-3 SLPM (4-6 SCFH). connections (typically NPS1/4).
b. The oil mist system shall be designed and sized for
Note 1: Review all nitrogen purge installations with the users safety per-
sonnel with respect to confined space procedures, warning signs, and as- preservation service.
phyxiation hazards before putting the purge into service. l. As a minimum the mist generator shall be equipped
Note 2: External (temporary) soft packing, held by adjustable stainless steel
with the following instrumentation: air pressure regula-
bands (geared clamps), canbe placed against,or touching the labyrinths(or tor, pressure relief valve, level gauge, and mist pressure
equivalent seals) to significantly reduce the amountof dry nitrogen purge. gauge.
1.5.16 All equipment cavities, cooling passages, mechan- 2. The mist header system shall be NPS 2 minimum
ical seals, positive displacement pump plunger cavities, and galvanized schedule 40 pipe properly supported and
so forth, shallbe drained of all water to prevent damagedue sloped.
to freezing temperature. 3. Mist flow to each application point can be less than
that required for lubrication during normal operation.
15 1 7 Dirt, ice, salt, and other foreign matter shallbe re- 4. Plastic tubing (temporary use only) can be used to
moved as soon as possible after arrival on site. connect from the mist header to the application point.
1,518 Unless stated differently in subsequent sectionson c. The oil used in the mist system shall be a good quality,
specific equipment, the following shall apply: paraffin-free turbine oil.A temperature sensitive, vapor emit-
ting oil should not be used. Equipment preservative oils shall
a. Oil-lubricated bearing housings, seal housings, stuffing be compatible with the oil used in the oil mist system to
boxes, hydraulic equipment,and gear cases shallbe fogged eliminate theneed to disassembleand remove the preserva-
and approximately one-fourth filled with a manufacturer- tive oil.
approved oil. All openings shall then be closed and sealed d. All machinery shall be connected to the system immedi-
tightly. ately upon arrival on site.
b. When specified by the user, every other month the condi- e. Equipment is maintained in the storage yard by rotating
tion of the preservative oil shall be checked by measuring the shafts and periodically draining condensed oil from the
total acid number (TAN) of the oil.If the TAN is less than housing.
0.2, the oil shall be replaced with fresh oil. The date when
Note: Oil shall not be drainedto ground.
checked and the TAN shall be recorded in the inspection
records, Check with the oil supplier to determine if it needs f. For equipment that will be permanently oil mist lubri-
to be heated for replacement. cated, the movementof equipment from the storage yard to
c. All externally exposed, bare carbon steel or cast iron sur- permanent locations shall be coordinated so that the maxi-
faces including shafts and couplings (except elastomeric mum outage of mist preservation is minimized.
components) shallbe coated with typeA, B, or D preserva-
tive. All machined surfaces shall be coated with type A, B,
or D preservative. All exposed machined surfaces shall also 1.6 LubricantsandPreservatives
be wrapped with waxed cloth (see note).
1.6.1 The table and notes in Appendix A describe someof
Note: Moisture canbe held under waxed cloth if not tightly sealed. Periodic
inspections under the cloth may be warranted. the physical characteristics, application methods, and life ex-
pectancies of preservative typesA, B, C, and D that are re-
d. Verify that grease-lubricated bearings havebeen greased
ferred to in this practice. Final selection types shall be
by the manufacturer with the specified grease. Some greases
approved by the equipment manufacturer and User.
are not compatible when mixed.
1.6.2 Care shall be taken to ensure the compatibility of the
1.5.19 When an oil mist preservation system is specified preservative with elastomeric parts, seals, gaskets, and so
by the user (see note), it shall be as follows: forth.
Note: Oil mist systemsare typically specified on large projects where more 1.6.3 All lubricant and preservative Material Safety Data
than ten pieces of equipment will be stored longer thansix months.
Sheets (MSDSs) shall be available,and associated hazards
a. Oil mist shall be used to protect the bearings, bearing reviewed with all personnel handling and using these mate-
housings, seal areas and process ends of the equipment. rials.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
3-4 API RECCMMENDEO
PRACTICE
68WPIP RElE 686

1.6.4 The term desiccant shall mean silica gelor any other steel in a saltwater atmosphere) shall be coated externally
approved water absorbing material. All desiccants shall have and internally with thinned typeB or a type C preservative,
prior approval fromthe manufacturer or the user designated unless prohibited by process application.
representative. Check desiccant monthly. Replacements shall
be approved by the user. 1.9.2
FLANGES
1.6.5 Preservatives shall notbeusedon surfaces where 1.9.2.1 Flanges received bolted face-to-face need not be
prohibited by process application. separated for inspection; however, the face-to-face crevice
shall be coated with typeA, B, or D preservative prior to out-
1.6.6 In succeeding sections, references are made to re-
door storage.
moving preservatives before the machinery is placed in ser-
vice. This is always true for type D preservative. However, 1.9.2.2 After inspection of loose flanges, flange gasket
with the proper selection oftypes A, B, and C, removal can surfaces shall be coated with type A, B, or D preservative
be eliminated. The preservative would need to be compati- prior to outdoor storage. Flangesfor prefabricated piping and
ble with the permanent lubricating fluid, the process fluid, lube oil systems shall be gasketed and covered with 5-mil-
and materials of construction, that is, elastomers. The preser- limeter (3/~6-inch)
metal covers.
vative shall also be inspected to be sure that it has not ab- Note: Temporary gaskets canusually be made from s e r v i c e sheet gasketma-
terial.
sorbed any abrasive dust.
1.9.2.3 Care shall be taken to protect gasket surfaces of
loose flanges from damage during handling and storage.
1.7 Bolts 1.9.2.4 Flanges to be stored outdoors for periods exceed-
ing six monthsor in corrosive atmospheres (saltwaterair, in-
1.7.1 All loose assembly bolts, nuts, and fasteners shall be
dustrial, and so forth)shall be coatedexternallyand
packaged, identified, and stored in a sheltered area.
internally with thinned typeB preservative.
1.7.2 Type B or type C preservative shall be appliedto the
threaded portion of all anchor bolts, washers, and nuts that 1.9.2.5 Preservatives shall beremovedfromall surfaces
are not galvanizedor plated. of the components.
with a suitable solvent prior to installation
1.9.3
VALVES
1.8 Spare Parts, SpecialTools, and 1.9.3.1 Whenever possible, valves shall be stored indoors
Miscellaneous Loose Items or under cover.
1.9.3.2 All machined surfaces such as valve stems (in-
1.8.1 Items purchased as spare parts shall be tagged and cluding threads), packing glands, and bonnet bolts shall re-
handed over to the users designated machinery representa- ceive a heavy coat of appropriate grease or equivalent for
tive upon receipt and completion of jobsite receiving in- atmospheric corrosionprotection.
spection per 1.4.
1.9.3.3 Valve flange gasket surfaces shall be coated with
1.8.2 Storage and protective maintenance of miscella- type A, B, or D preservative prior to reinstalling protective
neous loose items shall beas directed by the manufacturer. covers after internal inspection.
1.8.3 Extra drawings and manuals shipped with the equip- 1.9.3.4 Protective covers shall be made of a weatherproof
ment shall be saved and handed over to the user. material and of such construction to provide a weathertight
Note: Formal distributionof these types of documents should have occurred seal. Plastic plugs and flange covers are not permitted.
before shipment per 1.3.1.
1.9.3.5 All ball valve internals shall be coated prior to re-
1.8.4 Special tools shall be keptby the installer until work
installing protective covers after internal inspection.
has been completed, then turned over
to the users designated
machinery representative. 1.9.3.6 All ball valves shall be protectedand stored in the
open position.
1.9.3.7 Multiple turn, metal-seated valves shall be stored
1.9 Auxiliary Piping for Rotating in the closed position to minimize the length of stem ex-
Equipment posed. Multiple turn, soft-seated valves shall be stored one
turn from the closed position. Valves shall be stored with
The following applies to auxiliary piping that is shipped valve openings horizontalto prevent water accumulation.
loose for field assembly.
1.9.3.8 All valves shall be stored above grade on a well-
1.9.1PIPECOMPONENTS drained, hard surface.
Carbon steel pipe components that will require long-term 1.9.3.9 Periodic (at least once per month) checks shall be
storage outdoors during theconstructionperiod (orstainless made toensure that protective procedures are effective.If de-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*beb 96 m 0732290 05519b3 373 m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 3 3-5

1.1 1.4 If the compressor requires field assembly, remove


terioration is observed, the user shall be notifiedso that ap-
propriate corrective action can be initiated. the protective coatings from cylinder walls, valves, rods, and
1.9.3.1 O Packing inhibitors are usually effective for only so forth, and clean all parts (including crankcase) with sol-
six months. Valves with packing that are stored for longer vent. Assemble using the manufacturers recommended
periods shall be checkedand protected against stem corro- preservative freely on cylinder walls, valves, rods, bearings,
sion if necessary. and rubbing partsand fill crankcase as recommendedby the
manufacturer.
1.9.3.1 1 Preservatives shall be removed with solvent from Do not install carbon rings or rod packinguntil the com-
all surfaces prior to installationof valves. pressor is serviced for initial operation. Fill crankcase and
1.9.3.12 All ring joint flanges shallbe examined when re- lubricators as recommendedby the manufacturer, with type
ceived and the condition recorded. Spot checks for corrosion C preservative.
shall be made monthly while in storage.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Note: Where compressors require field assembly, consideration should be
given to bringing in the factory representative to confirm inspection, preser-
vation, and assembly procedures.
1.IO Compressors-General 1.1 1.5 Where applicable,open the drip feed lubricatorand
operate the force feed lubricators weekly. If the compressor
1.10.1 Clean and coat all flange gasket surfaces with type has a manual priming main oil pump, operate it for at least
A, B, or D preservative. one minute. Turn the crank shaft 214 revolutions. Shaft ro-
tation must be accomplished with a strap wrench or other
1.1 0.2 Install weatherproof protective covers of such con-
nonmarring device. Check for rust spots. Close the drip feed
struction to providea watertight seal on all openings. Plastic
lubricators and refill the lubricators as necessary. Record
plugs and flange covers are not permitted.
protective activity in the inspection records.
1.1 0.3 Consult the manufacturer to determineif additional Note: If lubricated compressor cylindersare attached to the frame and the
intermediate rotor shaft supports are required. Provide the piston and rods are installed, only rotate the crankshaft if the compressor
supports as necessary. cylinder bore and piston rod packing lubricator can be operated priorro-to
tation. On nonlubricated (NL) compressors, if the compressor cylinders are
1.10.4 Spare rotating elements shall be stored per manu- attached to the frame and the pistons and rods are installed, only rotate the
facturers specific instructions. crankshaft if it has been confirmed that all desiccants have been removed
and that a positive pressure dry nitrogen purge is being maintained on the
Note: Rotating elements should be stored in a controlled environment such cylinders.
as vertically in a controlled room or nitrogen purged containers.
1.1 1.6 Large compressor frames [in excess of approxi-
1.10.5 Preservatives for oxygen and refrigeration com- mately 4 meters (12 feet) in length] that are not skid mounted
pressors must be approved by the equipment manufacturer. and that are to be stored more than a few days prior to in-
stallation should be aligned following the manufacturers
recommendations to prevent permanent distortion of the
1.I 1 Reciprocating Compressors compressor frame.
Note: Also see I .IO, Compressors-General.
1.1 1.1 Coat exposed rods, eccentrics, plungers, and ma- 1.12 CentrifugalCompressors
chined surfaces with type A, B, or D preservative. If the
valves have been shipped loose, tag and store per manufac- Note: Also see l . 10, Compressors4eneral.
turers recommendations.
1.12.1 Open bearing housing and verify that vendor has
1.1 1.2 Nonlubricated compressors with TFE or carbon applied protective coating to shaft journals and thrust bearing
piston or piston ring shall not be contaminated with oil. Such disc and that noncontacting vibration probe target areas are
machines, if not already shop protected, shall be sealed, not disturbed. If deficient, reapply shaft lubricant and coat
purged of air, and kept pressurized with anhydrous nitrogen inside of housing with manufacturers approved preservative.
at 2-3 millimeters Hg(1-2 inches W.C.).
Install a temporary pressure indicator to indicate nitrogen 1.12.2 Check all lubricant fill points, sight glass connec-
tions, and piping to seals to ensure that lubricants or protec-
pressure. Remove the temporary gauge before compressor
tive fluids do not leak from any joints.
initial run-in.
1.1 1.3 Cylinders and crankcase shall be inspected when 1.12.3 Mark shaft and rotate 2/4 revolutions weekly.
the compressoris received on siteby removal of the inspec- Record protective activity in the inspection records. Shaft ro-
tion covers. If water or dirt has entered the equipment tation must be accomplished with a strap wrench or other
through damaged covers, the equipment shall be cleaned out nonmarring device.
and rust preventive treatment restored. 1.1 2.4 Open and inspect bearing housing every
two months.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~ ~~

A P I RP*b8b 9b 0732290
055l19b4 20T

3-6 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

1.12.5 v p e s A, B, and D preservative shall be removed 1.15 Pumps-General


with solvent from all surfaces prior to final installation of
compressor. The following procedure shall be used for receiving and
protecting pumps during the storage and installation period
1.1 2.6 All large compressors,if expected to bein the field
at the jobsite.
in excess of 3 months, shall be purged with nitrogen. When
nitrogen is not available, case openings shall besealed. Va- 1.1 5.1 Coat coupling parts, except elastomeric parts and
por phaseinhibitor and desiccant shall be used to protect in- flexible stainless steel discs, with typeB, A,
or D preservative.
ternals from rusting.Theequipment shall betagged 1.1 5.2 Shipping covers shallbe removed, flange gasket sur-
indicating the number and location of all vapor phase in-
faces inspected, and internals checked for cleanliness. Coat
hibitor and desiccant bags.
flange surfaces with type A,B, or D preservative.
1.15.3 Tag all loosely shipped items (such as couplings,
1. I 3 Fans and Blowers oilers, and seal system components,if loose) with the pump
identification number andstore in a covered area.
The following procedure shall be usedfor receiving and
protecting fans and blowers.
1.I6 CentrifugalPumps
1.1 3.1 Coat exposed machined surfaces and shaft exten-
sion with type A,B, or D preservative. 1.1 6.1 Install weatherproof protective covers of such con-
struction to provide a watertight seal on all openings.
Plastic
1.13.2 Fill bearing housing to bottom of shaft with the plugs and flange covers are not permitted.
manufacturers recommended oil.
1.16.2 Fill bearing housings to the bottom of shaft with
1.13.3 Mark shaft and rotate 2/4 revolutions weekly. the manufacturers recommendedoil.
Record protective activityin the inspection records. Shaft
ro-
1.16.3 For cast iron, carbon steel, and low alloy pumps,
tation must be accomplished with a strap wrench or other
fill the pump casing with type C preservative and rotate to
nonmarring device.
coat the internals.
1.13.4 Preservatives shall be removed with solvent from
1.16.4 Mark shaft and rotate 2/4 revolutions weekly.
all surfaces prior to installation offans and blowers.
Shaft ro-
Record protective activity in the inspection records.
1.1 3.5 Install weatherproof protective covers of such con- tation must be accomplished with a strap wrench or other
struction to provide a watertight seal on allopenings. Plastic nonmarring device.
plugs and flangecovers are not permitted. 1.16.5 Type D preservative shall be removed with solvent
from all surfaces with solvent prior to installation of pump.

1.I 4 Gearboxes 1.16.6 Fill the piping loop for the barrier fluid of a dual
seal pump with a process compatiblefluid if it contains any
carbon steel components.
The following procedure shall be used for receiving and
protecting gearboxes at the jobsite.
1.1 4.1 Determine if gearbox oil level is correct. Add the 1.I7 Vertically Suspended Pumps
manufacturers recommended oil if gear case contains less
than the required amount. Check bearing housing oil level; 1.17.1 Apply type C preservative to shaft journals at
fill as necessary. sleeve bearings and tothrust bearing disc.
1.1 4.2 Coat exposed machined surfaces and shaft extension 1.1 7.2 Fill bearing housings to the bottom of shaft with
with type A, B, or D preservative. Type D preservative shall vendor recommendedoil.
be removed with solvent from all surfaces prior to installation. 1.17.3 Coat the bowl assembly with type A, B, or D
1.14.3 Mark low-speed shaft and rotate 2/4 revolutions preservative and close both ends.
weekly. Shaft rotation must be accomplished with a strap 1.1 7.4 Coat barrel flange, discharge head flanges, stuffing
wrench or other nonmarring device. box, and all other machined surfaces with type A, B, or D
1.14.4 Purge gear case with nitrogen if required by the preservative.
manufacturers instructionsor if deemed prudentby the user 1.1 7.5 Install weatherproof protective covers of such con-
for the climatic conditions at the site. Purge per1.5.15. struction to provide a watertightseal on all openings. Plastic
1.14.5 Record protective activityin the inspection records. plugs and flange covers are not permitted.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*b8b7b m 0732290 0551765L4b M

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 3


PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY 3-7

1.17.6 Type D preservative shall be removed with solvent 1.19.6.5 Rotate shaft2l/4 revolutions weekly. Record pro-
from all surfaces prior to installation
of pump. tective activity in the inspection records. Shaft rotation must
be accomplished with a strap wrenchor other nonmarring
device.
1.18 ReciprocatingPumps
1.1 9.6.6 Type D preservative shall be removed with sol-
1.18.1 Remove pistons and rods, if recommended by the vent from all surfaces prior to installation of turbine.
manufacturer; coat with type B,
A, or D preservative; tag each
part with the equipment number; and storein covered area. 1 A9.7 SPECIAL PURPOSE TURBINES
1.18.2 Remove rod packing, if recommended by the ven- 1.19.7.1 Inspect and coat surfacesof valve rack, cam, and
dor; tag; and storein covered area. A, B, or D preservative.
cam followers with type
1.1 8.3 Remove suction and discharge valves; dip in type 1.19.7.2 Open bearing housings and coat shaft journals,
A, B, or D preservative; wrap in waxed cloth; tag;and store thrust bearing disc, and bearing housing internally with type
in covered area. C preservative.
1.18.4 Fill crankcase with type C preservative to the rec- 1.19.7.3 Coat shaft extension with type
A, B, or D preser-
ommended level. vative.
1.18.5 Coat cylinder wall and distance piece wall with 1.19.7.4 Special purpose turbine casingshnternals shall be
type C preservative. protected with nitrogen purging. Purge per 1.5.15. Where
1.18.6 Type D preservative shall be removed with solvent this is not possible and approved by the user, spray turbine
from all surfaces prior to installation of pump. internals through openings with type C preservative.
1.19.7.5 Mark shaft and rotate 2I/4 revolutions weekly.
1.19 SteamTurbines Record protective activityin the inspection records. Shaft ro-
tation must be accomplished with a strap wrench or other
The following procedure shall beused for receiving and nonmarring device.
protecting turbines during the installation and storage period 1.19.7.6 Type D preservative shall be removed with sol-
at the jobsite. vent from all surfaces prior to installation of turbine.
1.19.1 Coat stuffing box and shaft in packing area with
type B or C preservative and replaceon turbine.
1.19.2 Clean and coat all flange gasket surfaces with type
1.20 Motors
A, B, or D preservative. The following procedure shallbe used for receiving and
1.19.3 Install weatherproof protective covers of such con- protecting electrical motors during the installation period at
struction to provide a watertight seal
on all openings. the jobsite. Specific storage instructions are normally pro-
vided by all motor manufacturers. Failure to follow thesein-
1.19.4 Shipping covers shall be removed, flange gasket structions may void the warranty.The procedures that follow
surfaces inspected, and internals checked for cleanliness. must be adhered to, provided they do not invalidate the man-
1.19.5 Identify and tag all loosely shipped items and store ufacturers warranty.
in a covered area.
1.20.1 RECEIVINGINSPECTION OF MOTORS
1.19.6GENERALPURPOSETURBINES
to motor being storedor
After receipt at site but priorany
1.19.6.1 If carbon shaft packing rings were not removed installed, the following shall be performed:
at the factory, remove and store indoors.
Tag the turbine from a. An insulation resistance-to-ground test shall be made and
which the rings have been removed. The carbon rings shall recorded. This log will show the datesthe of test and thein-
be reinstalled just prior to startup. Removal and reinstalla- sulation resistance value.
tion shall be performedby qualified personnel. b. Oil levels shall be inspected.An inspection shall be made
1.19.6.2 Open bearing housings and coat shaft journals for any evidence of oil leakage.
with type C preservative. c. Shafts shallbe rotated and checked for freedom of move-
ment.
1.1 9.6.3 Fill bearing housingsto bottom of shaft with ven-
dor recommended oil. 1.20.2
STORAGE
1.19.6.4 Fill hydraulic governor per manufacturers rec- 1.20.2.1 Fill bearing housing with recommended oilif not
ommendation. factory lubricatedor the level is low.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST

~
A P I RP*b8b
9b 0732290 05539bb 0 8 2

3-8 API RECOMMENDED 68WPIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

1.20.2.2 Rotate the shaft manually until the lubricant is Note: Removal and indoor storageof premounted instruments and control
panels may be required if such devices cannotbe protected from rain, hu-
evenly distributed to wearing surfaces. Rotate 214 revolu- midity, temperature, or dusty conditions. Explosion-proof enclosures are
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

tions weekly thereafter.Shaft rotation must be accomplished not necessarily weatherproof enclosures. Open conduit connections al- can
with a strap wrench or other nonmarring device. low entrance of moisture. This subject should have been addressed during
the procurement or shop inspection stage,but is sometimes overlooked.
1.20.2.3 Coat shaft with type A, B, or D preservative.
1.20.2.4 Wrap shaft seal areas with waxed cloth. 1.21.4ELECTRONICINSTRUMENTS
1.20.2.5 Apply type A, B, or D preservative to baseplate 1.21 -4.1 Electronic instruments shall be stored in a dust-
and motor casefeet. free room between 8C and 45C (45F and110F).
1.20.2.6 Store motors indoors when possible. A motor is 1.21.4.2 If humidity is excessive, seal and store the in-
suitable for outdoor storage if the enclosure type is TEFC, struments in plastic wrap, place in a box withdesiccant out-
TENV, or explosion proof. Motors without space heaters side the plastic wrapping, and store indoors. Take care that
shall not be stored outdoors without users approval unless the desiccant does notcontact any wiring, terminals,or elec-
provisions are made by the installer to supply an adequate tronic parts.
source of heat to the motor to protectit from moisture.If un- 1.21.4.3 The manufacturersrecommendations shall be
able to store indoors, motors shall be stored in their operat- reviewed to determine if climate-controlledstorage facilities
ing position ona well-drained hard surface. are required.
1.20.2.7 When a space heater is provided by the manu-
facturer, it shall be connected, energized, and operated con- 1.21.5PNEUMATICINSTRUMENTS
tinuously until the motor becomesoperational. Storage in a dry enclosed area is sufficient for pneumatic
Note: Proper warning signs must be installed to prevent injury or electrical instruments.
shock to personnel.
1.21.6INSTRUMENTCASES
1.20.2.8 Preservatives shall be removed with solvent from
all surfaces prior to installation of motor, using caution
to not 1.21.6.1 Instrument cases with electronic parts, relays,
have solvent contact the windings. and so forth, shall always be opened and checkedby quali-
fied personnel, unless shop inspections have been made and
1.20.3
TESTING documented.
Insulation resistanceof all motors shall be tested upon re- 1.21.6.2 If the instrument caseis in a weatherproof hous-
ceipt, just prior to installation, and just prior to startup and ing, reseal and store the instrument in a room between 8C
shall be recorded in the inspection records. The test voltage and 45C (45F and1 10F).
levels and the insulation resistance shall be per the manu-
1.21.6.3 If in an explosion-proof housing, store in boxes
facturers instructions. If the megger readings do not meet
with desiccant.
the manufacturers requirements, winding dryout may be re-
quired. Dry out the stator per the motor manufacturers in- 1.21.6.4 If covers need to remain left open and unsealed,
structions. Other methods may be harmful to the windings. place the boxes in an indoor storage environment.

1.21.7LOCALCONTROLPANELS
1.21 InstrumentationonPackaged
Machinery 1.21.7.1 Open packaging enough to identify the control
panel, reseal, and place in a dry enclosed area between 8C
1.21.1 All instruments shall be inspected by qualified per- and 45OC (45F and 110F).
sonnel for complianceto purchase specifications, proper tag- 1.21.7.2 When in a high-humidity area, put desiccant in-
ging, and shipping damage. side packaging beforeresealing.
1.21.2 After inspection, instruments are to be replaced in
their original factory boxes, properly tagged, and stored on 1.21.8DIALTHERMOMETERS,PRESSURE
shelves in a dry enclosed area. GAUGES, GAUGE GLASSES
1.21.3 For instruments or control panels that have been Protect against physical damage fromconstruction activ-
premounted on the machinery package that cannot be stored ities, or remove, tag, and store in a dry enclosed area. Pro-
in a dry, enclosed area, the user and manufacturer shall be cess connections shall be capped or plugged with metal
consulted. caps/plugs until the instruments are reinstalled.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP+b8b 96 0732290 0 5 5 L 9 b 7 T L 9 W

APPENDIX A-CHARACTERISTICS OF CONVENTIONAL STORAGE PRESERVATIVES

Table A-1-Storage Preservation


Indoor Storage Under
Severe Conditions, or
Outdoor storage
(partial shelter)under
conditions, moderate storage Outdoor with
storage,
Outdoor or outdoor
with storage exposure to elements
Storage
condition
general exposure to exposure to elements
for Indoor Storage under under the most severe
andlor seventy elements moderate
onlytermshort conditions conditions
A B C D
typical
Firm
Product
and coating, resistant
Soft coating (self- film
oily
Thin Asphaltic film, needs
characteristics
abrasion to healing) removal before part is
used
Density
kglm3 at 15.6"C 868.5 922.5 923.7 876.9
Ib/gal at 60F 7.25 7.7 1 7.32 7.70
viscosity
cSt at 40C - - 14 149
cSt at 100C 24.8 33 1 3.3 -
SSU at 100F - - 79 800
SSU at2 10F I23 162 37.4 -
Flash Point
"C 166 279 260 38

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
O F 330 535 500 100
Melting or pour point
"C 73 66 4 -
OF 164 151 +25 -
Unworked penetration
At 25C (77F) 75 245 - -
Film thickness, mil I .6 1.6 0.9 3.0
Approximate coverage
mzfliter 26 26 44 11
sq fugal 1000 lo00 I800 450
Nonvolat~les,% 99 99 - 55
Methods of dip185 brush dip177 dip, spray,
rollermist
coat, brush, or brushl
swab/18-27 application/ swab/6&7I
temwrature. "C
Maximum time until
inspection and
possible reapplication
under condition
Mlld Extended 6-12 Months Extended
Moderate 1-3 Years 1-3 Years 1-6 Months 1-3 Years
Severe 6- I2 Months 6-12 Months Not recommended 6-12 Months

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


3-9
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*hdh 96 m 0732290 0551968 955 m

3-10 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

Notes of this type, and is moreresistant to film rupture than prod-


uct B. For dip application, product A should be heated
l . This tabulation represents an overview ofinteracting fac- to 85C (1 85F).
tors that allows the specifying engineerselect
to the most ap- 5. Product D is a solvent-cutbackasphaltic material. This
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

propriate preservative for a given situation. Indoor and product provides the bestprotection for long-term outdoor
outdoor storage protection is addressed, but lubricants or storage, but must be removedbefore the part is put into ser-
preservatives used for oil mist systemsare not covered. vice. The preferredapplication method isby spray, although
2. The severity of indoor storage is a function of such fac- dipping and brush applications are also suitable. ProductD
tors as dampness, poor air circulation, widely fluctuating dries to a thick, hard, durable, black film but may be re-
temperatures,or presence of corrosive fumes. If conditions moved with a good quality mineral spirits solvent.
are moderately severe, productC will provide an adequate 6. Although products A through C do not require re-
oily film and some abrasion resistance. It does not contain moval before the part is placed in service, care should be
water-displacing or fingerprint-suppressingagents. taken to be sure that the coating has not absorbed abrasive
3. Product B has a greaselike consistency and leaves a dust.
thick film that will provideprotection in the most severein- 7. Many of thedesirable attributes of premium preservatives
door environments.If stored parts are sheltered from direct are listed below:
exposure to sun, rain, and snow, effective outdoor rust pro- Dry to a mildly tacky film that should not collect ap-
tection can be achieved with this product. Application of preciable amounts ofairborne particulates.
product B is preferably madeby dipping at a temperature Provide freedom from oxidation in indoor and out-
of 71-77C (160-170F). For partstoo large to dip, applica- door storage for extended periods of time.
tion can be made bybrush. This product forms asoft, thick, Due to their polar nature, remove water from the
waxy coating on application, with the surface coating grad- pores of the metal, replacing the water with therust pre-
ually drying to forma protective film or crust while the un- ventive coating.
derlying material remains soft and plastic.This is an In the form of films, have extremely low moisture
important characteristic because it affords a self-healing ef- transmission characteristics, even in contact with water.
fect. When a minor break occurs, the softer material will Have the ability to neutralize acid, making a suitable
slowly flow together and reseal the damagedfilm. rust preventive for acidic atmospheres and wherefinger-
4. The degree of protection obtained in exposed outdoor en- prints may create a corrosive action on metal surface.
vironments will depend to some extent on the thickness and Are self-healing, if in film form. If the film is acci-
durability of thebarrier film provided by the rust preventive dentally ruptured, it should heal overthe ruptured area.
material. For relatively short-term storage, product B will Even as film, should be readily removed withsolvent
give effectiveprotection. For longer periods, product A is or a solvent-emulsion cleaner when desired.
recommended. It provides the toughest coating for a product Are safe to apply over partially painted or conven-
tional elastomeric parts.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPxbAb 9b 0732290 0551969 891

APPENDIX B-MACHINERY RECEIVING AND PROTECTION CHECKLIST

Project No.:

Prepared By:
Equip. Tag No.:

Storage Location:
Report No. :

Date:
1
Equipment Description:

Initials Date

1.4 Jobsite Receiving and Inspection


1.4.a Visual inspection for physical damage
or contamination.
Comments (before unloading):

Comments (after unloading):


--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.4.b Shipping protection intact?


1.4.c Have offsite (shop) inspectionsbeen made?
1.4.d Loose components/packages match packing
lists?
1.4.e Are special handlinginstructions required (and carriedout)?
1.4.f Components properly identified?
1.4.g Do components comply with project requirements?
1.4.h Flange faces undamaged and properly coated?
1.4.i Plugdcaps in place, desiccants unsaturated, and equipmentlubricated?
1.4.j For inert gas purged equipment, isthe required pressure stillapplied?
1.4.k Grout surfaces clean and coated?
1.4.1 Tapped openings in stuffing boxes and gland platessealed?
1.4.m Impact measuring devices inspected?
1.4.0 Damage reports completed and issued to shipperhendor?

1.5 General Instructions-Jobsite Protection


1S.1 Are manufacturers recommendationsfor storage and protection available?
Note: If so, the manufacturers recommendations take precedence, but
continue to
follow this checklist for items not covered by the manufacturer.
1.5.3 Equipment/material free of ground contact? Laydown area graveled as a minimum!
1.5.4 For outdoor storage, is equipment on timber?
1S.6 Protective coverings allow free air circulation and preventcollection of water?
Note: Reuse delivery packaging, if possible.

3-1 1
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 96 W 0732290 0551970 503 W

3-12 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE
68WPIP RElE 686

EQUIPMENT NO.:

Initials Date
1.5.8 Carbon and low alloy steel protected fromcorrosive or wet atmospheres?
1.5.11 Special parts andtools tagged and handed over to User?
1.5.12 Equipment protected fromconstruction operations such as chipping, sanding, painting,
rigging, welding, and so forth.
I .5.13 For periodic rotation of equipment, areshipping blocks, desiccant bags, and protective
plastic clear of moving parts? Is equipment properly lubricated for rotation?
1.5.14 Have proper preservatives beenselected?
1.5.15 Nitrogen purge in place for special purpose equipmentor where specified? Use
Appendix C for logging of purgeinspections.
1.5.16 All cavities, cooling passages, and so forth, drained of waterto prevent freezing?
1.5.17 Dirt, ice, and salt removed?
1-5.18 Unless stated differently in subsequent sections on specific equipment, the
following applies:
1.5.18.a Oil lubed bearing housings, seal housings, stuffing boxes, hydraulic equipment, and
gear cases fogged and 1/4 filled with approvedoil?
1.5.18.b When specified, measure and record TAN number.
1.5.18.c Exposed carbon steel coated with type A,B, or D preservative? Machined surfaces
coated with type A,B, or D and wrapped with waxedcloth?
1.5.18.d Grease lubed bearings greased by the manufacturer?
15 1 9 Oil mist system required?

1.6 Lubricants and Preservatives


1.6.2 Are selected preservatives compatible withelastomeric parts, seals, gaskets,
and so forth?
1.6.3 MSDSs on file and hazards reviewed?

1.7 Bolts
1.7.1 Loose bolts, nuts, and fasteners identified and storedin sheltered area?
1.7.2 Preservative applied to nongalvanized or plated items?

1.8 Spare Parts


1.8.1 Spare parts inventoried andissued to User upon receipt?

1.9 Auxiliary Piping For Rotating Equipment


1.9.1 Pipe components coated internally and externallyfor long-term storage?
1.9.2 Flanges inspected and coated?
1.9.3 Valves inspected and coated? Ball valves
in open position? Gate and globe valvesin
closed position and stored horizontal?

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b&b 76 0732290 055l177L 4 4 T m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES
FOR MACHINERY DESIGN,
AND INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION CHAPTER 3 3-13

EQUIPMENT NO.:

Date
Initials
1.10 Compressors-General
1.10.2 Watertight covers on all openings?
1.1 0.3 Are intermediate rotor shaft supports required?
1.1 0.4 Is vertical storage of rotating elements required
by the manufacturer?
1.1 0.5 Preservatives and procedures for refrigeration, oxygen, and chlorine service
approved by manufacturer?

1.11 Reciprocating Compressors


1.11.1 Exposed rods, eccentrics, plungers, and machined surfaces coated?
1.11.2 Nonlubed compressors nitrogen purged, not contaminated with preservatives?
1.11.3 Covers on openings in cylinders and crankcase undamaged? If damaged, check for
water or dirt inside.
1.11.4 For field assembled compressors, have loose components been properly cleaned and
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

preserved? Have carbon rings androd packing been left outuntil just prior to initial
operation?
1.11.5 Lubrication through force feed lubricators
or drip feed lubricators,andor through
manually priming main oil pump once per week?

1.12 Centrifugal Compressors


1.12.1 Is bearing housing properly lubricated and preserved?
1.1 2.2 Have the lubricant fill points, site glass,and piping been checked for leaks?
1.12.6 Has a nitrogen purge,or vapor phase inhibitorsand desiccant been applied per l . 12.6?

