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SPE 29594

An Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterization


Society of Petroleum

of the Notih Robertson (Clearfork) Unit: A Case Study, Part 1

by L.E. Doublet,*Texas A&MU., P.K. Pande,* M.BClark,*J.W. Nevans,* Fins 011 and Chemical Company,
and T.A. Blasingame, Texas A&MU.

SPE Members

Sdefy ofPelrdeum
CaPm!$f1995, EBgineers, Inc.

TNe peper was pmpered for preeenlatbn al the 1995 Joint Rocky MotsMeh RegbrIsl Meeting end Low-Permaabflity Rasarvdm Symposium, Oermr, Cobrado, USA, 2022 Memfr 1995.

Thii paper was sefeded Ior preeenfefiin b an SPE Program CernmMee foflowing review of hfomdon cmfained in an ebalmct submilted by the author(s). contents of the paper, es pmaanfed,
have nof been re- by the Society of J atroieum Engineers and are s@ed 10 mredion by the atifsotts). Tfm malarial, es presented, does nof nemaeeri fymffadwvfdIbfrOf ti~of
Pefroleum Engineers, ile officers, or memlxrs. Papets presented at SPE maelinge are sbjecf to fion rakiaw by Edttil Carmlltees of fm Society of Pafrdeun Enghears. Penniaekm 10
COPY is restkl~ 10 an abstract of not more t~n 300 WOI@S. llluslra~ons may not be @. *stmdshldatain@ns@WWa-@gmeti ofnhereandbywfmmt hepeperia
presented. Wrile Libmrisn, SPE, P.O. Sox 833S36, Richardson, TX 750@3-383S, USA. Tabx, 1S3245 SPEUT.

BRIEF SUMMARY in~rwellcommunication. fheac results can be used to develop a

=11:- uf
- ..,,.11.--
wuim UIIa~ .,-if -
UIIIIO. CF.m-+i-io
MJUP...rie, withnllt rro~rd In
.. . . .. . . --= -- -- ~.D &-m~!abQn_rnodelfor prediction of infill locations. III lhk
rcsemoir performance and characterization, must become a pro- work, we will demonstrate the application of reservoir
ccas of the past. Such efforts do not optimize reservoir dcvclop- surveillance techniques to identify additional reservoir pay
...... . thrv -.-, --- accounL for [he ~~mp]ex
.- ---
fail tn m(um of reservoir zones, and to monitor pressure and preferential fluid movement in
hcterogcncitics present in many low pcrrncabilitycarbonate reser- the reservoir. These techniques are: long-term production and
voirs. These reservoirs arc typically characterizedby: injection data analysis, pressure transient analysis, and advanced
Large, discontinuous pay intervals
open and cased hole well log analysis.
The major contribution of this paper is our summary of cost ef-
Vcri.icaland lateral chsngcs in reservoirproperties fective reservoir characterizationand managementtools that will
Low reservoir energy be helpful to both independent and major operators for the optimal
development of heterogeneous, low pcrrncability carbonate rescr-
e High rcsiauai oii sahmatioii ~Qi~ Such-.. - ----- _R@crtson (C!earfork) Unit.
-.+ Now
as the

Low rccovc~ cfticicncy INTRODUCTION

The operational problems wc cncountcr in these lypcs of rcscr- There arc many complicated factors that will affect the successful
vous include: implementation of infill drilling programs in hetcrogcncous, low
permeability carbonate reservoirs such as the Clcarfork/Gloncta of
Poor or inadequate completions and stimulations west Texas. Before wc began this project, we conducted an ex-
tensive literature review to gain a better understanding of tic pro-
Early water breakthrough ducibility problems we face at the North Robertson Unit (NRU).
Poor reservoir sweep efficiency in contacting oil throughout Fortunately, these reservoirs have a long producing histow and
the reservoir as well as in the near-weltregions there is a large quantity of useful data available from case studies
for prim~, secondary, and tertiary operations in the Clearfork
Chamcling of injcctcd fluids duc to and other analogous reservoirs.
prcfcrcntial fracturing caused by cxcessivcinjectionrates In a 1974 case study conccming watcrflooding operations at the
Limited data availabilityand poor data quality Denver (San Andrea) Unit, Ghaun, et afl gave valuable insights
concerning reservoir discontinuity, injector-producer confor-
Infill drilling operations only need target arcaa of the reservoir mance, and the effect of reservoir quality on reservoir sweep
which will bc economically successful. If rhc most productive efficiency.
areas of a reservoir can bc accurately identified by combining the
results of geologic, pctrophysical, reservoir pcrformancc, and Poor reservoir rock quality and the cxistcncc of discontinuous pay
pressure transient analyses, then this integratedapproach can be between injection and producing wells resulted in a recommenda-
used to optimize reservoir pcrforrnancc during sccondruyand ter- tion to reduce nominal WCI1 spacing from 40 acres to 20 acres. An
tiary rccovcry operations without resorting to blanket infill outcrop study on the San Andrcs was performed to verify rcser-
drilling methods. vou discontinuity. Injection wells were completed and stimulated
preferentially in an effort to flood only the continuous layers of
Ncw and emerging technologies such as cross-borehole tomogra- the reservoir. The original peripheral injection design was
phy, gcostatistical modeling, and rigorous decline type curve convcrmd to inverted tic-spot paucms in an effort to decrease the
analysis can be used to quantify reservoir qurdityand the degree of amount of water chrmnclingand early water breakthrough via the
most ~nncablc members.
Rcfcrcrtccsand illustrations at cnd of paper In 1976, Stilcs2 summarized the difficulties encountered in water

2 An Intemted Geolozic irndEngineering Reservoir Characterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork) UniC iPE 29594
A Case Study, Part 1

flooding npcrations at the Fullerton (Clcarfork) Unit. The author In addition, performance data arratysisand pressure trrrnsicnttest
noted lhat increasing the injection rate would never result in an results indicated a roughly cast-west directional permeability or
equal response at the producing WCIIS.The concept of pseudo fraclurc orientation. This will be the most likely direction of prcf-
fill-up was introduced 10 cxpiain that Siihotigit RSCittii fiii-ii~ ..fi.~;.l .~att-~...
blbaa.lul-s-. nm-wement in [k Rokr-fsorr (C]ctiork). Pay conti-
. . .... ... ... --- . --_-.
~,ay occur in LhC rnOSt pcrmcablc or continuous layers of the nuity was quantified using gcologicrd,reservoir pcrformancc, and
reservoir, a large gas saturation still existed in the poorer quality pressure lransicnt data, and aii three -. L-A..-.... .:...:1. ,-nO,
mcmuus giNV S,lllll- ,WAW.

reservoir rock. For this reason, the theoretical maximum Wireline formation test results showed that individual Iaycrs had
producing rate would never be achicvcd without con~cting tie widely
.. . different
.. w~fin formation pressures, indicating a lack of vertical
discontinuous areas through infill drilling. con~m~y h~e~i~fl~rk.
A statistical study was performed to quantify reservoir continuity A further conclusion was made regarding the best locations for the
as a function of interwell distance on the basis of continuous and infill WC1lS.Barbe and Schnocbclcn found that the best 10-acre
discontinuous reservoir layers. Stiles maintained that injection and 20-acre producers were in the same anms as the best 40-acre
pressures above the parting pressure of the formation was re- producers, which indicates that the identification of areas of high
quired in order to maintain acceptable injection rates in the reser- quality reservoir rock is perhaps more important than finding the
voir. areas of poor reservoir continuity when dwiding on infill WCIIlo-
In a 1978 review of WCS1 Texas carbonate reservoir watcrflooding cations.
operations,George and StilcsJ outlined their recommendationsfor The primary objcctivc of our work is not to explain the concepts
optimizing waterflood operations in the Means (San Andrcs), behind the initiation of a successful waterflood and subsequent
Fullcrlon (Clcarfork), and Robertson (Clcarfork) Units. These infill drilling program for hctcrogcneous, low permeability car-
authors stressed the importance of infill drilling and pattern modi- bonate reservoirs as this has been effectively discussed in the
fication to ovcrcomc pay rock stratification, and the need for con- literature.l~ Rather, wc will usc the tools discussed in our work
tinuous interaction bctwccrr geologists and cnginccrs in order 10 to aid in our analyses, and wc will introduce new and existing
produce a program of optimal reservoir development and deple- technologies that can bc economically implemented by all
tion. operators.
A rock-log model was formulated for the Robertson (Clcarfork) Exarnplcs of these technologiesinclude:
using a limited amount of core data and old gamma ray/neutron 1. Formulation of a rock-logmodel to identify the highest
logs that were available field-wide. Original oil-in-place (OOIP) quality pay intervals using availableopen hole well log
was calculated by both volumetric and matcriat balance methods. data for the extrapolation of core propccdcafrom a
The authors pointed out that the ratio of material balance OOIP to . limited number of wells.
volumetric OOIP should yield a qualitative rncasurc of reservoir
continuity since the material balance calculationonly considers in- 2. Calculation of total and movable fluid volumes and
tcrvats that arc continuous or cffcctivcly completed, while the vol- estimation of formation flow characteristicsusing a
umetric calculationconsiders all payquality reservoir rock. rigorous dcclinc type curve method for the analysis of
readily available oil production data.
George and Stiles provided a method to identify ftoodable pay,
which was diffcrcntiatcd from continuous pay on the basis of the 3. Low-cost acquisition and analysisof pressure falloff
most probable geometry of a continuous layer between an injec- data from injection wells using surface pressure gauges.
tion and producing well. Obviously, the amount of floodable pay 4. Development of spatkd relationshipsfor reservoir
in the reservoir was aiways siightiy icss than the mnoiirliof coil- .,ns-i.hl~
mf intmrocf
A u-----
at IitIQ~tilPd
. . .. .~...-

