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Implementation of Production and Services Unit

Cooperation Between Automotive Industry


in Order for Preparing Mechanical Engineering
Graduates
Wahyu Waskito1, Supari Muslim2
1
Vocational and Technology Education, State University of Surabaya, wahyuwaskito36@yahoo.com
2
Vocational and Technology Education, State University of Surabaya, supari@unesa.ac.id

Abstract: In order to produce skilled of vocational high school graduates based on the demands of
industrial world and the development of science and technology recently, it is necessary to conduct
industry training through production and service unit by industry as a form of cooperation between
the automotive industry and vocational high school. Based on the reasons mentioned above, the
problems in this research are as follows: (1); How far are the implementation of cooperation between
the automotive industry and vocational high school?; (2) What are the advantages and weaknesses
the implementation of cooperation between the automotive industry and vocational high school?; and
(3) What are the influence of the implementation of cooperation between automotive industry and
vocational high school to the skills of vocational graduates in the automotive field?

The purpose of this study are: (1) to know the implementation of cooperation between the
automotive industry and Vocational High School; (2) to describe the advantages and weakness of the
implementation of cooperation between automotive industry and Vocational High School; (3) to
describe the influence of the implementation of cooperation between automotive industry and
Vocational High School to the skills of vocational graduates in the automotive field.

By doing the Research using literature study method, it is concluded as follows: (1) Implementation
of cooperation between automotive industry with vocational high school is called a partnership
which has meaning of synchronizing curriculum and adapting school practical facilities which is
appropriate with partner industry, which aim is to implement production units and services.; (2) the
advantaged of implementation cooperation between the automotive industry with vocational high
school are as a source of students learning to grow and to develop the entrepreneurial spirit and also
as a means of working practices directly as theyve practiced in the industry, while weakness is the
instructor from the industry is not able to provide practice learning at vocational high school
according to the available practice learning hours; and (3) The influence of the implementation of
cooperation between automotive industry and vocational high school to the skills of vocational
graduates in the automotive field has a huge influence on the competence of vocational high school
graduates so they are ready to become a candidate mechanics in entrepreneurship that the industry
need.

Keywords: Industrial Cooperation, Production and Service Unit, and Candidate Mechanics.

Introduction

To produce skilled vocational high school graduates in accordance with the demands of the industrial world and
the development of science and technology, it is necessary to have industrial training as a form of cooperation
between the automotive industry and vocational high school. This is in accordance with Law the Republic of
Indonesia No.20 / 2003 on National education system, that the purpose of vocational education is to prepare
learners to be ready to work in certain fields. In addition, based on the purpose of the five-year memorandum of
understanding, the ministry of 2016 article 1 states "to utilize available resources in order to develop
competency-based vocational and vocational education that links and matches with industry to produce
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prospective workers in the manufacturing industry with knowledge, skills and attitudes Work that suits the needs
of the industry ".

Development in the field or education sector greatly affect the economic field so that education should be
directed to achieve economic growth as expected. In addition, the most fundamental thing experienced by
vocational high school is Competition vocational high school graduates in winning job opportunities are getting
tighter. Only those who are competent or skilled are able to win the competition. Especially in the face of global
markets, where the workforce of Any country will be free to compete in our country. The development of
education can be done by applying learning strategies that are in harmony with the needs of the labor market and
the needs of today's emerging industries. A number of factual constraints are often expressed among the
vocational high school one of them that they complain about the industry in Indonesia is still not many who
have a training center that allows vocational high school students can perform industry work practices.
vocational high school As an educational institution that prepares the workforce, should not only focus on the
energy to fill the field of work in the industry, but also must be prepared independently to become entrepreneurs
who are able to create jobs for themselves or others as entrepreneurs. For that vocational high school graduates
must have the skills according to their fields to be applied directly. Directorate of education personnel in 2007
through education and training of production and service unit management declare unit of production and
service as source of student learning. Therefore, industry training through production and service unit as a form
of cooperation between the automotive industry and vocational high school. Bambang Sartono in national
education system (2007, p.6) mentions Unit of Production / Services in vocational high school is a process of
business activities conducted by schools continuously, academic and business by empowering school and
environment residents in the form of productive business units / services managed Professionally. Directorate of
vocational high school (2007, p.1) states "Production Unit is a means of learning and entrepreneurship for
students and teachers and provide support costs school operations".