1. I 3 Fans and Blowers


1.13.1 Have all exposed low alloy surfaces and shafts been coated with preservative?
1.13.2 Bearing housing oil level correct?
1.1 3.5 Weatherproof covers installed?

1.14 Gearboxes
1.14.1 Is gear box full of manufacturers recommended oil?
1.14.2 Have machined surfaces and shafts been coated?
1.14.3 Has a nitrogen purge been applied, when specified?

1.15 Pumps-General
1.1 5.1 Coupling parts, except elastomers, coated?
1.15.2 Have flange surfacesbeen inspected and coated?
1.1 5.3 Have loose componentsbeen tagged?

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I R P * b B b 96 0732290 0553972 3Bb

3-14 API RECOMMENDED 686PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

EQUIPMENT NO.:

Date
Initials
1.I 6 CentrifugalPumps
1.16.1 Haveallopeningsbeencovered?
1.16.2 Havebearing brackets been filled with oil?
1.16.3 Havelowalloypump casings been coated?
1.16.4 Barrier fluid piping filled?

1.I7 VerticalSuspendedPumps
1.17.1 Has preservative been applied to shaft journals at sleeve bearing and thrust disc?
1.17.2 Bearingbracketscompletely filled?
1.17.3 Bowl assembly, barrel flange, discharge head flanges, stuffing box, and machined
surfaces coated?
1.17.5 Weatherproof covers installed on all openings?

1.I 8 ReciprocatingPumps
1.1 8.1 When recommended by manufacturer, have pistons and rods been removed, coated,
tagged, and stored in covered area?
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.1 8.2 Has rod packing been removed and tagged, when required?
1.1 8.3 Have suction and discharge valves been removed, coated, and tagged?
1.18.4 Hascrankcasebeenfilledwithpreservative?
1.18.5 Have cylinder and distance piece walls been coated?
1.18.6 Exposed shafts coated?

1.I9 SteamTurbines
1.19.1 Have stuffing box,shaft in packing area, and flange gasket surfaces been coated?
1.19.3 Are weatherproof covers on all openings?
1.1 9.4 Have internals been inspected for cleanliness?
1.19.5 Have loosely shipped components been tagged?
1.19.6 General Purpose Turbines
1.19.6.1 Have carbon rings been removed, tagged, and
stored indoors?
1.1 9.6.2 Have shaft journals been lubricated?
1.1 9.6.3 Have bearing housings beenfilled?
1.1 9.6.4 Have exposedshafts been coated?
1.1 9.6.5 Has governor been filled with manufacturers approved
fluid?
1.19.7 Special Purpose Turbines
1.19.7.1 Have valve racks, cam, and cam followers been inspected and coated?
1.1 9.7.2 Have bearinghousings, shaft journals, and thrust bearingdiscs been coated?

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPnb8b96 m 0732290 0553973 212

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES
FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION DESIGN,
AND INSTALLATION CHAPTER 3 3-15
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

EQUIPMENT NO.:

1.1 9.7.3 Have exposed shafts been coated?


1.1 9.7.4 Has the nitrogen purge been applied?

1.20 Motors
1.20.1 Have motors been inspected and tagged?
1.20.1.a Has an insulation testbeen made and logged? Have oil levels been checked?
1.20.2.3 Has shaft been coated?
1.20.2.4 Have seal areas been covered with waxed cloth?
1.20.2.5 Have motor baseplate or feet been coated?
1.20.2.6 Have nonweatherproof motors been stored indoors?
1.20.2.7 Have space heatersbeen energized? Have warning signs
been posted?

1.21 Instrumentation
1.21.1 Do instruments comply with specifications,
and are they properly tagged?
1.21.2 Are loose instruments storedin a dry enclosed area,in original factory packaging?
1.21.3 Can premounted instruments be stored outdoors?
1.21.4 in a dry heated room?
Are electronic instruments stored
1.21.5 Are pneumatic instruments storedin a dry area?
1.21.6 Are instrument cases and local control panels stored
in a dry heated room?
1.21.8 Are thermometers, pressure gauges,
and gauge glasses protected from physical damage?

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API 3-16
ECOMMENDED
PRACTICE
686IPIP RElE 686

APPENDIX B-MACHINERY RECEIVING AND INSPECTION CHECKLIST


EQUIPMENT NO.:

PERIODIC SERVICES BETWEENTIME RECEIVED AND START-UP (See Note 1)

nspection of painted surfaces

No.
of turns (See Note 2)

Compressors-force Weekly
feeddrip feedlubrication
(paragraph l. 1 1.6)

Note 1: For nitrogen blanketing log,see Appendix C.


Note 2: Number of turns to be filled in at start of project.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*bdb 9 b 0732290 0553975 095 m

APPENDIX C-INERT GAS PURGE MAINTENANCE LOG

Inert Gas Purge Maintenance Log


Project No.: Equip. Tag No.: Report No.:
Prepared By: Date: Location:

CHECKED BY REMARKS

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(a) Interval D=Daily W=Weekly M=Monthly.
(b) Record flow rate in SLPM (SCFM) when a continuous flow purge is used in lieu of a constant pressure blanket.

3-17
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPrb8b 96 m 0732290 0553776 T23 m

Recommended Practices for Machinery


Installation and Installation Design

Chapter 4-Foundations

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 686
PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996

American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 4-FOUNDATIONS
SECTION 1-DEFINITIONS .................................................................................. 4-1
SECTION 2-MACHINERYFOUNDATION INSTALLATION DESIGN ............ 4-1
2.1 Scope ................................................................................................................ 4-1
2.2 GeneralRequirements ...................................................................................... 4-1
2.3 Geotechnical ...................................................................................................... 4-2
2.4 RectangularBlockFoundations ........................................................................ 4-3
2.5 Vertically Suspended Can Pump Foundations .................................................... 4-3
2.6 Elevated Frame Foundations .............................................................................. 4-4
2.7 Effects of Equipment on Surrounding Area........................................................ 4-4
2.8 Concrete .............................................................................................................. 4-4
2.9 Reinforcing Steel ................................................................................................ 4-4
2.10 Anchor Bolts and Sleeves.................................................................................... 4-4
..........................................................................................
2.1 1 Drawing Information 4-5
SECTION 3-MACHINERY FOUNDATION INSTALLATION .............................. 4-5
3.1 Scope..................................................................................................................... 4-5
3.2GeneralRequirements ........................................................................................ 4-5
3.3 SoilConditions .................................................................................................... 4-6
3.4 Formwork ............................................................................................................ 4-6
3.5 ReinforcingSteel ................................................................................................ 4-6
3.6 Anchor Bolts and Sleeves .................................................................................... 4-6
3.7 Field Verification Prior to Concrete Placement .................................................. 4-6
3.8 Concrete Mixing and Placement Procedures ...................................................... 4-6
3.9 ConcreteQualityControl .................................................................................... 4-7
APPENDIX A-TYPICAL FOUNDATION AND ANCHOR BOLT DETAILS ........ 4-7

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
iii
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
Recommended Practicesfor Machinery Installation and Installation Design
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

CHAPTER 4-FOUNDATIONS
Section 1-Definitions
1.1designatedmachineryrepresentative: The are in noncritical service. Theyare intended forapplications
person or organization designated by the ultimate owner of where processconditionswill not exceed48 bar gauge (700
the equipment to speak on the owners behalf with regard to pounds per square inch gauge)pressure or 205C (400F)
machinery installation decisions, inspection requirements, temperature (excluding steam turbines), or both, and where
and so forth. This representative may be an employee of the speed will not exceed5000 revolutions per minute(RPM).
owner, a third party inspection company, or an engineering Note: General purpose equipment trains have all elements that are either
contractor, delegated by the owner. manufacturers standardor are covered by standards such as the following:
ANSUASME B.73 horizontal pumps,small API Standard610 pumps, fans,
7.2engineeringdesigner: The person or organization API Standard 61 1 steam turbines,API Standard 672 air compressors,API
charged with the project responsibility of supplying installation Standard 677 general purpose gears, API Standard674 reciprocating pumps,
drawings and procedures for installing machinery in a user facil- API Standard 676 rotary positive displacement pumps,API Standard 680
reciprocating air compressors,and NEMA frame motors.
ity after machinery has
been delivered. In general, but not always,
the engineering designer specifies machineryin the user facility. 1.6specialpurposeequipmenttrains: Equipment
1.3 equipmentuser: The organization chargedwith trains with driven equipment that is usually not spared,
is rel-
operation of the rotating equipment. In general, but not al- atively large in size (power), or is in critical service.
This cat-
ways, the equipment user owns and maintainsthe rotating egory is not limited by operating conditions or speed.
equipment after the project is complete. Note: Specialpurpose equipment trainswill be defined by the user. In gen-
eral, any equipment train such as an API Standard 612 turbine, API Stan-
1.4 equipmentinstaller: The person or organization dard 618 reciprocating compressor, API Standard613 gear, API Standard
charged with providing engineering services and labor re- 617 centrifugal compressor,or equipment with a gas turbine in the train
quired to install machinery in a user facility after machinery should be considered to be special purpose.
has been delivered.In general, but not always, the installer 1.7 tabletopfoundation: An elevated three-dimen-
is the project construction contractor. sional reinforced concrete structure that consistsof large
1.5 general purpose equipment trains: Those beams or a thick slab connecting the tops of the supporting
trains that have all general purpose elements in the train. columns. The mechanical equipment is supported by the
They are usually spared, relatively small in size (power), or large beams or the slab located at the top of the structure.

Section 2-Machinery Foundation Installation Design

2.1 Scope 2.2GeneralRequirements


2.1.1 Unless otherwise indicated, this practice addresses 2.2.1 This section provides guidelines for the preinstalla-
the generalconsiderationsfor the installation designof soil- tion design of soil-supported reinforced concretefoundations
supported reinforced concrete foundations supporting gen- supporting machinery. The final detail design of the founda-
eral- and special-purposemachinery. tion shall be performed under the directiona qualified of en-
gineer considering all possible forces, deflection limitations,
2.1.2 Any conflicts between this practice, the engineering vibration responses, geotechnical conditions, and mechanical
drawings, the equipment manufacturers specifications, other and environmentalrequirements.
specifications referenced in this practice, and the contract
2.2.2 Unless otherwise specified, all machinery, including
documents shall be brought to the attention of the user for
resolution. vertical in-line pumps, should be supportedby a reinforced
concrete foundation.Machinery that requires an elevated in-
2.1.3 The following abbreviationsare used in this document: stallation may be supported on structural steel of adequate
stiffness and strength.
AC1 AmericanConcrete Institute
ANSI AmericanNationalStandards Institute Note: Elevated machinery maybe directly supported by structuralsteel pro-
vided adequate stiffness and strength is provided. The intent of 2.2.2is to
ASCE AmericanSocietyofCivilEngineers discourage the use of concrete foundations without reinforcing steel and
ASTM AmericanSociety for Testing and Materials stilt-supported equipment.

4-1
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bdb 96 m 0732290 0553979 730 m

4-2 PRACTICE
API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686

2.2.3 The recommendedminimum foundationdimen- free of resonant frequencies withina minimum of 20 percent
sions, the sizes and locations of the anchor bolt holes, and of the operating speed range ofthe equipment.
the forces applied by the machinery must be obtained from 2.2.12 Machinery loads shall be supported directly by the
the equipment vendorsto aid in the design of the foundation. foundation and notby access platforms.
2.2.4 The development of the foundation dimensions shall Note: Machinery mounted on the top of the columns and/or major cross
consider the layout of the equipment, the piping arrange- beams of a properly designed elevatedframe foundation is considered to be
in accordance with this provision.
ment, concrete cover requiredfor anchor bolts, andthe min-
imum outline dimensions recommended by the equipment 2.2.1 3 The driven machinery and the driver shall be sup-
vendor. ported from a common foundation.
2.2.5 The elevation of the top of the foundation should be Note: The common foundationis toreduce the possibility of differential set-
tlement between thetwo components.
set to allowa minimum thickness of grout of 25 millimeters
(1 inch). 2.2.14 Foundations for reciprocating compressors greater
than 150 kilowatts (200 brake horsepower)and all table-top
Note: The grout manufacturer should be consulted to determine the maxi-
mum and minimum thickness of grout for a particular installation. Factors
special purpose equipment shallbe dynamically analyzed. If
such as flowability and heat generation should be takeninto account when the analysis predicts a resonance, then the mass ofthe foun-
the grout thickness is determined. dation should beincreased (if possible) to overtune it.
2.2.6 The bottom of the foundation shall be placed at a 2.2.15 Compressor trains in the same vicinity should be
sufficient depth below the ground to prevent damage tothe arranged with the crankshafts parallel to each other and not
machinery or piping by the effects of frost penetration. in line.
2.2.7 The design engineer should also consider incorpo- 2.2.16 Supports for the crankcase distance pieces, cylin-
rating the individual foundations of several machines in the der, and pulsation dampers shall be an integral part of the
same vicinity into one common foundation mat. block (supported by a common foundation) foundation.
Note: Consideration should be given to incorporating the foundations of
several individual machines in the same vicinity into one foundation. A
large combined mat foundation may provide a more economical foundation 2.3 Geotechnical
than several closely spaced individual foundations. When multiple machines
are placed ona single mat foundation, the designer should consider all pos- 2.3.1 Machinery foundations shall be proportioned for
sible loading arrangements and combinations of the machines to produce all loading conditions with respect to soil conditions. The
the most unfavorable effects on the supporting foundation, including par-
tial foundation loading dueto removal of individual units for maintenance.
foundation shall be designed to support the applied service
loading without exceeding the allowable bearing capacity
2.2.8 The structural design of all reinforced concrete shall of the soil (refer to 2.3.3) or the allowable limits for settle-
be in accordance with AC1 3 18, Building Code Requirements ment to prevent damage to piping system connections, in-
for Reinforced Concrete. ternal machinery alignment, or other connecting auxiliary
2.2.9 The foundation design shall be capable of resisting equipment.
all applied dynamic and static loads specified by the ma- 2.3.2 In the absence of known soilparameters, a qualified
chinery manufacturer, loads from thermal movement, dead geotechnical consultant (soil specialist) should establish the

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
and live loadsas applicableor as specifiedin the local build- soil properties necessaryfor foundation design.
ing codes, windor seismic forces, and any loads that may be
Note: In the absence of known soil design values, a geotechnical engineer
associated with installationor maintenance ofthe equipment. may be employed to provide the field explorationand laboratory testing re-
2.2.10 For design, the loads specified in 2.2.9 shall be quired to evaluate the soil properties supporting the foundation. The struc-
tural engineer should exercise good judgment as to when a geotechnical
combined to produce the most unfavorable effect on the sup- engineer is needed. Generally, a geotechnical engineer should always be
porting foundation, but the effects of both wind and seismic used for soil foundation designfor machine foundations over150 kilowatts
activity need not be consideredto act simultaneously. (200 horsepower).

Note: ASCE7, Minimum Design Loadsfor Buildings and Other Structures, 2.3.3 The maximum soil pressure due to static and dy-
may be used as a guide for determining design loads unless otherwise spec- namic load combinations should not exceed 75 percent of the
ified by an applicable local building code, user design criteria, or the man-
ufacturers specifications. Design load combinations may be as specified in
allowable soil bearing capacity. When wind or earthquake
AC1 318. loading is included in the load conditions, the allowable ca-
pacity can be increased by one-third. Uplift of the founda-
2.2.11 The foundation shall have adequate strength and tion shall be avoided.
rigidity to meet the deflection limitations specified by the
machinery manufacturer when subjected to all design load 2.3.4 The foundation shall be of adequate size to provide
combinations specified in 2.2.10. The foundation shall be uniform bearing pressure and
minimal differential settlement.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTALLATlON AND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 4 4-3

Note: To reduce the potentialfor differential static settlement, thecenter of shall be the greater of that required by AC1 318 to resist all
the mass of a machine foundation should coincidewith the centroid of the
soil foundationor pile resistance.The horizontal eccentricity should be lim-
forces or for shrinkage andtemperature.Reinforcing should
ited to 5 percent of the corresponding foundation dimension. be continuous fromface to face with proper lap splices.
Note: The required reinforcing steel necessary to resist the internal forces
and moments is relatively small in the majority of block foundations be-
2.4 RectangularBlockFoundations cause of their massive size. Therefore, the minimum quantity of steel will
likely be controlled by the amount of steel necessary to meet temperature
2.4.1 Thissection provides guidelines for machinery and shrinkage requirements. Although AC1 318 does not specifically ad-
block foundation design. The finaldetail dimensions and re- dress the required steel ina block foundation, the requirementof O. 18 per-
inforcing steel requirements are dependent on a structural cent of the cross-sectionalarea of the concrete may be used as guidance for
the amount of temperature reinforcing steel in a foundation using grade60
(static and/or dynamic) analysis
or other means to judge that reinforcing. In the event thata foundation size greater than 1.20 meters(48
the foundation will perform adequately. inches) thick is requiredfor stability, rigidity,or damping, the minimum re-
inforcing steel may beas suggested inAC1 207.2R. Effect ($Restraint, Vol-
Note: In addition to a static structural analysis, a complete block founda- ume Chwge, und Reinforcement on Cracking ($Massive Concrete, with a
tion design may requirea dynamic structural analysis including considera- suggested minimum reinforcementof 22.2-millimeter (#7) bars at 30 cen-
tion of thesoil interaction, unbalanced dynamicforces,limiting timeters (12 inches) on center.
displacements, and all possible modes of vibration.
2.4.8 The maximum reinforcing bar spacingfor perimeter
2.4.2 A machinery block foundation supported on soil reinforcing should not exceed 300 millimeters (12 inches)
should have a minimum mass ratio of three times the mass on center, and the minimum bar size shall not be less than
of the machineryfor centrifugal machines and five times the 12.7 millimeters (#4).
mass for reciprocating machines, unless analysis demon-
2.4.9 Block foundations for reciprocating machines (com-
strates that a lesser value will perform adequately. A block
pressors, andso forth) should havea minimum of50 percent
foundation subject to vibrations may require a dynamic anal-
of the block thickness embedded thein soil, unless otherwise
ysis to ensure that the provisions of 2.2.1
1 are met.
specified by the equipmentuser.
Note: The minimum mass ratios 3: I and 5:1 are traditional empirical val- Note: It is desirableto have at least 50 percent of the total depth of the foun-
ues for foundation mass to equipment mass that should be used unless a dation embedded in the soilto increase the lateral restraint and the damping
lesser amount can be demonstrated to perform adequately. Although the3- ratios for all modes of vibration.
to-S mass ratio has beena good rule of thumb, in certain installations
a dy-
namic analysis of the rectangular concrete foundation maybe necessary to Note: A typical rectangular block foundation detail is shown in Appendix A.
adequately predict its behavior.

2.4.3 The foundation must be of sufficient width to pre-


vent rocking and adequate depth to permit properly embed- 2.5 Vertically Suspended Can Pump
ded anchor bolts. Foundations
Note: The widthof the foundation should beat least 1.5times the vertical 2.5.1 The foundation shall be designed so that the pump
distance from the base to the machine centerline, unless analysis demon- can is directly attached toa mounting plate and is removable
strates that a lesser value will perform adequately.
without damaging thegrout.
2.4.4 The foundation must be of sufficient width to ac- Note: This requires that the pump be provided with a machined mounting
commodate the grout between the edge of the mounting plate that is grouted tothe foundation.
plate and the edge of the
foundation.
2.5.2 The foundation must be designed with inner foun-
2.4.5 The foundation should providea minimum factor of dation liners to prevent water from
contactingthe pumpcan.
safety of 1.5 against overturning and sliding due to all ap- The foundation must be watertight. Drain holesor openings
plied forces andcouples. in the foundation are not acceptable.
Note: A larger factor of safety may be required depending on the type of 2.5.3 A minimum radial clearance of 50 millimeters (2
soil. The use of passive soil resistance aroundthe perimeter of the founda-
tion to aid in achieving stability must be used with caution. The designer inches) between the outside of the pump can and the inner
may decide to neglect the contribution of passive resistance to stability if liner surface of the foundation cavity should be maintained.
the possibility exists of soil loss due to excavation or erosion around the
foundation after it is constructed. The removal of soil around the founda- Note: Pumps in low-temperature service that require insulation will need
tion will resultin loss of the passive soil pressurecomponent. greater clearance to accommodate finished insulation dimensions and pip-
ing that may be externalto the pump can.
2.4.6 The top of the finished foundation should be ele-
2.5.4 The foundation shall be designed to allow sufficient
vated a minimum of 100 millimeters (4 inches) above the
axial clearance to the pump can to prevent distortion dueto
finished elevationof the floor slab or grade to prevent dam-
thermal growth. The bottomsurface of the cavity should be
age to the machinery from runoff or wash-down water.
at least 300 millimeters (1 foot) beneath the bottom of the
2.4.7 Unless permitted by the equipment user, the mini- pump can. (Refer to the typical suspended can pump detail in
mum reinforcing steelin a general purpose block foundation Appendix B.)
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP+h8h 96 m 0732290 0553983 399

4-4 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

2.6 ElevatedFrameFoundations posure to oil. In anaggressiveenvironment, consider the use


of protective coatings, polymer concrete, or additional con-
2.6.1 A dynamic analysis of an elevated frame foundation crete cover to protect the reinforcing steel.
(table-top foundation) shall be required to demonstrate that
2.8.2 All concrete shall have a minimum compressive
the natural frequencies of the foundation do not coincide
strength of 28 newtons per squaremillimeter (4000 pounds
with and are separated from the operating speed rangethe of
per square inch) at 28 days, unless otherwise specified
by the
equipment by at least 20 percent. The foundation designfor
user.
variable-speed equipment willrequire that the foundation be
checked for resonantfrequenciesthrough theentire range of 2.8.3 High early strength concrete shall be used only with
operating speeds. the approval ofthe equipment user.
Note: A table-top foundationis an elevated three-dimensional reinforced 2.8.4 When foundation thicknesses are greater than 120
concrete structure thatconsists of large beams or a thick slab connecting the
tops of the supportingcolumns. The mechanical equipment is supported by
centimeters (48 inches) thick, the engineer should consult
the large beamsor the slab locatedat the top of the structure. AC1 207.2R and other AC1 mass concrete requirementsfor
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

concrete mixes and installation.


2.6.2 Condensers and turbines shall be supported on a
common foundation.
2.6.3 The height of an elevated frame foundation should 2.9 ReinforcingSteel
be kept to a minimum. The height should be determined by Unless otherwise specified by the equipment user, all re-
the minimum number ofstraight runs of processpiping, the inforcing steel shall conform to the requirements of ASTM
required slope of the lube oildrain piping, or other mechan- A6 15, Standard SpeciJicationfor Deformed and Plain Billet-
ical and maintenancerequirements. Steel Barsfor Concrete Reinforcement,grade 60 with a min-
imum yield strength of 414 newtons per square millimeter
(60 kips per square inch).
2.7 Effects of Equipment on
Surrounding Area
2.10 Anchor Bolts and Sleeves
2.7.1 The effects of vibrating equipment on the surround-
ing area should be investigated. Consider the location and 2.10.1 Unless otherwise specified by the equipment user,
degree of isolation required for the foundation with respect equipment shall be installed on mounting plate(s), and the
to adjacent sensitive equipment,disturbance to people, and direct attachment of equipmentfeet to the foundation using
the effects to the supporting and/or adjoining structures. the anchor bolts shall not be permitted. Mounting plates shall
be of sufficient strength and rigidity to transfer the applied
Note: The effects of vibration generated by the equipment on the operationof
adjacent equipmentor people shouldbe factored into the location of the equip- forces to the foundation.
ment. In addition to taking measures to isolate the foundation from an adja-
cent slab or structure in the early stages of the project, it may be possible to 2.1 0.2 Mounting plates shall be attachedto the foundation
locate the equipmentto reduce the transmission of vibrations to the surround- with anchor bolts.
ings. Ihe actual method of isolating the foundation from adjacent structures is
left tothe designer. The intent of this provision is to call attention to the need 2.1 0.3 Anchor bolts alone or in combination with shear
for foundation isolation due to vibration generated by the machinery. attachments onthe equipment mountingplate shall be capa-
2.7.2 The effects foundation construction may have on ad- ble of transmitting the loading appliedby the machinery and
jacent equipment, people, egress requirements, existing the designloads specified in 2.2.9 combined to produce the
foundationssupporting adjacent structures, and manufactur- most unfavorableeffects. The transfer of forces by means of
ing production should be considered in the design stages. All grout chemical adhesion of the baseplate to the foundation
necessary precautions should be taken in the design to pro- shall not be considered in the design.
tect thesafety of personneldirectly exposed to the construc- Note: The intent of 2.10.2 and 2.10.3 is to neglect the contribution of the
tion or working in the vicinity of construction. grout bond strength for transferring forces from the mounting plate to the
foundation. Although this adhesion may exist, a positive meansof attach-
Note.:One of the best times to address the effects that construction may have ment by anchor bolts and/or shear keysis recommended.
on the existing facility and personnel in the area is during the initial design
stages.Roper location of the foundation may reduce the construction difficul- 2.10.4 The required embedment of anchor bolts in the
ties associated with protectingpersonnel and maintainingexisting production.
foundation shall be determined by accepted engineering
practices for cast-in-place anchors or certified vendor infor-
mation for mechanical or adhesive typeanchors. The anchor
2.8 Concrete bolt embedment shall be adequate to resist the torque values
2.8.1 Foundation materialsshall be selectedtopre- specified inthe grouting section of thispractice or the forces
vent premature deterioration due to chemical attack or ex- applied by the equipmentor required by applicable codes.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPxb8b 96 m 0732270 0551982 225

RECOMMENDED lNSTALLATlON AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 4


PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY 4-5

Note: The design of anchor bolt embedment may be as suggested in AC1 wise specified by the equipment user. The washer should
349, Code Requirements f o r Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Struc- conform to ANSI B18.22.1 and nut(s) should be full size,
tures-Steel Embedments. Appendix B.
heavy hex conformingto ANSI B18.2.2.
2.1 0.5 Unless otherwise specifiedby the equipment user,
anchor bolts material should be ASTM or A36
ASTM A575 2.10.8 Anchor boltsshouldproject aminimumof 2
M1020. In areas exposed to corrosive chemical vapors or threads abovethe fully engaged nut(s).
liquids, the anchor bolt should be fabricated from a material
resistant to chemical attackor provided with a proper chem-
ical-resistant coating suchas galvanizing. 2.1 1DrawingInformation
Note: The anchor bolt material selected for use, whether it is the material 2.11.1 In addition to the structural information necessary
specified in 2.10.5 or another material, should be clearly marked on the
structural drawings. This information is not only required forfabrication but to construct the foundation, the drawings must clearlyindi-
may be helpful in future modifications to the foundation. It may be neces- cate the elevation ofthe top of the finished (poured) founda-
sary to fabricate the anchor bolts from a material that will be capable of re- tion and the bottom of the soleplate, the locations of the
sisting the attack of anaggressive environment. Not only isthis necessary to
prevent the reduction of the anchor bolt net section, but it will also facili- anchor boltsand sleeves,the anchor bolt diameter, the depth
tate the future removal of the equipment for maintenance. of embedment into the foundation of the anchor bolts, the
2.1 0.6 Anchor bolts should be installed using sleeves,un- length of the anchor boltsthreads, and the length of the an-
less otherwisespecified by the equipment user. The innerdi- chor bolt projections.
ameter ofthe sleeve should beat least twice the diameter of Note: The above information should be clearly marked on the drawing in
order for itto be readily identified during the final checks before concrete
the anchor bolts. The length of the sleeve shall be the greater
placement. Refer to the typical foundation detail in Appendix A to clarify
of 150 millimeters (6 inches) or sufficient length to permit the location of the finished foundation level.
adequate elongation of the anchor bolt during tightening. 2.11.2 The required 28-day minimum compressive
The minimum distance from the edgeof the anchor bolt strength ofthe concrete foundation andthe yield strength of
sleeve to the edge of the foundation shall be the greater of the reinforcing steel shall be clearly specified on the struc-
150 millimeters(6 inches), four anchor bolt diameters, or the tural drawings.
edge distance necessary to transfer the forces in the anchor
bolts to the concrete foundation. Note: Not only is this information necessary for construction of the foun-
dation, it may be necessary in the future to identify the material properties
Note: Anchor boltsleeves are required to permit a section of the bolt to be for possible modifications or investigations of the foundation. Placing this
protected from concrete or grout adherence. This section of the bolt is kept information on the drawings will permit its permanent retention with the
free from the concrete and grout to permit the proper elongation of the an- foundation structural details.
chor bolt during the tightening procedure. The use of anchor bolt sleeves is
not primarily intended to permit easy bending of the bolt to aid in equip- 2.11.3 The anchor bolt material shall be specified on the
ment alignment, but to allow the elongation to take place. (Refer to the an-
chor bolt details in Appendixes C and D.)
structural drawing.
2.10.7 Anchor bolts for machinery should be cast-in-place 2.11.4 The required soil bearing capacity shall be speci-
or adhesive stud bolt with nut(s) and washer, unless other- fied on the structural drawings.

Section 3-Machinery Foundation Installation

3.1
Scope OSHA Occupational Safety andHealth
Administration
3.1.1 Unless otherwise indicated, this practice addresses PIP Process
Industry Practices
the general considerations for the installation of soil-sup-
ported reinforced concrete foundations supporting general- 3.2GeneralRequirements
and special-purpose machinery.
3.2.1 This section provides guidelines for the construction
3.1.2 Any conflicts between this practice, the engineering of reinforced concrete foundations. Proper concretepre-
drawings, the equipment manufacturers specifications, other placement and placement procedures are essential to the suc-
specifications referenced in this practice, and the contract cessful installation of machinery foundations.
documents shall be brought to the attention of the equipment
user for resolution. 3.2.2 Construction of the foundation shall be performed
in a safe manner and shall besubject to all OSHAsafety re-
3.1.3 The following abbreviationsare used in this section: quirements.
AC1 American
Concrete Institute 3.2.3 Excavations for the foundation shall be madesafe to
ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials prevent any dangerto personnel or existing structures.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~~~

A P I RP*68b 96 W 0732290 0553983 3 6 3 W

4-6 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE
686/PIP RElE 686

3.2.4 The owner shall be advised if construction of the A615 Standard Specjcationfor Deformed and Plain Billet-
foundation will block an existing means of emergency egress Steel Barsfor Concrete Reinforcement,grade 60, with a min-
for personnel andor safety equipment. imum yield strength of 414 newtons per square millimeter
(60 kips per square inch).

3.3 SoilConditions 3.6 Anchor Bolts andSleeves


3.3.1 Foundations designed to be directly supported on Anchor bolts and sleeves shall be located to the specified
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

soil shall be constructed on undisturbed soil or fill material tolerances in all three planes and securely supportedto pre-
properly compacted in accordance with sound engineering vent misalignment during the concrete placement operation.
practices and the project specifications. The anchor bolts shall not be reduced in diameter nor offset
Note: The statement sound engineering practices requires that the fill be to facilitate alignment with the mounting plate. Modification
constructed from suitable fill material that has been properly installed and of the mounting plate to facilitate alignment
is not permitted
compacted under the guidanceof a qualified soil engineer. unless authorizedby the designated machinery representative.
3.3.2 Unless otherwise specified, the contractor shall re- Note: The use of a template to aidin the placement of anchor bolts is rec-
quire a qualified soil specialistto inspect the soil supporting ommended. The template will assistin accurately placing the anchor bolts.
the foundation and determine its adequacy to provide the re-
quired bearing capacity. The contractor shall provide the 3.7 Field Verification Prior to Concrete
equipment user with written documentation by the qualified Placement
soil specialist certifying the soil supporting the foundation
has the minimum specified bearing capacity. 3.7.1 Immediately prior to concrete placement, the anchor
bolt locations, projections, and diameters shall be field ver-
Note: This will require the soil beneath the foundation tobe examined by a ified to matchthe anchor bolt hole locationin the mounting
qualified soil specialist or geotechnical engineer suitable to the equipment
user before proceeding with the construction of formwork or placement of plate. In the event thatthe baseplate is notat the site, the an-
concrete. It may also q u i r e that a test be performed to verify thesafe bear- chor bolts location shall be verified against the structural
ing capacityof the soil. foundation drawings and the manufacturers drawings. The
3.3.3 Unless otherwise specified, priorto the start of con- anchor bolts shall also be examined to verify that they have
struction, the contractor shall submit to the equipment user for been installed plumb, have the correct length and projection,
acceptance and review the qualifications of the person re- are adequately secured to preventdisplacement during the
sponsible for performing the soil inspection specified in 3.3.2. concrete placement, and the threads are not stripped or dam-
aged. All necessary procedures shallbe taken to correct any
discrepancies or deficiencies before concrete operations shall
3.4 Formwork be permitted to begin.
3.4.1 All formwork and form accessories shall be in ac- 3.7.2 All anchor bolt sleeves shallbe covered or filled with
cordance with AC1 301 and PIP STS03001. a nonbonding moldable material to prevent entry of concrete.
Note: AC1 301, Specificutions f o r Structurul Concretefor Buildings, and 3.7.3 Prior to concrete placement, the proposed elevation of
PIP STS03001, Pluin und Reiyforced Concrete.
the top of the foundation concrete shall be verified withel-the
3.4.2 Unless otherwise indicatedon the contract drawings, evation specified on the foundation drawing, and the neces-
provide minimum 19-millimeter (%-inch) chamferstrips at sary procedures shallbe taken tocorrect any discrepancies.
all corners on permanently exposed surfaces or on edges of
formed joints.
3.4.3 Unless otherwise specified by the equipment user, 3.8 Concrete Mixing and Placement
removal of formwork shall be in accordance with AC1 301 Procedures
and PIP STS03001.
3.8.1 Concretematerials, formwork, handling, mixing,
to 301 andPIP STS03001.
and placement shall conform AC1
3.5 ReinforcingSteel 3.8.2 Materials, mixing, handling, and placementof mass
3.5.1 Reinforcing steel materials, fabrication, and place- concrete shall be in accordance with AC1 301 and PIP
ment shall bein accordance with AC1 301 and PIP STS03001. Adequate control of the concrete temperature
STS03001. shall be maintainedat the pour point.
3.5.2 Unless otherwise noted on the structural drawing, all 3.8.3 Unless otherwise specified on the drawings, at the
reinforcing steel shall conform to the requirements
of ASTM point of delivery, concrete shall have maximum slump of

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED lNSTAUTlON AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 4
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERV 4-7

100 millimeters(4 inches) when achieved by wateralone. If Note: The ability of concrete to reach the specified strength
is a function
of temperature and moisture retention. Normal concrete, when properly
a slump greater than 100 millimeters (4 inches) is required cured, will attain the specified design strength approximately28 days af-
for proper placement ofconcrete, it may be increased upto ter placement. The concrete shall be presumed to have reached the speci-
200 millimeters(8 inches) using a high-range water-reducing fied compressive design strength when the requirements of AC1 301 for
removal of formwork have been met. If approved by the equipment user,
agent. the use of highearly strength concretemay be used to reduce the duration
time requiredto reach the desired strengthin situations where curetime is
3.8.4 The field additionof water to increase the slump shall on the critical path. Refer to AC1 301 and AC1 308 for additional infor-
not be permitted without approvalof the equipment user. mation on curing concrete.
3.8.5 Foundations shall be made in one continuous pour 3.8.8 All concrete shall have a minimum compressive
unless otherwise approvedby the equipment useror shown strength of 28 newtons persquare millimeter (4000 pounds
on the drawings. 28 days, unless otherwise specified on the
per square inch) at
3.8.6 Immediately after placement, concrete shall be pro- drawings.
tected from coldor hot weather extremes, mechanical injury, 3.8.9 High early strength concrete shall be used only with
and premature drying and shall be cured
as specified in AC1 the approval ofthe equipment user.
301 and PIP STS03001.
Note: AC1 301, Specificationsfor Structural Concretefiw Buildings,re-
quires that normal concrete be cured (preservation of moisture) for 7 days 3.9 ConcreteQualityControl
after placement.
3.8.7 Unless otherwise approved by the equipment user, The equipment user or the designated machinery repre-
the foundation preparation procedures for grouting specified sentative reserves the right to subject the concrete founda-
in the grouting section of this specification or the setting of tion constructiontoinspection by anACI-certified
any equipment on the foundation shall not be permitted to inspector or any owner-designatedtesting agency. Testsof
begin until concrete curing in accordance withAC1 301 and concrete compressive strength, air content, and slump shall
PIP STS03001 has been completed, and the concrete has at- be as designated by the equipment user, designated ma-
tained the specified 28-day compressive design strength as chineryrepresentative, or in accordance with PIP
defined in AC1 301. STS03001 and AC1 301.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
APPENDIX A-TYPICAL FOUNDATION AND ANCHOR BOLT DETAILS

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
4-9
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
4-1O RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE
68WPIP
API RElE 686

etail of anchor bolt for grout


(Option #1 or Option #2)

Shear key may be required to


resist horizontal forces

AS (minimum #4 tie)

Anchor

Well compactedsoil

Section Through Foundation

W width Refer
foundation
specification
design
section
to
of

EB Embedment
Anchor Shall be as required
to resist anchor bolt forces

D Depth
Below
Grade Shall be adequate to prevent frost heave

H Depth
Above
Grade Shall be adequate to prevent damage to equipment from water due
to runoff(1O0 mm ( 4 " ) minimum)

AS Area of Reinforcing
Refer to the
minimumarea of steel
requirements
of the
reinforcing section of foundation design

ED
Anchor
Bolt
Sleeve
Shall
be
adequate to develop
required
force
on
anchor
EdgeDistancebolt, a minimumof150mm (6")or (4) boltdiameters
(whichever is greater), or as recommended by anchor bolt
manufacturer.