tinuous pay, and both could be optimized through intlll drilling. across the Unit using gcostatisticaltechniques.
The authors concluded that floodablc pay must be continuous 5. Performing 3-D reservoir simulation for history
bctwccn injection and producing WCIIS,bc injection supported, matching, inffli drilling dcvclopmcntforecasting, and
and be cffcctivcly completed at the producing well. validation.
In a 1980 summary of work completed at the Denver (San HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Andrcs) Unit, Ghauri4 outtincd the importance of integrated geo-
logic and engineering studies in the dcvclopmcnt of the Wasson The NRU is located in Gaines County, Texas in the northern part
(San Andrcs) field from primary through tertiary depletion. The of the Ccntrat Basin PlaUorm of the Permian Basin (Fig. 1). The
author goes into great detail describing the proccsscs that were producing horizons arc the Glorieta and Clcarfork Formations
utilized to incrcasc sweep cfficicncy, optimize completion and (referred to as the Upper and Lower Clcarfork). The hydrocarbon
stimulation proccdurcs, and improve WCIIconforrnancc. The de- bearing interval extends from the top of the GIoneta to the base of
sign and installation of automated artificial lift systems arc also tic Lower Clcarfork, between the correlative depths of approxi-
highlighted. mately 5,870-7,440 fccL
Barber, et a~ provided a case study in 1983 describing infill The NRU project area of 5,633 acres contains a total of 259 wells
drilling results in nine carbonate and clastic reservoirs in Texas, as of January, 1995. This includes 144 active producing wells,
Oklahoma, and Illinois. This work resulted in an cxtrcmciy im- 109 active injection WC1lS and 6 water supply wells. For the pur-
portant observation regarding the affect of rcduccd well spacing poses of this study, the Unit has been divided into three pre-
on pay continuity. Using data for 20-acre wells in the Means demonstration study areas (PDSA) as shown in Fig. 2.
(San Andres) UniL a 4 pcrccnt increase in pay continuity was Development and Production History
*---- 4-A ...k.. ..n...ml.ml..-e~imm wiac rofillrfift !Q lo ~~~c~.
---- l-- .L-. m,--L n -l.-+.,,.- G...l
t. A~LXLU4 W1lU1l llu1lllllaI c.pati..,~ r.- . . . . . . .
i%oitu~uonmom m~ mu UI nuw WII 8&~Ad n-o in
h-~a bti5=, ~..W.--.,
thm .wwlw
However, after pay continuity was rccatculatcd on the basis of 10- 1950s with 40-acre primary depletion development. This 40-acre
acrc welt data, it was found that the actual pay continuity incmasc primary dcvclopmcnt resulted in 141 producing WC1lS.The NRU
~M i4 p~rccnL The authors noted that past observations
..- ..
WIC fntid
..... offm-livp
.. -.,... March
...--... 19X7
..-. --- -. pqNMc of irX@CItlent-
for the
regarding additional recovery from injill wells made prior to
ing waterflood and infdl drilling operationsto reduce normnal well
drilling were probably extremely pessimistic.
spacing from 40 acres to 20 acres. At the time of unitization, oil
In 1987, Barbc and Schnocbclcnb summarized tic results of an production from the Unit area was approximately 670 STWD,
aggressive infill drilling program in the Robertson (Clcarfork) with a GOR of 1,550 scf/STB, and water production of 500
Unit. The authors found that obstacles associated with poor BW/D. Secondary rccovc~ operations were initiated after uniti-
reservoir continuity in hclcrogcncous, low permeability carbonate zation and in conjunction with infii drilling. Most of the 20-acre
r~scrvoirs could only be overcome through infill drilling on a rc- infill drilling was completed between unitization and the cnd of
duccd nominat wctl spacing. I 1991. The relevant fluid, formation, and production data are

S}E29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevrms, and T.A. Blasingame 3

shown in Table 1. the Unit (Fig. 4). This development of the geologic model in-
The cumulative produccciand injcctccifluid v~iurn~~a-c swnnla- ~iud~ the depositional setting and variability, depositional envi-
rizd below. Fig. 3 shows the production and injection history of ronments, diagcnctic cffccta~ lithological variadons, cffcctS of
the Unit from dcvclopmcnt in 1956 through Scptcmbcr 1994. pore systcm geometry, physicaf pro~fi~. ~d na~~ fractu~.
Np Duc to the lack of conventional core (a common problem in older
(MMSTB) &w) &w) reservoirs), there was a need 10 develop a unit-wide geologi-
cal/pctrophysicaf model so that individurd rock types could be
As Of 1987 17.5 8.2 NIA identified on the basis of well log responses in areas where core
1987-1994 7.4 20.8 52.3 was not available. The rock-log model that was developed is
At the time of unitization, the estimated ultimate reeovcry (EUR) baaed on the petrophysical and M.hologicalstudy of 4,600 feet of
for primary production was 20.5 MMSTBO, and the secondary to whole core from eight WCIISin the NRU. This work involved
primary rccovcry ratio was calculated 10 be approximately 1:1. detailed scdimcntologic observations of the whole core, thin-scc-
[ien ~na!y~c~, x-ray diffraction (XRD), special core analYsis
The current waterflood utilizes a 40-acre 5-spot pattern type with
20-acre nominal well spacing. Current Unit production rates are (SCAL), and pore geometry investigations using scanning elec-
approximately 3,200 STB/D, 1,400 MCF/D and 11,000 BW/D. tron microscope (SEM) image analysis. The relationships be-
Water injection volumes arc approximately 20,000 BWI/D, with tween pore volumes and pore throats lravc been quantified by di-
injcclion water comprised of produced water, and fresh water rect measurements of pore casts.
from WCOgallafaaquifer obtained from water supply wells within Quantitative rock type porosity-permeability relationships were
the Unit. established in order to identify the most attractive pay intervals.
The distribution of pay rock types in individual WC1lShas been
METHODOLOGY calculated and will be used to gcncratc interwelf reservoir quality
TM pai)~~wiii summarize both complctcd ~d schcdulcdwork in maps using geostatisticaf methods. The results will then be used
the following areas to describe the reservoir for 3-D simulation.
Gcologicaf/PctrophysicatStudy Geologic Modei
- Formulation of geologic model ..
enronaf Envir~
- Core analysis The int4wrc12~on~f~r dcr)o~itionticnvironmcnk (Figs. 5 and 6)
- Formulation of rock-log model
- Flow unit identification and reservoirlaycnng have been derived prirn~iy-from qualitativedescriptionsand thin-
- Continuity anatysis of reservoir pay scction studies of the whole core samples. The depositional envi-
rornnents for the Clearfork and Gloricta Formations are as fol-
Cross-Borehole Tomography lows:
- Theory/methodology
Highstand LitAofacicsTracts
- Preliminary results
- Plan for future data acquisition supratidal and subaerial deposits
- Integration of cross-borehole seismic data for intertidrdand channclizedtidal flaIs
rmcrvoir characterization open and resticted lagoons
- Opcrationafconsiderations - grainstone shoals
- subtidrd
Reservoir Performance Data Analysis open shelf
- 011production data analysis using dcclinctype curves
Transgressive Lhhofacics Tracts
(Reservoir quality maps)
- Reservoir performance bubble maps - shclfal and patch reef
- Waterflood performance anafysis Low Stand Lhhofacics Tracts
(Injection well pcrforrnanccplots) inland sabkha
Reservoir Survcillancc Plan
L9wcr Cka@s
- Water quality program
- pressure transient data acquisition and anafysis In general, the Lower Clearfork, which is defined as the portion
- step-rate tedrlg of the Clcarfork directly overlain by the Tubb (wansgressivema-
- Review of complctionkirnulation procedures
rine shaly dolostone interval), was deposited in open marine-
- Coiled-tubing workovcrs shelfal conditions and is dominated by grainstones that are
- Cased-hole WCIIlogging program thought to have developed in shallow water shoaling
- Future data acquisition environments. The shoaling areas may have coalesced and
intcrtlngcred with one another thereby resulting in more or less
GcostatisticafSimulation continuous behs (current andfor wave dominated and organized)
- Methodology of grainstone dcposita (primarily fusulinid or pcloidal) which
- Conditional simulation techniques comprise a dolograinstone reservoir facies with some preservation
- Approach at North Robertson Unit of primary porosity.
3-D Reservoir Simulation A study of historical production data using contour maps of reser-
- Methodology voir performance suggcs~ that these outer shelf grainstone nxcr-
- Reservoir performancecritcna voirs appear to be in communication with one another and the
- Selection of areas for modeling amount of compartmentalization and heterogeneity may not be as
- lVIWG, u,,au~il
pronounced as in the Middle and Upper Clcarfork (which overly
the Tubb markcrj. Tinisconcept may also~ iitttibiited, itt prtt :G
PVT and rock-fluidinteractiondata
more widespread and uniform conditions of deposition with leas
- History match criteria cyclicity (fewer changes in sea level and/or water depth). A
GEOLOGICAL/PETROPHYSICAL STUDY structure map of the Tubb formation is shown in Fig. 7.
A geologic model was constructed on the basis of both macro-
scopic data (visual) and microscopic data (petrographic thin sec- The remainder of the Clearfork and the Glorieta sequences are
tion and scanning electron microscope) obt&md from analysis of typified by highstand lithofacics characterizedby highfycyclic de-
. . . ..l. bl.. . . I....h ,.-.- f-mm . l;w.+;ir.tl mt. mbr nf uwllc thrnl}nhnll!
avalla Iv W1lUIUVulb ,,,,, CA ,,,.,,.- ,,,,, -, v, ..-.. -.. e..., w. ---:* :--.! ---
puo,uuual :-nnmmmt#.fill.:.t;
V,lti,,uilie.d ~..eaous,g nf inner chplf~ cnhtitlal flak
v, . . .... .... . ---- ..--,