Vocational high school as a formal education provider that conducts a production-based learning process that
allows to produce products or services that are worth selling and able to compete in the job market. According to
Martubi (in Firdaus, 2012: 399) " The production unit in the school is a business that produces goods or
services, which absolutely requires a set of business tools as capital. Unit production and services within the
school and academic and business by empowering school and environment residents in the form of Sartono's
professionally managed production / service business unit (in Depdiknas 2007). Production and Service
Unit is an entrepreneurship container in school, so it must be managed academically and
business as well as instituted in a business vessel. In order to learn to be more
meaningful, appropriate approaches, strategies and methods are needed. Dalle (in
Arsyad.2005) mentions, that learning by way of working directly or simulation can reach
the level at the accept work 90%. Therefore it is necessary an effort to be in schools / madrasah
available various rides that enable learners can do learning activities in the form of simulation or doing
something real. Production unit and school / madrasah service is one of the alternative containers that can be
used as a learning resource. The empowerment of school policies should be prioritized on the availability of a
set of system procedures, work rules, creativity and creativity (innovation), and policy consistency that ensures a
sense of fairness, empowering schools directed to flexible and flexible school structures and authorities. With
the expectation Output of vocational high school graduate products can be accepted job market based on
competitive advantage (Competitive Ad vantage) (Abuzar .H.2011).

Doso (2013), The results concluded that industrial cooperation with vocational high school should synchronize the
industry curriculum with school curriculum, so that students acquire skills as applied by indstri. Learning
outcomes achieved by vocational high school students will be valuable if it can be recognized by the community as
something useful and sold.
Based on the reasons mentioned above, the problems in this research are as follows: (1); How far are the
implementation of cooperation between the automotive industry and vocational high school?; (2) What are the
advantages and weaknesses the implementation of cooperation between the automotive industry and vocational
high school?; and (3) What are the influence of the implementation of cooperation between automotive industry
and vocational high school to the skills of vocational graduates in the automotive field?

Study of Research Theory

1. Implementasi of cooperation between the automotive industry and vocational high school.

This research is a research with literature review method, The extent to which the implementation of cooperation
between the automotive industry and vocational high school.

One of the efforts made by familiarizing students to implement productive practices with the nuance of the actual
industry is through the activities of production units and services in schools. The involvement of students in
production units and services in addition to strengthening the skills (hard skills) owned by students also to learn
to manage the type of business (soft skills).

Industry through Production Unit and Services as a form of cooperation implementation between automotive
industry and vocational high school. Production units can be directly or indirectly related to the education and
training programs available in vocational high school (Tawardjono, 2012). However, it is expected that the
activities carried out in accordance with the education and training programs available in the vocational school
so that it can be more beneficial to the achievement of student competence. The production unit is a miniature
company with objectives, infrastructure, and management. The production unit becomes one of the means that
can be optimized for vocational learning process in vocational high school. The vocational learning process in
vocational high school generally comprises theoretical learning, practice, and field experience directly in the work /
industry world.

Practical learning directly supports work-based learning that fits well with the goals of vocational education
(Cunningham, Dawes, & Bennet 2004). This is also in accordance with the statement from Lamancusa (2008)
that students want direct and indirect experience to listen to a lecture from a professor in a book or presentation
presentation. According to the theory of Prosser & Quegley (1950) the concept of the Production and Services
Unit at school would be effective if: (1). The environment in which the student is trained is a miniature
environment in which he will work; (2). The job training task is performed in the same manner, tools, and
machinery required in the work; (3). Train and work as in Industry, (40). Every individual has a high interest,
knowledge and skill; (5). Every profession, occupation, job for everyone who wants; (6). Training form the right
habits of work and thinking habits repeatedly, (7). The point of having successful experience on the application
of competence on operations and actual work processes (8). Vocational education takes into account market
demand / market signs; (9). Trainers are provided with real-life jobs that are full of values.