Figure A-1-Typical Rectangular Block Foundation Detail

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATIONAND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 4 4-1 1

\ Pump head
Suction flange

$ I
Discharge flange

Vent valve

o
O

O
d
d
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

A Outer I liner

Note: Can = Pressure Retaining Casing

Figure A-2-Typical Vertically Suspended Can Pump Foundation

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*bAb 7b m 0732270 0551788 743 m

4-12 RECGMMENOEO
PRACTICE
API 686PIP RElE 686

Projections and threads shall accommodate


a minimumof 2 thread plus fully
engaged nut
Greater of

Anchor bolt (embedment length and

i
diameter as requiredto resist applied
forces)
Elev./top
of finished -
foundation

G Mounting plate

7
75 mm
(3/4')
chamfer
- 5L
(1") min.
25mm L
Wrap anchor per grout section

Fill sleeve with solt moldable


material per grout section

Anchor bolt sleeve

Anchor head (typical installation


shown-other designs maybe
acceptable)'

Fully engaged nut

Note: AC1 349 may be a possible design referencefor anchor head.

Figure A-3-Typical Anchor Bolt Detail-


Option 1, Grout Pour Not to Edgeof Foundation

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 9b m 0732290 055L789 b 8 T m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTAUnTlON AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,
CHAPTER 4 4-13

' '
ns and threads
threads shall
shall accommodate
accommodate
m of 2 thread plus fully
nut@)
Greater of
- 150 mm (6') min.

Elev./top
-,
or (4) bolt diameters
r Anchor bolt (embedment length and
diameter as requiredto resist applied
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

of original forces)
finished
foundation

75 mm
G Mounting plate

cZ;!eq

V
(1") min. Roughen and clean
area of foundation that will
contact grout [chip down
a min.of 25 mm (l')]

Chamfer L Wrap anchor per grout section


edge of J
foundation
Per Fill sleeve per grout section
grouting
section
Anchor bolt sleeve

1
Reinforcing steel L

Anchor head (typical installation


shown-other designsmay be

Fully engaged nut

Note: AC1 349 may be a possible design reference for anchor head.

Figure A-4-Typical Anchor Bolt Detail-


Option 2, Grout Pour to Edgeof Foundation

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bBb Yb m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0553770 3TL m

Recommended Practices for Machinery


Installation and Installation Design
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Chapter 5-Mounting Plate Grouting

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 686
PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996

Process Industry Practices P American


Petroleum
Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*cbBb 9 6 D 0732290 055L99L 238 D

CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 5-MOUNTING PLATE GROUTING
SECTION1-DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................... 5-1
SECTION 2-MACHINERYGROUTINGINSTALLATIONDESIGN .................... 5-1
2.1
Scope ................................................................................................................... 5-2
2.2 GeneraVSpecialPurposeEquipment ................................................................... 5-2
2.3 DrawingandDataRequirements ......................................................................... 5-2
2.4 Selection of Grout ................................................................................................ 5-2
2.5Expansion Joints .................................................................................................. 5-2
2.6Mounting Plate Design ........................................................................................ 5-2
2.7 GroutDesign for AuxiliaryEquipment ............................................................... 5-3
SECTION 3-MACHINERYGROUTINGINSTALLATION ................................... 5-3
3.1 Scope ................................................................................................................... 5-3
3.2 GeneraVSpeciaIPurposeEquipment ................................................................... 5-3
3.3 Grouting Precautions ........................................................................................... 5-3
3.4FoundationCuring ............................................................................................... 5-3
3.5 AnchorBoltPreparation ...................................................................................... 5-4
3.6 FoundationPreparation ........................................................................................ 5-4
3.7 GroutingForms ................................................................................................... 5-4
3.8 Mounting Plate DesignVerification .................................................................... 5-4
3.9 PreparationofMounting Plates ........................................................................... 5-5
3.10 ReciprocatingCompressors ................................................................................. 5-6
3.11PregroutMeeting ................................................................................................. 5-6
3.12PregroutSetup ..................................................................................................... 5-7
3.13 GroutMixing ....................................................................................................... 5-7
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.14 MountingPlateGrouting ..................................................................................... 5-7


3.15Post-Grouting Instructions ................................................................................... 5-8
3.16FillingGroutVoids .............................................................................................. 5-8
SECTION 4 4 R O U T I N G CHECKLISTS ................................................................ 5-9
4.1 Machinery Installation PregroutSetup Checklist ................................................ 5-9
4.2 Machinery Installation Grout Placement Checklist ............................................. 5-12
4.3 MachineryInstallationPost-Grouting Checklist ................................................. 5-13
APPENDIX A-ANCHOR BOLT TORQUE TABLE ................................................ 5-15
APPENDIX B-LEVELING DATA SHEET AND DRAWINGS ............................... 5-19
APPENDIX C-TYPICAL MOUNTING PLATE ARRANGEMENT FOR
BASEPLATE MOUNTED SPECIAL PURPOSE EQUIPMENT ... 5-25
APPENDIX D-BASEPLATE LEVELING FORHORIZONTU
CENTRIFUGALPUMPS ................................................................ 5-29
APPENDIX E-TYPICAL GROUTING INSTALLAmON OF SOLEPLATES ....... 5-35
APPENDIX F-TYPICAL GROUTING INSTALLATION OF BASEPLATES
FOR PUMPS AND GENERAL PURPOSE EQUIPMENT............. 5-39
APPENDIX G-TYPICAL MOUNTING PLATE LEVELING PADS ...................... 5-43

iii
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*b8b 96 m O732290 0553992 374 m

Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design


CHAPTER 5-MOUNTING PLATE GROUTING
Section 1-Definitions
1.1CementatiOUS: A typeofgrout material that is both,andwherespeedwillnotexceed 5000 revolutionsper
cement portland (RPM).
1.2designatedmachineryrepresentative: The Note: General purpose equipment trains have all elements that are either
manufacturers standardor are covered by standards such as the following:
person or organization designated by the ultimate owner of ANSVASME B.73 horizontal pumps. small API Standard610 pumps, fans,
the equipment to speak on the owners behalf with regard to API Standard 611 steam turbines, API Standard672 air compressors,API
machinery installation decisions, inspection requirements, Standard 677 general purpose gears, API Standard674 reciprocating pumps,
API Standard 676 rotary positive displacement pumps, API Standard 680
and so forth. This representative may be an employee of the reciprocatingair compressors, and NEMA frame motors.
owner, a third party inspection company, or an engineering
contractor delegated by the owner. 1.8grout: Anepoxy or cementatious material used to
provide a uniform foundationsupport and load transfer link
1.3engineeringdesigner: The person or organiza- for the installation of rotating machinery. This material is
tion charged with the project responsibility of supplyingin- typically placed betweena piece of the equipmentsconcrete
stallation drawings and proceduresfor installing machinery foundation and its mounting plate.
in a user facility after machinery has beendelivered.In gen-
eral, but not always, the engineering designer specifies ma- 1.9 grout pin: A metallic pin or dowelused to tie an
chinery in the user facility. epoxy grout pour to its concrete foundation to prevent de-
lamination (or edge lifting) due to differential thermal ex-
1.4 epoxy: A type of grout material that consists of a pansion between the grout and the concrete.
resin base that is mixed with a curing agent (hardener) and
usually an aggregate filler. 1.10 head box: Adeviceused to funnelgrout into a
baseplate grout fill-hole so as to provide a static head to aid
1.5equipmentinstaller: Theperson or organization in filling all baseplate cavities with grout.
charged with providing engineering services and labor re-
quired to install machinery ina user facilityafter machinery 1.1 1 mounting plate: Adeviceusedto attach equip-
has been delivered. In general, but not always, the installer ment to concrete foundations; includes both baseplates and
is the project construction contractor. soleplates.
1.6equipmentuser: The organization chargedwith 1.12 peg test: A test performed on an optical leveling
operating the rotating equipment. In general, but not always, instrument to ensure that it is properly adjusted and line
its of
the equipment user owns and maintainsthe rotating equip- sight is coincident to true earth level.
ment after the project iscomplete. 1.13special-purposeequipmenttrains: Equip-
1.7 general-purposeequipment trains: Those ment trains with driven equipment that is usually not spared,
trains that have all general-purpose elements in the train. is relatively large in size (power), or is in critical service.
They are usually spared, relatively small in size (power), or This category is not limited by operating conditions or speed.
are in noncritical service. They are intended for applica- Note: Special purpose equipment trainswill be defined by the user.
In gen-
tions where process conditions will not exceed 48 bar eral, any equipment train such as an API Standard 612 turbine, API Stan-
dard 618 reciprocating compressor, API Standard613 gear, API Standard
gauge (700 pounds per square inch gauge) pressure or 617 centrifugal compressor, or equipment with a gas turbine in the train
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

205C (400F) temperature (excluding steam turbines), or should be considered to be special purpose.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b&b 9 6 m 0732290 0553993 O00 m

5-2 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

This section defines the minimum recommended proce- 2.4.1 The use of rapid-flow grouts shall be limited to ap-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

dures, practices, and design requirements of groutedequip- plications where the depth of the grout pour is less than 19
ment mounting plates (soleplates and baseplates). In general, millimeters (V4 inch). The reduction ofaggregatequantity in
the instructions supplied by the grout manufacturer should grout mixtures to improve flow properties is not permitted.
be carefully followed. Any questions regarding mounting Rapid-flow epoxy grouts shall notbe used unless specifically
plate grouting design are to be referred to the owners des- approved by the user.
ignated representative beforeproceeding. Note: Typically, rapid-flow grouts
are only used for grout pours of less than
h
40 millimeters ( 1 inches).

2.4.2 Alayeredcombination of nonshrink cement and


2.2 GeneraEpecial PurposeEquipment
epoxy groutmay be used for machinery with large baseplates
9 inches as follows:
that have structural webs deeper than
This section is intended toaddress those grouting design
requirements associated with all machinery. Additional spe- a. The first layer for this type of installation shall be general
cial-purpose machinety requirementsare covered in the ap- purpose epoxy grout pouredto a level that is 25 millimeters
pendixes at the end of this chapter. (1 inch) above the bottom of the internal baseplate stiffeners.
b. The secondlayer shall be a nonshrink cementatious grout
poured to a level that is approximately 50 millimeters (2
2.3 DrawingandDataRequirements inches) from the top of the baseplate decking.
c. The top layer shall be ageneral purpose epoxy grout and
The designer shall produce detailed design drawings of shall be poured to the top of the baseplate.
the grout layout for special-purpose machinery. Grout lay- Note that the next layer for this type of installation shall
out drawings shall be completed during engineering design not be poured until the previouslayer is properly cured.
and shall be submitted to the purchaser for review. These
drawings shall be included in the design packagefor the ma-
2.5 ExpansionJoints
chinery foundation.
Grouting design drawings (or typical data sheets) shall 2.5.1 Expansion joints shall be incorporated into large
provide all necessary information for the installation of epoxy grout pours to reduce the possibility of cracking, es-
equipment on mounting plates. This information shall in- pecially when machinery-to-grout temperature differentials
clude, but not be limited to,the following: of 30C (50F) are encountered. Expansion joints should be
placed at approximately 1.4- to 2.8-meter (4-to &foot) in-
a. Expansion joint location. tervals in the grout foundation.
b. Elevation to top of mounting plate.
c. Elevation to top of grout. 2.5.2 Expansion joints should be made from 12- to 25-
d. Grout materials and estimated quantities. millimeter ( ] h - to l-inch) thick closed-cell neoprene foam
e. Grout pocket location (if any). rubber. Polystyrene may also be used. Ensure that the ex-
f. Grout formingdetails (that deviate from AppendixF) and pansion joint material is compatible withthe grout.
head-box elevation. 2.5.3 Expansion joints require sealing after the grout has
g. Baseplate grouting and vent holes. cured with elastic epoxy seam sealant (liquid rubber) or sil-
h. Anchor bolt location and projection. icone rubber (room temperaturevulcanizable).
i. Grout pin locations and quantity (if used).
j. Shimming and leveling screw requirements. 2.6 MountingPlateDesign
Note: The purposeof this section is to provide the foundation designerwith
2.4 Selection of Grout mounting plate design criteria necessary for properinstallation.
2.6.1 Unless otherwise specified, all equipment shall be
Unless otherwisespecified,all machinery shall be
installed on mountingplates.
grouted using epoxygrouts.
2.6.2 All soleplate outside comers shall have a minimum
Note 1: Epoxies typically have over three times the compressivestrength of
cementatious grouts and tend to have a longer useful service life. Epoxy 50-millimeter (2-inch) radius (in the plan view) to prevent
grouts are also available that are resistant to chemical attack. cracking of the foundation grout due to stress concentration
Note 2: Cementatious grouts are suitable as filler materials in less de- at the corners. All baseplates shall have radiusedcorners ap-
manding applications where vibration, dynamic loading, and temperature
extmnes are not a concern. This type of grout is typically usedas a filler propriate to the baseplate design.
inside st~cturalsteel baseplates to increase damping and reduce vibration 2.6.3 All mounting plate anchor bolt holes should have a
transmission or for use on staticequipment where vibrationis not a con-
m. Cementatious grouts are also typically not resistant toacid and chem- minimum 3-millimeter (hs-inch)annular clearance with the
ical attack. anchor boltto allow for field alignmentof mounting plates.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bdb 96 0732290 0551994 T 4 7

RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 5


PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY 5-3

2.6.4 Mounting plates should extend at least 25 millime- grouting under all load-carryingstructural members. Where
ters (1 inch) beyond the outerthree sides of equipment feet. practical, the holes should
be accessible for grouting with the
equipment installed and should have 12-millimeter (%-inch)
2.6.5 Mounting plates should be provided with vertical
leveling screws, as opposed to shims or wedges. Shims and raised-lip edges. Vent holes of at least 12millimeters (112
wedges should not be used. inch) insize should be provided at the highest point of and in
each bulkhead section of the baseplate. These measuresal-
Note: Shims and wedges, if left in place after grouting, may cause hard low for controlledgrout placement and verification that each
spots that interfere withthe grouts abilityto provide uniform base support.
They may also allow moisturepenetration and the resultant corrosion and section is filled with grout.
grout spalling. Note: In general, vent holes of approximately 12 millimeters (h inch) in
be provided.
diameter on %-centimeter (18-inch) centers should
2.6.6 Elevation adjustment nuts are not permitted under
the mounting plate that will be groutedin and become a per- 2.6.10 When specified, grouting pins of #6 reinforcing
manent part of the foundation. This allows the mounting platebar shall be provided aroundthe perimeter ofthe mounting
to be supportedby the grout, notby the leveling devices. plate on 3-centimeter (6-inch) centers to prevent delamina-
2.6.7 Mounting plate leveling jackscrews should be pro- tion between the concrete foundation and the epoxy grout.
vided with leveling padsas shown in Appendix G. Grouting pins should be set in epoxy with a 10-centimeter
(Cinch) minimum imbedment depth beforeinstallation of
2.6.8 Typical mounting plate jackbolt arrangements for grout on foundation.
leveling are shown in Appendixes E and F.
2.6.9 The bottom of baseplates between structural mem-
bers should be open. Whenthe baseplate is to be grouted, it
2.7 Grout Design for Auxiliary
should be provided with at least one grout holehaving a
Equipment
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

clear area of at least 0.01 square meters (20 square inches) When specified, consoles and other auxiliary equipment
and no dimension less than 10centimeters (4 inches) in each skids shall be installed with compositegrout pours as spec-
bulkhead section. These holes should be located to permit ified in 2.4.2.

Section 3Machinery Grouting Installation

3.1
Scope 3.3GroutingPrecautions
Pouring epoxyor cementatious grout under machinery is During the mixing, handling, and installation of grout ma-
only a small part aofgrout job. Much preparationis required terials, the following minimum
practices must be employed:
before the grout is actually poured. These pregrout prepara- a. All grout Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) shall be
tions can make the difference between a grout job lasting for available and associated hazards reviewed with allgrouting
the life of the machinery,or only a few monthsor years. personnel.
This section defines the minimum recommended proce- b. Goggles or face shields and aprons should be worn by
dures, practices, and inspections for the installation of those personnel mixing and pouringthe grout.
grouted equipment mounting plates (soleplates and base- c. Protective gloves should be worn by all personnel in-
plates). The purpose of these instructions
is to provide guide- volved in thegrouting operation.
lines for the installation of grouted mounting plates. In d. Dust masksor respirators (in accordance with MSDS re-
general, the instructionssupplied by the grout manufacturer quirements) should beworn by those personnel exposed to
should be carefully followed. Any questions regarding the aggregate prior to mixing.
mounting plate installation and groutingare to be referred to e. Soap and water should be available for periodic hand
the owners designated representative before proceeding. cleaning, should the needarise.
f. Some epoxy grouts exhibit a very strong exothermic re-
action and the possibility of thermal burns exists. Caution
3.2GeneraVSpecialPurposeEquipment must be exercised in this regard.

This section is intended to address those grouting con-


struction procedures associated with all machinery. Addi-
3.4 FoundationCuring
tional special-purpose machinery requirements are covered Check foundation curing time before proceeding with
in the appendixesat the end of this chapter. preparation for grouting. The foundation shall be cured for

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP+b8b 96 W 0732290 0553995 983 m

5-4 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

at least seven days per AC1 301 prior to grout preparation. turai integrity of thefoundation.A chipping hammer with a
Epoxy grout shall never be poured on green or uncured chisel bit is the preferred tool forthis purpose.
concrete. Concrete mustalso be exposedto a drying-out pe- 3.6.3 Where practical, epoxy grout vertical thickness at
riod to ensure that the capillaries are free of moisture and the edge ofthe foundation should be equal to orgreater than
will provide propergrout bonding. the distance from the foundation edge to the baseplate pe-
riphery. For machinery foundations where the grout extends
3.5 AnchorBoltPreparation to the edge of the concrete, the corners of the concrete shall
be chipped to form a 50-millimeter (2-inch) minimum 45-
3.5.1 Ensure that templates, if purchased, have been used degree chamfer. Grout forms shall be placed so as to allow
for anchor boltlocations. proper filling of the chamfer area.
3.5.2 Verify that anchor bolt sleeves are clean and dry and Note: The purposeof the concrete foundation chamferis to providea shear
plane at the grout-to-concrete interface to prevent delamination.
have been filled with a nonbonding moldablematerial. This
material will prevent water accumulation inthe anchor bolt 3.6.4 The foundation must be kept free of contamination
sleeves and is pliable enough to allow for small anchor bolt by oil, dirt, water, and so forth, after it has been preparedfor
movement, if needed. grouting.Protectivesheeting(suchassheets of clean
polyethylene) shall be used to cover the prepared surfaces
Note: Anchor bolt sleeves are not intended to provide sufficient movement
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

to allow for gross misalignment of anchor bolts to their mounting plate when work is not in progress.
holes. Lateral movement for alignment purposes should not exceed 6.5 mil-
limeter (1/4 inch).
3.6.5 When the surface chipping is complete, the founda-
tion shall be thoroughly broomed and air-blownfree of all
3.5.3 The anchor bolt threads should be covered with duct dust with clean, dry, oil-free air.
tape or other suitable means to keep them clean and to pre-
vent any damage that might occur duringthe chipping and
grouting operation. 3.7 GroutForms
3.5.4 All anchor bolt locations, projections, and diameters 3.7.1 All grout forms shall be built of materials of ade-
in
shall be field verifiedto match the anchor bolt hole pattern quate strength and securely anchored and sealed
to withstand
the mounting plateprior to grouting. the liquid head and forces developed by the grout during
placement.
3.7.2 Grout forms shall be attached to the foundation or
3.6 FoundationPreparation
pavement with drilled anchors. Power nailing is not permitted.
3.6.1 A weather-protective cover may be necessary during 3.7.3 The inside surfaces of all grout forms shall have
inclement weather conditions.Wind, sun, rain, and ambient three coats of paste waxapplied to prevent grout adherence.
temperatures havea definite effect on the quality of a groutingOil or liquid wax is not permitted.
installation. During hot weather, the foundation and equip-
ment should be covered with a shelter to keep the uncured 3.7.4 Grout forms shallbe properly sealedto prevent grout
grout from being exposed todirect sunlight as well as dew, leakage. Grout leaks will not self-seal. Bitumastic or room
mist, or rain. In cold weather,
a suitable coveringto allow the temperature vulcanizable(RTV) silicone rubber canbe used
foundation to be completely enclosed shallbe constructed. A for this purpose.
convective heating source should be provided so as to raise 3.7.5 Grout forms shall have 25-millimeter (1-inch), 45-
the entire foundation and equipment temperatureto above degree chamferstrips at all vertical comers andat the hori-
18C (65F) for at least 48 hoursprior to and after grouting. zontal surface of the grout.
3.6.2 In the areas that will be covered by grout, the foun- in the grout should be incorporated intothe
Note: All chamfer edges required
dation shall be preparedby chipping away alllaitance (poor forms because epoxygrout cannotbe easily cut or trimmedafter hardening.
quality concrete) and oil-soakedor damaged concrete down
to exposed fractured coarse aggregate. A minimum of 25
millimeters (1 inch) of concrete must be removed in this 3.8 Mounting Plate Design Verification
chipping process down to a depth to permit 25 to 50 mil-
3.8.1 Unless direct grouting has been specified, check to
limeters (1 to 2 inches) (minimum) ofclearance between the
ensure that all equipmentis to be installed on mounting
concrete and the bottom ofthe soleplate. Scarifyingthe sur-
plates and that no part of the equipment is to be direct
face with a needle gunor bushing toolor sandblastingto re-
grouted.
move laitance from the foundation is unacceptable. Concrete
chipping and removal must not be performed with heavy 3.8.2 Check to ensure that all mounting plate outside cor-
tools, suchas jackhammers, as they could damage the struc- ners have a minimum 50-millimeter(2-inch) radius to pre-

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~
~~ ~~

API Rp*f,&b 96 8 0732290 0553996 B I T

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION AND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 5 5-5

vent cracking of the foundationgrout due to stress concen- the oily residue. All mounting plate grout surfaces are then
tration at the corners. All
sharp edges are to be broken. to be immediately coated with a grout compatible coating
in preparationfor grout placement.
3.8.3 Check to ensure that all mounting plate anchor bolt
holes havea minimum 3-millimeter (/S-inch) annular clear- Note 1: Epoxy primers have a limited life after application. Thegrout man-
ufacturer should be consulted to ensure proper field preparation of the
ance to allow for field alignmentof mounting plates. mounting plates for satisfactory bonding of the grout.
3.8.4 Check to ensure that all pump and other small base Note 2: For baseplates with interlocking structural members, sandblastingof
plates have been provided with vertical leveling screws, as the bottom of the base is usually not required. Such baseplates rely on the
opposed to shims or wedges. Shims and wedges are not to interlock of structural shapes into the grout,
as opposed to the bond between
the grout and the coating.
be used.
Note: Shims and wedges, if left in place after grouting, may cause hard
3.9.1.2 Mounting platejackscrews shall be liberally
spots that interfere with the grouts ability
to provide uniform base support. coated with paste waxor grease to prevent grout adherence.
They may also allow moisture penetration and the resultant corrosion and Liquid waxes and oilare not permitted. Care must be taken
grout spalling.
to prevent wax from contacting the concrete foundation or
3.8.5 Check to ensure that baseplates have been provided metal surfaces that will be in contact withthe grout.
with one 10-centimeter (Cinch) (minimum) grout filling 3.9.1.3 All miscellaneous mounting plate holes (such as
hole inthe center of each bulkhead section with one 12-mil-
coupling guard holes) are to be plugged to prevent the en-
limeter (h-inch) vent hole near each corner of the section. trance of grout. All plugs areto be coated withpaste wax to
This allows for controlled grout placement and verification prevent grout adherence.
that each sectionis filled with grout.
3.9.1.4 Ensure that all equipment is isolated and in a
3.8.6 Check to ensure that mounting plates have sufficient
strain-free condition with all piping, conduit, and so forth,
grout holes and air vents in each compartment to allow for
disconnected.
proper grouting.
Note: In general, vent holes of approximately 12 millimeters ( V 2 inch) in
diameter on 45-centimeter(18-inch) centers should be provided. 3.9.2EXPANSIONJOINTS

3.8.7 Check to ensure that elevation adjustment nuts un- 3.9.2.1 Expansion joints shall be made from 25-millime-
der the baseplate that will be grouted in and become a per- ter (l-inch) thick closed-cellneoprenefoam rubber
manent part of the foundation have not beensupplied. This (polystyrene may also be used) and shall be placed on 1.4-
allows the baseplateto be supportedby the grout, not by the to 2.8-meter (4- to &foot)intervals in line with the anchor
leveling devices. bolts andperpendicularwith the centerline of the baseplate.
3.9.2.2 Expansion joints shall be glued into position
3.8.8 Check to ensure that baseplate leveling jackscrews
prior to the grout pour with silicone rubber (RTV) or elastic
have been provided withstainless steel levelingpads.
epoxy seam sealant (liquid rubber).
3.8.9 Check to ensure that all baseplate welds are contin-
uous and free of cracks.
3.9.3SOLEPLATEINSTALLATIONAND
3.8.10 Check to ensure that all grout pour and vent holes LEVELING
are accessible.
3.9.3.1 All soleplate elevations areto be set in accordance
with the construction drawings. On multiple soleplate in-
stallations,one of the soleplatesis chosen as the reference
3.9 Preparation of MountingPlates soleplate with regardto elevation. This referencesoleplate
3.9.1MOUNTINGPLATEPREPARATION is usually the one under the equipment requiring process
connections.
3.9.1.1 Oil, grease, anddirt shall be cleaned from all grout
surfaces of mounting plates. These can be removed with a 3.9.3.2 As a minimum, soleplate level shall be set with a
solvent wipe-down. The mounting plate grout surfaces master level or a precision machinists level. Levels should
should have been prepared and readyfor installation by the always be checked before beginning the plate leveling
machinery manufacturer;if not, then they must be prepared process by checking level repeatabilitywhen reversing 180
as follows: Mounting plates shall be blasted to near white degrees.
metal to remove any rust or scale. Care must be taken to 3.9.3.3 All other soleplates are then installed and leveled
avoid any damageto mounting plate machined top surfaces. with respect to the reference plate. Individual soleplate ele-
Final cleaning should be done with an owner-approved sol- vations are to be set to a tolerance of 20.06 millimeters
vent. Mineral spirits cannot be usedfor this purpose due to
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(20.0025 inches) with respect to the reference plate.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPmb8b 96 m 0732290 0551997 75b m

5-6 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE
68WPIP RElE 686

3.9.3.4 Soleplate level is to be set longitudinally and 3.9.4.4 The equipmentbaseplate mounting surfaces are to
transversely to within 40 micrometers per meter (0.0005 be leveled longitudinally and transversely to within 200 mi-
inches per foot) with no more than 13 micrometers (0.005 crometers per meter (0.002 inches per foot) for API 610
inches) elevation difference between any two points taken on pumps and to within 400 micrometers per meter (0.005
an individual soleplate. In addition, each pair of soleplates inches per foot) for general purpose equipment and ASME
(where more than onesoleplate is used under an individual \ pumps.
piece of equipment)shall be at the same elevation to within
3.9.4.5 Baseplate level is achieved by adjusting the jack-
13 micrometers(0.005 inches).
ing screws and then snuggingthe anchor bolt nutto hold the
3.9.3.5 Soleplate level can be achieved by adjusting the baseplate in place.
jacking screws, shimming subsoleplates,or dual wedges with 3.9.4.6 All level readings are to be measured and recorded
adjusting screws and then snugging the anchor nut bolt
to hold on Data Sheets. Typical Data Sheets for this purpose are
the soleplate in place. Elevation adjustment nuts are not per- shown in AppendixB at the end of this section.
mitted under the baseplate that willbe grouted in and become
a permanent part of the foundation. This allows the baseplate
to be supportedby the grout, not bythe leveling devices.
3.1 O ReciprocatingCompressors
3.9.3.6 Final elevation and level of all soleplates should
be set with a precision tilting level and precision scale. To 3.1 0.1 For direct-grouted reciprocating compressors and
balance the length of sighting distance, the tilting level is to for those installations where the soleplate is bolted to the
be set near the foundation within a 6-meter(20-foot) radius bottom of the crankcase priorto grouting, alignment mustbe
verified
of all soleplates. A peg test of the instrument prior to the start and recorded before pouring anygrout. Of particu-
of the levelingis essential. lar importance are the following alignmentreadings:
a. Frame level.
3.9.3.7 All shims used in subsoleplates shall be AIS1 Stan-
b. Crankshaft web deflection (ideally this should be zero).
dard type 300stainless steel.
As a general rule of thumb, the web deflection should not
3.9.3.8 For equipment installations where the equipment exceed 100 micrometers per meter(0.OOOl inches per inch)
is bolted to the soleplates prior to grouting, an initial align- of pistonstroke.
ment check in accordance with the alignment section of this c. Crankshaft-to-main bearing side clearance (this provides
document shallbe performed to verify that coupling spacing an indication of crankshaft-to-main bearing alignmentin the
and final alignment can be achieved without modifyingthe horizontal plane).
hold-down bolts or the machinefeet. d. Rotor-to-stator air-gap clearance on single bearing mo-
tors (this should be equal all around the motor).
3.9.3.9 All level readings are to be measured and recorded e. Coupling alignment on two-bearing motors.
on data sheets. Typical data sheets for this purpose are shown
in Appendixes B-1 through B-3. 3.1 0.2 The compressor frame hold-down bolts must be
snugged down(not full torque) to hold the frame in position
during grouting.
3.9.4BASEPLATEINSTALLATIONAND
LEVELING (API 610 AND ASME PUMPS, 3.10.3 After the frame is leveled and aligned, it must be
AND GENERAL-PURPOSE EQUIPMENT) allowed to set for 24 hours prior to beginning the grouting.
Level and frame alignmentreadings must be rechecked be-
3.9.4.1 All baseplate elevations shall be set in accordance fore grouting.
with the construction drawings.
3.9.4.2 prior to grouting, an initial alignment checkin ac- 3.1 1 PregroutMeeting
cordance with the alignment section of this document shall
be performed to verify that coupling spacing and final align- 3.1 1.1 A pregrout meeting should be heldat least one day
ment can be achieved without modifying the hold-down prior to the grout pour to understand and agree on proce-
b o l t s or the machine feet. dures, to ensure all necessary materials are on hand, and to
clarify grouting responsibilities. The parties present at this
3.9.4.3 As a minimum, baseplate level shall be set with a meeting should include, as a minimum, the grout manufac-
master level or a precision machinists level. Levels should turing technical representative, the designated machinery
always be checked before beginningthe plate leveling pro- representative,the foreman in charge of the grouting activ-
cess by checking levelrepeatability when reversing 180 de- ity, the foremen in charge of supportingthe grouting activi-
grees.All baseplate level measurements shall be taken on the ties (such as scaffolding and laborers), the grouting materials
equipment mounting surfaces. coordinator, and a site safety representative.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~

A P I RP*b8b 96 0732290 0551998 692

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTALLATlON AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,
CHAPTER 5 5-7

is done for special-purpose equipmentor prior


Note: Typically this meeting 3.1 2.7 Recheck all mounting platesfor elevation and level
a group of similar equipment.
to pouring the grout foundations for
immediately before grouting.
3.1 1.2 During the pregrout meeting, contingency plans 3.1 2.8 Ensure that grouting material is in clean, dry, un-
should be developed, such as how jobthe will be handled(or opened containers and has been stored at a temperature of
postponed) in the event of inclement weather. approximately 21C (75F)for 48 hours prior to grouting.
3.1 1.3 During the meeting it mustbe made clear that once 3.12.9 Ensure that all foundation and metal surfaces are
the grout pour begins, it will continue without interruption within the temperature rangeof 18-32C (65-90F).
until completion.
3.12.10 Ensure that a sufficient quantity of grouting ma-
3.1 1.4 A representative from the grout manufactureris rec- terials is on hand at the jobsite to complete the job (15-25
ommended if the installation personnel are not familiar with percent extra).
so forth, or
the grouting materials, forming, installation, and
3.12.1 1 Ensure that clean tools, mixing equipment, and
if a special-purpose equipment train is being installed.
safety supplies are on hand at the jobsite.
3.12.12 Ensure that MaterialSafety Data Sheets and per-
3.12PregroutSetup sonnel protection requirements have been reviewed with all
grouting personnel.
3.12.1 Remove any dust or dirt accumulation from the
grout-prepared surface with clean, dry, oil-free air.
3.13GroutMixing
3.1 2.2 Check to ensure that mounting platesare rigidly in-
stalled and that anchor bolt nutsare snug prior to grout ap- 3.1 3.1 No partial units of epoxy, resins, hardener, or ag-
plication to ensure that they will not
float out of position. gregate are to be used.
3.1 3.2 The resin and hardenerare to be mixedat 200-250
3.12.3 Prior to pouring grout, the area between the top of
rpm perthe grout manufacturers specified time periodprior
the anchor bolt sleeves and the bottom of the mounting plates
to introducing the aggregate. There should be no entrained
shall be packed witha soft moldable material (such as foam
air in the resinhardener mixture.
pipe insulation) to exclude groutas shown in Appendixes E
and F. This is to ensure that the anchor bolt sleeves do not fill 3.13.3 Full bags of aggregateare to be slowly added to the
with grout and that the anchor bolts free are to move (for mi- blended resinhardenerliquid and sufficiently mixedto com-
nor alignment correction and bolt-stretch) within the limits of pletely wet-out the aggregate.
their sleeves. Anchor bolt threads must also be protected with 3.13.4 Grout should bemixed in a clean, slow-speed
duct tapeor other suitable means. (1 5-20 rpm) portable mortar mixer (not a concrete mixer).
For small pours, grout can be mixed in a clean wheelbarrow

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
3.1 2.4 Check the grout form elevation to ensure that the
with a mortar hoe.
top surface of the grout will match the elevation shown on
the construction drawings. Typically, the elevation to the top
of the grout extends half the thickness of the soleplate. 3.14MountingPlateGrouting
3.12.5 Unless otherwise specified, on pump baseplates, the
pump and the driver shall be removed from the base in order 3.14.1 Grout the mounting plates in accordance with the
to provide accessto the grout holes and facilitate leveling. grout manufacturers instructions.