An !ntegrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit SPE 29594
A Case Study, i%rt i

restricted and open lagoons, tidal flats which arc frequently chan- rdthough porosity values maybe high relative to triangular pores,
nclinxl, intertidal and supratidat sabkha flats. intcrconncctivityis usually relatively poor resulting in lower reser-
The Iowcr portion of the Middle Clcarfork, which immediately voir rock quality.
overlies lhc Tubb Marker, is charactcri~cd by a transgrcssivc On the basis of these analyses, seven unique pore types were
Iithofacicstract (approximately 150 to 250 fed thick). Within this identified for usc in rock typing. Their characteristics arc summa-
interval there is some cvidcncc of possible patch reef rized in Table 2.
dcvclopmcnts represented by the existence of non-porous, mottled Rock Typing
boundstoncs that contain sponge, algae, coral, and bryozoan
fragments. A total of eight rock types have been identified of which four have
reservoir potcntird(one being limcatoncand wa~r -g). Rock
Reservoir performance contour maps suggests that the dolostonc types have been identified on the basis of volume proportions of
reservoir rocks that charactcriz~ these depositional environments pore types and unique lithological characteristics. The rcIative
have generally poorer reservoir paramclcrs. Porosity and perme- volume proportions of each of the seven pore types in each rock
ability arc rcduccd as these dolostoncs tend to bc silty and argilla- type are shown in Fig. 10. Average core values for porosity,
CeOUSand arc frequently anhydritic. Cyclicity has resulted in a permeability, and estimated rccovcry efficiency are presented for
high dcgrcc of compartmentalization and hctcrogcncity and varia- each of the eight rock types in Table 3. Recovery efficiency was
tions in pctrophysical properties rctlcct the prcscncc of numerous estimated using the mclhods outilned by Wardlaw and Cassan10
crossflow barriers which arc indicative of reservoir cornpartmcn- on the basis of the pore arrangement, coordination number, and
talixation. aspect ratio. Low aspect ratios and high coordination numbers
Pay quality reservoir rocks, where present, arc once again rcprc- typically result in good reservoir sweep efficiency.
scntcd by grainstoncs and wackcstoncs (ooidal and/or skeletal) Rock types 1 and 2 make up the primary reservoir payintervals
that were dcposilcd in response to shoaling depositional environ- at the NRU. These rock types consist of coarsely crystalline
ments. Oomoldic and biomoldic porosity maybe well developed, dolostones that differ in terms of their pore geometries. These
however, intcrconncctivity is usually poor, resuhing in low qual- rocks generally correspond to subtidal sandflats, grainstone
ity reservoir rock. Structure maps for tbc Upper Clcarfork and shoals, and open shelf depositional environments. Rock types 3
Gloricta arc shown in Figs. 8 and 9. and 4 may bc productive in certain areas, but fOrthe most pm
R@cl=is they arc considered non-resenoir rock. These rocks are finely
Moldic porosity has been attributed to skeletal and grain dissolu- crystalline dolostones that have different pore geometries and
.....11.. n~m~.~fintit~
u~bally~u,, wpu..u .V~w=r-.-.,
CIIII atidal tidal
.-. ----fla~ and ---------
.- restricted lagoon
tion by post-depositional leaching. This has taken piacc during
-. A,-.A. ah~ OUuati.sw
p,luua -.hofi.inl .-v-mnc,,r-
wnp. . . ..w. ~QIQrn~!~ ~~St~S h~Ve i&O been depaitional environments. Rock type 5 is limestone and water-
leached which has resulted in the development of intcrcrystalline bearing.
porosity. Periods of leaching and dissolution arc probably related From the standpoint of oil production, the best reservoir rock is
to sea lCVC1 fluctuations and predate diagcncticdolomitization. rock type 1, which consists primarily of grainstones and has some
Tbc dolomitization may bc explained by ncomorpho~tion of syn- primary porosity preserved (average core porosity is approxi-
dcpositional aragonitc (high-magnesium calcite) cement which mately 5.4 percent). Coordination numbers and aspect ratios are
lined fcncstral pores. The fcncstral fabric is representative of less favorable than for the other reservoir quality rock types (2,3,
supratidal and intertidal facies. The calcite ccmcnt was subse- and 5). However, the intcrconnectibility is much more favorable,
quently dolomitizcd. resulting in good fluid flow potential (average com permeabilityis
approximately 5.5 red). The less favorable reservoir rock types
Pore Geometry have generally low coordination numbers and high aspect ratios
Reservoir qualily and continuity arc dominated by variations in reflecting relatively poor flow potentials.
pore gcomcKy.7 Reservoir rocks having equal values of total The non-reservoir rock types (rock types 6, 7, ~d 8) we ==n-
porosity may have significantly diffcrerii p~imeabiiity, iF3iAW2 .:-11..:...-
LIiUIy Llllpel
,..l.la ..A
-a,, ha
w i-nrt.
- tn.W-e
h v~fl~~~ fl-QW