From the description above is the right implementation of cooperation between the automotive industry and
vocational high school in apply in schools to prepare candidate mechanics badi graduates of vocational high
school

Discusion
1. Advantages and disadvantages of the implementation of cooperation between the
automotive industry and vocational high school

Vocational High School serves to prepare a foundation and special skills in a person, develop them so that they
can work productively and adapt to the conditions and tasks in accordance with the times (Gasskov 2000, UU
Sisdiknas No 20 year 2003). Management of vocational high school nationally is currently under the Directorate
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General Education and Vocational High School (Directorate of GEVHS). The Directorate of GEVHS participates
in the effort to improve the quality of human resources through vocational high school by trying to improve the
competence and entrepreneurship spirit of vocational high school graduates. In the roadmap of vocational high
school 2010-2014, the Directorate of GEVHS has a vision to realize vocational high school that can produce
entrepreneurial spirit that is ready to work, intelligent, competitive, and have national identity, and able to
develop local advantage and can compete in global market. One of the effective means to achieve that goal is by
developing Unit Products and services in vocational high school.

The production and service unit is a miniature company with goals, infrastructure, and management. The
production unit becomes one of the means that can be optimized for vocational learning process in vocational
high school. The vocational learning process in vocational high school generally comprises theoretical learning,
practice, and field experience directly in the work / industry world. The existence of a production unit allows
students to have hands-on experience in industry as appropriate. Practical learning directly supports work-based
learning that fits well with the goals of vocational education (Cunningham, Dawes, & Bennet 2004). This is also
in accordance with the statement from Lamancusa (2008) that students want a direct and tangible experience
rather than listening to a lecture from a professor in a book or presentation presentation.

Production unit which is one of the teaching approach model in vocational high school is expected to give
impact or benefit to the organizer or other parties involved in it. According to Hidayqt (1991), the production
unit through continuous industrial relationships will automatically become an on-the-job training tool for all
teaching staff / instructors and learners in the field of entrepreneurship, so that the industry climate can be
absorbed in real terms, and This will increase their professionalism. More Ian Jut is said that any profit of the
production unit can be used to support the operational costs of education and institutional development.

While some other benefits according to Benny Suprapto (1) teachers and learners can the opportunity of
productive work training adequately in order to improve the quality of education; (2) teachers and learners who
are involved in the production unit will obtain additional income so as to raise their welfare; And (3) educational
institutions will receive education operational costs. Meanwhile, the implementation of production unit activities
will also benefit the following: (1) create employment in the institution concerned; (2) encouraging school of
educational institutions to be self-reliant in addressing the problem of decreasing the unit of tuition for
vocational education; And (3) improving the quality and integrity of behavior (Dikdasmen, 1987).

In its implementation, the production unit has several objectives, namely: (1). Improving the quality of graduates
in various aspects, especially in terms of knowledge and skills; (2). Production-based training vehicle and
fostering entrepreneurial spirit for students; (3). Assisting maintenance funding, additional facilities and other
operational education expenses; (4). Developing self-reliance and self-confidence in the implementation of
student practice activities and in obtaining employment opportunities; (5). Exercising the courage to take risks
with careful calculation, (6). Support the implementation and achievement of Dual System Education (DSE); (7).
Increase creativity, innovation and productive professional attitude on students, teachers and school
management; (8). Establish better cooperation with business and industry and other communities for the opening
of public facilities and their products; (9). Increase intensity and frequency of intra, co, and extra-curricular
activities of students, and (10). Building the ability of schools to establish synergic cooperation with outsiders
and the environment and the wider community. (Director General of Quality Improvement of Education 2007).

In general, the objectives of the Production Unit can benefit from the educational, economic, and social aspects
(Emilda Jusmin, 2012).

It is said by Slamet PH (1995) that the main characteristic of competence is "the ability to do something".
Therefore, the level of ability to do something is often used as a measure of graduate quality level. A tool often
used to measure competence is an occupational competency testing. The dimension of the relevance of the
graduates is indicated by indicators such as work placements relevant to their education, relatively short waiting
times, and relatively higher incomes than graduates from other equal education. The dimension of graduate
access is indicated by the opening of opportunities for vocational education graduates (eg vocational schools) to
develop themselves in the community, both for continuing higher education and opportunities for employment.