Note: Advantages of removingpump and driverare as follows: 3.14.2 To apply the grout,start at one end ofthe forms and
Baseplates are easily leveled, using the machined mounting pads to fill the cavity completely while advancing towardthe other
check for levelness, without distortionof the baseplates. end. This will prevent air entrapment. Do not vibrate the
Access to grout holes for groutingis improved. grout as a means of helpingit flow as this tends to separate
With baseplates that are sloped, leakage from the lowest vent hole is the aggregate from the resin binder. Limited use of push
more easily controlled.
tools may be employed to help distribute the grout, using
Grout cleanupof pump and driver is not required.
Cleanup of baseplates is easier.
long strokes rather than short jabs. Violent ramming of the
grout is not permitted.
3.1 2.6 Unless otherwise specifiedby the user, on general-
purpose equipment, the machinery and its driver shall be re- 3.14.3 The grout volume used should be checked against
moved from the baseplate prior to grouting when level the estimated cavity volume. This aisgood way to check for
surface access does not allow level measurement and/or air pockets and insufficient filling.
when necessary to provide adequate access to baseplate 3.14.4 Check frequently for grout leaks. Leaks will not
grout holeopenings. self-seal, and if not stopped, will cause voids.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
5-8

3.14.5 For special-purpose equipment, a grout sample 3.15.5 After the grout has cured, expansion joints shall be
shall be obtained for each batch mixture (polystyrene cup- sealed with elastic epoxy seamsealant (liquid rubber) or sil-
ful) for compressive strength testing. All samples are to be icone rubber (RTV).
labeled andtheir batch placement location noted.
3.15.6 The entire top of the machinery foundation shall
3.14.6 A final check of soleplate elevation and level shall then be painted with a grout-compatible nonskidprotective
be made before the grout sets. coating to protect the foundation cap fromoil and weather-
3.14.7 Air bubbles rising to the surface of epoxy grout ing. This coating shall extend down fromtop theof thefoun-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

may be removed by lightly spraying the bubble surface with dation at least 45 centimeters (18 inches).
the grout manufacturers cleaning solvent. 3.15.7 Lubricate all anchor bolt threadsliberally and
3.1 4.8 If required, the exposed surface of the grout can be torque anchor bolts in accordance with the manufacturers
troweled or broomed when it is in a tacky state to provide a recommendations. The Table A-1 in Appendix A may be
nonskid surface. Troweling and brooming may be facilitated used as a guide if manufacturer informationis not available.
by the use of grout solvent. Troweling and broomingshall 3.15.8 All anchor bolts shall have full penetration of the
be carried out ina manner thatprecludes excessive blending anchor bolt nut and
21/2 threads protruding above the anchor
of the grout solvent into the surface of thegrout. bolt nut.
3.14.9 Remove any grout head boxes after the grout has
set sufficiently.Do not plug any baseplate fill and vent holes
until the grout has set (this can cause base distortion due to 3.16 FillingGroutVoids
grout expansion).
3.16.1 After the grout has cured, check for voids by tap-
ping along the top deck the of mounting plate. Mark the void
areas to allow for proper identification when filling. A solid
3.15 Post-GroutingInstructions thud indicates a good grout area while a drumlike hollow
3.15.1 Typically, threedaysafterthegrout hasbeen sound indicates a void requiring filling.
poured, the grout should be of sufficient hardnessto remove 3.16.2 Void areas are to be filled by drilling NPT holes in
jackscrews and grout forms. This will ensure that the grout opposite corners of each void area. One hole in each tovoid is
has obtained most ofits strength and hardness. be tapped for installation ofNPT
a 1/s grease fitting; the other
Note: The groutis of sufficient hardness if a sixpenny finishing nail cannot holes serveas vents. Grout is then pumped into each void with
be driven into the grout surface. a grout gun until the grout emerges from the vent holes.
3.15.2 Mounting plates that settle unevenly and/or beyond 3.1 6.3 Care must be exercised in filling voidsas high pres-
the specified level tolerance shall be
corrected.Correction of sures created from the grout gun can lift or distort the base-
level may include removal and regrouting or field machin- plate. It is therefore extremely important that the grout and
ing of the equipment mountingsurfaces. vent holes are in communication with each other. An air
squeeze bottle may be used to test for communication by
3.15.3 Mounting plate jackscrew holes shall be filled with blowing air into the grout hole and notingits exit at the vent
a flexible sealant material (not grout) such as room temper-
hole (do not use high-pressure air). dial
A indicator shallalso
ature vulcanizable (RTV) silicone rubber or with short cap be used to monitor baseplate movement during voidfilling.
screws that do not extend below the threaded holes in the Remove all grease fittings when finished.
mounting plate.
3.16.4 Clean up any spilled grout with the grout manu-
3.1 5.4 Check groutfor softness. This canbe done by plac-
facturers approved solvent.
ing a magnetic-based dial indicator on the soleplate (refer-
enced to the concrete foundation) and checking for any 3.1 6.5 After the void grout has cured, recheck the base-
movement as each anchor bolt is loosened and retightened. plate to ensure thatall voids are filled with grout. If void ar-
Soleplate movement should not exceed 20 micrometers eas still exist, repeat the drilling and pumping proceduresas
(0.001 inch). necessary.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 5 5-9

Section 4-Grouting Checklists

4.1 Machinery
Installation
Pregrout INITIALS/DATE Grout Forms
Setup Checklist
~~ 3.7.1 Groutforms are ofadequate
strength to support the grout.
INITIALS/DATE AnchorBoltPreparation
-~3.7.3 Inside surfaces of grout have
" 3.5.2 Anchor bolt sleeves are clean three coats of paste wax ap-
and dry and filled witha non- plied.
bonding moldable material. 3.7.4 Grout
forms have
been
" 3.5.2 Anchor boltsare not tilted or sealed to the foundation to
bolt-bound and are perpen- prevent leaks.
dicular with respect to the 3.7.5 Grout
forms have 25-mil-
bottomof the baseplate/ limeter (I-inch), 45-degree
soleplate. chamfer strips at all vertical
" 3.5.3 Foundation
anchor bolt corners and at the horizontal
threads are undamaged. surface of the grout.
-~3.5.3 Foundation anchor bolt
threads have been wrapped Mounting Plate Design
with duct tapefor protection. Verification
-_3.5.4 _ _
All anchor bolt
locations and _ _ _ 3.~
8.2 Baseplate/soleplate has 50-
projections have been veri- millimeter (2-inch) minimum
fied. radiused corners.
3.8.3 Anchorbolts have 3-mil-
Foundation Preparation ~~

limeter(l/s-inch)annular
~~
3.6.1 An adequate weather-protec- clearance in baseplate or
tive cover hasbeen con- soleplate holes.
structed over the areas to be
grouted. _ _ _ 3.~
8.4 All pump and other small
baseplates havebeen pro-
"
3.6.2 Concrete
foundation is vided with vertical leveling
roughened up and all laitance screws.
removed fora good grout
bond. ~~ 3.8.5 Baseplates havebeen pro-
vided with one 10-centimeter
" 3.6.2 The minimum grout thick- (4-inch) minimum grout fill-
ness under any portion ofthe ing holein the center of each
baseplate/soleplate will be bulkhead section and one12-
25-50 millimeters (1-2 millimeter ('h-inch) vent
inches). hole.
" 3.6.2 Foundation is free of struc- " 3.8.6 Baseplates have sufficient
tural cracks. grout and air vent holes in
3.6.3 All grout forms have been each compartment to allow
provided with 25-millimeter for proper grouting.
(1-inch) 45-degree chamfer " 3.8.7 Elevation adjustment nuts
strips at vertical corners and will not
be permanently
horizontal edges. grouted.
-~3.6.4 Concretegroutareasare _ _ _ 3.~
8.8 Baseplate
leveling
jack-
clean and free of oil, dust, screws have been provided
and moisture. with stainless steel leveling
pads.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
5-1O API RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE
686/PIP RElE 686

INITIALWDATE Mounting Plate


Design INITIALWDATE Soleplate
Installation
and
ntinued)Leveling(continued)
Verification
~~ 3.8.9 Baseplate
welds are continu- 3.9.3.9 All machined
baseplate or
and ous free of cracks. are level
soleplate surfaces in
" 3.8.1 O All grout pour and vent holes accordance with the specifi-
are accessible. signed-off
cation, and Data
Sheets for level record have
Preparation Plate Mounting completed. been
" 3.9.1.1 Baseplate/soleplatehas been Baseplate and Installation
blasted and all grouting sur- Leveling API 610 and ASME
faces prepared in accordance Pumps, and General Purpose
with thegrout manufac-
Equipment
turer's recommendations.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

3.9.4.1 All baseplateelevations set


Threecoats of paste wax
"

" 3.9.1.2 in accordance with the con-


have been applied to all sur-
struction drawings.
faces where grout bond is not
desired. These surfaces in- ~-
3.9.4.2 A preliminary
equipment
clude
jackscrews,
grout alignmentcheckhas been
forms, and coupling guard made.
bolts. ~-
1.9.4.5 All baseplatesurfacesare
"
3.9.1.3 All miscellaneous mounting level in accordance with the
plate holes are plugged to specification, and signed-off
prevent theentranceof grout. Data Sheets for level record
have been completed.
" 3.9.1.4 Equipment to be grouted is
isolated and in a strain-free
Pregrout Setup
condition with all piping,
conduit, and so forth, discon- ~~ 3.12.1 All surfaces in contact with
nected. grout are clean, dry, and oil
free.
Expansion Joints ~~ 3.12.2 Anchor bolt nuts havebeen
" 3.9.2.1 Expansionjoints placedon "snugged" into position to
1.4- to 2.8-meter (4- to 6- prevent baseplate/soleplate
foot) intervals. floating.
" 3.9.2.2 Expansion joints fixed into -_3.12.3_
Anchor bolt _
sleeves have _
position such that they will been filled with flexible mas-
notmovewhen grout is tic material.
poured. " 3.1 2.3 Topof anchorboltsleevehas
been packed with a soft
Soleplate Installation and moldable material.
Leveling
~~ 3.12.4 Groutform elevation agrees
3.9.3.1 The elevation to the top of with the construction draw-
baseplate
equipment or sole- ings.
-
plate referenced to the civil 3.12.8 Grouting material is in clean,
benchmark is in agreement dry, unopenedcontainersand
with the construction grout has beenstored at a tempera-
drawing. ture ofauuroximatelv 2 1"C
" 3.9.3.7 All shims used in subsole- (75F)fi; 48 hours prior to
plates are AIS1 Standard type grouting.
300 stainless steel.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~ ~~

API RP*b8b 96 m 0732290 0552002 7lIL m

RECOMMENDED lNSTAUATlONAND lNSTALUTlON DESIGN,


PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY CHAPTER 5 5-1 1

INITIALWDATE Pregrout Setup (continued)


"
3.1 2.9 All foundation and metal sur-
faces are within the tempera-
ture range 18-32C
of
(65-90F).
3.1 2.10 Sufficient quantity of grout-
ing materials are on hand at
the jobsite to complete the
job (15-25 percent extra).
3.12.11 Clean tools, mixing equip-
ment, and safety supplies are
on hand at thejobsite.
3.12.12 Material Safety Data Sheets
and personnel protection re-
quirements havebeenre-
viewedwithall grouting
personnel.

EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

GROUTING INSPECTOR
DATE
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~

A P I RP*b8b96 m 0732290 0552003 658 m

5-12 API RECOMMENDED 68WPIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

4.2 Machinery
Installation
Grout INITIALWDATE Mounting
Plate
Grouting
Placement Checklist ~~ Grout is placed within its pot life.
Time at beginning of pour:
INITIALS/DATE
( A M )(PM).
" Ambienttemperature at beginningof Time at end of pour:
grout pour "C ("F).
(AM) (PM).
~~ Pre-grout meeting has been completed
and all personnel understand the grout " 3.14.2 No vibrator isused to facili-
plan and individual responsibilities. tate grout placement.
3.14.2 Grout pour rate is slow
Grout Mixing enough to permit air to es-
~-
3.13.2 Resin
and
hardener
are cape.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

mixed at 200-250 rpm for -~3.14.3 The


grout
volume used
the specified time and no air agrees with theestimated
entrainment is indicated. cavity volume.
" 3.13.3 Full bags of aggregate are " 3.14.4 No grout leaks are observed.
slowly added to blended
3.14.5 For specialpurposeequip-
residhardener liquid and ment, a grout sample is ob-
mixed to completely wet-out
tained for each batch mixture
the aggregate.
(polystyrenecupfull) for
~~ 3.13.3 No partial units of epoxy, compressive strength testing.
resins, hardener,or aggregate All samplesare to be labeled
used. and their batch placementlo-
" 3.13.4 Groutmixedinaclean,slow- cation noted.
speed (1 5-20 rpm) portable -~3.14.7 All grout surface air bubbles
mortar mixer (or in a wheel- are removed.
barrow for small pours).
-,
" 3.14.9 Groutholesandventholes
filled with grout.
~~ Ambient temperature at end of grout
pour "C (OF).

EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

GROUTING INSPECTOR
DATE

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bAb 96 m 0732290 0552004 594 m

RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION AND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 5


PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY 5-13

4.3 MachineryInstallation
Post-Grouting INITIALS/DATE Filling Grout
Voids
Checklist 3.16.1 Baseplate sounded for
voids and all voids repaired.
INITIALWDATE Post-Grouting
Instructions Indicate numberofvoids
found, their size, and their lo-
3.15.1 Grout is of sufficient hard-
cation:
ness to remove forms.
3.16.2 Void areas have NPT
-~3.15.1 Groutforms remained in holes installed in opposite
place after
grouting for
corners of void with grease
48-36 hours. fitting installed in one of the
-~3.15.3 Mounting platejackscrew holes.
holes are filled with a flexi-
3.16.3 Grout void fill and vent holes
~-
ble material suchas RTV sil- are in communication.
icone rubber.
3.16.3 Dial
indicator used
on
3.15.4 Grout is checked for soft-

mounting plate to monitor


ness with a dial indicator.
plate movement whilefilling
Baseplate/soleplate checked grout void.
for soft foot at each anchor
boltlocationwithamagnetic ~ ~ 3.16.4 All spilled grout is cleaned
base dial indicator as anchor up with manufacturers ap-
bolts
are
torqued. Base proved solvent.
movementexceed
does not 6.5 3.1 Recheck baseplate to ensure
0.02 millimeter (0.001 inch). that all voids are filled with
3.15.5 Expansion joints sealed with grout.
elastic epoxy seam sealant.
~~ 3.15.6 Top of machinery foundation
painted witha grout-compat-
ible nonskid protective coat-
ing.
-~3.15.7 Lubricate all anchor bolt
threads liberally and torque
anchor bolts in accordance
with the manufacturers rec-
ommendations.
Anchor bolt size:
Torque specification:
Installed torque:
3.15.8 Ensure that all anchor bolts
have full penetration of the
anchor bolt nut and a mini-
mum of21/2 threads protrude
above the anchor bolt nut.

EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

GROUTING DATE
INSPECTOR
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~~

A P I RPtb8b96 m 07322900552005 Y20 m

APPENDIX A-ANCHOR BOLTTORQUETABLES

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5-15
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*686 '76 m 0732290 0552006 367 m

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
RECOMMENDED lNSTALLnTlON
lNSTALLATlON
AND DESIGN,
CHAPTER 5 5-17

Table A-i-30,000 PSI Internal Bolt Stress

Number
Nominal
Bolt of Threads Torque Compression
Diameter (inches) (per inch) (pounds) (foot-pounds)
'I2 13 30 3,780
518 11 60 6,060
314 10 1O0 9,060
718 9 160 12,570
1 8 245 16,530
1118 8 355 2 1,840
1 l/4 8 500 27,870
1112 842,150 800
1 3/4 8 1,500 59,400
2 879,560 2,200
2l/4 8 3,180 102,690
2112 8 4,400 128,760
2314 157,770 8 5,920
3 189,720 87,720

Note I:All torque values are based onanchor boltswith threads well-lubricated withoil.
Note 2: In all cases the elongation of the bolt will indicatethe load on thebolt.

Table A-2-2110 kg/cm2 Internal Bolt Stress

Bolt Nominal Compression


Diameter
(kilograms)
(mm) (newton-meters)
M12 31 1,778
M16 110 3,311
M24 363 7,447
M30 1,157 18,247
M52 3,815 37,136

Note 1: All torque values are based on anchor bolts with threads well-lubricated withoil.
Note 2: In all cases theelongation of the bolt will indicatethe load on the bolt.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 9 b m 0732290 0552007 2T3

APPENDIX B-LEVELING DATA SHEET AND DRAWINGS

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5-19
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPlrb8b 96 m 0732290 0552008 L3T m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
AND DESIGN, CHAPTER 5 5-21

K L

CENTERLINE ""

M N

ORIENTATION

Figure B-1-Typical Mounting Plate Layout for Elevation


and Level Measurement

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
5-22 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686
PRACTICE

A B C D E F

+ O
+ + \

+ O

+O 0
+
O
+ + +
O 0
+
0

G H I J K L

M N O P Q R

+ + + + + +
O 0 O O 0 0

+ O
+ + + O

S T U v W X

"
ORIENTATION

Figure B-2-Typical Soleplate Layout for Elevation


--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

and Level Measurement

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERYlNSTALLATlON AND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 5
RECOMMENDED 5-23

Typical Mounting Plate Level Data Sheet


(Sheet 1 of 1)

Elevation specified on Civil Drawing


Elevation of Soleplate at Location A
Civil Drawing ReferenceNo.

Location Elevation Referencedto Location A Comments


B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N

CHECK BY CONTRACTOR
DATE
APPROVED BY --``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
(USER) DATE
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP+bAb 90b7 3 2 2 9 0 0552033 724 m

APPENDIX C-TYPICAL MOUNTING PLATE ARRANGEMENT


FOR BASEPLATE MOUNTED SPECIAL-PURPOSE EQUIPMENT
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5-25
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~ ~~

API RPxb8b 96 D 0732290 0552032 bbO D

RECOMMENOEO
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATIONAND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 5 5-27

Mounting plates for equipment


and driverwith machined top surfaces

STRUCTURAL STEEL BASEPLATE

LChockplatematingpadsweldedto I G r o u t
bottom of structural
cavity
skid
steel
Solepates
pregrouted
bottom
with
surface
to
machined
flat
concrete foundation ahead
of skid arrival
(Nominal size12"xl2"x12' thick)
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

CHOCKPLATE
PLAN VIEW
(Typical)

Figure C-1-Typical Mounting Plate Arrangement


for Baseplate Mounted Special-Purpose Equipment

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*68b 96 0732290 0552033 5T7

APPENDIX D-BASEPLATE LEVELING FOR HORIZONTAL CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


(FOR USE WHEN A PUMP AND/ORITS DRIVER ARE NOT
REMOVED FROM THE BASEPLATE FOR GROUTING)

BASEPLATE LEVELING

Procedure
l . Determine high end of baseplate. Then start levelingacross pads on high end by adjusting leveling bolts adja-
cent to the pad that youare leveling. For example, when leveling driver pads A and B in crosswise direction,
level at anchor points 1 and 2 (see Figure D-1) with level positioned as shown by Figure D-3. Continue leveling
until baseplate is levelin crosswise direction at places illustrated by Figures D-2 and D-3 -pads A and B must
be level across middles and acrossends, particularly those ends nearest pump.
Note: Useonly base pads for determining level. Never use nozzles or baseplate rails.

2. Level both sides of baseplatein lengthwise directionby adjusting leveling boltsadjacent to pad that you are lev-
eling. For example, when leveling pad A, level at anchor points 1, 3, and5 , Figure D-1, with level positionedas
shown by Figure D-4. Continue leveling until both sides of baseplate (thatis, pads A,B, and eachside of pump)
are level in lengthwise direction at places illustratedby D-4 and D-5.

3. Tighten foundation anchor bolts and pump feet hold-down bolts. As you tighten bolts, position level as illus-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

trated in the four leveling figures and check levelingin both crosswise and lengthwise directions. If tightening
until baseplate is level in both
bolts disturbs leveling, adjust leveling bolts directions at place where leveling was
in both directions. Continue this procedure until all bolts length-
disturbed. Again tighten bolts and verify leveling
wise and crosswisedirections are tight.

Figures D-1-D-5-Single Stage Overhung Pump


Figures D-6-D-10-Between Bearing Single or Multistage Pump

5-29
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I R P t b d b 96 9 0732290 0552034 433 9

5-30 API RECOMMENDED


686/PIP
PRACTICE RElE 686

Pad B
/

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Note: Points 2,4, and 6 are directly across from Points I , 3, and 5, respectively.

Figure D-1-Baseplate Top View

Discharge
Pump foot nozzle
holddown bolt /

/
Edge of pedestal

Figure D-2-Leveling Pump End


Crosswise

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 76 m 0732290 0552035 37T m

RECOMMENDEDPRACTICES FOR MACHINERY


INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
AND DESIGN,
CHAPTER 5 5-31

,Pad B

Pad A

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Figure D-%Leveling Driver End Crosswise

,Pad B

Pad P

Figure D-4-Leveling Driver End Lengthwise

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
5-32 RECOMMENDED
686/PIP
PRACTICE
API RElE 686

Discharge nozzle

Edge of pedestal

Figure D-5-Leveling Pump End Lengthwise


--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

C B

A 2

Figure D-6Baseplate Top View (Typical)

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RPtb8b
9b 0732290 0552037 142 m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
AND CHAPTER 5
DESIGN, 5-33

Machinist
level
/

Figure D-7-Leveling Pump End Crosswise

Machinist

Straigh! edge i

Figure D-8-Leveling Driver End Crosswise (Typical)

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RP*b8b 96
,!,PI m 0732290 0552038 089

5-34 API RECOMMENDED 686PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

Straight edge
Machinist level /

Figure D-%Leveling Driver End Lengthwise (Typical)


--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Machinist
level

Figure D-10-Leveling Pump End Lengthwise

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~~ ~~

A P I RP*b8b 96 W 0732290 0552019 T L 5 W

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX E-TYPICAL GROUTING INSTALLATION OF SOLEPLATES

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION AND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN,
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY CHAPTER 5 5-37

Anchor bolt

7, $Jackscrew

Soleplate
-
Ezz I I -
~
"
-
~~

"
t

CONCRETE
FOUNDATION

LGrout cavity
Jackscrew leveling pad
I I
I I
l I
I I -Anchor bolt sleeve
l l (Filled with soft moldable material)
Packing l I
I l
I I
I I
I I
I I

Figure E-1-Typical Grouting Installation of Soleplates

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP+b8b
76 0732270 0552023 673 m

APPENDIX F-TYPICAL GROUTING INSTALLATION OF


BASEPLATES FOR PUMPS AND GENERAL PURPOSE
EQUIPMENT
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5-39
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 96 m 0732290 0552022 50T m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION
lNSTALLATlON
AND CHAPTER 5
DESIGN, 5-41
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Anchor ,b
.-o
tl

High density tubular


closed cell polyurethane
insulation

5 to 7.5 cm

Anchor bolt sleeve


o . .

Minimum depth below bottom


of sleeve as required for
foundation designs

Figure F-i-Typical Grouting Installation of Baseplates for


Pumps and General Purpose Equipment

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
APPENDIX G-TYPICAL MOUNTING PLATE LEVELING PADS
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

5-43
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~~

API RP+b8b 96 m 0732290 0552023 446 m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTAUATlONINSTALLATION
AND DESIGN,CHAWER 5 5-45

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
I /

3/4* Drill point

1/z" (Nominal)
I I I

Notes:
1. Materials-Carbon steel
2. Cleanliness-Free of dirt, oil, rust, scale, and bum

Figure G-1-Typical Mounting Plate Leveling Pads

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 6-PIPING
SECTION 1-DEFINITIONS ................................................................................... 6-1
SECTION 2-MACHINERY PIPING INSTALLATION DESIGN ......................... 6-2
2.1 Scope ................................................................................................................. 6-2
2.2Accessibility for OperationandMaintenance .................................................. 6-3
2.3IsolationRequirements ..................................................................................... 6-3
2.4PipingSupports ................................................................................................. 6-3
2.5Provision for FieldWelds ................................................................................. 6-3
2.6 Pressure ConnectionsandThermowells ........................................................... 6-3
2.7 Inlet Pipeand Valve Sizing ............................................................................... 6-4
2.8 Inlet Strainers .................................................................................................... 6-4
2.9MachineryOutletPiping ................................................................................... 6-4
2.10 VentsandDrains ............................................................................................... 6-4
2.1 1 Warm-up Lines ................................................................................................. 6-5
2.12 Positive Displacement Machinery Pressure Relief ........................................... 6-5
2.13 Piping Systems in Pulsating Service ................................................................. 6-5
2.14MiscellaneousAuxiliaryPiping ........................................................................ 6-6
2.15 CommissioningProvisions ................................................................................ 6-6
2.16OilMistSystems ............................................................................................... 6-6
SECTION 3-MACHINERY-SPECIFIC PIPING INSTALLATION DESIGN ........ 6-8
3.1 Pumps ............................................................................................................... 6-8
3.2CompressorsandBlowers ................................................................................ 6-9
3.3 SteamTurbines ................................................................................................ 6-11
SECTION "MACHINERY PIPING INSTALLATION ....................................... 6-12
4.1 GeneralRequirements ..................................................................................... 6-12
4.2 FieldInstallation of Auxiliaries ....................................................................... 6-12
4.3 HydrotestRestrictions ..................................................................................... 6-13
4.4 StrayElectricalCurrents ................................................................................. 6-13
4.5DesignVerification .......................................................................................... 6-13
4.6PipingAlignmentRequirements ..................................................................... 6-13
4.7 PipingAlignment ............................................................................................ 6-14
4.8 Pipe Strain Measurement ................................................................................ 6-15
4.9 Spring Hanger and Spring Support Function Check ....................................... 6-15
4.10 Oil Mist Piping Installation ............................................................................. 6-15
4.11MiscellaneousRequirements .......................................................................... 6-16
APPENDIX A-MACHINERY PIPING INSTALLATION CHECKLIST ............. 6-17
APPENDIX B-MACHINERY INSTALLATION PIPING DIAGRAMS .............. 6-21
APPENDIX C-STEAM PIPING FOR TURBINES .............................................. 6-25

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
Recommended Practices for Machinery
Installation and Installation Design

Chapter 6-Piping

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE686
PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL1996
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and
Installation Design
CHAPTER 6-PIPING
Section 1-Definitions
1.1blowdownsystem: Aclosed systemconnectedto 1.10 final alignment: The aligning oftwoadjacent
a machine used to depressure and decontaminate the ma- machinery shafts after the measurement of piping-imposed
chine preparatory to maintenance activities;also known as a strains on the machinery are verified as being within the
maintenance dropoutsystem. specified tolerances.
1.2 breakout spool: A short, flanged length ofpipe 1.11general-purposeequipmenttrains: Those
immediately connected to the machinery piping flanges. trains that have all general-purpose elements in the train.
Lengths vary with thesize of the pipe but range from 15 cen- They are usually spared, relatively small in size (power), or
timeters (6 inches) to 1 meter (3 feet). The purposes of this are in noncritical service. They are intended for applica-
spool are to facilitate machinery installation, allow piping tions where process conditions will not exceed 48 bar
modification to reduce pipestrain, isolate the machinery, fa- gauge (700 pounds per square inch gauge) pressure or
cilitate commissioning activities suchas flushing or blowing 205OC (400'F) temperature (excluding steam turbines), or
lines, and allow removal of temporary inlet strainers; also both, and where speed will not exceed 5000 revolutionsper
known as a dropout spool. minute (RPM).
1.3 condensing Service:
- A gas
- streamthatcontains a Note:Generalpurposeequipmenttrainshave all elements thatareeither
component that may to a liquid during manufacturer's
standard or are covered by standards
such as thefollowing:
ANSUASME B.73 horizontal pumps, small API Standard 610 pumps, fans,
Operation, Or shut-down Of a Or This API
Standard
61 I steam
turbines,
API
Standard 672 air
compressors,
API

Y Y

be used as a synonym
. . to condensing service. 1.12isolation
block valve: A valve
used to isolate a
process machine preparatoryto maintenance; also known as
1.4 dead-leg: Alengthofpipingwithnoflow.
a block valve or isolation valve.
1.5 designatedmachineryrepresentative: The
person or organization designated by the ultimate owner of 1.13 mechanicalpipinganalysis: An analysis of
the equipmentto speak on his behalf with regard to machin- the piping connected to a machine to determine the stresses
ery installation decisions, inspection requirements, and so and deflections of the piping resulting from dynamic load-
forth. This representative may be an employee of the owner, ings such as pulsating flow. Determination of the type,
loca-
a third party inspection company,or an engineering contrac- tion, and orientation of piping supports and piping guides
tor as delegated by the owner. results from this analysis.
1.6 drop point: Averticalsectionof oil mistdistribu- 1.14minimumflowbypass: See recycleline.
tion piping that is usuallysmaller in diameter than the main 1.15nonslamcheckvalve: Amechanically or hy-
oil mist header. This pipingrises out of a teein the main oil draulically balanced check valve that allowsclosure of the
mist header, turns horizontally, and extends downward to the valve in a controlled fashion. Wafer-style center-guided
machinery being lubricated. spring-loaded split-disc check valves or tilting-disc check
1.7 engineeringdesigner: Theperson or organiza- valves are representativedesigns.
tion charged with the project responsibility of supplying in- 1.16 NPS: NominalPipeSize.
stallation drawings and proceduresfor installing machinery
in a user facilityafter machinery has been delivered. In gen- 1.17 oil mist: A dispersion of oil droplets of 1 to 3 mi-
eral, but not always, the engineering designer specifies ma- cron size in an air stream.
chinery in the user facility. 1.1 8 oil mist system: A systemdesignedtopro-
1.8equipmentinstaller: Theperson or organization duce, transport, and deliver oil mist from a central loca-
charged with providing engineering services and labor re- tion to a remote bearing housing. This system consistsof
quired to install machinery in a user facilityafter machinery the oil mist console, distribution piping headers and lat-
has been delivered. In general, but not always, the installer erals, application fittings, and the lubricant supply tank
is the project construction contractor. and pump.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

1.9equipmentuser: The organization chargedwith 1.19 oil mist console: A system consisting of the oil
operation of the machinery. In general, but not always, the mist generator, oil supply system, air filtering system, oil
equipment user owns and maintains the machinery after the mist header outlet, and necessary controls and instrumenta-
project is complete. tion. Air andoil enter the console to produce oil mist.

6-1
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPlrb8b 96 m 07322900552028 T28 m

6-2 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE
686/PIP RElE 686

1.20 oil mist generator: A device located inside the the machinery bearing housing and complete lubrication is
oil mist console that combinesoil and air to make oil mist. provided by the mist alone. Pure mist mayalso be described
Typical oil mist generators use a venturi to achieve mixing as dry sump lubrication.
of the oil and the air.
1.28 recycle line: A line from the dischargeof a pump,
1.21 oil mistheader: Anetworkofpipingthrough blower, or compressor routed backto the suction system. A
which the oil mist is transported from the console whereit recycle line will usually include control elements such as
is made to the machinery bearing housing whereit is used. meters or valves. The recycle line may connect directly into
1.22 oil mist distributor block A small rectangular the suction line or may connect into suction vessels or liquid
block that has four or more holes drilled and tapped in op- knockout vessels and may include a cooler; also known as
posite faces. Droppoints terminate in distributor blocks. An bypass line,minimumflow bypass, or kickback line.
oil mist distributor block
may also be describedas an oil mist 1.29special-purposeequipmenttrains: Equip-
manifold block. ment trains with driven equipment that is usually not
1.23oilmistapplicationfittings: Long-pathorifices spared, is relatively large in size (power), or is in critical
that causethe small oil droplet size in the header (dry mist) service. This category is not limited by operating condi-
to be converted to larger size oil droplets (wet mist)to lubri- tions or speed.
cate the bearings. Oil mist application fittingsare also known Note: Special-purpose equipment trains will be defined by the user.In gen-
as reclass$ers. eral, any equipment train such as an API Standard 612 turbine, API Stan-
dard 618 reciprocating compressor, API Standard 613 gear, API 617
1.24 preliminary alignment: The aligning oftwoad- Standard centrifugal compressor, or equipment with a gas turbine in the
train should be considered tobe special purpose.
jacent machinery shafts before measuring piping strain on
the machinery. 1.30 static piping analysis: An analysis of the pip-
1.25pulsationanalysis: An analysis of the piping ing system connectedto a machine to determine forces and
system connected to a machine to determine the acoustical moments on nozzle connections caused by various loading
and mechanical effects of pulsating flow. For small machines conditions such as pipe weight, liquid loads, and thermal ex-
a pulsation analysis may consist of comparison to other in- pansion or contraction. These forces and momentsare com-
stallations and/or use ofproprietary pulsation device design pared to vendor-allowable loads or national standards to
charts, formulas, or graphs. For large, complicated machines ensure that nozzle loadings meet guidelines. This analysis
a pulsation analysis may consist of a detailed digital or ana- includes specificationof pipeanchors, guides, supports, and
sometimes spring supports and expansion joints to control

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
log modeling of the machine and the piping. Unless other-
wise specified,API Standard61 8 should be usedto provide strain. Where large vertical piping displacementsoccur, ma-
guidance for the pulsation analysis. chinery may sometimes be mounted on spring-supported
baseplates to reduce nozzleloading.
1.26 purge mist: The application of oil mist to a ma-
chinery bearing housingor reservoir to provide aslight pos- 1.31 suction knockout vessel or liquid dropout
itive pressure. Machinery lubrication is provided by the vessel: A vessel located in the suction line to a compres-
normal ring oil or submerged bearing lubrication. This pre- sor or blower used to separate any entrained liquid from the
vents contamination that could be caused by infiltration of gas stream. It may contain a demister mat andforcentrifugal
corrosive agentsor condensation of ambient moisture. Purge separators to aid in this separation. Usually the compressor
mist mayalso be described as wef sump mist lubrication. or blower takessuction from the top of the knockout vessel.
1.27 pure mist: The application of oil mist to ama- 1.32 warm-up line: A line used to purge warm or hot
chinery bearing housing to lubricate antifriction bearings. fluid through a process machine. Theintention is to heat up
The oil mist passes through the bearing elements and oil or maintain the temperature of a machine to a temperature
droplets coalesceout of theair stream. Alloil is drained from greater than the surrounding ambient temperature.