permeability, and irreducible fluid saturation characteristics. banicrs. The presence of these rock types is a signikrmt factor in
These discrepancies arc a result of changes in pore structure the ICVCIof reservoir hcterogcncity and compartmentalization.
caused by variations in pore type, size, and throat size.a,g Knowledge of the distribution of these non-reservoir rock types is
Extreme varialion in pore geometry is characteristic of hclcro- esscntird to the successful implementation and operation of sec-
gcncous, low pcmmabilily carbonate reservoirs such as the Clcar- ondary and tertiary rccovcry programs.
fork/GloncLa. Irregular porosity development and the abundance of small po~
Pore types were quantitatively dctincd for tic available core using throats in the Glorieta/Clcarfork result in poor reservoir continu-
pore cast studies and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image ity, directional permeability and fracture trends, as well as poor
analysis on the basis OR sweep efficiency during secondary and tertiary recovery opera-
tions. These same characteristics suggest that infiil drilling on a
Pore body size and shape mcasurcmcnl reduced spacing and a vigilant reservoir survci.llanccprogram are
- Pore size required.
- Pore shape factor (pare perimeter /4npore area) Special Core Analysis
- Length to width ratio
In order to accurately model reservoir flow conditions, we need
Pore throat mcasurcmcnt]o representative rock-fluid interaction data. The present capillary
- Coordination number (number of pore throats/pore) pressure and relative permeability data sets will be augmented
- @cct ratio (pore body sizebore throat size) with additional data from proposed infill wells. The initial
~~~iy~~~have h~l~d idenbf~ which rock t~PMwill & imporhllt
Matrix/porearrangement and intcrcomcction in two and
w]th regard to reservoir producing mechanisms, as well as the
tbrcc dimensions rock types that will act as barriers to flow. This data will be used
Pore gcomclrics arc classified by shape as triangular, irregular, as initial input data for reservoir simulation, as well as being a
polyhedral and tetrahedral. Primary intcrparticlc porosity has tri- guide for future data acquisition.
angular pores and tbc vuggy porosity is dcscribcd as being irregu-
lar (and sometimes elongated). The triangular pores arc generally
WC1lintcrconncctcd and arc typical of the grainstonc reservoir fa- A total of twenty-four core plugs from two WC1lS
(NRU 207 and
cies. The irregular pores arc lypical of dissolution porosiiy and 3522) were used to gcncratc mercury-air capillary pressure

L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame 5

CUKVCS. These data clcarly show significant differences in the comprehensive evaluation of formation properties than would be
displacement chmc@rklics ofticwmoifrockty~. Although possible using older porosityhesistivity well log suites.
these data arc from WC1lSin areas of the Unit with the highest The wells drilled prior to unitization do not have the requisite well
dcgrcc of reservoir continuity, wc can make some qualitative log suites to apply the model. However, since there is usuaJlyan
interpretationsregarding reservoir quality and productiordinjcction abundance of older wireline log data for many fields such as
potential as a function of rock type. The capillary pressure curves Nofih Robertson Unit, we note that these well logs should yield
for rock type 1 arc shown in Fig. 11. an cxtrcmcly good rock-log model if the welt log data arc properly
u&~g ~h~rn~thnds ~._L_.... by Thomccr,ll the data have been
----- nrcscntcd intcrprctcd. All of this, with little additional expenditure for the
intcrprctcd as hyperbolic functions in order to estimate composite operator.
averages of pore throat radius, minimum entry pressure, and the The wiretine log data has been corrcctcd for wellbore environ-
relative amount of incffcctivc porosity (porosity occupied by mer- ment, normalized on the basis of core porosity and the average
cury at injection pressures cxcecding 500 psia) for each rock type. porosity across the inteml of interest (when required), and depth
The results arc summarized in Table 4. On average, rock type 1 shifted. Rock types 1-4 are differentiated from rock types 5-8 on
again appears to bc the primary reservoir rock with the largest the basis of apparent matrix density, apparent photoelectric
pore throat radius, the lowest entry pressure, and the least amount capture cross-section, gamma ray response, and lithology (Fig.
of incffcctivc porosity. Rock types 2 and 5 arc moderate quality 16). The primary reservoir rock types can then be further
reservoir rocks, and rock types 3 and 4 appear to have limited delineated using a crossplot of apparent porosity versus the
reservoir potential duc to their smaller pore throat radii and large calculated cementation factor. Pcmneabilityis calculated using a
percentage of ineffective porosity. Rock type$ 6,7, and 8 can be lithology-corrected crossplot porosity and the core-derived
charactcrimd as flow barriers in the reservoir. permeability-porosityrelationshipsfor each particular rock type.
, .... ., -- ..-._ m. .. ----___--
- ,---- u.. r- . . L--:- r.-..--.,.. -1... ----
~ mswts arc gencratca on a IouL-LIy-IuuL oam M Giuxqmn pUlUa-

The oit/water relative permeability data were taken at various ity, pcrrneability, and rock type in both cored wells, and non-
water saturations on twelve core samples from a single well in the corcd wells which have the necessary well log suites. The in-
Unit (NRU 3522). Relative permeability curves for rock type 1 trawcll rock type, porosity, and permeability data can then be ex-
arc shown in Fig. 12. These results confirmed that rock types 1 tended to an interwell basis using geostatistical simulation, and
and 2 arc the primary pay rocks in the reservoir. From the limited reservoir quality maps can be gcncratcd.
data available, rock type 1 has a comparatively lower irreducible Reservoir Layering
water saturation and lower entry pressure, however, the prcdictcd
residuat oil saturation appears to bc cxtrcmcly high. The planned
acquisition and anatysis of additional data will give us the oppor- The formulation of a rock-log model has provided us a
tunity to further study the relative permeability characteristics of mechanism to identify parlicutar flow units, which may consist of
the various rock types. one or more rock types, and which may be related to their
respective depositional environments. It is worth noting that rock
Rock-Log Model types are usually not unique to a particular depositional
TIM~~icctivc nf tic rock-!q rnodcl work is LOfacilitate the delin- envir~nrn~n[. ~.~w ~ni~~~r~ d~s~LMIl~nuQuS ~d reflect a high

eation ~~-r-~;;o;~flo-w-units. Eight rock types have been identi- degree of reservoir compartmentalization and heterogeneity both
fied of which only three can bc truly classified as potential oil- laterally and verticatty.
producing pay (one of which is limestone and water wet). The l%-
. .. methnrlnlnov
..&.u.v.~J tic-d
A.. the
. ridm-rninati-m nf .flnw
. . . . ....... . . .. . . . .. nnitc
---- .invnlvd
.. . . . . . .
need for a reservoir model that has field-wide applicationis csscn- the following studies:
tiat as ordy a limited number of wctls in the NRU have been cored
in the Gloricta/ClcarforkFormations. Scdimentologic descriptions of 4,600 feet of whole rock

As a whole, there was no simple, direct relationship between core cores from eight WCIIS
porosity and core permeability (Fig. 13). However, when the X-ray diffraction of core samples for mineralogy and
data were segregated by rock types gcncratcd from core an~ys[s, nnanlificatinn of clav minerakwv
>- ---------- -- --- J --------
the relationship between porosity and pcrmcabiiity became Eurly -9J

unique and simple linear relations could be used to define the per- Pore geometry analysis by SEM and pore cast studies
meability on the basis of porosity (Fig. 14). If reservoir rock
types can bc defined using core data, then the same poros- Special core analysisfor the determinationof relative
ity/permeability relationship should also apply for wireline log permeabilityand capilhy pressurecharacteristicsfor
data, and the model can bc extended throughout the Unit to all each rock type
wctls with the rquisitc well log data. Dcvclopmcntof a rock-log model to determineporosity

Our rock-log model rquircs the fot.towingmodcm wireline logs: and permeabilityrelationshipsunique to each rock type
Gamma ray (GR) The Glorieta/Clcarfork Formations (approximately 1,200 feet
gross thickness) have been iaycrcd into i6 stratigraphic units
Photoelectriccapurrc cross-section (PE) (Fig. 17). Further work may necessitate the definition and
Compensated neutron (CNL o) recognition of additional units. Each of these stratigraphic units
(potential flow units) arc bounded by potcntiaJcross-flow baniers
Compensated formation density (@ that are thought to bc representative of a sabkha or supratidal
depositional environment (the culmination of a shoaling upward,
Dual Latcrolog (LLD and LLS - dmphhallow rcsistivitics) fifth order cycle ranging from approximately50 feet to 200 feet in
total thickness). These cycles have been identified within the
whole cores and in some instances have gamma ray WC1llog
Sonic and Microlatcrologs would have been extremely useful in responses that are characteristic of various rock types.
isolating pay rock types, however, these WCIIlogs were run
with insufticicnt frqucncy to bc used. These boundaries arc time-defined (isochronous), and the result-
ing depositional packages within the stratigraphic units are there-
The rock-log model was formulated to take advantage of the large fore contemporaneous in nature. Thtxc units have an origin re-
amount of modcm WCIIlog data (123 welts) that was available due lated to rapid and frequent custatic (sea level) changes on a car-
to the completion of a 20-acre post-unitization infill drilling pro-
gram bctwccn 1987 and 1991. A type log for NRU Well 207 is bonate shelf or platform that was cssentialty featureless or without
-L----- :- l-,- *e any significant topography. Therefore, small changes in eustacy
snuwn m rig, 12. ---
I ncsc int)rkm w-~ii
i~g sttitt~ SiklwfOra RIG=

6 An Integrated Geologic and EngineeringReservoirCharacterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork) UniL SPE 29594
A Case Study, Prnt I

pro(hrccdhighly cyclic squcnccs. These parasqucnces arc car- mum infill drilling locations, as WC1las a method for monitoring
boniitc-domirtatcdwith insignificantclastic influences. flood fronts during secondary and tertiary recovery operations.12
Swucturc maps have been constructed for the top of each strati- Reservoir analysis utilizing data from cores and well logs is in-
graphic unit, and have been observed to stack. Isopachs have complete since it does not include enough information concern@g
also been made for each unit 10ascertain where changes in shclfal properties bclwccn individual WC1lS.Pressure transient testing
accommodation for sediments has occurred. only considers portions of the reservoir that arc in communication
The relative distributions of potential reservoir rock types (1,2,3, with the wellbore, but will not adequately delineate reservoir het-
and 5) and non-reservoir rock types (4, 6, 7, and 8) for each erogeneities and flow barriers.
stratigraphic unit will be dctcrmincd by predictive facies analysis. Cross-borehole seismic data is acquired by physically lowering
This invo!vcs showing the distribution of a particular reservoir seismic source and receiver arrays down wellbores via electric