Based on the exposure related to the implementation of production units that occur in each vocational high
school, found some problems that occur in the weakness of the implementation of production units that will
affect the output results in the implementation of production units and services in schools. Weaknesses
weaknesses are: (1). Facilities and Infrastructure: Facilities, not all private schools have a proper building /
service facility used for production and service units in vocational high school, whereas we all know that means
is one of the forms when the production and service units are in school; (2). Planning for the implementation of
production units and services is still simple, meaning that the production unit is only assessed for the benefit of
the community as a means of students in the industry if there are students who do not have industrial premises;
(3). Often overlapping organizational structures, where many caretakers / members of production units and
services concurrently occupy positions in schools, do not focus on implementing production and service units in
vocational high school. Members of the board are not experts in automotive production and service units, this
affects the outcome of the student output in vocational high school. (4). Implementation of production units and
services in vocational high school is not running in vocational high school because the teachers who teach in
automotive can not focus on teaching production and service units practice in schools; (5). The community is
less confident with the skills / skills of students in the application of knowledge that has been obtained in
production and service units, the community judge that their vehicle is only made in the media practice of
students at production and service units. The above decomposition is one of the weaknesses in the
implementation of production and service units in vocational high school.

2. What are the influence of the implementation of cooperation between automotive industry
and vocational high school to the skills of vocational graduates in the automotive field?

Based on the concept of LINK & MATCH which has been described above mentioned that one of the realization
is with the implementation policy of Production Unit in school. Production Unit can be regarded as a miniature
of a company that has a lot to do with all things related to the company, namely: business status, goals,
objectives, scope and management in the business. Furthermore the line of business can be classified into
production and services. The field of services is a business that can directly be enjoyed by consumers, while
business in the field of production in general is not directly be enjoyed by consumers. From the description
above can be seen bahwasannya implementation of cooperation between automotive industry with vocational
high school is very influential in preparing graduates of vocational high school become skilled workers
according to industry.

The production unit in vocational high school is one of the implementation of cooperation between automotive
industry with vocational high school that try to prepare graduates of vocational high school to ready work in
industry. On the other hand, the organization of production units can provide motivation to the education
providers to be able to work as well as possible. This is also in accordance with the opinion of Barows (1983),
that the results of the intangible production of goods and services will provide motivation and pride in working.

Conclusions

Based on studies of the various literature and relevant research results as described above, it can be concluded
that:

Unit Production and Services is one of the steps taken by the government in reducing unemployment in
Indonesia. vocational high school as a formal education provider that conducts a production-based
learning process that allows to produce products or services that are worth selling and able to compete
in the job market.
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Implementation of cooperation between the automotive industry and vocational high school is the
application of industrial environments that are done in school .. One of the efforts made by familiarize
students implement productive practices with the nuance of the actual industry through the activities of
production units and services in schools. The involvement of students in production units and services
in addition to strengthening the skills (hard skills) owned by students also to learn to manage the type of
business (soft skills).

Production unit which is one of the teaching approach model in vocational school is expected to give
impact or benefit for the organizer or other parties involved in it that is cooperation between automotive
industry dan vocational high school. The existence of a production unit allows students to have hands-
on experience in industry as appropriate. Exposure above is the excess of the implementation of
production units and services of the automotive industry in vocational high school. Of course this
implementation also has weaknesses, among others: Facilities and Infrastructure. (1). Means, not all
private schools have proper building facilities / workshops used for production and service units in
vocational high school, whereas we all know that means is a form of production and service units in
schools; (2). Planning for the implementation of production units and services is still simple, meaning
that the production unit is only assessed for the benefit of the community as a means of students in the
industry if there are students who do not have industrial premises; (3). Often overlapping organizational
structures, where many caretakers / members of production units and services concurrently occupy
positions in schools, do not focus on implementing production and service units in vocational high
school. The member of the board is not an expert in the field of production and automotive services, this
affects the outcome of the student output in vocational high school; (4). Implementation of production
units and services in vocational high school is not running in vocational schools because the teachers
who teach in automotive can not focus on teaching practice in production and service unit class at
school. (5). The community is less confident with the skills / skills of students in the application of
knowledge that has been obtained in production and service unit, the community judge that their vehicle
is only made in the media practice of students at production and service unit.

Implementation of cooperation between the automotive industry and vocational high school on the
skills of vocational graduates in the automotive field is very influential on the output of graduates of
vocational students who are ready to work in the industry.

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