Section 2Machinery Piping Installation Design

2.1 Scope specifications


shall
user-specified
piping be utilized for
2.1 -1 Thisrecommendedpractice (RP)is intended to determiningpiping materials as well as piping fabrication
and testingrequirements.
provide guidelines for the installation and preinstallation
design of pipingthatisconnectedtomachinery in 2.1.2 This recommended practice covers rotating and re-
petroleum or chemical processing facilities. Equipment ciprocating fluid-handling machinery and includes pumps,

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
AND DESIGN,CHAPTER 6 6-3

compressors, blowers, and turbines inboth horizontal and 2.3 isolation Requirements
vertical configurations.
Isolation block valves are required in the inlet and outlet
2.1.3 It is recognized that forces and moments imposed
process pipingto and fromall machinery. One-or two-piece
on the machinery by the piping are unique to each in-
spectacle blinds should be consideredin the inlet and outlet
stallation. All piping directly connected to the machin-
piping to or from all machinery. Any temporary or perma-
ery, excluding lube oil and seal flush, shall be reviewed
nent strainer shall be located between the inlet isolation
by a qualified piping stress analyst to determine if a static
block valve andthe machinery inlet connection.
piping analysis is required to ensure nozzle loads are
Note: Isolation using two closed block valves and a vent valve open to at-
within equipment user-defined standards. Thepiping en- mosphere located between the blockvalves is known as a double block
gineering designershall use sound engineering judgment and bleed arrangement. This is an acceptable alternative to spectacle
in conjunction with equipment user-defined standards to blinds formachinery isolation, provided the process fluidis not toxic, cor-
rosive, or flammable. When specifiedby the designatedmachinery repre-
design a piping system that minimizes loadsimposed on sentative, removal of a breakout spooland installation of a blind flangeis
the machinery. also acceptable.
Note: For most machinery, maximum allowable nozzle loads (forcesand
moments) are established by the machine manufacturer.The equipment user
typically adoptsthese nozzle loadsas the equipmentuser-defined standard. 2.4 PipingSupports
On the basis of equipment user experience and preference, nozzle loadings
more or less restrictive than thatof the machine manufacturermay be spec- Piping to and from machinery shall be adequately sup-
ified as the basis for piping design.
ported and controlled to meet the designrequirements. Ma-
chinery inlet and outlet piping shall be supported as near to
the machine as practical. This removes most of the static
2.2 Accessibility for Operation and load and allows identificationof piping fit problems during
Maintenance installation and easier removal ofthe machinery for mainte-
nance. Only those supports specified as a result of the pip-

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
2.2.1 Unlessotherwise specified, processand auxiliary ing analysis shall be provided. Piping design requirements
piping and conduit shall be routed to allow access to ma- shall include allowable flange loadings, thermal expansion,
chinery for operation, inspection, and maintenance. pulsations, and so forth. These requirements may beset by
2.2.2 All auxiliary equipment, piping, conduit, instru- the machinery manufacturer, industry standards, or the
ments, coolers, seal pots, and so forth, that are mounted sep- equipment user.
arately from the machine and driver shall not interfere with
removal of the machineor driver nor with accessto the ma-
2.5 Provision for Field Welds
chinery for normal operation and maintenance. Refer to Fig-
ure B-l. Unless otherwise specified by the designated machinery
2.2.3 Unless otherwise specified, auxiliary support piping, representative, the piping engineeringdesigner shall include
provision for a final piping field weld
close to the machineto
conduit, instrumentation,and so forth, shall be designedfor
a single drop area on baseplate-mounted machinery. permit piping installation in accordance withthe machinery
flange fit-up requirements.All piping W S 10 or larger shall
Note: The intention of a single drop areais to avoidclutter around the base- include a final field weldclose to the machine.
plate. This maximizes accessibility foroperation and maintenance and min-
imizes the quantity of piping and conduit that must be removed for Note: Piping size and configuration typically determine whether
a final field
machinery maintenance. weld is required. Forpiping smaller thanNPS 10, it may be permissible to
shop fabricatepiping and not perform a final field weld, providing piping
2.2.4 Unless otherwise specified by the designated ma- to machinery flange fit-up requirementscan be met.
chinery representative, inlet and
outlet isolation block valves
and blinding stations around machinery shall be accessible
from grade near the machinery. 2.6 PressureConnectionsand
2.2.5 Branch connections (including vents, drains, pres-
Thermowells
sure, injection, relief, and safety valve connections) in con-
2.6.1 Unless specified otherwise,pressure connections
fined spaces, such as under machinery decks, shall be
complete withisolation valves shall be provided onthe inlet
avoided.
and outlet piping to and from all machinery. Additional pres-
2.2.6 Location of branch connections shall be chosen so sure connections shall not be made to the machinery casing.
that connections are not subject to damage during mainte- The inlet pressure connection shall belocated between any
nance or from personnel stepping or climbing on the con- permanent or temporary start-up strainer and the machinery
nection. inlet piping flange. Refer to Figure B-3.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP+b8b 96 m 0732290 0552030 6 8 6 m

6-4 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

2.6.2 When temperature measurement thermowells are re- 2.8.2.2 Acceptable temporary strainer designs include:
quired, they shall be locatedin the process piping and not
in conical, truncatedconical, and T-typeor similar design. The
the machine casing.These thermowells shouldbe located as point of the conical strainer shall face upstream in the pip-
close as possible tothe inlets/outlets of the machine. ing. Screens in T-type strainers shall point with the flow.
Screen or strainer material shallbe stainless steel or as spec-
ified by the piping engineering designer.
2.7 Inlet Pipe and Valve Sizing
be installed withthe point orienteddownstream
Note: Conical strainers may
Inlet piping and valves shall be,
at a minimum, the same when explicitly specified bythe equipment user.
size as the machinery inlet nozzle. Inlet piping and valves 2.8.2.3 The piping engineering designeror the supplier of
larger than the machinery inlet nozzleare acceptable. the suction screenor strainer shall determine the maximum
Note: Care must be taken in reducing down
to the proper size as this may be allowable differentialpressure for the device. This informa-
done differently for pumps than for compressors. tion shall be provided to the designated machinery repre-
sentative for use during machinery commissioning and
2.8 InletStrainers start-up.
Note: The inlet screenor strainer design should be evaluated to verify that
2.8.1PERMANENTSTRAINERS the screenwill not collapseunder any differential pressures expected during
machinery commissioning or operation if the screen or strainer becomes
2.8.1.1 When specified, permanent strainers shall be pro- completely blocked.
vided upstream of machinery handling fluids likelyto con-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

tain foreign material such as sand, scale, and debris, unless


the machinery is explicitly designed to handle this material. 2.9 MachineryOutletPiping
Note: The inletstrainer design shouldbe evaluated to verifythat the strainer
screen will not collapse under any differential pressures expected during 2.9.1 A check valve shall be installed inthe discharge line
machinery commissioning or operation if the strainer screen becomes com- of all pumps, compressors, or blowers, whether centrifugal
pletely blocked.
or rotary, unless there is no possibility of a reversal of flow
2.8.1.2 Where large accumulationsof foreign material are or pressure surge (such as water hammer) under any condi-
expected, a duplex strainer or two simplex strainers in par- tions. The check valve shall be located between the machine
allel are required
if the machineis not spared.If the machine discharge flange and the discharge block valve.
is spared, a simplex strainer on each machine shall be pro- Note: Discharge check valvesdo not usually provide a tight sealso should
vided. not be relied upon to provide pressure protectionof the machinery.
2.8.1.3 Differential pressure indication shall be provided 2.9.2 Discharge piping and isolation block valves shall be
across the strainer orstrainers. the same size Dis-
or larger than the machinery outlet nozzle.
2.8.1.4 Venting capability for strainers shall be provided. charge checkvalves larger than the machinery discharge
nozzle are acceptable, providingcheck valve minimum ve-
2.8.1.5 Permanent strainers shall not be located closer locity requirements are met. Discharge check valves smaller
than five pipe diametersto the machinery inlet nozzle. than the machinery discharge nozzle may used,
be providing
pressure dropis evaluated.
2.8.2TEMPORARYSTRAINERS
2.9.3 Check valves installed in vertical piping that require
2.8.2.1 For machinery that is not equipped with a perma- provision for draining liquid trapped above the check valve
nent inlet screenor strainers, a removable temporary start-up shall be equipped with anNPS 3/4 or larger bypass around
screen or strainer shallbe provided. This temporary screenor the check valve. This bypass shall be attached to the body of
strainer shall be clearly identifiedby an extended handleor the check valve and shall include a manual block valve. Al-
other device. This handle shall project beyond insulation ma-ternatively, an NPS 3/4 or larger drain connection with block
terials. The open area ofthe screen or strainer shall have a valve shall be provided above the check valve.
minimum of 150 percent of the open area of the piping.Typ-
ical hole strainer size is 6 millimeters (*/4inch). However,
there may be applications wherea coarser or finer screen is 2.10 VentsandDrains
required. When fine mesh screenis required, the screen shall
2.1 0.1 For pipingruns N P S 3/4 or larger, all vent and drain
be on the upstream side of the strainer. These applications
connections shallbe N P S 3/4 or larger. Forrun piping smaller
shall be identified by the piping engineering designer.
than N P S 3/4, the ventor drain connection shallbe no smaller
Note: Temporary screens or strainers are meant only for protectionof ma-
chinery during commissioning, start-up, and a short period thereafter if re-
than the run pipe.
quired. It must be noted that this typeof screen or strainer can adversely Note: This requirement for NPS3/4 vents and drains is intended to provide
affect machinery performanceas a result of its resistance to flow and by sufficient strengthand rigidity to prevent damage dueto externally applied
causing flow disturbances. loads.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTAUTlON AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 6 6-5

2.1 0.2 Piping vents and drains shall be located in break- valve. The secondline bypasses the check valve and is con-
out spools on the inlet and outlet piping to the machine. nected into the machinery casing drain.
These connections shall not be placed in angle sections of Note: Some machinery may require an orifice or globe valve in each warm-
be located in a
reducers. Machinery casing drain valves shall up line to break downpressure and control the flow rate. Care should be ex-
convenient location and not underthe machine casing. ercised to ensure detrimental machine rotation does not occur. See Figure
B-3.
Note: On baseplate-mounted machinery, casing drains should be routed to
the edge of the baseplate. For soleplate-mounted machinery, casing drains 2.1 1.3 Warm-up lines shall be heat traced andinsulated if
may be piped down to grade. Valves should be installed on each drain prior the product will solidifyat expected ambient temperatures.
to any manifolding or piping awayfrom the equipment. Drain valves should Warm-up lines shall be insulated to protect personnel from
be mounted as near to the machinery as practical.
burns if located where personnel normally haveaccess for
2.10.3 Drain lines from machinery shall be NPS 3/4 or operation or maintenance ofthe machinery.
larger. 2.11.4 Warm-up lines shall be evaluated for adequate flex-
2.1 0.4 Vent and drainlines shall be suitably arranged, iso- ibility by the piping designerdue to the possibility of differ-
lated, and valvedto prevent leakage flow between machines ential expansion between the machinerydischarge line and
or between separate portions of the same machinery train. the warm-up line.
2.1 0.5 For tabletop mounted machinery, drain valves shall
be located beneath the deck as close to the machine as pos- 2.12PositiveDisplacementMachinery
sible. These drain valves shall be accessible from the deck Pressure Relief
by valve handleextensions or from gradeby chain-operated 2.12.1 Positive displacement machineryshall be equipped
valves. with a pressure relief device. This pressure device
relief shall
Note 1: Drain valves are located beneath the deck to avoid tripping hazards be located between the machinery discharge connection and
for operating personnel. Locating the drain close to the machine case min- the first isolation block valveor blind.
imizes a dead-leg, which can collect undesirable liquids that can freeze or
cause corrosion. 2.1 2.2 Pressure relief device discharge piping shall be
Note 2: Valves NPS 1'/2 and smaller should not be equipped with chain op- routed to a designated system.
erators.
Note: Typical designated systems includea flare,maintenance dropout or
2.10.6 All permanent vent and drain valves not connected blowdown, thermal oxidizer, the atmosphere, scrubber, process trench,
sump, storage tank,suction vessel or other process system, orthe machine
to a closed systemshall be flangedor shall have female pipe suction line.
threads. These valves shall be covered with a blindflange or
shall be plugged with asolid pipe plug. The flange or pipe 2.1 2.3 Pressure relief device dischargepiping routed back
plug shall be of material having the same metallurgical and to the machinerysuction line shall enter the system between
physical properties as the associated piping. If approvedby the suction isolation blind, block valve,
or permanent strainer
the designated machinery representative, alternative flange and the machinesuction connection.
or pipe plug materials may be used. Note: Reference additional requirements of reciprocating compressors (see
Section 3.2.5).

2.11Warm-upLines
Machinery handling hot materials greater than 150OC 2.13 PipingSystems in Pulsating
(300F) or high pour point materials shall be provided with Service
warm-up lines to obtain and maintain machinery tempera- 2.13.1 A pulsation analysis and mechanical piping analy-
ture. Warm-uplines shall be provided with sufficient flanges sis shall be conducted on piping systemsfor reciprocating
to allow the piping spool betweenthe machine and the out- machinery or machinery subject to pulsating flow. These
let check valve to be removed and/or aligned separately fromanalyses shall be used to develop piping systems that mini-
the warm-up line. mize pressure pulsations and piping vibration.The pulsation
Note: Warm-up line flanges allow removal of small piping prior to rigging and mechanicalpiping analyses shall be done in conjunction
of machine piping spools. This prevents inadvertent damageto the small with a static piping analysis. All additional piping require-
piping during rigging. ments andrestraints identified as necessary by the mechan-
2.11.1 One W S 1 or larger reverse flow bypass line shall ical piping analysis shall be rechecked withthe static piping
be provided aroundthe discharge check valve. analysis.
2.11.2 For all double suction and multistage machines, at Note 1: The nature of the analyses will vary with the size, complexity, and
configuration of the.system. For small, simple systems the. analyses may be
least two NPS 1 or larger reverse flow bypasslines shall be omitted or may be handled by manual methods.Large or complex systems
provided. One bypass line is around the discharge check may require a digital or analogstudy.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
6-6 PRACTICE
API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686

Note. 2: Some rotary equipment suchas lobe-type blowers generate pulsa- shall be no smaller than the largest connection to the water
tions that should be reviewed and pulsation compensation provided. jacket or heat exchanger.
2.1 3.2 Pulsation dampeners, accumulators, volume bot- 2.14.2 Cooling water tubing shall be made of stainless
tles, orifices, and acoustically detuned piping systems shall steel with a minimum 1-millimeter (0.035-inch) wall thick-
be providedto reduce pressure pulsation levelsin accordance ness. Minimum acceptable size is 1Zmillimeters(0.5-inch)
with the pulsation analysis. tubing diameter. Copper tubingis not acceptable.
2.1 3.3 Pressure taps with isolation valves shall be pro- 2.1 4.3 When site thermodynamic performance measure-
vided to enable measurement of pulsations at the machine ments are to be made ona machine, sufficient pressure, tem-
suction and discharge connections
as well as other locations perature, flow, and samplingconnections shall be provided.
specified by the designated machinery representative. Note: Instrument type, location, accuracy, and redundancy may have
sig-a
nificant impact on the ability to obtain data with sufficient accuracy to de-
2.13.4 Based on the data obtained from pulsation and me- termine field performance. For specifics on pressure,temperature, flow, and
chanical piping analyses the piping routing, piping supports, sampling connections refer to the relevant Performance Test Code (PTC).
restraints, and anchors shall be spaced to avoid resonant
2.14.4 Elevation of the seal pot above theshaft centerline
lengths andto restrain the generated dynamic forces.
as well as the actual piping distance from the pot to the seal
2.13.5 No branch connection shall be installed without a shall be in accordance with the recommendations of the me-
justifiable need. The number of branch connections shall be chanical seal manufactureror the machine manufacturer.
kept to an absolute minimum. 2.1 4.5 Instrument connections shall be arrangedto permit
2.13.6 Branch connections (such as vents, drains, pressure free drainage of condensed liquids.
gauge connections, and so forth) shall be located at points Note: Drain valves should be avoided, as impulse lines may not be drained
where the run lineis anchored. on a regularbasis.

2.13.7 Branch connections shall be installed as far from


the sourceof vibration aspractical. 2.15 CommissioningProvisions
2.13.8 Piping shallbe routed as close to gradeor to heavy
concrete foundationsas possible. Rigid anchors and restraints 2.1 5.1 Where pipingis to be steam cleanedor purged dur-
shall be used effectively to properly secure the piping. ing commissioning, temperature limits and thermal effects
shall be included in the
design.
2.13.9 Process lines shall be restrained by use of only
those rigid pipe anchors, restraints, and friction
slides deter- 2.15.2 Where piping and vessels are to be chemically
cleaned during commissioning, provisions to facilitate this
mined necessary by the piping analyses.
cleaning shall be included in the pipingdesign.
2.13.10 Pipe anchors shall be anchored to concrete piers
2.15.3 Steam inlet piping to machinery shall be designed
or structural steel. Piers and structural steel be
shall
designed
such that steam blowing ispossible for each branch and to
to provide lateral stiffness needed
to restrain dynamic forces.
each end use without major dismantlingor difficult access.
2.13.11 Reinforcing steel for piers shall be properly de- Any special steam blowing exits, supports, condensate
veloped in the supporting mat or foundation. Any piping sup- drains, sample points, bypasses, and so forth, shall be in-
ports to be added afterinitial installation shall be reviewed cluded in the piping by the piping engineering designer.
by a mechanical piping analysis. Supports required by the 2.15.4 The piping design of gas systems shall include pro-
piping analyses added after initial installation shall be se- visions for draining and drying out the piping system after
curely attached to the mat. Expansion bolts and other me- completion of hydrotesting.
chanical connections are not satisfactory for pulsating
service and shall notbe used. Note: Temporary supports maybe requkd during hydrotest to prevent over-
stressing pipingor machinery nozzles that remain connected.
2.13.12 Branch connections shallbe kept as short as pos-
sible to minimize the vibrational momentarm. Where large
masses suchas relief or safety valves cannotbe avoided, they 2.16 Oil MistSystems
shall be braced.
2.16.1 Oil mist mainand branch headers shall not be
valved.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

2.14 MiscellaneousAuxiliaryPiping Note: Valves introduce unnecessary


flow disruptions that may cause the
oil
to coalesce from the mist
or they may be inadvertently shut.
2.14.1 Cooling water piping shall be made from a mini- 2.1 6.2 Piping unions shall be usedat the oil mist console
mum N P S 1 Schedule 80 steel pipe. Cooling water piping between the console andthe main oil mist header.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP+b8b 7 6 W 0732270 0552033 395 W

PRACTICES
RECOMMENDED FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER
6 6-7

Note: Unions allow disconnection of the mist header forcleaning and com- 2.1 6.12 Oil mist drop point lateral piping shall beNPS 314.
missioning as well as replacement of the console.
2.16.13 Oil mist drop pointlateral piping shall come verti-
2.16.3 Unlessotherwisespecified, oil mistmainand cally off the top of the main header through
a screwed tee.
branch headers, and drop point lateral and vertical piping
shall be screwed, galvanized steel. Tubing used in the oil 2.16.14 Oil mist drop point lateral piping shall slope con-
mist system shall bestainless steel. tinuously to the main or branch header. When obstructions
prevent continuoussloping back to the header, oil mist drop
2.16.4 Oil mist main and branch headers shall be sloped point lateral piping shall slope continuously to the drop
continuously back to the oil mist console. Only when ob- point.
structions prevent continuous sloping back to the console
shall oil mist main and branch headers be sloped away from 2.1 6.15 Unless otherwise specifiedby the designated ma-
the oil mist console to a system designated by the equip- chinery representative,oil mist drop point lateral piping shall
ment user. be sloped a minimum of 1 centimeter per 5 meters (1 inch
per 40 feet). Greater slope is acceptable.
Note: As oil mist is transported, some of the mist coalesces and accumu-
lates as oil in the piping. With oil mist piping sloped back to the oil mist
console, liquid oil accumulating in the piping drainsback to the oil mist
2.1 6.16 Oil mist drop point vertical piping shall terminate
generator reservoir. Theoil usage is much lower because only mist that and distribution blocks shall be located 1 meter (3 feet)
reaches the machineryis consumed. Liquid oil can accumulate ina pipe and above the machineryto be lubricated.
block the mist flowif the pipe is not sloped properly.
2.16.17 Oil mist drop point piping shall be located such
2.16.5 Unless specified otherwise by the designated ma- that access for operation and maintenance of the machinery
chinery representative, oil mist main and branch headers is not obstructed. Dismantlement of oil mist drop point
pip-
shall be slopeda minimum of 2 centimetersper 5 meters (1 ing or the distribution block to remove the machinery for
inch per 20 feet). Greater slope is acceptable. maintenance is notacceptable.
2.1 6.6 Oil mist main and branch headers shall be sup- 2.16.18 Oil mist drop point lateral piping horizontal runs
ported on top of horizontal beamsor pipe racks with struc- shall not exceed10 meters (30 feet).
tural angle. When approved by the designated machinery
representative, oil mist main and branch headers
may be sus- 2.16.19 Block valves shall not be installed in oil mist drop
pended below beamsor pipe racks. point piping.
2.16.7 Pipe sag ofoil mist main and branch headers shall 2.16.20 Oil mist drop point distribution blocks shall in-
not exceed one-third of the pipe inside diameter. Unsup- clude a sight glass.
ported spans of oil mist main and branch headers shall not Note: The sight glass is typically a small, molded, clear plastic or glass
be greater than thedistance between adjacent beams. device mounted at the bottom of the distribution block to provide an in-
dication of condensed oil level in the drop point. Alternative designs are
2.16.8 Horizontal bracing shall not be used to support hor- acceptable.
izontal oil mist main and branchheaders.
2.1 6.21 Oil mist drop point distribution blocks shall be
2.16.9 Main oil mist headers shall be run as close to the equipped with a valveto permit the draining of oil. Distri-
outside of the pipe rack aspossible and in sucha manner as bution block drain valves shall be snap-acting, petcock, or
to leave space for future additions of process piping in the other type that cannot open when subjected to vibration.
pipe rack.
2.16.22 Oil mist application fittings (reclassifiers) shall be
2.16.10 Oil mist branch headers shall be connected to the mounted in the distribution block. When specified by the
top of the main header with screwedtees. designated machinery representative,oil mist applicationfit-
tings (reclassifiers)may be mounted inthe machinery bear-
2.16.11 Oil mist main and branch header piping shall be
ing housing.
N P S 2 or larger.
Note: NPS 2 is usually adequate for most installations.A larger pipe size
2.16.23 Oil mist feed lines from the distribution block to
may be required in oil mist systems serving a large numberof lubrication the machinery bearing housing shall be 6 millimeters (l/4
points. The size of the header should be large enoughto limit the oil mist inch) or larger diameterstainless steel tubing.
velocity to a maximum of 7 meters per second (22 feet per second) at the
maximum oil mist generator capacity. Main and branch headers smaller than 2.1 6.24 Oil mist feed lines shall slope continuously down-
NPS 2 are discouraged dueto the necessity of providing additional piping
supports to prevent the increased sag resulting from the smaller pipe size ward to the machinery bearinghousing. Right angle turns or
and the greater vulnerability to mechanical damage. bends shall be minimized.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bAb 96 m 0732290 0552034 221

6-8 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE
686/PIP RElE 686

Section 3-Machinery-Specific Piping Installation Design

3.1 Pumps in the suction line. Theflat side of the eccentric reducer shall
be on top. Drain connections shall not be placedon the angle
3.1.1GENERALREQUIREMENTS of the reducer. Reducer sections shall include provision for
3.1.1.1 Auxiliary piping to pumps such as gland liquid, draining.
flushing liquid, cooling water, quench steam, and so forth, 3.1 -2.5 The reducer shall be concentric for overhead pip-
shall be equipped with isolation block valves located at the ing into a top suction pump.
pump. 3.1.2.6 The pump suction line shall have a straight run
3.1.1.2 Nonslam check valves shall be used in the dis- (typically five pipe diameters) between the suction flange
charge lines of centrifugal pumps in large systems. Accept- and first elbow, tee, valve, reducer, permanent strainer, or
able nonslam check valvesinclude wafer-style center-guided other obstruction sufficientto ensure stable and uniform flow
spring-loaded split-disc check valves or tilting-disc check at the pump suction nozzle.
valves. Note: A piping straight run lengthof five pipe diameters, based the
on pump
Note: Large systems are typically those usedto transfer wateror other flu- suction nozzle size, isusually sufficientto ensure stable and uniform flow
ids in large volumes and/or long distances. Nonslam check valves should at the pump suction nozzle. In some situations, the typeand orientation of
be considered for pumps with greaterthan 185 kilowatt (250 horsepower) valves and elbows in the pumpsuction linemay affect the flow distribution
nominal driver ratingor NPS 12 or greater piping. to the impeller and necessitate a longer piping straightrun length. Flow
straighteners mayalso be utilized to reduce the piping straight runlength.
3.1.1.3 Pumps that are not self-venting and that handle
3.1.2.7 The last pipe elbow in the suction line to a pump
volatile fluids at or near the fluid's vapor pressure shall have
shall be a long radius elbow.
a vent backto the sourceor other suitable system. Vent pip-
ing shall not beless than N P S 3/4. 3.1.2.8 Pumpsuctionlinesshallberouted to avoid
changes in the temperature ofthe fluid being pumped. Lines
3.1.2PUMPSUCTIONPIPING containing cold high vapor-pressure fluids shall not be
routed near hot lines or equipment, as the heat from the hot
3.1.2.1 Pump suction piping shall be arranged such that lines may vaporize the cold fluid.
the flow isas smooth and uniformas practicable at the pump
suction nozzle. To accomplish this, the use of tees, crosses, 3.1.2.9 For pumps taking suction from vacuum towers or
valves, reduced port valves, strainers, near run-size branch columns, an equalizing line from the pump back to the va-
connections, and short radius elbows shall be avoided near por space in the tower or column shall be provided to vent
the suction nozzle. the pump at start-up.
3.1.2.2 The Net
Positive
Suction Head
Available
3.1.3PUMPMINIMUMFLOWBYPASS
(NPSHA) for the suction piping configuration shall be
checked and comparedto the Net Positive Suction Head Re- 3.1.3.1 When the process or operating practice cannot en-
quired (NPSHR) for all pumps. For centrifugal pumps, sure that the flow rate of the pump will be at or above the
NPSHA shall be greater than NPSHR in accordance with minimum continuous flow rate, a minimum flow bypass
PIP REEPOO1, Design of Centrifugal Pump Applications. shall beprovided. Minimum continuous flowshall be a cal-
For pumps other than centrifugal pumps, NPSHA shall be culated or measured value provided by the pump manufac-
greater than NPSHR in accordance with API Standard 674, turer and not an approximation.
Positive Displacement Pumps-Reciprocating, API Standard Note: Pump minimum flow is based on considerationsof hydraulic stabil-
675, Positive Displacement Pumps-Controlled Volume, or of these values
ity and thermalrise. The normal practiceis to use the higher
for establishingminimum pump flow.
API Standard 676, Positive Displacement Pumps-Rotary,
as applicable. 3.1.3.2 The minimum flow bypass line shall be routed
from the pump discharge or sump.
to the suction vessel, tank,
3.1.2.3 Suction piping shall be designed with no high
An analysis shall be madethat considers the thermodynamic
points to collect vapors. If the fluid being pumped is near
its
properties of the liquid, the amount of liquid to be recircu-
vaporization temperature, the suction line shall be sloped a
lated, and the size of the suction vessel, tank, or sump, as
minimum of 10 millimeters per meter ( V 8 inch per foot) to-
well as pump internal recirculation. When indicated by this
ward the pump at all points to prevent the accumulation of
analysis, a cooler shall be installed in the bypass line. The
bubbles.
designated machinery representativeshall agree withthe re-
Note: The direction of suction line pipingslope should be as specified by
the designated machinery representative.
turn entry location of the minimum flow bypassline.
Note 1: With adequate cooling, consideration may also be given to routing
3.1.2.4 Reducers used in horizontal SUCtiOn lines shall be thebypasslinefromthedischarge to the suction line. TL^ minimumflow
eccentric and shall be installed to avoid pocketing of vapors bypass line should tie into the pump suction line as far as practical from the
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 9b m 0732290 0552035 Lb8 m

RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION AND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 6


PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY 6-9

suction nozzle of the pump, but atleast five pipe diameters upstream of the is at least 30 centimeters (12 inches) long. This allows ac-
pump suction nozzle. Bypass control is often used on high specific speed cess to the impeller to perform a motor rotation check.
pumps, such as axial flow pumps,because the power requirement decreases
with increased flow.
Note 2: The entry of the bypass line into the pump suction line should be 3.2 Compressors and Blowers
designed to minimize flow turbulenceso as to avoidcreating a pressure drop
that could result in NPSH difficulties.
3.2.1GENERALREQUIREMENTS
Note 3: Pumps should have a low-flow alarm or bypass system to alert the
operator if the pumps canbe operated periodically against a closed dis- 3.2.1.1 Auxiliary process piping connected to compres-
charge control during normal operation and/or start-up. sors and blowers shallinclude isolation block valves and iso-
3.1.3.3 Control of flow through the recirculation line may lation blinds. This auxiliary piping includes connection to
be by any acceptable instrumentationincluding a restriction flare systems, suction vessel drain manifolds, compressor
orifice or a flow-sensing element with an associatedcontrol packing vents,distance piece drain manifolds, and so forth.
valve, a self-contained autorecirculationvalve, or a combi- Note: These valves andblinds may be omitted for compmsors and blowers
nation of a flow-sensing element, solenoid valve, and re- in air service if the omission does not compromise operation or safety.
striction orifice. 3.2.1.2 When a precommissioning test runis specified by
the equipment user, the piping engineering
designer shall in-
3.1.4VERTICALPUMPS clude provisions for opening handholes or manways on the
3.1.4.1 Suction and discharge piping for vertical in-line suction vessel and piping and exhausting through restrained
pumps shall have adjustable supports. These supports shall temporary piping.
be located within 1 meter ( 3 feet) of the pump's suction and Note: A precommissioning test run consists of operating a machine on air prior
as nitrogen, hydrocarbon, andso forth,
to the introduction of process gas such
discharge flanges. The adjustable supports shall have a during the machinery commissioning phase.This test run is done with open
means of locking their positions to preclude change dueto flanges andlor valves removed so that the machine does not build pressure or
vibration or unwarranted casual adjustment. generate temperature andcan freely inlet and exhaust to the atmosphere.

3.1.4.2 Vertical pumps shall be piped to drain any fluid


that accumulates in the driver support structure. This drain 3.2.2SUCTIONPIPING
line shall be NF's 1 or larger with a visible open end. 3.2.2.1 Inlet piping to compressors and blowers shall be
3.1.4.3 Vertical pumps shall include provision for the free of sections where liquid may accumulate during normal
venting of gases fromthe seal glandplate. Vent connections operation, start-up, andor shutdown. Where such sections
shall be connected to a designated system or tothe pump are unavoidable, suitable drain facilities shall be provided.
suction or discharge pipingat a higher elevation than the
seal 3.2.2.2 When horizontal reducers are installed in the inlet
gland plate. piping to compressors or blowers, they shall be eccentric
Note: Asthe seal is located at the highest point in a vertical pump, venting with theflat side on the bottom ofthe pipe to prevent the ac-
of any trapped air or vapor ensures the pump seal chamber is liquid-full
prior to starting the pump. Typicaldesignated systems include a flare, main-
cumulation of any liquids.
tenance dropout or blowdown, thermal oxidizer, the atmosphere, scrubber, 3.2.2.3 Suction piping to compressors in condensing ser-
or other process systems.
vice shall be designed for automatic condensateremoval
from lowpoints in the compressor piping systems whenthe
3.1.5CANNEDMOTORPUMPS
machine shuts down.
3.1.5.1 All services where the pumped product contains
3.2.2.4 Suction vessels for compressors handling a wet
particulates shall have a flush injection as described in API
gas that may condense during shutdowns shall be located as
Standard 610, Centrifugal Pumps for General Refinery Ser-
close as possible to the compressor. Suction piping layout
vice, plan 32, or API Standard 682, ShaB Sealing Systemsfor
shall be free of sections where standing liquid may accumu-
Rotary and Centrifugal Pumps, plan S 32.
late and shallslope back towardthe suction vessel. Adequate
3.1.5.2 The area directly behind the motor end of the drains on the piping shall be provided to remove any stand-
canned motor pump must beclear of any obstruction for a ing liquids. Suction lines to wet gas compressors shall be
distance equal to the length of the pump. This is necessary heat traced and insulated.
to allow disassembly ofthe pump in thefield.
3.2.2.5 Suction knockout vessels shall have demister pads
3.1.5.3 If the pump has an auxiliary flush, the flush pip- and internal separators (if required) that assist in removing
ing shall be arranged so that none of the components are lo- liquids.
cated in the area directly to the rear of the pump exceptfor Note: Suction knockout vesseis are designed to separate any entrained liq-
the final section of connecting tubing. uids from the gas stream. Suction knockout vessels should be independent
of any pulsation suppression devices that may also be installed. Drainson
3.1.5.4 There shall be a breakoutspool in the suction line suction vessels should be large enoughto allow removal of any debris ex-
between the suction strainer and the pump suction flange that pected during normal operation.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bfib7b m 07322700552036 OT4 m

6-1O PRncncE 686/PIP RElE 686


API RECOMMENDED

3.2.2.6 The design of inlet ducting, nonmetallic seals and blind flange or manway shall be provided at the lower end
expansion joints, filters, and silencers in inlet ducts shall be of the tee to provide access to physically inspect and remove
such that no parts of the ducting, seals, or joints canbe debris from this line. Suctionstrainers are not required.
drawn into the machinein the event of material failure. Note: As tees may sometimes causeflow disturbances, a removable elbow
may be used if approved by the designated machinery representative.
3.2.2.7 The suction line to each compressoror blower sec-
tion shall be providedwith a permanent or temporary 3.2.2.11 When specified by the equipment user, compres-
strainer. sor or blower suction lines greater than N P S 30 shall be pro-
vided with an additional teeblind flange or manway in the

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Note 1: The screen sizeused in the strainer should be evaluated for each
compressor installation. Nonlubricated compressors typically require finer horizontal run of pipe near the upstream vessel. Thisshall be
mesh screens than lubricated compressors. Typical strainer construction conveniently oriented for access from an adjacent platform,
consists of perforated plate with holes approximately 6 millimeters ( V 4 inch)
in diameter. If finer mesh screen is used, it is typically attached to the per- ladder, and so forth. The intent is to allow 100 percent in-
forated plate of the strainer using the perforated plate for backing support. spection ofthe compressor or blower suction piping fromthe
The fine mesh screen should be installed on the upstream side of the suction vessel to the compressor or blower inlet flange.
strainer. Other screen designs may be acceptable if approved by the desig-
nated machinery representative. Note: It is sometimes advantageous to clean debris from NPS 30 or larger
pipe by entering the pipe,and sweeping it out by hand or using a vacuum
Note 2: The suction strainerkcreen design should be evaluated to verify that cleaner. This can be more cost effective than large screens for catching de-
the strainer/screen will not collapse under any differential pressures ex- bris. Cautic~nn:
Entering pipe is considered working in a confined space.
pected during compressor commissioning or operation if the strainer screen
becomes completely blocked.