rock as a function OC wireline and recording waves reflected off reservoir interwell fa-
Total thickness of reservoir rocldtotal thicknessof cies that possess varying acoustical impedance properties. The
use of cross-borehole seismic results in higher resolution images
reservoir and non-reservoir rock than are possible using surface seismic since the distances over
Thickness of a particul~ reservoir rock lypc.hotal which the acoustic waves must travel are shorter, resulting in less
thickness of non-reservoir and reservoir rock. wave attenuation and allowing for the usc of a broader range of
bandwidths for interpretation.13
Thickness of a particular reservoir rock typdtotal

tiickncss of all reservoir rocks Seismic Travel Time Tomography Approach

There should bc a relationship(s) bctwccn the sedimentaccommo- Seismic travel time tomography has been in use for several
dation indicated by the rcsptitivc stratigraphic unit isopachs and years.lz-lc Seismic energy transmitted through the formation is
lhc distribution(s) of the various reservoir rock types. There expressed in terms of a source-to-rc=ivcr travel time and inverted
should also bc a corrcspom!cncc bclwccn the occurrence of the to a velocity ticld representation of the formation.
reservoir rock types and the areas of iite RXTtOii with good 1- ~F~
All Ulue.. *fi
hnvn 9 cllffirient nnmk.r of rav oaths for inversion tO
. ..=. 9.. . . . -.... .. . ... . . . - ., r
r~scrvoir performance and intcrconncctivity as per the reservoir the velocity field, many combinations of sourcekceiver pairs arc
performance maps (in particular, the distribution of reservoir recorded. The rccorciing acsign is based on RISCifWii eoiiditkrtts
Rock Type 1, the most favorable reservoir rock). and imaging requirements. A schematic diagram of the tomog-
.AdditiQn~!y,LNMCd on the rock-log model, M and @ maps will raphic data acquisition
..-l -L_.-.:-- .L- -.,SL-. operation is shownfrnrn
.-.f . . . . math.
in Fig, 19. An ex-
th~ torn.~g~w
also bc constructed for each strati~raphic unit There should be ample snuwlllg L1lG llU1ll UG1 U, .~, FW,Q .. .. . ..+ .

some very disccmiblc cormspondcncc between the distribution of recorded between NRU wells 207 and 403 is shown in Fig. 20.
the reservoir rocks types, porosity, and permeability distribu- Seismic travel time inversion tomography measures changes in
tion(s) within the interval isopachs and the reservoir performance velocity between the wells, for which the relationship of rock
maps. properties to velocity is the principle concern. A decrease in ve-
The results from this work arc forthcoming and will bc incorpo- locity is expected with an increase in porosity (higher fluid con-
rated within the gcostatistical analysis of tic reservoir. Areas that tent).
have been qualitatively evaluated as very favorable, favorable and Completed and Planned Tomography
unfavorable for infill drilling will then bc quantified. This quan-
tification will involve assessing the merits of respective areas of A cross-well tomography survey using NRU wells 207 and 403
the reservoir for infill drilling on the basis of the relative probabil- was completed during July, 1994. A future survey is planned for
ityy of success i.e., the qualitative geologic evaluation for relative pre-demonstration study area (?DSA) III of tie Unit using NRU
success of infill drilling will k quanticd and uneconomicblanket wells 3522, 3511, and 3528 (Fig. 21). One reason these areas
drilling in the lCSSfavorable areas of the reservoir will hopefully were chosen is that fuHy cored wells are available as control
be clirninatcd. points for data analysis (NRU wells 207 and 3522).
Survey parameters on the completed survey on NRU 207
Pay Continuity Analysis
(Receiver Array) and NRU 403 (Source) were:
The quantification of pay continuity based on 20-acre well log
80X 80 survey (80 source and 80 receiver positions)
data is in progress. Although reservoir continuity will vary for
individual WCIISdepending upon the direction in which the 800 Her@ 32 Golay
correlations arc made, this is still an effective tool for the
evaluation of pay continuity, as WCI1as locating the best areas for Receiver and source spacingof4meters(13. 1 feet), 1048
infdl drilling. fed verlical distance surveyed
A study based on 40-acre WC1llog data was performed prior to Interwell spacing of approximately 1040feet,
unitization on thirty-nine WCIISin Sections 5, 325, and 329 using
methods introduced by Stiles.2 Prior case studics2,Sindicate that It is expected that an order of magnitude more ray paths can be
the analysis of the existing 20-acre, and future 10-acre WC1ldata obtained in the survey for PDSA LIJas a new generation prototype
will show that the actual reservoir continuity is less than that prc- tool will bc used. It is also expected Ihat the survey will be
,,. rccordcd at a greater range of operating frequencies, and at a re-
dicica morn 40-aCrc wdi iUt~iySk, ~itd M by itXiWhg Wii
spacing to 10 acres wc will be contacting a much Iargcrvolume of duced depth sampling intcrvai than the first survey. Tinisshouiti
the reservoir. This 40-acre continuity data, and the estimated rc- result in better quality data for processingand interpretation.
suhs of 20- and 10-acre WCI1analyses are shown in Fig. 18.
CROSS-BOREHOLE TOMOGRAPHY Processing of results from onc survey is in progress and is only
The objccrivc of the cross-borehole tomography work is to obtain partially complete. Another survey is planned for the fmt quarter
intcrwcUdata conccming the spatial variability of formationprop-
nf .-
. 1W)5
-. .Since --- lnm~g~~hy
------ Ihe .- profllc procw~g is pfCSCtlU)h-

crtie.s,reservoir structure, and reservoir hctcrogcncity. The cross- complcte, the interwell continuity of the reservoir has been mves-
borchole seismic tcchniquc has promise since it provides a mech- tigatcd using a simpler connectivity mapping process for the
anism for tmdcrstandingthe physical scale of the i.nrcrwcllvertical NRU well 207/403 survey data.
and lateral continuity. This geophysical information can bc used Connectivity mapping is an cffcctivc imaging technique in map-
with gcostatistical studies to formulate an integrated reservoir de- ping the continuity of the interwell formations. The technique is
scription, and provides an additional method for choosing opti- based on the principles of wave guide phenomcn~ Wave guides

SW 29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame 7

arc formed in bcd layers possessing different acoustic velocities. ratholc. In order to perform both tomography and reflection
mum -.: -:-!- ;.
I m, [Jrliiclplv
.:...; 1.. in
m a. UIIItU
ih. ! nf a I_nrIIscI-I
UJ LI1mL. ~ .W.,..
- . . . . -----
AS irr
profiling work, there needs to bc sufficient rathole so that tool
fluid flow analysis, seismic waves will always follow the path of strings can be positioned below the zones of intcrcsl to generate
least resistance. seismic waves upholc, as WC1las downhole.
This processing rncthod utilize-sspectral analysis of the specific Scrvicc companies offering tomographic scrviccs are beeoming
acoustic wave trains (channels) formed in each frequency domain more aware of the need of operators to minimize pm- and post-
of intcrcsLin order to estimate bcd connectivity on the basis of the survcy opcrationat costs. Efforts to reduce tool size and minimize
quality of wave transmission through it. The advantage of this the possibility of tool sticking arc also in progress. Service com-
method is that it rcqtrircs only a small portion of the full tomo- panies have also rccogntid the need to reduce operational down-
graphic data set for processing. time of tools. Only if a significant number of surveys are
There arc several data analysis slcps required for processing as rccordcd with the prototype tools to ensure reliability and generate
shown on the flow diagram (Fig. 22) and dcscribcd in Ref. 16. rcvcnuc for further development will survey costs be reduced to
Fig. 23 shows the connect.ivity map of the NRU 403/207 survey the point where tomographic services can become a part of
based on these spectral characterizations. The connectivity map standard reservoir charactcrimtion and surveillanceoperations.
displays the interwell continuity of the beds from the source well RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE
to the rcccivcr WC1l.The lightest areas of the map correspond to In order to best define the factors affecting reservoir producing
intervals with good connectivity. This dots not mean they are mechanisms, we will analyze all available long-term production
continuous, simply that they have the sarnc acoustic propcrtiea and injection data using the following reservoir performance tools:
throughout the section.
This connect.ivitymap is wcll correlated with the existing sonic MatcrirdBalance Decline Curve Analysisof Long Term
and gamma ray logs. Interwell hctcrogcncitics can be caaily iden- ProductionData
tified from the map, and arc especially apparent in the lower por-
tion of the Middle Clcarfork, which would be expected from the Reservoir Pcrfonnrmcc Bubble Maps
geologic intcrprclation of the intcrvat. The results also indicate Waterflood PcrforrnanceAnalysis
that several formations show good interwell continuity. This is
not surprising, since the results of geologic and reservoir perfor- Material Balance Decline Curve Analysis
mance work indicate this area of the Unit has relatively high re-ser- In order to verify the results of the rock-log modeling, the
vou continuity, analysis of long-term production data is being performed using a
When the flow unit Iaycring schcmc (Fig. 17) is compared to the ngQrousmaterial balance decline type curve method.17 An initial
connectivity map (Fig. 23), wc note fairly good correspondence study of the primary 40-acre producers has been completed
bctwccn the two, indicating that connectivity mapping maybe an utilizing the Fetkovich/McCray Type Curve.18-zo(Fig. 24). A
effective tool for layering the reservoir for flow simulation pur- step-by-step procedure for the use of this technique is given irr
poses. It should bc noted that due 10the diagcnctic processes that Ref. 17.
are common in carbonate reservoirs, the resulting wave guides This method yields excellent results for both variable rate and
that form will not always follow dcposilionat boundaries, but may variable bottomhole flowing pressure cases, without regard to the
a!so {Aw .1. wl..~ -.. - ...
zlfimuTnc in which pos!-dcposiha! porosity has ---------- VA
r.- ..
-c UIG ...*-.
;. (.k m -au
Voli\~laaP .wi ..-,,
.;.-} .
rir the recervnir drive
. ..v.. . . .. ----
been created via diagencsis. mechanisms. The use of three different type curve plotting func-
Additional proccsing of the prcscnl data set (velocity map, inver- tions (rate, rate integral, and rate integral derivative) allows for the
sion tomography, rcftcction profiling) is currently in progrcas. arrrdysisand interpretation of lypical noisyfield production data.
These rcsutts, as WCI1as the results from the survey scheduled for In addition, the integral functions provide better type curve
PDSA HI, will be discussed in greater detail in a subsequent matches than could be obtained using existing dceline type curve
work. matching techniques and increase confidence in our interpreta-
Operational Considerations tions. These analysis techniques have been verifkd by evaluation
of a number of simulated and actual field data cases, with out-
Approximatelyhalf the cxpcnditurcs on the initial survey pertained standing results.