3.2.2.8 For compressor or blower suction lines NPS 20 3.2.3 RECYCLE LINES
and smaller, a flanged breakout spool with an in-line tempo-
3.2.3.1 Routing of compressor recycle lines shall be de-
rary strainer shall be located in the horizontal line as close
signed to prevent liquid from accumulating in piping low
as practical to any vertical run into the machine. Removal
points.
and cleaning of the strainer spool shall be considered in
placement of the spool. Piping supports are required on each 3.2.3.2 Compressor recycle lines shall reenter the process
side of the spool piece. If the piping is supported by spring stream on the top of the piping upstream of the suction vessel.
hanger or spring support, a locking device shall be perma- Note 1: The recycle line should be connectedas far as practical from the
nently attachedto the spring to lockthe spring whenthe pip- suction of the compressor. Cooling forrecycle lines may be required.
ing hangeror support is removed. Pressure connections shall Note 2: Possible flow-induced vibration should be considered during de-
be provided on both the upstream and downstream side of sign. A designated nozzle in the suctionvessel may be an acceptable alter-
the screen or strainer. native design.

Note: As an alternative, consider installinga T-type strainer to minimize 3.2.3.3 For systems handlingcorrosiveor erosive gases or
cleaning efforts during commissioning and start-up. vapors, the location of the recycle line tie-in to the process
3.2.2.9 When specified by the equipment user, compres- line shall be reviewed by a corrosiodmaterials engineer or
sor or blower suction lines larger than NPS 20 but less than metallurgist for potential corrosion problems.
NPS 30 shall have a permanent screen or strainer installed 3.2.3.4 Antisurgerecycle valves anddischargecheck
in the horizontal run of pipe downstream ofthe inlet block valves shall be located as close as practical to the compres-
valve andas close as practical to any vertical run into the ma- sor. The discharge line shall be designed such that the vol-
chine inlet. Pressure taps shall be provided on both the up- ume of gas in the line between the compressorflange and the
stream and downstream side of the screen or strainer. The antisurge valve and the discharge check valve does notex-
screen or strainer shall be able to withstand instantaneous ceed the compressor manufacturers designlimit.
loading assuming 100 percent blockage of the holes and
maximum suction pressure. The suction line shall have
flanged clean-out holes upstream and downstream of the 3.2.4 CENTRIFUGAL AND ROTARY COMPRES-
screen or strainer. Clean-out holes shall be one-half of the SORS AND BLOWERS
suction line size up to a maximum of N P S 10. 3.2.4.1 A straight run of piping with a minimum length
Note: Therequirement for a permanent strainer in large pipes is intended to as specified by the compressor or blower manufacturershall
facilitate removal of debris. It is also intended to avoid potential problems be provided between the machine inlet nozzle and the first
with the forces necessary to restrain a plugged temporary screen.
elbow or tee. If this straight run length is not specified by
3.2.2.1 O For down-connected tabletop mounted com- the machine manufacturer, astraight run ofat least five pipe
pressor or blower suction lines NPS 30 or greater, the suc- diameters shall be provided. The minimum length shall be
tion line transition from horizontal to vertical shall be made calculated using the diameter of the compressor or blower
using a tee with the long axis (run) oriented vertically. A inlet nozzle.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RPrbAb 9b m 07322900552037 T30 W

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTALLATlON
AND
INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 6 6-1 1

3.2.4.2 A nonslam (damped) check valve shallbe provided 3.2.5.5 A pressure relief device or devices shall be pro-
in the discharge pipe run from all compressors
or blowers. vided for each compressorcylinder or stage of a reciprocat-
ing compressor. These relief devices may be located in either
3.2.4.3 The discharge line for compressors and blowers
the discharge piping or on the liquid knockout vessels. Re-
shall be designed such that the volumeof gas in theline be-
lief devices shall be located between the compressor cylinder
tween the discharge flange and the antisurge valve and the
and any permanent blindsor block valves.
discharge check valve does not exceed the compressor or
blower manufacturers designlimit. Note: Pressure relief devices should be sized and rated to avoidexceeding
the lesserof piping pressure ratings, pulsation vessel pressure ratings, cylin-
Note: This requirement relates to transient response
of the compressor con- der pressure ratings, or rod loads. Though rod load is a factorto be consid-
trol system and affects compressor stability. ered in thesizing and rating of reciprocating compressor discharge pressure
relief protection, installationof discharge pressure relief protection does not,
3.2.4.4 A mechanical stop shall be provided on inlet throt- by itself, ensure rod loading requirements will not be exceeded. Rod load
tle control valves when utilized on centrifugal compressors is a functionof the differential pressure across a cylinder as well as inertia.
Suction pressuresless than or greater than the operating range indicated by
or blowers with constant speed drivers. This mechanicalstop the compressor manufacturer may result in unacceptable rod loads despite
shall be set to allow minimum flow through the machineas discharge relief protection.
recommended bythe machine manufacturer.
3.2.5.6 Pressure relief device discharge piping shall be
Note: Some flow control may be provided by variable-speed drives, and/or routed to a designated system.
inlet control valves, or guide vanes.For constant-speed motor drivers, throt-
tling of the inlet valve provides reduced load for start-up. Note: Typical designated systems include a flare, maintenance dropout or
blowdown, thermal oxidizer, the atmosphere, scrubber,or other processsys-
3.2.4.5 Suction piping configurationfor double flow cen- tems.
trifugal compressorsor blowers shall be geometrically sym-
metrical. 3.2.5.7 Piping shall meet the design criteria specified by
the pulsation analysis, piping mechanical analysis, and
static
piping analysis.
3.2.5RECIPROCATINGCOMPRESSORS
3.2.5.8 Drains from compressor distance pieces, packing
3.2.5.1 For compressors handling condensing gases, the
vents, leakoffs from unloaders, and distance piece vents shall
suction piping from the liquid knockout vessel shall be
be routed in accordance withAPI Standard 618 or as speci-
routed overhead to the compressorsuction pulsation damp-
fied by the designated machinery representative. Drainlines
ener vessel. For noncondensing gases, the piping may be
shall be routed so as not to obstruct any access covers or
routed to grade before going into the suction pulsation damp-
openings. Process and vent piping shall not be routed over
ener vessel.
the compressor crankcase. The area above the compressor
3.2.5.2 Unlessotherwise specified, reciprocating com- crankcase shallbe kept clear of all piping.
pressor discharge lines shall not have check valves. However,3.2.5.9 Compressorpulsation vessel drainsshould be
if the compressor is equipped with a recycle line, a check
manifolded into a single drain line. Drain line primary block
valve shall be provided and located downstream the of recy-
valves shall be providedat each pulsation vessel. Additional
cle line. The piping engineering designer shall verify that the
drain valves shall be providedat the manifold. When a deck
check valveis suitablefor extended service in pulsating flow.
is provided, the manifold shall be located at grade near the
Note: Conventional swing check valves are usually not suitable for use in edge ofthe decking.
pulsating flows because frequent flow reversals result in premature valve
failure. 3.2.5.1 O When compressor piping is to be chemically
cleaned, it shall be designed to facilitate this cleaning with-
3.2.5.3 Vent lines from reciprocating compressor pressure
out extensive piping removal.
packing in condensingservice shall be routed toa drain pot
to remove liquids before being routed to the vapor disposal
system. Vent and drain lines shall be routedso as not to ob-
struct any access covers or openings.
3.3 Steam Turbines
3.3.1 Inlet piping to steam turbines shall be free of sec-
3.2.5.4 For reciprocating compressors handling condens- tions where liquid may accumulate during normal operation,
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

ing materials, the suction piping from the suction vessel to start-up, and/or shutdown. Where such sections are un-
the compressor shall be heat traced and insulatedto prevent avoidable, suitable drain facilities shall be provided. See Fig-
liquid condensation in the piping. The compressor suction ure B-2.
pulsation vessels shallalso be heat traced and insulated. Ves-
sels and piping covered byinsulation shall be properly pro- 3.3.2 Reducers installed in the inlet piping to steam tur-
tected from corrosion. bines shall be eccentric with the flat side on the bottom to
prevent the accumulation of any liquid.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*b86 9 6 m 0732290 0552038 9 7 7 D

6-12 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE 686/PIP RElE 686

3.3.3 Steam turbine gland leakoff lines shall be routed to 3.3.5 Piping arrangements for steam piping into the tur-
headers as close as possibleto the turbine. The transferline bine shall include provisionfor the temporary reorientation
shall be at least one pipe
size larger thanthe connection fur- of steam inlet lines for the precommissioning blowingof
nished on the turbine. the line. Piping arrangements shall also include provision for
the installation of targets if targets are to be utilized in the
precommissioning Of the line*
3.3.4 An NPS 1 or larger bypass around the inlet block
valve shall be provided to allow control during warm-up, 3.3.6 See Appendix C-Steam Piping for Turbines, for ad-
carbon ring break-in, and overspeed trip tests. ditional information on steam turbine piping design.

Section &Machinery Piping Installation

4.1 GeneralRequirements 4.1.7 Any solid preservatives such as desiccant bags shall
be removed from the machinery prior to connection of piping.
4.1.1 Piping shall notbe connected to the machinery until
4.1.8 Duct tape and plastic shall notbe used for covering
grouting, machinery shaft preliminary alignment, and final
the ends of pipe flanges as it is prone to tearing loose and
field welding have been completed.
lodging withinthe machine.
4.1.2 Unsupported piping shall notbe installed on the ma- Note: A solid metal cover with rubber gasket tocover flange openingsdur-
chinery. Piping hangers and supports shall be installed as ing installation is preferred. These metal covers should remain in place un-
specified by design to minimize piping applied strain
on the til the pipingis connected to the machinery.
machinery. 4.1.9 Rags and towels shall not be used to stuff into the
4.1.3 Layout and installation of field run piping and con- open endsof pipe or flanges.
duit shall be jointly coordinated to provide operation and
maintenance accessibility.
Note: The intentionis that the piping andelectricaUinstrumentationequip-
4.2 Field Installation of Auxiliaries
of piping and conduit.
ment installerswill work together in the field routing
The objective is a machinery installation where the piping and conduitdo 4.2.1 Field-installed auxiliary equipment, piping, conduit,
not block access for operation and maintenance. instruments, coolers, seal pots, consoles, andso forth, shall
4.1.4 Electrical power and instrumentation connections to be mounted separately from the machine and driver.These
machinery shall be made withconduit of sufficient length items shall not interfere with removal of the machine or
and flexibility to not interfere with machinery alignment. driver nor with access to the machineryfor normal operation
and maintenance. Referto Figure B- l .
Note: Like piping, conduit to motors or instrumentscan impose strains on
machinery. Since either flexible or rigid conduit maybe used, the intentis 4.2.2 Auxiliary support piping, conduit, instrumentation,
to minimize conduit-imposedstrain on the machinery. If rigid conduit is
used, it may be necessary to measure conduit-imposed strains onthe ma- and so forth, shall be located for a single drop area on the
chinery in a manner similar to that performed for piping. machinery baseplate or soleplate. It is unacceptable to have
4.1 .S Suction and discharge piping for vertical in-line piping, conduit, andother support systems installed at mul-

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
pumps shall have adjustable supports. These supports shall tiple locations on the base making maintenance and opera-
be located within 1 meter (3 feet) of the pumps suction and tion difficult.
discharge flanges. With pipesupports adjusted and all pip- 4.2.3 Openingsforbranchconnections of NPS 1 or
ing made up, the pump shall be in solid contact with the smaller shallbe made by drilling the run pipe. Torchcutting
foundation mounting plate. The adjustable supports shall of any opening smaller than N P S 1 diameter is not accept-
have a means of locking their positions to preclude change able.
due to vibration or unwarranted casual adjustment.
4.2.4 Process-compatible pipejoint compounds approved
4.1.6 Extreme careis to be exercisedat all times to ensure by the designated machinery representative shall be for used
that fluid passagesof machinery are free from dirt, foreign all threaded connections. PTFEtape pipe sealant and/or an-
objects, and other contamination. The importance of clean- tiseize lubricants shall not be usedto make up any threaded
liness cannotbe overemphasized. Temporary blinds shall be connections in lubricatingoil, seal fluid, buffer gas, process,
installed at the machinery flanges to prevent
dirt and debris or utility connectionsto any machine.
from entering the machinery during installation. All threaded
Note: Antiseize lubricants
are not acceptable pipe joint compounds.
openings are tobe plugged witha threaded pipe plug to pre-
vent contamination. Plastic pipe plugsare unacceptable and 4.2.5 The use of threaded pipe and fitting connections
shall not be used. shall be minimized.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST

~
A P I RP.Ub8b 96 m 0732290 0552039 803 m

PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY


RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION
AND
INSTALLATION DESIGN, CHAPTER 6 6-13

4.2.6 To ensure proper thread engagement, all threaded Note: The composition gasket is used to electrically insulateand protect the
machinery from stray electrical currents.
connections shall have 2 to 5 exposed pipe threads after
making upthe joint. 4.4.4 Machinery magnetic flux density readings shall be
4.2.7 The diameter and field routing of pipe or tubing to measured and recorded before and after welding. If residual
and from seal pots shall be approvedby the designated ma- magnetism is in excess of 1 millitesla (10 gauss), degauss-
chinery representative. ing shall be required.
Note: The intent is to prevent possible machinery bearing damage due to
residual magnetism caused by stray electrical currents.
4.3 HydrotestRestrictions
4.3.1 Piping hydrotest shall not be done through any type 4.5 DesignVerification
of machinery including vertical and horizontal pumps, steam
turbines, blowers,or compressors. Separate hydrotest blinds Prior to checking final piping alignment
to the machinery
the piping systemshall be completeasfollows in
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

shall be installed or the inlet and outlet piping spools shall


be removed toisolate the machinery during hydrotest. 4.5.1-4.5.7:

4.3.2 The piping hydrotestlayout around vertical barrel or 4.5.1 Pipe hydrotesting and drying out of the system shall
can pumps shallbe designed to prevent water fromentering be finished and all hydrotest blinds removed.
the pump barrelor can. Note 1: Test blinds must be removed and major field welds completedbe-
fore piping alignment checksare made, as hydrotest blinds and field welds
4.3.3 Hydrotesting of the piping shall be performed after can result inchanges in piping-to-machinery alignment.
preliminary piping alignment and fit-up to the machinery.
Note 2: Where possible, field welds required for piping alignment should
The equipment installer shall exercise care to prevent the and the machinery nozzles to
be located between the isolation block valves
draining of hydrotestliquids into the machinery. permit the hydrotestingof short spools.
Note: Hydrotesting may be required if piping welds are made to achieve 4.5.2 All permanent supports (fixed, sliding, spring sup-
piping alignment. However,hydrotest blinds and field welds can result in ports, and hangers)shall be installed and adjusted.
changes in piping-to-machinery alignment, The intention is that piping
should be preliminarily aligned to the machinery, major piping modifica-
tions made, and hydrotesting completed before final piping alignment
4.5.3 All temporary supports and hangers shall be re-
checks are made with hydrotest blinds removed. moved.
4.5.4 All the system piping components and machinery
4.4 StrayElectricalCurrents shall be at the same ambient temperature within a range of
10C (18'F) before starting final piping alignment checks.
Stray currents from welding or electrical heating stress re-
lieving can cause damage to seals, bearings, and other ma- 4.5.5 The piping engineering design inspectorshall verify
chinerycomponents. Stray electrical currents can also that the machine inlet and outlet piping is properly con-
magnetize machinery components that can later generate structed in accordance with the piping design. This inspec-
damaging currents. The following requirements4.4.1-4.4.4
in tion shall include verification of gasketmaterial, gasket size,
shall be met for all field welds around machinery: the material,size, and length of flange bolts, studs, and nuts.

4.4.1 Welding ground cables shall be attached adjacent to 4.5.6 Before proceeding with piping alignmentchecks, the
the place where the weld is being made. The welding clamps piping engineering design inspector shall verify that spring
shall be clamped onto the pipe near the weld and the welding hangers and spring supports are installedwith the preset
machine properly grounded. Spring-type alligator clamps spring hangerstops in positionso that the springs are locked
shall not be used. at the cold load setting. The piping engineering design in-
spector shall also verify that there are no visible gaps be-
Note: A double ground cable located on each
side ofthe weld within a dis- tween the piping and fixed piping supports.
tance of lessthan 30 centimeters (12 inches) is recommended.
4.5.7 The machine shall be inspected to verify that it is
4.4.2 Ground leads shall not be attachedto any part of the
still removable. This means that sufficient flanged and
machinery, auxiliary systems, or supports for any reason.
threaded piping connectionsexist to completely removethe
4.4.3 Should it be necessary to attach piping to the ma- machinery fromthe mounting plate for maintenance without
chinery for the purpose of field welding or electrical field requiring the cutting or welding of pipeor tubing.
stress relief of pipe strain, the machinery beshall
isolated from
the pipe flange by using a full-circle 3-millimeter ('/S-inch)
thick composition gasket. Insulated bolts or studs shall then
4.6 PipingAlignmentRequirements
be installed. A continuity check shall then be performedto 4.6.1 Flanges of connecting piping shall notbe sprung into
prove the electrical isolation of the machine fromthe piping. position.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~~

API RP*b8b
9b
0732290 0552040 525

6-14 API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

Note: If the following criteria are met there is typically little difficulty in pipe guides or restraints. If spring hanger or spring support
meeting shaft deflection requirements. stops are not installed, the spring hangersor spring supports
4.6.2 Pipe flange bolt holes shall be lined up with machin- shall be adjusted tothe cold load settings and stops installed
ery nozzle bolt holes within1.5 millimeters (l/16 inch) maxi- before proceeding with piping alignment checks.
mum offset from the center of the bolt hole to permit insertion Note 1: Methods for achieving piping alignment include shimming sup-
of bolts without applying any externalforce to the piping. ports, adjusting spring hanger tie-rod turnbuckles, retorquing flanges, in-
stalling piping support spacers, selectively heating one side of the pipe, ring
Note: The intent of this requirement isto ensure that flange bolts can
be eas- heating, cutting and reweldiw, or completely refabricating the piping. The
ily installed withoutthe application of external force. method or methods selected are determined by the piping configuration and
materials and will be different for each installation.
4.6.3 The machine and piping flange faces shall be paral- Note 2: Spring hanger and spring support stops must be in place to ensure
lel to less than 10 micrometers per centimeter (0.001 inch the piping system is rigid during the piping alignment check. This ensures
per inch) of pipe flange outer diameter up to a maximum of that spring movements do not mask pipe strains. However, the equipment
750 micrometers (0.030 inch). For piping flange outer di- installer should exercise care that the stopped spring hanger or support is
not used as a jack or chain hoist to force the piping intoposition. With
ameters smaller than 25 centimeters (10 inches), the flanges spring stops in place and the load plate bound up against the coil side stop,
shall be parallel to250 micrometers (0.010 inch) or less. For it may be difficultto know the magnitude of load being applied.
special-purpose machinery or when specified, pipe to ma- 4.7.3 Adjusting the spring tension of spring hangers or
chinery flange spacing measurements shall be recorded on spring supports as a method of achieving piping alignment
the Piping Alignment Data Sheet shown in Figure B-4 in Ap- is not acceptable.
pendix B. For raised face flanges, feeler gauge readings are
Note: Spring hangers and spring supports are selected by the piping engi-
to be taken at the raisedface. neering designer to compensate for piping movements caused by pressure,
thermal, and dynamic changes. Adjusting spring tension results in changes
4.6.4 Flange face separation shall be within the gasket in the force exerted by the spring hanger or support. The spring hanger or
spacing plus or minus 1.5 millimeters (1/16 inch). Only one support may no longer function as originally designed.
gasket per flanged connectionshall be used.
4.7.4 Piping movement shall be observed when spring
hanger andsupport preset stops are removed back tothe first
4.7 PipingAlignment fixed anchor point. If any spring hangers or supports are
topped-out or bottomed-out, the piping design and
The objective of the following requirements is to verify spring hanger or support selection shall be verified by the
that strains imposedby the piping onthe machinery are min- piping engineering designer. Further pipe strain checks shall
imized. Less strain imposed on the machine casing results in not be made untilcorrections are made to the piping system.
less distortion of running clearances and better machine per- Preset stops shall then be reinstalled in the spring hangers
formance and reliability. and supports to lock them into cold position.
Note: The basic method of verifying pipe strain consists of bolting up the Note: In general,there should be little movement ofthe piping when spring
piping to the machine flanges while measuring the deflection of the ma- hanger and spring support stops are removed. The position of the spring
chine shaft with dial indicators.This is done with spring hanger and spring hangers and spring supports should remain on their cold settings. Some up-
support stops installed so that the springs are locked in the cold positionto ward movement may be expected on liquid lines. Larger liquid lines will
prevent spring function from masking shaft movement caused by piping- usually move more than smaller lines.
imposed strains. Excessive movementof the machine shaft as the piping is
bolted up indicates that the pipe is imposing excessive strain on the ma- 4.7.5 If flange alignment is to be accomplishedby heating
chine. Spring hanger and spring support stops are then removed as a means or welding of thepiping, the procedure shall be approvedfor
of indicating anygross mismatch betweenthe piping and the supports. Due
to the weight ofthe liquid, cautionshould be exercised whenspring hanger each type of pipematerial in advance by a welding engineer
or spring support stopsare removed and the pipingis liquid-full. The equip- or materials specialist.
ment installer should be aware of the designbasis (empty or liquid-full) be-
fore removing spring hangeror spring support stops. 4.7.6 Piping shall be disconnected from the machinery be-
fore selectively heating one side of the pipe as a method of
4.7.1 Machinery inlet and outlet piping systems shall be
achieving piping alignment.
separately worked into position to bring the piping flanges
into satisfactory alignment with the matching machinery Note: When diamond heating (selectively heating one sideof the pipe in a
diamond pattern) is used, the piping should be free of the machine to allow
flanges. Moving the machinery to achieve piping alignment it to move. Ifthe piping is fixed to the machine and diamond heating is used,
is not acceptable and shall not bepermitted. the piping may impose excessive strains onthe machinery resulting in ma-
chine distortion or flange breakage. When ring heat(heating the piping in a
4.7.2 Bringing the flanges of the pipe into alignment may circumferential band near the machinery) is used, the piping should be at-
be doneby a number of means; however, all temporary sup- tached to the machinery with an insulating gasket. The intention with ring
heat is to force the piping flange to conform to the machine flange.
ports for piping alignment (such as chain falls and wedges)
shall be removed during final alignmentreadings and piping 4.7.7 Pipe strain shall be measured while all piping con-
bolt-up. Piping shall be supported by permanent fixed and nections are being made to the machine. This includes lube
spring supports and hangers. Piping shall not be binding on
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
oil piping, cooling water piping, auxiliary piping such as

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTAUATlON AND INSTALLATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 6 6-15

steam, air, and flushing medium, as well as process piping ing to the compressor cylinders andor pulsation vessels and
and electrical conduits. compared to the compressor manufacturers allowable run-
4.7.8 For pieces of machinery with common piping such outs or API Standard61 8, as applicable. Piston rod run-outs
as pairs of pumps, bothshaft alignments shall be monitored exceeding allowable run-outs are not acceptable, and the
during piping-up operations. Additionally, all of the ma- process gas piping shallbe modified to reduce measured pis-
chinery shall be bolted up at the same time with indicator ton rod run-outs.
readings taken on eachshaft simultaneously.
4.9 Spring Hanger and Spring Support
4.8 PipeStrainMeasurement Function Check
4.8.1 An alignment bracket shall be installed on the cou- 4.9.1 After satisfactory piping alignment has been ob-
pling hub or shaft of the machine being checked for pipe tained, spring hanger and spring support function shall be
strain. verified.
4.8.2 Indicators shall be mounted on the coupling hub to 4.9.2 All spring hanger turnbuckle locknuts shall be veri-
measure vertical and horizontal movement on the opposite fied as tight.
machine as the pipe flange bolts are being tightened using a 4.9.3 With dial indicators on the coupling, movement of
torque wrench. the machinery shaft shall be observed as the preset stops are
4.8.3 Bolt-up of the piping flanges to the machinery removed to activate the spring hangers andspring supports.
flanges shall proceed with the largest flanges first. Bolt-up 4.9.4 All spring hanger and spring support load indicators
must be completed in a continuous effort without disturbing shall be inspectedto verify thatthe springs remained at their
the location ofthe dial indicators. cold load setting. If spring hangers
or spring supportsare not
4.8.4 Initial tightening of the flange bolts shall be snug(10 at the cold load settings, they shall be adjusted to the cold
percent of total torque). Flange boltsshall then be tightened load settings.
to 30 percent of total torque. Theflange bolts shall then be 4.9.5 If there is movement at the machinery coupling, then
tightened to 100 percent of total final torque. Piping bolt machinery alignment shall be verified as being within the
torque values shallbe specified by the piping engineering de- specified tolerances. These machinery alignmenttolerances
signer or the machinery manufacturer taking into account shall be specified by the designated machinery representa-
whether bolt threads are lubricated or nonlubricated. tive and may bedifferent for different types of machinery.
4.8.5 The maximum shaft movement in either the vertical 4.9.6 If any of the spring hangers or spring supports are
or horizontal directions after the flange is tightened shall be topped or bottomed out or if the machinery alignment is no
50 micrometers (0.002 inch) or less. Ifthe shaft movement is longer within thespecified tolerances, the piping design and
more than 50 micrometers (0.002 inch), the piping flange spring hanger and spring support selection shall be verified
shall be loosened fromthe machinery and corrections made by the piping engineering designer.
to the piping or supports. The flange gasket shall then bere-
placed and the procedure repeated. Forspecial purpose ma-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

chinery or when specified, machine shaft movement during 4.10 OilMistPipingInstallation


piping bolt-up shall be recorded on the Piping Alignment
Data Sheet shownin Figure B-4. 4.10.1 All oil mist piping shall be routed and supported in
the field with all joints exposed to view. No underground
Note: Movement greater than 50 micrometers (0.002 inch) is permissible
during the tightening procedure. piping is acceptable.
4.8.6 For canned motor pumps bolted to a mounting plate, 4.10.2 Oil mist piping shall be fabricated to minimize the
pipe strain shall be checked by monitoring deflection of the use of piping fittings. Reducing swagenipples and reducing
casing. Indicators shall be mounted to measure horizontal couplings shall be used inplace of reducing bushings.
and vertical movement of the rear end cover andthe casing 4.10.3 No welded joints in the oil mist piping system are
of the pump relative to the mounting plate as the piping is permitted.
being bolted up. Maximum allowable deflection is 125 mi-
crometers (0.005 inch). 4.1 0.4 Cut pipe or tubing shall be deburred or reamed so
that there is noreduction of the inside diameter or any burrs
Note: When canned motor pumps are not bolted to mounting plates, it is ac-
ceptable to attachan indicatorbracket to one piping flangeand measure the at the pipe cut.
deflection of the other flangeas flange boltsare tightened.
4.1 0.5 All piping joints shall be threaded. Threaded con-
4.8.7 Reciprocating compressor piston rod run-outs shall nections shall only be made with a light lubricating oil.
be measuredbefore and after connection of process gas
pip- PTFE Teflon@ tape shall not be used to make up any

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
6-16 PRAcncE 68WPIP RElE 686
API RECOMMENDED

threaded connectionsin the oil mist system. Unless explicitly 4.10.12 For machinery lubricated using purge mist and a
approved otherwiseby the designated machinery represen- oiler shall be modified
constant level oiler, the constant level
tative, alternative pipe thread sealants shall not be used. so that a rising oil level can overflow fromthe oiler.
Note: Oil mist application fittings (reclassifies) contain small diameter ori- Note: On purge mist installations, constant level oilers providethe primary
fices. 'Qpical pipe thread sealants harden in service, forming particles. lubrication to the bearings. Mist oil that coalesces within the bearing can
These particles migrate through the oil mist system and can plug oil mist raise the oil level in the bearing housing. If bearing housing oil level is al-
application fittings (reclassifies). Oil mist flow to the machinery bearings lowed to rise too high, bearing elements can overheat due to oil churning.
is then blocked and eventual bearing failure can result. Typical constant level oiler modifications consist of drilling a small hole in
the side of the oiler cup located slightly above the normal oil level.
4.10.6 Each pieceof pipe and all fittings shall be swabbed
with a clean, lint-free, unused cloth
or wiper priorto joining 4.1 0.13 For machinery lubricated using pure mist,an oil
and threading connections. The equipment installer shall ex-sight glass shall be installed in the bearing housing drain
ercise care to keep the interior
of all piping, tubing, and ma- connection.
chinery clean.
Note 1: The sight glass is typically a small, molded, clear plastic or glass
4.1 0.7 Oil mist branch headerto main header connections device mounted at thebottom of the bearing housingto provide an indica-
as well as drop point lateral to headerconnections shall be tion of coalesced oil leveland condition.
made at the top ofthe header pipe. Note 2 If a coalesced oil r e t u r n system is used, alternative drain configu-
rations may be required.
4.1 0.8 The oil mist application fittings (reclassifiers) shall
be connected to the machinery bearing housings with the 4.1 0.14 Machinery bearing housing oil mist connections
tubing arranged to allow normal operation and maintenance shall remain plugged until all oil mist system commissioning
access without moving the application fitting (reclassifier) is completed andthe oil mist consoleis placed in operation.
or the tubing.
4.1 0.9 Oil mist tubing shall be installedso that oil will not
be used for bending so that
be trapped. Tubing benders shall 4.1 1 MiscellaneousRequirements
the tubing will have no kinks, wrinkles,
or flattened spots.
4.11.1 After final piping bolt-up, final shaft alignment
4.10.10 Machinery that has previously been grease-lubri- shall be verified and all machinery shall be hand rotatedto
cated shall have the grease fitting and vent passages cleanedensure that neither binding norcase distortion has occurred

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
before connectionto the oil mist system. during piping installation. Piping spring hanger and spring
4.10.11 Unless provided by the original machinery man- support stops shall be installed during finalshaft alignment
ufacturer, machinery bearing housings lubricated using checks.
purge mist shall have a permanent vent connection. The vent
4.11.2 All spring hanger turnbuckle locknuts shall be ver-
connection shall consist of stainless steel tubing 10 cen-
ified astight.
timeters (4 inches) long attached to the top of the bearing
housing and bent to point directly downward to serve as a 4.1 1.3 The piping installation checklist (Appendix A)
vent. Alternative vent arrangements may be acceptable when shall be completedby the equipment installer and forwarded
approved by the designated machinery representative. to the equipment useras specified.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bAb
96 0732290 0552043 234 m

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX A-MACHINERY PIPING INSTALLATION CHECKLIST

Date
Initials
4.1 General Requirements
4.1.1 Grouting, preliminary shaft alignment, and field welding completed?
4.1.2 per design to avoid applying strain
Piping hangers and supports installed
on the machinery?
4.1.3 Layout and installationof piping and conduit jointly coordinated?
4.1.4 Electrical power and instrumentation connectionsto machinery made with
conduit sufficiently flexible?
4.1.5 Suction and discharge pipingfor vertical in-line pumps have adjustable supports
located within 1 meter (3 feet) of the pumps suction and discharge flanges?
Pump in solid contact with the foundation mounting plate?
Adjustable supportslocked in position?
4.1.6 Temporary blinds installedat the machinery flanges to preventdirt and debris from
entering the machinery?
All threaded openings plugged with
a threaded pipe plugto prevent contamination?
No plastic pipe plugsused to plug openings?
4.1.7 Any solid preservatives such as desiccant bags removed to
prior
connection of piping?

4.2 Field Installationof Auxiliaries


4.2.1 All auxiliary equipment, piping, conduit, instruments, coolers, seal
pots, consoles,
and so forth, mounted separately from the machine and driver?
These itemsdo not interfere with removal of the machine
or driver nor with access
to the machinery for normal operation and maintenance?
4.2.2 so forth, located fora single
Auxiliary support piping, conduit, instrumentation, and
drop area on the machinery baseplate or soleplate?
4.2.3 Openings for branch connectionsof W S 1 or smaller madeby drilling the runpipe?
4.2.6 All threaded connections have2 to 5 exposed pipe threads after making up the
joint?

4.3 Hydrotest Restrictions


4.3.1 Machinery isolated for hydrotesting of piping?
4.3.3 Preliminary piping alignment and fit-up completed?

4.4 Stray Electrical Currents


4.4.1 A double groundcable located on eachside of the weld withina distance of less
than 30 centimeter (12 inches) installed?
The welding clamps clampedonto the pipe and welding machine grounded?
4.4.2 Ground leads not attachedto any part of the machinery, auxiliary systems,or supports?

6-1 7
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*b8b 9b m 0732290 0552044 L70 m

6-18 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE 68WPIP RElE 686

Date
Initials
4.4.3 Machinery isolated from the pipe flange by using a full-circle 3-millimeter (h-inch)
thick composition gasket with insulated bolts or studs?
Continuity check performedto prove the electrical isolation of the machine from
the piping?
4.4.4 Magnetic flux density measured and recordedbefore and after welding?

4.5 Design Verification


4.5.1 Pipe hydrotesting and dryingout of the system finished and allhydrotest blinds removed?
4.5.2 All permanentsupports and hangersinstalled and adjusted?
4.5.3 All temporary supports and hangers removed?
4.5.4 All the system piping components and machineryat the same ambient temperature
within a rangeof 10C (1 8OF) before starting final piping alignment checks?
4.5.5 The piping engineering designinspector verifies that the machine inlet and outlet
piping is properly constructed in accordance withthe piping and instrumentation
drawings?
4.5.6 The piping engineering designinspector verifies that spring hangers are installed
with the preset spring hanger stops in position such that the springs are locked at the
cold load setting before proceeding with piping alignment checks?
The piping engineering designinspector verifies that there are no visible gaps
between the piping and fixed pipingsupports?
4.5.7 The machineinspected to verify that it is still removable?
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.6 Piping Alignment Requirements


4.6.1 Flanges of connectingpiping not sprunginto position?
4.6.2 Pipe flange bolt holes lined up with machinery nozzle boltholes within 1.5
millimeters (V16 inch) maximum offset from bolt hole center?
4.6.3 The machine andpiping flange faces parallel to less than 10 micrometers per
centimeter (0.001 inch per inch) of pipe flange outer diameter upto a maximum of
750 micrometers (0.030 inches)?
If piping flange outer diameters are smaller than 25 centimeters (10 inches),
are the flanges parallel to 250 micrometers (0.010 inch) or less?
(see Figure B-4) completed?
Piping Alignment Data Sheet
4.6.4 Flange face separation within the gasket spacing plus or minus 1.5 millimeters
(]/M inch)?

4.7 Piping Alignment


4.7.2 All temporary supports for piping alignment (suchas chain falls and wedges) removed
during final alignmentreadings and piping bolt-up?
Piping supportedby permanent fixed andspring supports and hangers?
or restraints?
Piping not binding on pipe guides
4.7.4 No spring hangers or supports topped-out or bottomed-out when stops removed?
Stops reinstalled as preparation for final pipe strain check?

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*h86 9h m 0732290 0552045 007 m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTALLATlON AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 6 6-19

Date
Initials
4.7.5 Heating procedure approvedin advance by welding engineeror materials specialist?
4.7.6 Piping disconnected from machinery
prior to heating as method ofcorrecting
pipe strain?

4.8 Pipe Strain Measurement


4.8.2 Indicators mounted onthe coupling hub to measure vertical and horizontal move-
ment on theopposite machine as the pipe flange bolts are being tightened using a
torque wrench?
4.8.4 Initial tightening of the flange bolts snug (10 percent of totaltorque)?
Flange bolts then tightenedto 30 percent total torque?
Flange bolts then tightened
to 100 percent of totalfinal torque?
Total Torque:
Lubricated Threads:-Nonlubricated Threads:-
4.8.5 The maximum shaft movement in either the vertical or horizontal directions after
the flange is tightened 50 micrometers (0.002 inch) or less?
Machine shaft total vertical movement:
Machine shaft total vertical movement:
Final piping alignment measurements recorded
on the Piping Alignment Data
Sheet,
Figure B-4?

4.9 Spring Hanger and Spring Support Function Check


4.9.1 Spring hanger and spring supportfunction verified as acceptable? (No spring hangers
or spring supports topped or bottomed out and machineryshaft alignment within
the specified tolerances.)
4.9.2 All spring hanger turnbuckle locknuts verifiedas tight?
4.9.4 All spring hanger andsupport load indicators at cold loadsettings?

4.1 O Oil Mist Piping Installation


4.1 0.1 All oil mistpiping joints exposed to view?
4.10.2 Reducing swage nipples and reducing
couplings used in place of reducing bushings?
4.1 0.3 No welded joints in the oil mist piping system?
4.1 0.4 Cut pipeor tubing deburred or reamed so that there isso reduction of the inside
diameter or any burrsat the pipecut?
4.1 0.5 All piping joints threaded?
Threaded connections only made withlight
a lubricating oil?
PTFE (Teflon@)tape not used?
4.1 0.6 Each piece of pipe and allfittings swabbed with aclean, lint-free, unused cloth or
wiper prior to joining and threading connections?
4.1 0.7 Oil mist branch headerto main header connectionsas well as drop point lateral to
header connections madeat the top of the header pipe?
4.1 0.8 The oil mist application fittings (reclassifiers)connected to the machinery bearing
housings with the tubing arranged to allow normal operation and maintenanceaccess
without moving the application fitting (reclassifier)or the tubing?
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
6-20 PRACTICE 686/PIP RElE 686
API RECOMMENDED

Initials Date
4.1 0.9 Oil mist tubing installed such thatno oil will be trapped?
Tubing benders usedfor bending such thatthe tubing will have no kinks, wrinkles,
or flattened spots?
4.1 0.1
O Machinery that has previously been grease-lubricated has
the grease fitting and vent
passages cleaned before connection to
the oil mist systemis made?
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

4.10.11 Machinery bearing housings lubricated using purge mist has permanent vent
connection?
2 Constant level oiler modifiedso that a rising oil level can overflow from the
4.1 0.1 oiler
for machinery lubricated using purge mist and a constant leveloiler?
3 Oil sight glass installedin the bearing housing drain connection for machinery
4.1 0.1
lubricated using pure mist?

4.1 1 Miscellaneous Requirements


4.1 1.1 Final shaft alignment verifiedafter final piping bolt-up?
Machinery hand rotated toensure that neither bindingnor case distortion has occurred?
4.11.2 Spring hanger turnbuckle locknuts tight?
4.1 1.3 This piping installation checklist forwarded as specified?

PIPING

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST

~~~ ~~
A P I RP+b8b 9b m 0732290 0552047 98T m

APPENDIX B-MACHINERY INSTALLATION PIPING DIAGRAMS

,Mounting plate

h
v-

S
O
z
.-c
6

m N
o)
U
S
O
Side A iii Z
Y

(Notes 2,3) (Note


Drain 1)

I
*--.
, ,
\ I
-.
,,- ..
\

Between
, Seal \, Seal 0
bearings
; ;
1,
\
.

pot
C
I
1,
\
pot
C
/

(Note 4)

Mounting plate
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

.-
S
O
k
C

A
(u

S
zO
Y

(Notes 2,3) (Note


Drain 1)
,

C .

Overhung ; I
seal
\

1, Pot ;
C
,,
(Note 4)

Figure B-1-Typical Seal Pot Location


Notes:
I . Drain located at Side A or Side B.
2. All tubing and auxiliary piping routedto SideA or Side B.
3. Electrical connectionsmade on Side A.
4. When specified, alternate seal pot locations alongsidemounting plate are acceptable.

6-21
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 96 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0 5 5 2 0 4 88 1 6 m

6-22 RECOMMENDED
PRAcncE
API 686/PIP RElE 686

I0 LEGEND
I
Ff0
Steam
@
@
Isolation block valves required (2.3). Accessible from
grade (2.2.4).
Blinds or double block-and-bleed suggested (2.3).
Eccentric reducer flat-on-bottom (3.3.2).
@ Suitable drain facilities for condensate (3.3.1).
@ W m - u p bypass valve (3.3.4).
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

@ Provision for precommissioning blowing of steam line


(3.3.5).
I I

o
o
Steam
turbine

Figure B-2-Typical Steam Turbine Inlet Piping

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
_ _ _ ~

A P I RPxb8b7b I0732270 0552049 752 m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,
CHAPTER 6 6-23

TOP
SUCTION
DISCHARGE
HORIZONTAL
SUCTION

Figure B-%Machinery Typical Piping Schematics

I J
(

LEGEND
' Isolation block valves required. Blinds suggested (2.3). Accessible from grade (2.2.4).
@ Pressure measurement connections required with isolation valves (2.6.1).
@ Suction and discharge pipingand valves same size or larger than machine nozzle (2.7) and (2.9.2)
@ Inlet strainerrequired (2.8).
0 Discharge check valve required (2.9).
@ Vent and drain piping NPS 3/4 or larger (2.10.1).
0 Drains routed to edge of baseplate(2.10.2).
@) Warm-up lines for hot fluids (2.1 1).
@ Suction line straightrun requirement (3.1.2.6).
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

@ Last pipeelbow to be long radius(3.1.2.7).


@ Drain valve above vertical check valve (2.9.3).
@ Provision for fieldweld (2.3).

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP+b8b 9b m 0732290 0552050 474m

6-24 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTICE 686/PIP RElE 686

Machinery Installer: Identification: Machinery

Feeler Gauge Readings Between Gasket Faces

Flange Size: Flange Size:

m
1. I.

Top or

'-U
7. 3.

5. 3.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
5.

Maximum Allowable Tolerances: (difference between high


& low readings)
10 micrometers / centimeter (0.001 inches / inch) of flange outside diameter, not to exceed750 micrometers (0.030 inches)
Piping smaller thanNPS 10: 250 micrometers (0.010 inches) or less.
Only 4 feeler gauge readings, equally spaced, required on flanges 15 centimeters (6 inches) outside diameter and smaller.

Pipe Strain Readings


Note: For horizontal machinery-Dial indicator readings on coupling hub flange.
For vertical machinery-Dial indicator readings on driver-mount flange.

Net Indicator Readings Inlet Flange Bolt-Up Outlet Flange Bolt-Up


___

Horizontal Orientation(1) +or- Pm. or in. + or - Pm. or in.


Vertical Orientation (2) + or - Pm.in.or +or- Pm. or in.

(1) For vertical machinery,the horizontal orientation is perpendicular to pipe centerlinewhen viewed from top.
(2) For vertical machinery, the vertical orientationis parallel to pipecenterline when viewed from top.
(3) Maximum shaft movementin either direction is 50 micrometers (0.002 inches).

Remarks:

Piping Inspector:

Figure B-&Piping Alignment Data Sheet


Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b 76 m 0732270 0552051 300 D

APPENDIX C-STEAM PIPING FOR TURBINES

The inlet and exhaust piping (including feedwater heat- the one it is supposed to eliminate.An expansion joint will
ing connections) fora steam turbinemay have a marked ef- cause an axial thrust equal to the area of the largest cormga-
fect on the satisfactory operation of the turbine and driven tion times the internal pressure. The force necessary to com-
machine. Due to theclose internal clearance,it is not advis- press or elongate an expansion joint can be quite large, and
able to have excessive forces that may cause deflection of either of these forces may be greater than the limits for the
the turbinecase and supports and reduce internal clearances exhaust flange. In order to have the lowest reaction, it is best
below a safe limit or result in excessive coupling misalign- to avoid absorbing pipe line expansion by axial compression
ment; coupling alignment mustbe maintained within close or elongation. If it is found that expansion joints are required,
limits for satisfactory operation. Small lightweight high- it is essential that theybe properly located and their function

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
speed turbines are especially susceptible to casing distortion. determined.
For these reasons the steam piping should be analyzed and Figure C-1 shows an expansionjoint in a pressure line.
properly laid out to prevent excessive forces from being The axial thrust from the expansionjoint tends to separate
transmitted to the turbine flanges. the turbine and the elbow.To prevent this, the elbow must
Piping may exert forces from three basic causes: the dead have an anchor to keep it from moving. The turbine must
weight, thermal expansion, and thrust due to expansion also absorb this thrust and in doingso becomes an anchor.
joints. Since thermal expansion also causes movement of the This forceon the turbinecase may be greater than can be al-
turbine flanges, this mustbe considered a cause of pipe re- lowed. In general this method should be discouraged.
action. Because of the many locations of inlet and exhaust Figure C-2 shows the same piping arrangement as Figure
flanges and probable piping arrangements, it is not possible C-1 except for the addition of tie rods on the expansion joint.
to presenta piping arrangement to cover all cases. The pur- The tierods limit the elongation of the joint and take the ax-
pose of this appendixis to cover some of the basic principles ial thrust created by the internal pressure so it is not trans-
of piping, particularly as applied to turbines. Piping design mitted to the turbineflange. The tie rods eliminateany axial
is covered quite thoroughly by manuals put out by the ma- flexibility, but the joint is still flexible in shear, that is, the
jor piping fabricators and contractors, andis not it the inten- flanges may move in parallel planes. The location of this
tion ofthis appendixto duplicate whatmay be found in these type of joint in the piping should be such that movement of
manuals. the pipe puts the expansion joint in shear instead of tension
Piping to the turbine flanges comes under the jurisdiction or compression.
of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, theASA Figure C-3is an arrangement frequently used, having tie
Code for Pressure Piping,or the American Bureau of Ship- rods as indicated. This arrangement will prevent any thrust
ping. The applicable code will determine thesize and type due to internal pressure from being transmitted to the ex-
of pipe used and will not be discussed in this appendix. haust flange and retains the axial flexibility of the joint. It
may be used for either vacuum or pressure service.
Figure C-4 showsa suggested arrangement fora con-
EXHAUST PIPING
densing turbine with an up exhaust. This arrangement is rec-
Low-pressure and vacuum linesare usually large and rel- ommended and frequently used. Due to the large exhaust
atively stiff. It is common practice to use an expansion joint pipe size normally encounteredon condensing turbines, the
in these lines to provide flexibility.If an expansion joint is exhaust piping will be relatively stiff, and an expansion joint
improperly used, it may cause a pipe reaction greater than must be used at some point to take care of thermal expan-

ANCHOR

d
Figure C-1 Figure C-2

6-25
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API R P t b 8 b 9 6 W 0732290 0552052 2Lf7

6-26 PRACTICE
API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686

II///N//
Figure C-3

sion. An unrestricted expansion joint placed at the exhaust an expansionjoint. Only aftera careful analysisof the piping
an upward or lifting forceon
flange of the turbine will exert shows the need for an expansion joint should they be used.
the turbine flange, whichin many cases is excessive. Figure In order to have flexibility in piping, short direct runs
C-4 provides the necessary flexibility to take of care
thermal must be avoided. By arrangingthe piping in more than one
expansion without imposing a lifting force on the turbine. plane, torsional flexibility may be effectively used to de-
The expansionjoint is in shear, which is the preferred use. crease the forces.
The relatively small vertical expansion will compress one Figure C-5 shows a short direct run to an exhaust header.
joint and elongate the other, which causes a small reaction If the header is free to float in a horizational plane, thermal
only and will be well within the turbine flange limits. expansion of the exhaust line will put verylittle direct thrust
On smaller and high-pressure exhaust lines it is fre- on the exhaust flange.If the headeris fixed, the thermal ex-
quently better to rely on the flexibility
of the piping thanon pansion will tend to cause either the turbineor header to

Figure C-4
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*b3b 76 m 0732290 0552053 L83

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
lNSTALLAllON
AND lNSTALLATlON DESIGN, CHAFTER 6 6-27

Figure C-5 Figure C-6

move and may cause damage. If thermal expansion cause:S 1S assumed that the turbine is a fixed point andthle point of
the header to move in an axial direction, it will transmit a connection to the header A is fixed. If A is free to move,
force and moment to the exhaust flange. Figure C-5 is not it may relieve some of theforces caused by thermal expan-
recommended, as it isdifficult to prevent excessive forces sion. If A is free and thermal expansion of the header
from being transmitted to the exhaust flange. Figure C-6 is a causes it to move,it may causeadditional forces to be trans-
variation of FigureC-5 and the same comments apply. mitted to the turbine. With existing piping installations or
Figures C-7, C-8 and C-9 show piping arrangements in1, new piping systems,it is necessary to examinethe entire sys-
2, and 3 planes where long runsof pipe are usedto get flex- tem and locate the fixed points from which deflection and
ibility. The length of the runs necessary for flexibility de- movements may be measured. Guides, tie rods, and stops
pends on the size and schedule ofthe pipe. In these cases it should be usedto limit movements where necessary,to pre-

Figure C-7
W Figure C-8 --``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

W Figure C-9

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b&b 76 m 0732290 0552054 OLT m

6-28 PRAcncE 68WPIP RElE 686


API RECOMMENDED

To turbine /

/ Header

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
Figure C-1O Figure C-11

vent excessive piping movement from creating forces and A new piping system should be blown out by disconnect-
moments that exceed the turbineflange limits. ing the steam line at the turbine and running it to atmo-
sphere. Blow theline out by opening a shut-off valveas near
the boiler as possibleso a high steam velocityis attained in
STEAM INLET PIPING the piping. Alternate blowing and cooling will tendto loosen
The forces on the steam inlet flangeare normally due to scale, welding heads, anddebris so it will be blown out.
thermal expansion. Expansion joints are seldom useddue to
the high pressures encountered; therefore, utilizingthe pipe PIPING SUPPORTS
flexibility is the only means of keeping the forces belowthe In the previous discussion the weight ofthe piping has not
specified limits. FiguresC-7, C-8, and C-9 apply to inlet pip- been considered. The dead weight of the piping should be
ing as well as exhaust lines, except that the take-off froma entirely supportedby pipe hangersor supports. There are ba-
steam header should be on the top. sically two types of supports, rigid and spring. Rigid sup-
Figure C-10 shows the recommended method of taking a ports are necessary when an unrestricted expansions joint is
steam line froma header. Since any steam line, even with su- used. Rigid supports may be used to limit the movement of
perheated steam,may haveentrained moisture or condensate a line to prevent excessive deflection at any point. A rigid
running along the bottom of the pipe dueto radiation losses, support is not satisfactory where thermal expansion may
boiler priming,or ineffective trapping, taking steamoff the cause the pipe to move away from the support.
top of the header assures dry steam under normal conditions. On the two types of rigid supports shown in Figure C-12,
If a steam inlet line is at the endof a steam header, it the rise of the turbinecase due to temperature wouldlift the
should be taken off as shown in Figure C-1 l . Since any ac- base elbow from the support so the turbine would have to
cumulation of condensate in the header will be carried along support the weight of the pipe. The expansion of the vertical
until it is trapped out or reaches the end of the header, the run of pipe would relieve the pipe hanger of its load so the
turbine on the end of the headermay get a lot of water. The turbine would again have to support the weight of the pipe.
header should continue past the last steam take-off with a If an expansion joint with restrainingtie rods is used, ei-
vertical drop-leg to accumulate the condensate to be trapped ther a rigid pipe hanger ora base elbow with a sliding or
out. The use of a large, well-trapped dropleg makes a very rolling contact surface may be used as shown in FigureC-13.
effective separator that will help to protect the turbine from When the thrust due to an expansion joint isless than the
large volumes of water such as caused by priming of a boiler, exhaust flange limits and no restraining tie rods are used, the
Avoid low spots or pockets in inlet piping thatmay accu- pipe must have an anchor as shown in Figure C-14. Since
mulate water.A pipe partially filled with water may continue this condition rarelyexists, it is better to use one ofthe bet-
to pass the quantity of steam required by a turbine until the ter arrangements such as shown in Figure C-13, and elimi-
steam passage becomes toorestricted by the water. At this nate as much pipe reaction as possible rather thanjust stay
point the steam will start to move the water, which builds up within the limits.
as a wave and is carried along as a slug of water that can Spring hangers or supports arebest suited to carry the
cause serious damage to the piping and the turbine. This is dead weight when there is thermal expansion to be consid-
more prevalentin oversize steamlines where the steam ve- ered. The movement of the pipe will changethe spring ten-
locity is too low to carry allthe entrained moisture along. sion or compression a small amount and the hanger loading

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION
INSTALLATION
AND DESIGN,
CHAPTER 6 6-29

Figure C-12 Figure C-13

a small amount but will not remove the loadfrom the hanger. A spring support should notbe used to oppose the thrust
The published manuals on pipe design provide information of an expansionjoint, because when the pressure is removed
on hanger spacingto give proper support. In addition to this, from the line the spring support will aexert
force thesame as
it may be necessary to add additional supports or move ex- the expansion joint, only in the opposite direction.
isting supportsif resonant vibration appearsin the piping.

Figure C-14

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
Recommended Practices for Machinery
Installation and Installation Design

Chapter 7-Shaft Alignment

Manufacturing, Distribution and Marketing Department


API RECOMMENDED PRACTICE 686
PIP RElE 686
FIRST EDITION, APRIL 1996
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

American
Petroleum
Process Industry Practices Institute

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP+68b 96 m 0732290 0552057 829 m

CONTENTS
Page
CHAPTER 7-SHAFT ALIGNMENT
SECTION 1-DEFINITIONS ...................................................................................... 7.1
SECTION 2-INTRODUCTION AND CONFLICTING REQUIREMENTS ........... 7.2
2.1SCOF ..................................................................................................................... 7-2
2.2 Conflicting Requirements ...................................................................................... 7-2
SECTION 3 4 E N E R A L REQUIREMENTS ............................................................ 7.2
3.1 Installation Data ..................................................................................................... 7.2
3.2 Format .................................................................................................................... 7.3
3.3 Ambient Offset ...................................................................................................... 7-3
3.4 Operating Temperature Alignment ........................................................................ 7-3
3.5 Alignment Fixtures and Tools ............................................................................... 7-3
3.6 Service Representative Hold Points ....................................................................... 7-3
SECTION &ALIGNMENT TYPES ......................................................................... 7.3
4.1 General .................................................................................................................. 7.3
4.2 Dial-Indicator Based 'Alignment .............................................................................. 7.3
4.3 Nondial Indicator Based Alignment ...................................................................... 7-4
4.4 Operating Temperature (Thermal) Alignment....................................................... 7.4
SECTION 5-FIELD ALIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS ........................................... 7.5

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
5.1 Realignment .......................................................................................................... 7.5
5.2 Qualifications ......................................................................................................... 7.5
5.3 Documentation and Witness of Alignment ............................................................ 7-6
5.4 Alignment Tolerances ............................................................................................ 7.6
5.5 Sag ......................................................................................................................... 7-8
5.6 Gear Procedures ..................................................................................................... 7-8
5.7 Bearing Type .......................................................................................................... 7-8
5.8 Fixed Component .................................................................................................. 7-8
5.9 Dowels ................................................................................................................... 7-8
APPENDIX A-ALIGNMENT CHECKLIST ............................................................ 7-9
APPENDIX B-REVERSE RIM (DIAL)DATA SHEET ........................................... 7. 11
APPENDIX C-RIM AND FACE DATA SHEET ....................................................... 7. 13
APPENDIX D-TYPES OF ALIGNMENT ................................................................ 7. 15
APPENDIX E-HOLD-DOWN BOLT TORQUE TABLES ....................................... 7.19
APPENDIX F-GEARBOX SHAFT MOVEMENT ................................................... 7-21

iii
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
Recommended Practices for Machinery Installationand Installation Design
CHAPTER 7-SHAFT ALIGNMENT
Section 1-Definitions
1.1 alignment: The process of reducingthemisalign- 1.9 equipment installer: The person or organization
ment of twoadjacent shafts connectedby a coupling so that charged with providingengineering services and labor re-
the center of rotation for each shaft is as near collinear as quired to install machinery ina user facility after machinery
practical during normal operation. has been delivered. In general, but not always, the installer
is the project construction contractor.
1.2 ambient off set: The practice of misaligning two
shaft centerlinesat ambient conditions to account for the es- 1.10 equipmentuser: The person ororganization
timated relative changes in shaft centerlines from ambient charged with operation of the rotating machinery. In general,
conditions to operating conditions. but not always, the equipment user owns and maintains the
rotating machinery after the projectis complete.
1.3 angularmisalignment: Theangle between the
shaft centerline of two adjacent shafts. This angle is nor- 1.11 equipment train: Two or more rotating equip-
mally reportedin slope of millimeters of change per decime- ment machinery elements consisting of at least one driver
ter of linear distance (mils per inch) (1 mil = 0.001 inch) (see and one driven element joined together by a coupling.
Figure 1). 1.12flexible-elementcoupling: A type of rotating
Note: Most misalignmentis combination misalignment.It can be resolved machinery coupling that describes both disk and diaphragm
into a paralleloffset at a given point along the fixed machine centerline and couplings. A flexible-element coupling obtains its flexibility
angular misalignment in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The offset from the flexing of thin disks or diaphragm elements.
is dependent on the location along the fixed machine centerline whereit is
measured, normallythe center of the coupling spacer. 1.13 gear coupling: A type of rotating machinery cou-
1.4 bolt bound: Where any hold-down bolt is not free pling that obtains its
flexibility by relative rockingand slid-
in the bolt hole,so that the ability to move the moveableel- ing motion between mating, profiled gear teeth.
ement in a machinery train horizontally or axially is con- 1.14 general purpose: Refers to an application that is
strained. usually spared or is in noncritical service.
1.5 combinationmisalignment: When the center- 1.15 operating temperature (thermal) alignment:
lines of two adjacent shafts are neither parallel nor intersect A procedure to determine the actual change in relative shaft
(refer to Figure2). This misalignmentis normally described positions within a machinery train from the ambient (not
in both angular and offset terms. running) condition and the normal operating temperature
(running) conditionby taking measurements from startup to
1.6 designatedmachinery representative: The normal operating temperature while the machine(s)is (are)
person or organization designatedby the ultimate ownerof operating, or after the shafts have been stopped but the ma-
the equipmentto speak onhis behalf with regard to machin- chines are still near operating temperature.
ery installation decisions, inspection requirements, and so
1.16 parallel offset misalignment: Thedistancebe-
forth. This representativemay be anemployee of the owner,
tween two adjacent and parallelshaft centerlines (see to Fig-
a third party inspection company, or an engineering contrac-
ure 3). This offset is normally reported in a unit (millimeters
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

tor as delegated by the owner.


or mils) atthe flex element location.
1.7 distance between shaft ends (DBSE): Theax- 1.17 special purpose: An application for whichthe
ial dimension between two adjacent machinery shaft ends. equipment is designed for uninterrupted, continuous opera-
1.8 elastomeric coupling: A coupling that obtains its tion in critical service and for which there is usually no spare
flexibility from the flexing of an elastomeric element. equipment.

1-Angular
Misalignment
Figure
2-Combination
Figure
Misalignment

7-1
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
7-2 API RECOMMENDED
686/PIP
PRACTICE RElE 686

1.18 totalindicatedrunout(tir): The runout of a di- 1.19 vendor: Theagencythatmanufactures, sells, and
ameter or face determined by measurement with a dial indi- provides service support for the equipment.
cator (also known astotal indicator reading). The indicator
reading impliesan out-of-squareness equalto the readingor
an eccentricity equalto half the reading.

Section 2lntroduction and Conflicting Requirements

2.1 Introduction free to move in the horizontal, vertical, and axialdirections.


Any equipment trains in a user facility, whereone or more
Good shaft-to-shaft alignment of rotating machinery is of the elements in the trainis covered by M I rotating equip
essential for long-term operation. Operating history by users ment standards and/or ASME horizontal pumps standards,
has indicated it is good practice and cost effective to limit may be covered by this practice. Vertically installed and
the operating misalignment to low values. Good shaft align- other equipment assemblies thatare aligned by means of
ment reduces the forces acting on rotating shafts, bearings, rabbet or machined fits are not covered by this chapter. It is
and other wearing components. This ultimately leadsto the responsibility of the supplier and purchaser to provide
longer, more reliable operation of machinery trains. The acceptable alignment before this type of machinery is in-
main consideration is to reduce,as much as practical, the op- stalled in the field. The user may consider checking the
erating misalignment of two rotating shaft elementscon- alignment of this type of equipment when it is installed in
nected by a coupling element. the field.The procedures may be developed jointly between
For the purpose ofthis chapter, a machinery train consists the user, equipment installer, and equipment supplier. Also
of two rotating shafts connected by a coupling. Trains with excluded is internal equipment alignment of rotating shaft to
more than one coupling are dividedinto two or more single stationary elements or internal alignment of equipment by
coupling trains and treated in sequence. adjusting support positions (for example, reciprocating com-
One of the most important factors in ensuring that align- pressors alignmentby web deflection).
ment of machineryis good at the completionof installation
is the early involvement ofthe designated machinery repre-
sentative during construction. 2.3 ConflictingRequirements
Any conflicts betweenthis recommended practice and/or
2.2 Scope the equipment vendors procedures or tolerances shall be re-
This recommended practice is limited to horizontally ferred to the useror the designated machinery representative.
mounted machinery elements whereat least one element is In general the most restrictive shall apply.

Section 3-General Requirements

3.1 InstallationData packaged and to coordinate all information necessary for


alignment. Further,the designated machinery representative
Prior to alignment, the designated machinery representa- is responsible for providing the alignment information
to the
tive shall provide data sheets and equipment arrangement equipment installer in the specified format.
drawings with, as a minimum, the information required in 3.1.1 Define movable and fixed machines in a train.
3.1.1 through 3.15 completed for each equipment train. It
shall be the designated machinery representatives scope to 3.1 -2 Provide equipment outline drawings with the dis-
obtain the necessary alignment-related information from all ends (DBSE) and/or coupling spacergap
tance between shaft
vendors no matter how the equipment trainis purchased or length.
3.1.3 When required, ambient offset alignment ideal target
readings shallbe supplied.
Note 1: The coupling spaceror distance betweenshaft ends OBSE) read-
ings and ambient offset readings are to be at operatingconditions. All fac-
tors that can havean influence upon the relative position of the equipmtM
Centers of rotation or shaft axial position need to be considered. This in-
cludes, but is not limited to, factors suchas load, ambient temperatun, pro-
Figure 3-Parallel Offset Misalignment cess pressure, and process temperature.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERYINSTALIATION AND lNSTALIATlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 7
RECOMMENDED 7-3

Note 2: In general, for special-purpose equipment trains the equipment ven- 3.5 Alignment Fixtures and Tools
dor will provide expected thermal growth changes and ambient offset.
3.5.1 The equipmentinstaller shall provide alignment fix-
3.1.4 Provide the locations of dowel pins, centering keys,
keyways, bashings, and other similar items, when they are tures (brackets) for the type of alignment specified by the
part of the equipmentor required by the user. user or users designated representative.For general-purpose
equipment trains, alignment brackets may be built by the
3.1.5 The type of alignment method to be used. equipment installeror may be a commercially available type
specified by the user. Unlessotherwise specified, for special-
3.2 Format purpose equipmentthe alignment fixtures shall be made for
3.2.1 The user may specify the checklist and alignment each special-purposeequipment train. The designof the fix-
data sheets from thispractice.Alternately, the user or desig- ture shall be jointly agreed upon by the equipment installer
nated machinery representative may furnish installation and the user or the users designatedrepresentative.
checklists and data sheet forms for documentation of equip- 3.5.2 The equipment installer shall furnish the special
ment alignmentin the field. tools and computersand/or calculators required for the type
3.2.2 Data sheets for trains consisting of more than two of alignmentspecified.
shafts that must be aligned shall be jointly agreed between
the equipment installer andthe user. 3.5.3 Unless specifically exempted in the agreement be-
tween the user and the equipment installer, all special tools,
be used if a data sheet is madefor
Note: The standard data sheet format may
each coupling and the two machineryelements connectedby the coupling. alignment fixtures, and alignment brackets shall be tagged
with equipment train item (identification) number and turned
3.3 AmbientOffset over tothe user at the endof the project.

3.3.1 Ambient offset alignment readings shall be pro- 3.5.4 When the equipmentinstaller is required by the user
vided by the users designated machineryrepresentativefor to perform operating temperature alignment requiring spe-
general-purpose equipmenttrains with gearboxes. cial tools, the equipment installer shall be responsible for
providing the specialtools unless specifically excluded from
3.3.2 Ambient offset alignment readings for special-
the installers scope of supply. The equipment installer shall
purpose equipment trains shall be included on the data
permanently tag and turn over to the user the operating tem-
sheets by the designated machinery representative.
perature alignment fixtures and jigs atthe completion ofthe
Note: For special-purpose equipment, the vendor with overall unit respon- project.
sibility normally will provide the thermal growth and ambient offset read-
ings for the train. It is up to the designated machinery representativeto
ensure this informationis included on the data sheets.
3.5.5 The use of magnetic alignmentfixtures (brackets) is
not permitted.
3.4 OperatingTemperatureAlignment
The user will identify which equipment trains are to be 3.6 Service Representative Hold Points
operating temperature alignedby the equipment installer.
The user or the designated machinery representative in
Note: Operating temperature alignment may be required when the equip-
ment train operates above150C (300F). Operating temperature alignment conjunction with the equipment installer shall jointly iden-
may be required on equipment trains where the user or the equipment ven- tify onthe project constructionplan any equipment vendors
dor has experienced alignment-related vibration problems.It may also be service representative alignment witness holdpoint nec-
required on equipment trains (prototype equipment trains) where the ven-
dor has insufficient data to accurately predict equipment growth. essary to maintain the equipment warranty.

Section &Alignment Types


4.1 General 4.2.1.1 General requirements for reverse rim (dial) indi-
cator method are listed in 4.2.1.2through 4.2.1.7.
The user or the designated machinery representative and
4.2.1 -2 Reverse dial (rim) alignment shall be performed
the equipment installer shall mutually agree on the appropri-
while turning both shafts at the same timein the direction of
ate type of alignmentto be used for rotating equipment trains.
rotation.
4.2 Dial-Indicator-BasedAlignment Note: It is acceptable but generally less efficient to do reverse dial (rim)
alignment by installing abracket on only one shaft at a timeso long as both
4.2.1 Unless otherwise specified, the equipment installer shafts are moved at the same time.
shall use the reverse rim (dial) indicator method to align 4.2.1.3 Equipment shall be turned by hand whenever pos-
equipment trains. sible. When this is not possible, a strap wrench shall be em-
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST

~~
~~~
7-4 PwcnCE 686/PIP RElE 686
API RECOMMENDED

ployed. Pipe wrenches or any other turning devices that may 4.3.1.1 General requirements for laser alignment are listed
mark the shaft or coupling are not allowed even if the shaft in 4.3.1.2 through 4.3.1.9.
or coupling is protected during turning. Note: The calibration date for the laser alignment apparatus should always
be checked prior to its use. As a general rule, laser alignment tools should
4.2.1.4 The alignment brackets shall notbe used to rotate have their calibration checked everysix months.
equipment. The only exception is for alignment brackets that
have been specifically designed rotate
to equipment without 4.3.1.2 Interpretation of the data shallbe done by an align-
disrupting the indicators. ment computer supplied with the laser alignment system and
configured for the equipment train dimensions and ambient
4.2.1.5 Readings shall be at 90 degree increments in the offset.
horizontal and vertical planes.
4.3.1.3 The laser alignment equipment shall be installed
4.2.1.6 The installer shall use a level or other positive for a period of time sufficient for the temperatureof the
means to locate the vertical and horizontal planes. brackets toequalize with the surroundings.
4.2.1.7 For readings to be considered valid, the readings 4.3.1.4 Both shafts shallbe rotated at the same time in the
and zero shall repeat within0.02 millimeter (1 mil). The al- direction of rotation. Equipment shall be turned by hand
gebraic sum of the horizontal readings shallalso be equal to whenever possible. When this is not possible,a strap wrench
the algebraic sum of the vertical readings within 0.05 mil- shall be employed.
limeter (2 mils).
4.3.1.5 Pipe wrenches or any other turning devices that
4.2.2 When specified, rim and face alignment may be may mark the shaft or coupling are not allowed even if the
used. shaft is protected during turning.
Note: Rim and face alignment is recommended when the coupling hubor
4.3.1.6 Alignment fixtures shall not be used to rotate the
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