10prc- and posl-survey WC1lpreparation costa. The planning re-
quired for the usc of producing WC1lS for tomographic surveys is Results of these analyses include the following:
much more straightforward (and economic) than for injection . Reservoirpropcrtictx
WCIIS.In watcrfloods such the NRU, where the producing WC1lS - Skin factor for near well damage or stimulation,s
arc pumping WCIIS,flowback is generally not a conccm. The - Formation flow capacity, h%
preparatory work required for producers typically involves just
removing the pump, rods, and tubing. Injection wells generally . In-place fluid volumes:
have to bc killed with mud or salt water to achieve static well- - Originat oil-in-place, N
bore conditions for the survey. Post-survey restimulation using - Movable oil at current conditions, NP,WV
acid or other chcmicats may be required in order to restore injec- - Reservoir drainage area, A
tivity. This stimulation work on the injector adds signi.tlcantlyto Wc focus on using data that operators acquire as part of normal
post-survey costs. field operations (e.g., production rates from sales tickets and
In the Permian Basin, typically sour (H2S) conditions exist in pressures from permanent surface and/or bottomhole gauges). In
reservoirs for which tomographic data would be of interest. most cases, these will be the only data available in any significant
n-- . ...-- UJ1l
,. . . . ,:..9 Ok
e !-,m.,.
w w
k with th~ wrvice
. . ... .... . . ---- quantity, especially for older wells and marginally economic
company to carefully consider the ability of the tools to withstand welts, where both the quantity and quality of ~ typekof data are
sour wellbore conditions. The materials used in the tools must be limited. This approach eliminates the loss of production that
able to survive norrnat live wellbore conditions, in which gas is occurs when welk are shut in for pressure transient testing, and
likely to bc present in wellbore fluids. provides analysis and interpretation of well andjieldpe$ormance
Rcccivcr arrays arc generally more time consuming to move from at [ittle or no cost to the operator. T?ds techniquealso provides an
WC1lto WCI1than the source tool. For this reason, consideration additional method for localing the most productive areas of the
should be given to minimixe well-to-well moves of the rcccivcrar- reservoir, and identifying any preferential flow paths that may
ray whcncvcr possible in multiple WCI1surveys. In addition, exist.
consideration should bc given to the amount of wellbore An example analysisonNRUWC1l3510 is provided below. For

i, ArI Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characteri@ionof the Nofi Robc~on (Cl~ork) Unit SPE 29594
A Case Study, Part 1

Clcarfork data, wc prefer to report flow capacity instead of pcrmc- ~. (Fig. 30)
.. .l..~.- .La C,.,., 4A, mr.,.,,pmtm ., Iltm. f,.I. ~ot ~~v {nfp~~l ~~
available, WC
atrihly uuu m UJUIaLLUKILaWUICWL. V&uw .U. .,-. F-J . ..-. . -- ,..- .-. -- ..
Cinrm there nre no ~~!!~-~-h~i~ fjowing pm.$sure data

not available. Average fluid properties were used in the analysis. plot the daily oil ralc, q, versus NP to find lhc movable oiI vol-
NRU Well No. 35j.f) ume. The extrapolation of the data trend to the Np axis intercept
Fig. 25 shows the locationofNRUWCI13510 with respect to its yields a movable volume at the time when all reservoir energy has
WCI1patlcm and Section 329. This WC1lwas drilled in 1963, and been dcplctcd.
complctcd in the Lower, Middle, and Upper Clcarfork. The The calculation of movable oil volume using the q versus NP plot
Lower Clcarfork was stimulated with 2,000 gallons of acid, and yields acccptile results urdcsspwf varies significantly. Skluk[-
Llyu, mmwa.
, .. -.-.-
-- .- - -
casing wilh 21,500 gallons OfffSC-
turing oil and 60,000 pounds of 20140 sand. The Middle and cd data cases were used to verify that the q versus N pioi yieidcd
Upper Clcarfork were stimulated with 2,000 gallons of acid, and similar results to those prcdictcd by more rigorous pfots that could
fractured down casing with 86,000 gallons of frachuing oil and be made when bottomhole flowing pressure data were available.
180,000 pounds of 20/40 sand. This conclusion has also been confirmed for field data cases for
.-. -- _. tvhieh
... -.. hot
... h .
cllrfaee ----- hot
...-., and . . . lnm~de
. . . . . . --- flowing
. - prmsure data were
The well initially tested at 55 SllW/U Irom the Lower Cit%~ftlrk
and 127 STBO/D from lhc Middle and Upper Clcarfork. It had available.17
produced approximately 226 MSTB as of July 1989, when it was The estimate for primary EUR was 270 MSTB. Our results indi-
converted 10a water injection w.c1l.Scmilog and log-log produc- cate that approximately 44 MSTB of primary movable oil re-
tion plots shown in Figs. 26 and 27 indicate that there was a sig- mained in the drainage area of the WCIJwhen it was convcrtcd to
nificant ralc fluctuation af[cr a workovcrhcompletion that oc- water injection. Obviously, the actual movable oil volume will be
curred in 1968. The data set was reinitialized in time to eliminate slightly lCSSthan the volume extrapolated for production to zero
this data spike. At the time of its conversion 10injection, there oil rate.
had been no visible response 10Unit waler injection that began in
1987. Anal~
T: (Fig. 28 and 29) NP = 226.0 MSTB
We now consider the type curve matching of the rate, rate irrtcgral, Np,mov =270.0 MSTB (primary EUR)
and rate integral derivative functions plotted versus material bal- Recovery Factor = 7.5% (primary)
ance time on the Fctkovich/McCray type curve. The three rate The results of the type curve match and material balance analysis
functions are force matched on the Arps b=l (harmonic) dcclinc yield rigorous estimates for original oil-in-place and movable oil,
~t~in as di~tat~d bY th~OrYf~~ t!?~ ~se Of rn~!~tid hdMCC .,~~,-.,,=l;f.t;w~ - t;matac fnr Arainaof= an-a ftnw a acitv. Md Skill
~tu qu-~-~- ~-..-- .. .--.-e ---, ---- --P----.,
time,17,20and the appropriate match points arc obtained. factor.
- The primary recovery factor calculated using the value of
To obtain the best type curve match, the data was rcinitialixd at a OOIP from the type curve match is typical for weiis in &suiit
time of 2227 days. After rcinitialization, we obtained a good
match on the depletionstems and a unique match on the r~ = 800
transient stcm. From the log-log production plot (Fig. 27), wc The results of the dcdine type curve analysis were used to gener-
note that the transient flow period introduced by the well ate rcscxvoirquality maps of in-place oil, primary estimated ulti-
workover had not ended at a time of 2227 days, and the transient mate rccovcry (EUR), Hr. and estimated drainage area (Figs. 31-
match should bc valid. Using this dimensionless radius and the 34). The total original oil-in-place for analyses of all 40-acre pri-
time and rate match points, we calculate values for in-place oil, mary producing wells was 259.8 MMSTB. Previous estimates of
drainage area, flow capacity, and skin. MIIF for tnc u-nithave ranged between 200 and 300 MJvRYf%i
based primarily on analogy to offsetting properties.
MatchingPararnctec r~ = 800
The estimated primary EUR for the Unit from material balance
[t~]MP = 1.0 [IMP = 10,000 days decline type curve analysis was 19.5 MMSTB, which is in C1OSC
[9~P = 1.0 [q/Ap]Mp= 0.009 STBIDipsi agrccmcnt with the estimate of 20.5 MMSTB made prior to uniti-
zation. The average estimated ultimate rccovcry for the primary
Based on our estimated value for total compressibilitywc find: wells was 142.3 MSTB, with an average primary dcclinc rate of
Net = 90.0 STB/psi 7.51 pcrccnt. Estimates for tic reservoir flow characteristicsindi-
N = 3.60 MMSTB cated that the producing intervals possessed exfrcmely low effec-
pi... mu,,...,,
ant+ that
. ... .
. .
w@llc wt?re
. . -.. . . ---

A = 43.1 acres latcd with short fracture half-length.

re = 773.0 ft The results of these analyses also show that the majority of the
M = 12.75 md-ft original primary producing wells drained arm leas than 40 acres
s =-1.1 (Fig. 34). The average drainage area for all 40-acre primary wells
based on an average net pay thickness of 250 feet was 22.7 acres.
A pressure buildup test was performed on WC1lNRU 3510 in This gives an indication of the lack of reservoir continuity, and
1988, and the pcrrncability to oil was estimated to bc 0.43 md, shows why nominal well spacing was reduced to 20 acres. The
with a calculated skin factor of -1.93. For dcclinc type curve analysis of the 20-acre WCIIproduction data will give an indication
analysis, the calculated skin factor was -1.1, and using the esti- of how effective the further reduction to 10-acreWCI1 spacing will
mated net pay intcrvat for the WC1l(150 feet), the calculated per- be. Analysis work on the 20-acre producing WCIISdrilled
meability was 0.085 md. The large discrepancy in the pcrmcabili- between 1987 and 1991 is in progress. The analysis will most
tics is duc in Iargc part to the fact that the dcdinc curve calculation likely be limited to calculation of oil-in-place and estimation of
is based on twenty-five years of production history, while the flow capacity and skin factor. The estimation of secondary EUR
pressure buildup results reflect reservoir pressure behavior near will be difficult since most of these wells are not on decline.
the WCI1over a 250 hour period. The flow capacity in the near-
wcllborc region may bc good, but duc to the fact that this WC1lis These maps vcnfy that the highest quality arcaa of the Unit am in
in an area of relatively lower reservoir connectivity compared to the northwest (Section 329), and southeast (Section 5), as was the
t.hcsurrounding WCIIS,the flow capacity calculated from dcclinc case for the geological/pctrophysica.lanalysis. In addition, there
type curve anrdysisis fairly poor. also appears to be an extremely good area to the southwest
(Section 327). Each area has higher than average OOIP, M,
drainage area, and primary EUR. Due to the fact that the gco-

SPE 29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B, Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame 9

logic, pctrophysical, and cnginccnng analyses have verified onc We can use a plot of daily injection rate and total fluid production
another, wc suggest that both the reservoir quality and contmuily rate versus cumulative water injcctcd to estimate the current wa-
arc comparatively bcucr in lhcsc areas and they should be consid- terflood efficiency. Figure 40 shows that UN?injcction-to-prduc-
ered for flow modeling and subsequent infill drilling. tion ratio has steadily dccrcased since reservoir fiil-up (at approx-
imately 20 MMBW injected). Since unitization, the ratio of total
injcctcd to produced fluids is approximately 1.85:1.0. The
Due- LoUlclavt
. .I-- c..* tlla.
k-t 01.yr--
ii m ndl)clinn hw ~n
----- -- commingledfor a ]Wgc
current ratio is about 1.35:1.0, indicating..that
portion of the producing life of the WC1lS thal make up the NRU, . . -some
---- of
.. . injected
water may still be leaving the u-ni~ tmt rnaKrecxm WaLGJ ~uga.y,
the entire Clcarfork and Gloricta producing intervals were remediation, and pattern balancing work have been fairly
analyzed as onc unit. Volumclric calculations maybe affected by effective.
the existcncc of additional productive layers of the reservoir that
were not cffcctivcly complclcd during primary production and not
in communication with the wellbore. In addition, average values Jordan22provided a straightforward graphical technique for eval-