shaft end flange diameteris greater than thespacing between indicators or


one of the train elements cannotbe turned. equipment.
4.2.2.1 Generalrequirements for rimand faceindicator 4.3.1.7 The location where readings are taken shall be
method are listed in 4.2.2.2 through 4.2.2.6. measured witha level or other device to positively
locate the
4.2.2.2 Both shafts shallbe turned together unlessit is not reading pointsin the horizontal and verticalplane.
possible to rotate one of the machinery element shafts dur- 4.3.1.8 Laser alignment equipment shall be operated by
ing the alignment process. personnel trained inits use.
4.2.2.3 Equipment shall be turned by hand whenever pos- 4.3.1.9 The equipment installer shall comply with all
sible. When thisis not possible, a strap wrench shall be em- safety and control requirements for electrically powered
ployed. Pipe wrenches, chain wrenches, or any other turning equipment.
devices thatmay mark the shaftor coupling are not allowed
even if the shaft is protected during turning. 4.4 Operating Temperature (Thermal)
4.2.2.4 The alignment brackets shall not be used to rotate Alignment
equipment. The only exception is for alignment brackets that 4.4.1 There are several recognized systems for determin-
have been specifically designedto rotate equipment shafting ing the change in alignmentbetween ambient conditions and
without disrupting the indicators. operating conditions.The designated machinery representa-
4.2.2.5 Rim readings shall be taken with a dial indicator. tive and the equipmentinstaller shall agree on which
equip-
When rim readings are made to a stationary shaftor hub, the ment trains operating temperature alignment will be used
equipment installer shall confirm the machined surface of the and the recognized system to be used. Several of the cur-
stationary machineis concentric tothe centerline of rotation. rently recognized methods for operating temperature align-
ment are outlined in Appendix D, paragraph D.4.
4.2.2.6 Face readings shall be taken with a dial indicator
whenever possible.When there is insufficient space or one Note: Methodsthat involve shutting the equipment down and attempting to
get alignment readings while the machinecools down are normally unac-
of the shafts cannot
be rotated, micrometer measurements to ceptably inaccurate.In some cases where the machinescan be checked by
an accuracy of0.01 millimeter (0.5 mil) areto be used. heating to operating conditions while the equipmentis stopped, it may be
acceptable to do operating condition alignment.An example of this would
be to monitor alignment readingsas a pump is preheated to operating tem-
4.3 Nondial-lndicator-BasedAlignment perature byback-flowing through the pump.
4.3.1 Laser alignment shallbe used when specified bythe 4.4.2 When operating temperature alignment is required,
user or the designated machinery representative. alignment checks shallbe done with the equipment in oper-
Note: Laser alignment is alignment by a laser beam where the laser is ation. The procedure and tolerancesfor operating tempera-
mounted on oneshaft, and a receiver or reflectoris mounted on the other. turealignmentshall be mutually agreedupon by the
The deviation in thebeam is measured as the shaftis turned. Thereare sev-
eral commercially available systems, each with different options for align- designated machinery representative and the equipment in-
ment configuration and transducer mounting. staller,
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST

~~~
A P I RP*b8b76 m 073227005520b2L76 m

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 7 7-5

Note: If an equipmenttrainexhibitsmisalignment-relatedsymptomsdur- 4.4.3 The equipment installer may be directed during test-
inginitialplantstart-up or sitetesting,checkfirst thattheoperatingcondi- ing or start-up to adjust offsetof an equipment train
tions are in-line with the predicted conditions. Other potential causes, such
as pipestrain,should also be investigated. See thepipingsectionof this rec- provided with an operating temperature alignment system.
ommendedpractice for pipestrainrequirementsand checks. If an equip- The ambient coldoffset data shall be provided by the deSig-
ment train continues to exhibit misalignment symptoms, theuseror nated
designated machinery representative may coordinate with the equipment in-
staller to fit an operating temperature alignmentsystem that will indicate
changes in relative shaft position of equipment from ambient conditions up
to operating conditions.

Section &Field Alignment Requirements

5.1 Prealignment 5.1.7 Appropriate tools and alignment fixtures shall be on


--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

hand. If dial indicator alignment isto be done,the sag mea-


Prior to alignment of an equipment train, the prealign- surement for the fixture to be used shall be completed and
ment activities outlined 5in. l. 1 through 5. l . 13 shall be com- recorded.
pleted by the equipment installer. 5.1.8 The torque requirements for the equipment feet
5.1.1 A prealignment meeting shall be held between the hold-down bolting are established in accordance with the
designated machinery representativeand the installers per- vendors specification or users requirements. If there is no
sonnel responsible for machinery alignment activities. figure available from the equipment vendor, then Appendix
5.1.2 The foundation shall be cured and mounting plate E may be used.
installed and leveled in accordance with the procedures
out- 5.1.9 The equipment installer shall confirm there is on hand
lined in other sections. necessary lifting equipment, suitable jacks, or jackbolts to
5.1.3 The equipment shall be installed on the mounting elevate the movable equipment sufficientlyto install shims.
plate or plates with the component thatis designated fixed, If jackbolts were not provided, the equipment installer shall
centered in the hold-down bolts. provide suitable means to horizontally and axially move and
restrain machinery accurately to 0.02 millimeter (1 mil).
5.1.4 Prior to beginning alignment activities, the coupling
hubs shall be installed in accordance withthe equipment ar- 5.1.10 The equipment installer shall confirm equipment
rangement drawing and instructions. Coupling hub run-out hold-down bolts and any special washers supplied are on
readings shall be takenat the coupling hub rim on machined hand. Undercut hold-down boltsare unacceptable.
surfaces perpendicular to the centerline of rotation. Readings 5.1.1 1 Before starting alignment, the equipment shall be
shall also be taken on the face of the coupling hub machined disconnected frompiping and conduit as much as possible.
surfaces as far as practical from the shaft center of rotation. All process piping (including driving and exhaust steam pip-
Installed coupling hubs shall have 0.05 millimeter (2 mils) ing on turbines) shall be disconnected.
or less total indicator run-out (TIR) or the equipment ven- 5.1.1 2 Except in special cases agreed upon by the user,
dors requirements, whichever are more restrictive. This lim- both the movable and fixed equipment shallbe free to turn.
itation applies both to the coupling rim as well as to the
coupling face. 5.1.12.1 Pumps with mechanical seals shall have the seal
locking tabs disengaged before turning
the equipment to ob-
Note 1: Special-purpose equipment couplinghub run-out requirementsof-
ten will be more restrictive. tain alignment readings.
Note 2: General-purpose equipment with elastomeric-style couplings where 5.1.1 2.2 Any packing or blocking material that interferes
there are no machined surfaces provided on the coupling hub may be ex- with shaft rotation shall be removed.
empted.
5.1.1 2.3 Provide lubrication for bearings during turning.
5.1.5 Prior to grouting, a preliminary shaft alignment shall
be made. Final alignment tolerance need not be achieved, but 5.1.13 Equipment outline drawings and vendors instruc-
the equipmentinstaller shall confirm that the requiredaxial, tions shall be available. Datasheets with desired final read-
horizontal, and vertical alignmenttolerances are achievable ings shall be providedfor the typeof alignment specified.
during final alignment without modifications to the machin-
ery or hold-down bolts. Thedesignatedmachineryrepresen-
5.2 Qualifications
tative shall approve the machineryPreliminaryalignment 5.2.1 Theequipment installer for a project shall demon-
prior to grouting. strate the competenceof his alignment personnel to perform
5.1.6 Grouting of the machinery mounting plate shall be alignment of general-purpose equipmenttrains to the Satis-
completed, cured, and approved. faction of the designated machinery representative.It is not

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP+68b 96 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 0 0552063 O22 W

7-6 API RECOMMENDED


PRACTI
CE 686/PIP RElE 686

the users responsibilityto train the equipment installers per- 5.4.1.2.2 For special-purpose equipment, the expected rel-
sonnel in analytical or graphical methods of alignment. ative movement of the shafts shall be accounted for in the
Note: The ability of the equipment installers mechanical personnel (mill- setting of spacer gap length.
wrights) to perform alignment to the user requirements for general-purpose
equipment is a significant factor
in reducing the time and improving the
cost
5.4.1.2.3 Axial alignment shall be done after the motor
effectiveness of a project. magnetic center is marked during fieldor factory run-in. The
motor shaft shall be located on magnetic center.
5.2.2 The equipment installer shall obtain the assistance
of an experienced qualified person or persons to assist the 5.4.1.2.4 Spacer gap length for steam turbines and pro-
installers mechanical personnel (millwrights) with align- cess equipment with hydrodynamicthrust bearings shall be
ment of special-purpose equipment trains. The designated set with the shaft against the active thrust bearing.
machinery representative shall be consulted and agree on the 5.4.1.3 The axial tolerance for DBSE or spacer gap length
selection of the qualified person(s). The qualified person of equipment trains with gearor elastomeric couplings shall
may be a users rotating equipment specialist, qualified be set as required by the coupling or machinery vendor.The
equipment vendors service representative, installers ma- DBSE or spacer gaplength shown on equipment arrange-
chinery alignment specialist, or a third party machinery ment drawing or coupling vendors drawings shall be held
alignment specialist. The designated machinery representa- within ? 0.75 millimeters (? 30 mils) unless a closer toler-
tive shall witness and accept final alignment with and with- ance is specified.
out pipes connected, or any other critical points defined by
the user. 5.4.2SHIMREQUIREMENTS

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
5.4.2.1 The maximum allowable number of shims under
5.3 Documentationand Witness of any equipment supportfoot is five.
Alignment 5.4.2.2 The movable machine shall have a minimum of 3
5.3.1 It is the responsibility of the equipment installer to millimeters (0.125 inch) of 300 series stainless steel shims
record and maintainall alignment records and data sheets in under each support foot. The maximum shim stack height
the user-specified format. At the completion of the project, shall not exceed 12 millimeters (0.5 inch). Only one 3-mil-
the equipment installer shall provide original copies align-
of limeter (0.125-inch) or thicker shim per mountingfoot is al-
ment records along with other project rotating equipment lowed. The use of tapered shim packs, laminated shims, brass
records to the user. shims, aluminum shims, and shimsthinner than 0.05 mil-
limeter (2 mils) is not permitted. Ground shims shall have a
5.3.2 The equipment installer shall provide notice to the
surface finish of 64 R, or better. Shims shall be finished flat
designated machinery representative of witness(hold)
to within O. 1 millimeter per decimeter(1 mivinch) of length.
points. The notification period shall be agreed on between
It is not acceptableto cut shims fromrolled shim stock. Pre-
the equipmentinstaller and the designated machinery repre-
cut shims from a commercial sourceacceptable to the user
sentative. As a guideline, the notification should be 24 hours
are required. Alternately, shims may be furnished by the
for local (resident) representatives. Five working days no-
equipment vendoror cut to size and ground fromplate.
tice may be necessary when the representativeis not local or
when vendors service representativewitness hold pointis Note: The practice of cutting shims from rolled shim stockby hand in the
field oftenleads to rolled and crimped edges and is not considered to be
required. good practice for equipment installation.

5.4 AlignmentTolerances 5.4.2.3 The stack-up of shims under the equipment sup-
port point used for alignment shall be measured. Individual
5.4.1AXIALSPACINGTOLERANCE shims shall be measured and totaled. The total stack thick-
5.4.1.1 For flexible-element couplings, the coupling spacer ness shall be recorded on the alignment data sheet. Mea-
gap lengthor distance between shaft ends(DBSE) shall be set surement shall be recorded to the nearest 0.02 millimeter (1
as specified on the construction package
data sheet or general mil). For relatively large shims, the measurement willbe in
arrangement drawing,k0.25 millimeters (k10 mils) unless a two or more locations to confirm the flatness requirement.
closer tolerance is specified
by the vendor. Note: Largeshims are 2 150 millimeters (6 inches) long or have an arca 2
150 square centimeters (25 square inches).
5.4.1.2 For spacer couplings, the coupling spacer free
5.4.2.4 All shims shall be full-bearing. This includes pre-
length shall be measured and used when setting the spacer
cut commercial shims used under the feet of general-purpose
gap length.
equipment and NEMA frame motors. Shims for special-
5.4.1.2.1 When available,theexpectedshaftthermal purpose equipment shallbe supplied from the equipment
growth shall be included in the calculation of the spacer gap vendor. If a shim must be made on site, it shall be patterned
length for general-purpose equipment. from the equipment vendors shimor support foot.

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*bdb 96 m 07322900552064 Tb9 M

RECOMMENDED
PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY
INSTALLATION AND INSTALLATION DESIGN,CHAPTER 7 7-7

5.4.2.5 Alignmentshims usedon centerlineor near Note: Often equipment trains have hold-downfeet that are not accessible
with a dial indicator and still have room to apply a wrench to a hold-down
centerline-supported equipmentshall not extend beyondthe bolt. The designated machinery representative may allow the soft-foot
machined support pads. checks tobe made bychecking shaft end movement in both the vertical and
horizontal direction.
5.4.3BOLTSANDBOLTCLEARANCE 5.4.4.3 After soft-foot checks are made, the installer shall
5.4.3.1 Undercutting of hold-down bolts for alignment is confirm hold-down boltsat equipment sliding feet are tight-
not permitted. ened in accordance with the vendors instructions.
5.4.3.2 Lock washers are not permitted at machinery hold- 5.4.5 Alignment readings shall be recorded before and
down bolts. after connecting the piping and conduit. See Chapter
5.4.3.3 If special washers are not provided by the equip- 6Piping, paragraph 5.8.5, for allowance. Additionally,
ment vendor or standard washers yield when the hold-bolts the alignment both before and after the piping is con-
are torqued to the required value, the installation contractor nected shall be within the alignment acceptance criteria
shall provide thick ground washers at the hold-down bolts. of 5.4.6.
In the absence of suitable washers fromthe equipment ven- 5.4.6 The installer shall align all machinery trains to ei-
dor, the equipmentinstaller shall obtain washers thatdo not ther the tolerance given in 5.4.6.l or 5.4.6.2 unless the ven-
permanently deform. The user may providethe size (thick- dors tolerance is more restrictive. Alignmenttolerances are
ness, outside diameter, andinside diameter) and material re- after factors suchas thermal offset and alignment bracket sag
quirements for the washers. are accounted for.
Note: Due to the clearance necessary for hold-down bolts,standard thick-
ness washers often are insufficient todistribute the bolt clamping force to 5.4.6.1 When using reverse rim (dial) indicator methods
the equipment foot withoutexcessive deflection or yielding of the washer. or laser alignment equipment that resolves alignment into re-
5.4.3.4 Holddown bolts shall not be bolt bound. Unless verse rim equivalent readings,the maximum out of tolerance
otherwise specified by the user, after final alignment the is 0.5 millimeters per meter(0.5 mils per inch) at both indi-
hold-down bolt hole shall be reasonably centered based on cator locations.
visual examination. Note: Actual misalignment is TIW2 divided by the distance between indi-
cators.
5.4.3.5 The equipment installationcontractor shall record
the following on the data sheets for special-purposeequip- 5.4.6.2 When using rim and face alignment or alignment
ment: (a) the size of the hold-down bolt, (b) confirmation computers that resolve misalignment intoangularity, the
that the minimum clearance is acceptable,and (c) the torque alignment tolerance is 0.03 degrees. This angle must bede-
to tighten the bolt. Tables E-1 and E-2 in Appendix E shall termined at each hub on spacer couplings. When using rim
be used for torque value unless otherwise specified by the and face alignment methods to align machinery trains with
user or the equipment vendor. elastomeric couplings or close coupled machines,the angu-
Note: Some types of equipment have hold-down boltsthat are not to be
larity shall not begreater than 0.03 degrees andthe offset at
tightened fully andare set to allow thermal expansion. The vendors instal- the center of the coupling shall not exceed 0.02 millimeter
lation manual should be consulted to determineif there are movable feet (1 mil).
under any hold-downbolt and tighten accordingly.
5.4.7 During alignment and pipe strain checks, the bear-
5.4.4
SOFT-FOOT ing bracket support foot on single stage overhung pumps
shall be loosened. For final acceptance, the bearing bracket
5.4.4.1 The soft-foot check shall be done with piping dis- support shall be shimmed and tightened. The maximum
connected from the equipment body to be checked. Asoft- amount of movement at the coupling during the tightening
foot check shall be made during final alignment on each process shall be 0.05 millimeter (2 mils).
equipment foot. Maximum permissible movement is 0.05
millimeter (2 mils) at each foot. 5.4.8 After completion of alignment and installation of pip-
ing, all equipmentshall be turned by hand or strap wrench to
5.4.4.2 All hold-down bolts shall first be tightened. If ensure that detrimentalcase distortion has not occurred.
available, use thetorque specified by the equipment vendor
at the supportfoot hold-down bolts. Ifthere are no torque re- 5.4.9 Final alignment shall not be done until the process
quirements specifiedby the vendor, then use Table E-1and piping has been hydrotested. If the piping is disturbed after
E-2 in Appendix E. Measurement shallbe taken as the bolt is final alignment has been accepted by the user, train align-
loosened. The hold-down boltshall be tightened before go- ment shall be rechecked and approved by the user. If equip-
ing to the next foot. Unless approved by the user, soft-foot mentmovementwasnot monitoredduring the piping
checks shall be made on each foot of the equipment and not changes, the entire alignment checkshall be redonestarting
at thecoupling. with the piping disconnectedand the flanges separated.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
~ ~~~~~

A P I RP*b8b 96 m 0732290 0552065 9T5 m

7-8 API RECOMMENDED RElE 686


PRACTICE 686/PIP

5.5 Sag Note: The typeof bearing can significantly alter the running position versus
rest position of the shaft centerline.
An example of this is a four-pad
tilt pad
5.5.1 The maximum allowablesagfordialindicator bearing with load between pads.
bracketdfixture system used for alignment is I 0.8 mil-
limeters per meter (50.8 mils per inch) of span. 5.8 FixedComponent
5.5.2 Sag shall be measured by the installation contractor. General guidelines for determination offixed and move-
Each dial indicator and fixture combination to be used dur- able elements in a train are outlined in 5.8.1 through 5.8.3.
ing alignment of a given equipment train will be measured 5.8.1 Trains with a gear shall have the gear as the fixed el-
for sag prior to equipment alignment. ement.

5.6 GearProcedures 5.8.2 For trains without a gear, the equipment with the
most rigid process nozzle
shall be consideredas the fixed el-
5.6.1 The gear vendor shall provide the relative change be- ement.
tween the at-rest and the operating centerline of the gears. If
not given by the gear vendor, Figures F-1 and F-2 in Ap- 5.8.3 For trains with a motor, the motor shall be the mov-
pendix F may be usedto locate the running loadedposition able element.
of the gear and pinionrelative to the bearing clearance. The
mechanical movementshall be addedto the thermal growth 5.9 Dowels
when determining ambientoffset.
5.9.1 Tapered dowels with threaded outer ends shall be
Note: Whenever traina with a gear with hydrodynamic bearings is aligned,
the shaftlift due to gear reaction forces must be accounted as forwell as the used for doweling equipment. Threadsare to be used for re-
thermal growth. The shaft lift of the gear and/or pinion at load within the moving dowels.
bearing clearances may be more than the equipment alignment tolerance.
5.6.2 For double helical gears, the axial spacing between 5.9.2 With the exception of gearboxes (see 5.9.4),equip-
the shaft end ofthe gear andadjacent equipment shall be de- ment feet for general-purposetrains shall not be doweled un-
termined after the gear (low-speed) shaft is set in the center less specified by the user.
of the thrust bearing float. The pinion is centered axially. 5.9.3 Equipment shall be doweled by the equipment in-
5.6.3 The gearbox shall be considered to be the fixed ele- staller in accordance with the instructions of the users des-
ment. prior to alignment of coupled equipment to the gear, gear ignated machinery representative.Dowels shall be installed
soft-foot and tooth contact pattern and area checks shall be after final alignment. Whenoperating temperature alignment
made and approved by the user. Shimming of gears to correct is to be done by the equipment installer, dowels shall be in-
gear contact pattern is not permitted unless approved by the stalled after final alignment.
user and the gear vendor.a Ifshim must be used to adjust gear-
box height it shall be a ground shim (spacer) under theentire 5.9.4 Gears shall be doweled after alignment. Unless
gearbox support area. Gear tooth contact pattern, contact area,otherwise specified by the user or gear vendor, agear shall
and soft-foot shall be approved by the designated machinery be doweled as close as possible to the vertical centerline
representative after the shim (spacer) is installed. of the pinion. Dowels shall be installed after alignment
Note: Shimmingof a gearbox to correct gear contact patternis usually in-
with the piping connected, but before the equipment train
dicative of a manufacturing error in the gearboxor a poor/nonlevel gearbox is operated.
support base. Gear tooth contact pattern and areaare very important to the
life ofa gear and must be within the gear vendors guidelines. Manufactur- 5.9.5 The thermal growth inthe horizontal and vertical di-
ing tolerancesare very close, and relatively small distortionof the gearcase
during initial installation can significantly reduce gear
life.
rection shall be included in the calculated alignment for gear
trains. This thermal offset shall be calculated from the dowel
position inthe horizontal direction and from the support po-
5.7 BearingType sition in the vertical direction. For initial alignment, an av-
Ambient offset shall account for special case bearing eragetemperature of 66C (150F) maybeused for
types where running positioncenterline may deviate signif- calculation of the ambient offset if there is no information
icantly fromthe rest position. available from the equipment vendor.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*686 96 m 0732290 0552066 831 m

APPENDIX A-ALIGNMENT CHECKLIST

Date
Initials
5.1 Prealignment
5.1.1 Realignment meeting held.
5.1.2 Foundation cured and mounting plate installed.
5.1.3 Equipment installed andfixed machine centered on holes.
5.1.4 Coupling hubs run-out rim and face readings are 5 0.05 millimeter (50.002 inches)
or the manufacturers requirement, whicheveris less.
5.1.5 Initial alignment made and approved
by users representative.
5.1.6 Grout installed.
5.1.7 Fixtures and tools on hand.
5.1.8 Torque requirementsfor the hold-downbolts
5.1.9 it in the horizontal
Equipment available to lift the movable machine and move
and axial directions.
5.1.10 The washers are thick enough at the hold-down bolts, and if not, obtain
sufficiently thick washers.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
5.1.1 1 All piping isdisconnected.
5.1.12 Fixed and movable machineshafts free to turn.
5.1.12.1 Pump seal locking devices disengaged.
5.1.12.2 Packing or blocking material removed.
5.1.12.3 Lubrication providedfor bearings.
5.1.13 Drawings anddata sheets available.

Final Alignment
5.4 Alignment Tolerances
5.1.1 1 All piping is disconnected.
5.1.12 Fixed and movable machineshafts free to turn.
5.4.1 Movable and fixed machinerotors DBSE or coupling spacer gap length =
when set to running position.
5.4.1.2 Coupling spacer free length = .
5.4.1 DBSE or coupling spacer gap length correctedfor thermal growth
required = and is within ? 0.25 millimeters (k 0.010 inches)
of requiredDBSE or actual couplingspacer free length for and flex
couplings. For gear andelastomeric couplings the requirement is
? 0.75 millimeters ( 2 0.030 inches).

5.4.2.1 Maximum five shims under anysupport.


5.4.2.2 Shims 300 series stainless steel or better material, not laminated andflat to 1/1000.
At least 3 millimeters (0.125 inch) but not more than 12 millimeters (0.5 inch) under
movable machine foot. No more than one 2 3 millimeters (20.125 inch) thick
shim under anyfoot.

7-9
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b8b96 M 0732290 05520b7778 m

7-1O API RECOMMENDED 686/PIP RElE 686


PRACTICE

APPENDIX A-ALIGNMENT CHECKLIST (CONTINUED)

Initials Date

5.4.2.4 Shims arefull bearing.


5.4.3.1 Bolts are not undercut.
5.4.3.3 do not yield when hold-down bolts are tightened.
Washers are not lock washers and
5.4.3.4 Hold-down bolts are not bolt bound and reasonably centered
in bolt holes.
5.4.4.2 Hold-down bolts tight to manufacturers/users instructions.
5.4.4 Soft-foot is not more than0.05 millimeters (0.002 inches).
5.5.1.1 Sagofalignmentfixturerecorded = and I 0.8 millimeterspermeter
(50.8 mils per inch).
5.4.5 Alignment within tolerance(1.4.6) before pipes and conduit attached.
5.4.5 Pipe strain checks madein accordance with procedure in Chapter &Piping;
Section 4 Paragraph 1.8.1 through 1.8.5.
5.4.5 Alignment within tolerance (1.4.6) after pipes and conduit attached.
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
APPENDIX B-REVERSE RIM (DIAL) DATA SHEET

Project Number
Plant: Unit:

Movable:
Type: No.:

Fixed:
Type: No.:

COLD OFFSET ALIGNMENT


67
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

MACHINE

MACHINE

PREPARED BY DATE

7-11
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
7-12 RECOMMENDED
686/PIP
PRACTICE
API 686 RElE

APPENDIX B-REVERSE RIM (DIAL) DATA SHEET (CONTINUED)

Project Number

Movable:
Item:
Type:
Fixed: Item:
Type:

ALIGNMENT WITHOUT PIPING INSTALLED


INDICATOR SAG

FIXED

MOVABLE MACHINE

ALIGNMENT WITHOUT PIPING INSTALLED


INDICATOR SAG

FIXED

MOVABLE MACHINE

Shims Tabulation

Fixed IB Left Move. IB Left


Fixed IB Right Move. IB Right
Fixed OB Left Move. OB Left
Fixed OB Right Move. OB Right
Note: All shims arc recorded looking to the fixed machine from the movable machine.

WITNESSED BY DATE
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*686 96 0732270 0552070 262 m

APPENDIX C-RIM AND FACE DATA SHEET

Project Number

Plant: Unit:
Movable:
Item: Manufacturer:
Type:
Item: Fixed: Manufacturer:
Type: No.:

number:
Indicator
bar sag: Indicator
bar

RIM READINGS
Set proper face readings before taking rim readings

U
MOVABLE MACHINE FIXED MACHINE

Swept diameterx
D = Axial distance between shaft hubs
X

frombackof the movable machine


INDICATOR READINGS: Left and Right indicator readings are determined by looking the
toward the fixed machine.

THEORETICAL
(PIPE
ACTUAL OFF) (PIPE
ACTUAL ON)
and Tolerance Corrected for Axial Float Corrected for Axial Float

:-> 0 0
Top - Top - Top -

- - - - - -
Left ght Left ght Left ght
Bottom - Bottom - Bottom -
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

PREPARED BY DATE

7-13
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
A P I RP*b&b 96 m 0 7 3 2 2 9 00 5 5 2 0 7 3I T 9 m

7-14 RECOMMENDED
PRACTICE
API 686PIP
686 RElE
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

APPENDIX C-RIM AND FACE DATA SHEET (CONTINUED)

Project Number

Movable:
Item:
Type:
Item: Fixed:
Type:

Indicator
bar sag: number:
Indicator
bar

FACE READINGS

MACHINE MOVABLE

INDICATOR READINGS: "Left" and "Right" indicator readings are determined looking
by from the back
of the movable machine
toward the fixed machine.
THEORETICAL ACTUAL (PIPEOFF) ACTUAL (PIPE ON)
and Tolerance Corrected for Bar Sag Corrected for Bar Sag

Top - Top - Top -

-
Left (=Bottom -
Left 0 0
Bottom -
-
Left
Bottom -
ht

Shims Tabulation
Fixed IB Left Move. IB Left
Fixed IB Right Move. IB Right
Fixed OB Left Move. OB Left
Fixed OB Right Move. OB Right
Note: All shims are recorded looking to the fixed machine from the movable machine.

WITNESSED BY DATE

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
APPENDIX D-NPES OF ALIGNMENT

D.l ReverseRim(Dial)Alignment be positively prevented from inadvertent energization before


the coupling spacer is installed.
D.l.l Reverse rim (dial) alignment is the process of de- 5. Axial float errors are eliminated by eliminating the face
termining the misalignment of two adjacent rotating ma- readings.
chinery elements by radial dial indicator readings takenon 6. It lends itself to both graphical and calculated methods of
the coupling hub rim or shafts of two machines while they alignment correction.
are rotated at the same time (see Figure D-1).The key aspect 7. There are several general purpose reverse dial indicator
is that the dial indicators are rotated about the machinery shaft adapter kits commercially available. Generally these
shaft's center of rotation. The process is normally done while commercially availablekits are designed for minimum sag.
turning both shafts together and taking readingsas close as
possible to vertical and horizontal planes.
D.1.2.2 Disadvantages
D.1.2ADVANTAGESANDDISADVANTAGES l. Both machines must be turnedto align them unless spe-
cial bracketsare made. Accurate repeatable readings dif- are
D.1.2.1
Advantages ficult to obtain.

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---
l . Most maintenance personnel are familiar with this align- 2. Indicator sag must be measured and included in the cal-
ment method. culations.
2. By spanning a spacer coupling, angular misalignment 3. To be done properly, brackets mustbe made tofit the ma-
measurements are more sensitive. A span of400 millimeters chinery train correctly and still swing the shafts together 360
(16 inches) gives angular misalignment readings four times degrees without interference.
more sensitive than face readingsaof typical 100-millimeter 4. Purchasing commercial or manufacture reverse dial indi-
(4-inch) diameterhub. Most couplings fornew equipment in cator brackets canbe costly.
petrochemical facilities have spacers much longer than the 5. It isnot as accurate for equipment where coupling diam-
hub diameter. eter is greater than DBSE length.
3. The requirement to remove the coupling spacer is elimi- 6. Any hub surface disconformityin the mechanically indi-
nated with proper design of the alignment brackets. This re- cated surfaces mustbe compensated for when rotating only
duces wear and tear on the coupling. one shaft at a time.
4. When both shafts are turned together, theerrors of cou-
pling hub run-out are eliminated.isItalso possible with care D.2 Rim and Face Alignment System
to achieve equal accuracy with the shafts uncoupled. newFor D.2.1 Rim and Face alignment is the process of determin-
installations it is recommended that the coupling spacer be ing misalignment between two adjacent shafts by measuring
left out to reduce the wear and tear on the coupling bolts.
and the differencesin distance between shaft end or coupling faces
At construction sites, it is likely the coupling spaceror fas- (face readings) and the differencein the centerof rotation with
teners will be lost or damaged if the coupling is assembled dial indicator radial readings (rim readings). The angular mis-
and subsequently removed. The equipment train driver shall alignment is determinedby the face readings, and the parallel

Figure D-1-Reverse RIM (Dial) Alignment

7-15
Copyright American Petroleum Institute
Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST

~~
7-16 P W C I C E 686PIP RElE 686
API RECOMMENDED

misalignment at the dialis determined by dial indicator read- 2. Rim readings must be corrected for sag.
ings in the radial direction on rim
the of the couplingor shaft. 3. For machinery with spacer couplings, the face readings
Relative face distance is determined at two pointsin the verti- do not haveas good resolution as reverse dial readings. Most
cal direction and two points in the horizontal direction. This equipment specifications require coupling spacers of 5
may be done by micrometer, or dial indicator. Rim readings inches or more for ease of maintenance and to reduce the
(two in the horizontal plane and two in the vertical plane) are coupling alignmentchange from cold to hot operation.
taken with a dial indicator mounted on a bracket fixed to one
shaft. When possible, both shafts are rotated together. Three D.3 Laser AlignmentSystems
dial rim and face readings,as shown inFigure D-2, should be
D.3.1 Laser alignment is the process of determining mis-
used whenever practical.
alignment by a laser beam where the laser
is mounted on one
D.2.2ADVANTAGESANDDISADVANTAGES or both shafts and a receiver or reflector is mounted on the
other. Both shaftsare turned at the same time.The deviation
D.2.2.1Advantages in the laser beam is measured as the shaft is turned. The in-
1. It is more accurate than double reverse dial when the ma- terpretation of the data is done by configuring an alignment
chinery train is close coupled and the dial indicator span is computer supplied with the laser alignment system.
less than the couplinghub diameter.
2. The face readings give the angularityand the rimread- D 3 2 ADVANTAGESANDDISADVANTAGES
ingsgive the offsetatthedialindicator. This is intuitive to ~ ~ 3 . 2Advantaaes
.~
most mechanics and millwrights and easier to understand
1 . The calculationsare directly fedinto the alignment com-
than reverse dial(rim) alignment.
puter by the instrument, eliminating operator errors.
3. Dial indicator rim and face readings only require one
2. Potential accuracyof laser instruments is better than dial
shaft tobe rotated. This should only be done when necessary
indicators.
because dimensionalerrors in hubs or shaft ends will cause
3. The required moves and actual misalignment in the hori-
an error in the readings.
zontal and vertical planeor angle is directly read out.
4. Any hub surface disconformity in the mechanically indi-
4. There is no sagin the readings.Very good for long DBSE
cated surfaces mustbe compensated for when rotating only
alignments.
one shaft ata time.
5. Universal brackets are provided for the instrument, which
allows for setup on most machines without special fabrica-
D.2.2.2
Disadvantages
tions.
1. Unless the three dial rim and face method is used to sub- 6 . There is a relatively short training period fornew me-
tract shaft end-play, it is likely to give erroneous face read- chanics (millwrights) in order to become proficient in ma-
ings as the shaftis rotated. chinery alignment.

FACE DISPLACEMENT = X -

Figure D-2-Three Dial Rim and Face Alignment

--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Copyright American Petroleum Institute


Reproduced by IHS under license with API Licensee=BP Amoco/5928366101
No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale, 01/04/2006 10:45:06 MST
API RP*:b86 96 m 0732290 0552074 908 m

PRACTICES FOR MACHINERY


RECOMMENDED INSTALLATION AND lNSTALUTlON DESIGN,CHAPTER 7 7-17

7. The laser alignment equipment normally providesa print- D.4.2.1 A frequently used type of operating temperature
out of the alignment for record purposes. This eliminates alignment for hot service pumps is to back-flow hot fluid
translation errors and provides consistency from one me- through a pump whileit is not in service. The change in align-
chanic (millwright)to the next. ment is monitored from the ambient condition to the hot con-
dition. This is not usuallyas accurate as other methods where
D.3.2.2
Disadvantages the equipment is in operation (as listed in D.4.2.2 through
1 . The initial cost is relatively high and mechanics (mill- D.4.2.5) but is often sufficient for many general-purpose
wrights) must be trained to usethe laser alignment equip- pumps.
ment. D.4.2.2 Alignment indicator stands are set up with a con-
2. The mechanic (millwright) does not get the feel for the stant temperaturecoolant flowing through them.The read-
actual alignment process because dial indicator calculations ings are taken with dial indicators or proximity probes on
--``,`,,,````,,,`````,,,,``,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

or graphs are eliminated. isItrecommended that laser align- machined surfaces attached to thebearing brackets. The
ment only be done by persons familiar with dial indicator