for formation and fluid properties had to be used in (M~i to per- .x-- ...-.--n
uaung WmGILIOW mrfnrrnance usin Q cumulative produced ~d
A p,..-........+- -.-..= .-
form lhc analyses, and formation ncl pay thickness is almost im- injcctcd fluid volumes. A plot of cumulative total fliid production
possible to dctcrminc accurately in the Clcarfork duc to extremely and cumulative oil production versus cumulative water injected
long imcrvals thal arc prcfcrcntiallycompleted and stimulated. can be used to characterize waterflood efficiency (Fig. 41). The
The inability to complctc all results with a high degree of confi- following rulescarIbe applied to the plot to evaluate waterflood
dence is not related to the analysis performance
. . .or interpretationmethodologies
..:~ -,4ot=with
wc used, but rather, to a lack 01 reservoir artd fhSAU . . ... ., 1:- JO
: ~,
0 _,~-
The slope of the tots.tll~as produced 1111=
which to complctc these calculations. While the material balance
dcclinc type curve analyses have yielded extremely good results, of sweep efficiency
wc USCthis opportunity to again point out the importance of early The deviation of the cumulative secondaryoil produced
and complctc data collection.
line from the total fluids producedline at early time is
Reservoir Performance Bubble Maps indicative of early water breakthrough
An cxtrcmcly simple method for identifying areas of the Unit in The slopq of the cumulative secondaryoil line is an
which wc want 10concentrate our cfforrs is the use of reservoir indicator of what the eventuaJsecondary rccovcxywill be
performance bubble maps made using a commercially available under current operating conditions
software package.zl As an example, wc have plotted the cumula-
tive volumes of oil and water production, and water injectionprior I%?low slope (c 45 degrees) of the total fluids curve indicates
to, and after the inception of secondary recovery operations at the that the NRU waterflood has a poor sweep efficiency. The devia-
NRU (Figs. 35-39). These maps can be used as a qualitative in- tion of the cumulative oil production line from the cumulative total
dicators of relative reservoir quality because wc can easily idcndfy fluid production line at an extremely low volume of cumulative
the most prolific producing arus and relate this to our previous water injection indicates the Unit bad extremely early water
geologic and cnginccring itucrprctations. breakthrough. This line also appears to be nearing an asymptotic
value for secondary EUR that will be lower than that predicted
Fig. 35 shows that the most productive areas of the reservoir (20.5 MMSTB) prior to unitiution.
during primary depletion were Section 329 in the north, Section 5
in the east, and Section 327 in the southwest. High water pro- While these results indicate early water breakthrough, pobr SWCCP
duction was limited to a fcw wells spaced throughout the field efficiency, and low secondary EUR. it should be noted that they
(Fig. 36). Secondary oil production has been extremely good better-than-average for west Texas carbonate waterflood.
~iong ~+e~or~bcmand ~~~~h~~~~m~lcrs of tie Unit, Wil.hin- Targeted infill drilling, and the optimization of completion and
-.:-..1 .,:,.. ~._.+,,wQ
Suluulauuu pAVVu . . . ..-
+nl,ld grea~y enh~~
tie current flood
significant contributions from the central region (Fig. 37).
Cumulative volumes of water injcctcd and produced have beat efficiency.
high in both the northcm and eastern sections of the Unit, with a
fcw WC1lS making the greatest contribu~ions(Figs. 38 and 39).
Hallzs provided a straightforward graphical technique for the
Waterflood Performance Analysis analysis of long-tenrninjection well performance data. TheHall
The NRU was dcvclopcd using 40-acre five-spot patterns (1:1 in- cocfficicn~ which can be defined as the cumulative total of the
jector/producer ratio) for optimum injectivity and pressure sup- product of the average monthly injection pressure and the number
port. Sweep cfticicncy is still low duc to the discontinuousnature of days per month the well is on injection, can be plotted veraus
of the reservoir and propagation of fractures along preferential cumulative water injected to produce a diagnosticplot for monitor-
paths (cast-west) bclwccn injection WC1lS.We require some addi- ing the behavior of injection wells. These are presently the pri-
tional tools to help dclirrcatethe nature of the probkm. mary tool utilized in decisions regarding water injection well
workovcrs at the NRU.
Wc feel that the analysis of waterflood performance using con-
ventional techniques such as Buckley-f-cvcrctt, Stiles, and From a plot borrowed from the work of Thakurz4 (Fig. 42), we
Dykstra-Parsons will bc difficult duc to the problems associated scc that linear trends which fall above the normal line (D) indi-
with obtaining accurate estimates of net pay lhickncss in the cate pore plugging and a possible water quality problcm. Data
ClcarforMGloricta. During lhc next phase of the project, wc will plotting below the normalline (B and C) indicate water channel-
determine if the.scmethods can be cffcctivcly used in the develop- ing or injection at pressures greater than the formation parting
ment of a waterflood model for comparison to 3-D simulation pressure. Fig. 43 shows an example Hall plot of an NRU injec-
results. The formulation of a conventional waterflood model tion WC1lthat bccarnc plugged and was subsequently worked over
without performing simulation is important because it may not be to remove formation scale and wellbore firl.
economically feasible for smaller, indcpcndcnt operators to pur- Wc would expect to see data fall below the normal line if injec-
chase a commercial simulation package, or obtaiti the tr-anhtg re- 6:--
UU1l ..A~ ~r- in
WtiA..l- ... rractur~
---- ~ornmunication~however, if the ncar-
quired to usc it correctly. WC1lregions had already been repressured at the time when frac-
There are many simple graphical waterflood performance evalu- ture communication began, they would be difficult to see on tJre
ation techniques that can be applied in order to identify the prob- Hall plot. An example of this phenomenon is shown in Fig. 44.
1--- ik~~.rrm~t
IvlIla tlla, ----- .~nnd
dficj~nq, TIICSCdiagnostic plots CMI be The Hall plot for NRU WC1l301 shows an upward trend in the
made using long-term production and injection data, which should lhic i,iiatappears to indicate p-r- ~.-=e-..c. However! the ICSUkS
n I=nlnroinc.

be available to all operators. of a recent pressure falloff test indicate the well is not plugged,

10 An Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit: SPE 29594
A Case Study, Part 1

but is in fracture communication with an offset injector. The compatibility problems existed. The following tests were con-
WCIISinjection rate has dcclirwd drastically, and the injection ducted:
pressure has gradually incrcascd over the past year.
* ..J.... nrnncrlkzc
y.y -----
Wc conclude that if injcclion WCIISarc in communication with
total dissolved solids
each olhcr, wc might WC1lscc an upward trend on the Hall plot - pH
similar to that caused by pore plugging, indicating that it became - particle size distribution
more difficult to maintain injectivity duc to pressure support from
an offset WC1l.In addition, a sudden change in injection pressure Filtration
or rate would also be indicative of offset pressure support. suspended solids
Wc believe that in order to better identify injection well responses - acid soiubks
such as those summarizd above, we need to develop type curve - hydrocarbon solubles
techniques similar to those currently used in dcclinc curve and Dissolve Gases
pressure transient analysis. Since onc of the main goals of this - Oxygen
study is to identify useful and economical data analysis methods,
wc will work towards developing such a method for the analysis carbon dioxide
- hydrogen sulfide
of long-terminjection data.
- Anaerobes
As summarized by Robertson and Kclm,~ there area number of - acrobca
factors to consider when initiating a comprehensive rcacrvoir sur- - dissolved iron
veillanceprogram. These include
Although the injection waters were found to be compatible, both

Allowing for a maximum pressure differentirdto exist the produced and fresh waters were found to have substantial
. 2--.:-- .WUIIS
between the producing and iriJtM.u1g . ...11 . .:,l.
n., plugging and scaling tcndcncics. The water handling facilities
cxcecding the formation pardng pressure were redesigned and programs were implemented to 1) prevertt

the formation of solids, and 2) remove all remaining solids from
Performing early and continuous pressure buildup tests the system. The entire NRU water quality program is outlined in
on the producing wells to dctccl formation damage and detail in a work by Ncvans, et aLx
monitor reservoir pressure The Units daily injection rate subsequently increased to 26,000
C&.I@ out a SyStCrnatiC program of cased hole surveys BWVD, and is currently between 20,000 and 22,000 BWI/D. At
(tcmpcraturcand fluid tracer) to monitor fluid injection prcacnt, quartcriy tests are conducted on ititiividuai we%, aiid
profiles on a regular basis field-wide tests are conducted biannually,

Utilizing continuous pressure falloff testing on the Pressure Transient Analysis
injcctio; wells to monitor the growth of v;rtical fractures
duc to continuous injection I At the time of unitization, a wide range of fluid bubble points ex-
isted in the reservoir. This differential pressure depletion is in-
dicative of poor pressure continuity and-is supported by the bot-
We will add tic following as part of our surveillanceprogram:
tomhole pressure data col.lcctcdjust prior to unitization and during
Continuouslymonitor injection water quality to increase reservoir fill-up (Table 5). A unit-wide pressure transient data
injectionefficiency acquisition program was initiated in the last quarter of 1994 to
provide further data for simulation history matching, to estimate
Combine the results of pressure falloff test analyses with completion and stimulation efficiency, to identify the bmt areas of
the rcsu!ts of waterflood diagnostic plots and regular the reservoir with regard to pressure support, and to identify any
step-ratetesting to improve mjcction efficiency other major producing probhns relamdio wakfluuu -AA~b-y
.,-- afG-
OptimizeWC1l conformance by injecting only into zones
. . ..I.~1
which arc crmdntious ix%vccrtinjeciors ~lu ..nA.
uud~e,= The majority of the tests are pressure falloffs on injection wells,
so as to minirnizc the ioss of oil production. At present, wepiaii
Implementa continuous program of completion and to run fifty to sixty falloff tests, and tcn to fifteen pressure buildup
stimulationoptimization to improve sweep cfticicncy teats. At this time, nine rcccnt falloff tests and seventeen buildup
tests recorded just after unitization (1988) arc available for analy-
Utilim llcrmal Decay Time (TDT) logs on a periodic sis. We have used both pressure and pressure integral data to per-
basis to monitor the movement of reservoir fluids in the form scmilog analysis, and log-log analysis using radial homoge-
near-wellboreregions of the producing WCIIS neous and fraciurcd WC1ltype curves with wellbore storage
Water Quality Program effects. The results of these analyses were then used to match
simulated rcsulta gcncratcd by optimizing on the formation flow
Injection waler quality is onc of the critical components in the im- characteristics (permeability, skin factor, wellbore sloragc cocffi-
plcmcntalion of a successful waterflood. Unfortunately, the con- cicnt, and fracture half-length) to the raw pressure and pressure
tinuous monitoring of water qualily is still not considered part of integral data.
many operators rrxcrvoir surveillance plan. This often rcsulta in
poor waterflood cftlcicncy and numerous operational problems.
--1n~ .-LULiU
.-1 -! -:1.. : ..:*-,:,. -,, ,- ,.. ,1.e NIDI T had rhw-.-.ew! fr~m. reqrdcd jn @tobcr and November of 1988
Uillly lUJL,b LIUU latu fuJ LIW ,.nu ,,au uvwi-e,m,v
- --- huildun
..----_r daia
30,000 BWUD in 1989 to 16,000 BWUD in 1992. A cost effec- was available for scvcntccn producing WC1lS.At that time, the
tive surveillance program was initiated to identify and resolve po- wells had rcccived limited pressure support as the water injection
tsn~~ WNCr rpti!y prQblC.rn.S= -At the same time, an injection well program was only initiated in the last half of 1987. Fifteen of
workover program was implcmcntcd to rcmcdiatc the scaling these wells were ncw 20-acre producing wells, and two were
problems in individual WC1lS. original 40-acre producers which were subsequently converted 10
Duc to the fact that both fresh (Ogallala aquifer) and produced injection.
water arc used for injection at the Uni~ both waters had to bc These surveys were recorded by measuring the shut-in surface
tested separately for their plugging and scaling tendencies. In pressure while simultaneously making a fluid column height mea-
addition, both waters were tested together to delerminc if any surement using an cchometer (automated weil sounder) device.

SF%29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame 11

The overall data quality was not extremely good, however, fifteen date indicate that the wells may be receiving a great deal of
of the tests were of sufficient quality to perform complete analy- pressure support from offset injectors. This may also be duc to
ses. The rcstrltsarc summarized below, and example analyses for the prcscncc of formation scale plugging or wellbore fill which
NRU wells 1008 and 3510 arc shown in Figs. 45 and 46. As can bc identified from waterflood diagnostic plots.2~u
with the material balance dcclinc curve analysis, wc prefer to re- Pertinent falloff test data for each of the rcccntJy completed sur-
port a value for the flow capacity rather than the pcrmcabilily due veys is shown below:
to tic fact that the net pay thicknessesarc estimated values.
Y- rmc: ~!~~p, p~~~
Well # qkj, BW/D Pi.j. psig Type Test Time, days
Wci# k%,~ti-~l ~kiii ~~~i~i Al? ~-

102 138 4570 fresh 65

201 7.5 -3.7 25.0 1033 295 330 4530 fresh
208 28.6 -4.1 36.0 719 3510 260 4705 prod ;:
1008 37.0 -3.1 14.2 985 3511 270 4580 fresh
4202 49.5 -4.7 71.0 507 301 420 4950 prod ;;
2217 44.6 -3.8 27.4 1350 401 520 4740 prod 49
2224 7.9 -4.1 37.0 1074 702 270 4730 fresh 49
2225 2.7 -3.6 22.0 1228 1591 125 4730 fresh
75.6 -3.2 15.0 985 3004 240 4850 prod %
%%w 14.3 -3.1 14.0 1431
2804 4.9 -5.0 90.0 1292 Individual analyses for NRU injection WCIIS301 and 3510 are
1506 32.8 +1.0 0.0 840 shown in Figs. 47 and 48. The results of all completed falloff
3iji i fii.ti -3.5 -n n
Lu. u 992 tests am summarized here for the readersconvenience
3510 64.5 -1.9 0.0 384 Well # M, md-ft Skin Factor Xf, feet Est. SIBHP, psia
3517 78.6 -3.8 26.0 939
3523 32.4 -3.1 15.0 1199 102 32.0 -5.0 89 2950
Wc see that even though the majority of these WCIISwere newly 295 130.0 -5.0 88 3730
drilled, complctcd, and stimulated at the time of the surveys, the 3510 27.0 -6.7 492 3400
hydraulic fracture treatments were for the most part unsuccessful. 3511 51.0 -6.0 250 3150
These jobs were designed to produce fracwrc half-lengths of 120 301 184.0 -5.9 232 4200
fee~ however, tbc calculated average half-length is only 27.5 fce~ 401 188.0 -5.3 126
and no fracmes rcachcd the designed length. The results indicat- 702 124.0 -6.3 323 %%
ed that two WCIIS(NRU 1506 and 3510) had no propped fracture 1591 158.0 -6.1 281 4250
3004 ?tnn
length at all, and NRU 1506 appears to~ damagco. -..
-~.~ 2!?

From the analysis of NRU 3510 (Fig. 46), wc scc that as we The shut-in bottomhole pressures were estimated using the meth-
surmised from the material balance decline type curve analysis, ods of Hazcbroek, et al.~ We note that these pressures approach
the quality of the reservoir rock in the near-wellbore region is the initiaJ parting pressure of the reservoir (approximately 4250
fairly good, however, a relatively low estimated bottomhole shul- psia in the Lower Clcarfork), and are well above the initial bubble
in pressure indicates that this WC1lis in a region of poor reservoir point pressures of both the Upper and Lower Clearfork (Table 1).
connectivity as it is more pressure-depleted than the surrounding The bottomhole injection pressures are all above the initial forma-
WC1lS (NRU 3517 and 3523). tion parting pressure.
Most of these pressure buildups were not rccordcd for a sufficient Wc note that the type of water injected (fresh or produced) seems
length of time to w any boundary or intcrfcrcnce effects. One of to have Iittlc affect on the longevity of the tests, however, wells
our major goals for future buildup and falloff tests is to record with produced water injection are more likely to have pore plug-
sufficient data to be able to scc these effects, and to better defiic ging and wellbore fill problems.26 The falIoff time seems to be
the reservoirs producing mechanisms. In addition, if it is eco- primarily a function of how much pressure support the wells are
nomically feasible, wc will perform pressure buildups using receiving from offset injectors.
downholc shut-ins in an effort to rcducc wellbore storage effects
-.. ~!t~r
.-. flllalitvdata
q-- ... --- ---
for interpretation,
--- Comparison of tbc pressure buildup and falloff tests on NRU
J>lu L-... >GVLAG
Mluws 11(JW . . ... . . *h:. menhla rtmy be. ~le b~i!dup f~!
Uua pluudn
Prcssufc Falloff Test Analvsi~ run after the well had been hydraulically fractured (1987), and
The pressure falloff data was acquired al surface in an effort 10rc- prior to conversion to water injection (1989), indicated that the
ducc costs and dcmonswatcthal these tests can be recorded at little WCIIhad no cffcctivc fracture length. The WCI1was reperforated
or no cost 10 the operator. Results to date have been excellent, and acid-stimulated during conversion, bu~was not refractured.
and have helped a grcal deal in explaining some of the major The fafloff results show the well currcntJyhas an effective fracture
problems associated with watcrflooding a low permeability cu- length of 492 feet, which must be the result of continued water
bonatc rcscmoir. Bottomhole pressure buildup tests will be done injection at cxccssivc bottomholepressures.
to vcnfy the estimates of average reservoir pressure obtained from It appears that the fractures crcatcd by this excessive injection
the injection falloffs. have propagated along the preferential fracture direction in the
The pressure falloff lest is the most popular tool for monitoring Clearfork, which is approximately east to wests. We see from a
waterflood pressure performance. By using surface pressure data falloff test run on NRU 301, that direct communication exists
acquisition, wc fed that tests can be performed easily and eco- with an offset injection well to the west (NRU 2601). A 200 psi
nomically with greater frequency. It has been shown that surface injection pressure incrcasc at NRU 2601 caused an almost
pressure acquisition yickis data of sufiicicnt qurdity for interpreta- instantaneous pressure increase at NRU 301, which was on
tion, cycn when !ow precision pressure gauges [~ 1 psi) arc uti- falloff (Fig. 49). The existence of direct communication through
lizcd.z7 the iractures .bctwceninjcciors wiii hsuctily reduce he sweep
efficiency of the injection operation. Unfortunately, this is a
Again, in an effort to identify intcrfcrcncchoundary effects on the common problcm in west Texas carbonate waterfloods, for which
injection WCI1falloff tests, wc have made an effort to let the tests injection pressures must be kept near or above the parting
run as long as possible. Wc feel that this is especially important pressure of the reservoir to maintain injectivity.
in identifying the problems that may affect reservoir sweep
efficiency. The cxtrcmcly long falloff times wc have witnessed to If we are able to optimim future injection well ftactum treatments
by prcfcrcntially stimulating only intervals that contribute to pro-

12 An Integrated Geologic and EngineeringReservoir Characterizationof the North Robertson (Clcarfork) Uniti SPE 29594
A Case Study, Part 1

duclion in offset producing wells, and arc able to subsequently At the time of unitization, the average fracture job was approxi-
lower bouomholc injection pressures to avoid cxccssivc fracture mately 1,000 barrels of fluid with 100,000 pounds of sand (l-8
propagation, then swccp efficiency can bc increased. pounddgallon). Since there arc no effective large-scale barriemto
fracture propagation, sufficient non-perforated intervals must be
Step-Rate Testing maintained 10prevcnl communication bctwccnsuccessivecomple-
The analysis of slcp-ralc data collcctcd belwecn 1988 and 1993 tion stages. Over the dcvclopmcnt hislory of the Unit, the number
for eighty-five NRU injection WC1lS indicates that the estimated of perforations per stage have been reduced in order to maintain a
formation parting pressure has been steadily increasing from year limited-entry type of fracture. During the 20-acre infill program,
to year duc to reservoir fill-up (Fig. 50). The results of these tests the optimum number of perforations pcr stage was determined to
arc used wimarily to .sctsurface injection pressure timits for indi- be one perforation for each barrel per minute (BPM) injection rate
vidual i;jcction WC1lS,however, aflcr reservoir fill-up has oc- using a 2-D Perkins/Kcm (PKN) fracture moriei. Fraciure jobs
curred their utility is limited since the reservoir pore pressure has have been designed to create fracture half-lengths of 120 fec~
tin incrcascd 10the point where it is difficult to accurately esti- As wc have seen from the analysis of pressure buildup data on
mate the true parting pressure in the reservoir. some of the 20-acre producing wells drilled in 1987 and 1988,
Bccausc bottomhole injection pressures at the NRU are near or these optimized stimulation treatments did still not create effective
above the parting pressure of the reservoir, step ralc tests should pressure sinks at the wellbore duc to insuflicicnt fracture propaga-
be used Iogcthcr with Hall diagnostic plots and pressure falloff tion. Future fracture jobs must be designed to create vertically
test analyses, not only to dctcrminc the optimum injection contained, fairly short, high conductivity fractures. Previous pro-
pressure for individual WC1lS,but also to identify problems duction
._ __4:_ history
.-:4-. has ,- shown that regardless of the degree of reser-
aficcting injcc[ion wcii cfficicmcy. Al: of ihsc Iy=GIhUI -A .,... ,A*
volr tWnununy, lung ii C-:. .... . . .-,a llUL
dbUJL G* db
fit SLS.6U=FKY,
a.. .-.+
%rt= in fart
-.- ... . . .
survcilkmcc techniquescan be applied easily and economicallyby harmful to watcrftood sweep efficiency. If wc complete and
all operators. stimulate only the most continuous layers of the reservoir, then
In. ~m&+-arllic
.v.. . . . . . . . . . .frar-[IImc
. ..- --- am ----
- not -r@@cd.
Optimization of Completion/Stimulation Procedures
Recent efforts by service companies and operators in the Permian
Basin have resulted in a ncw fracture treatment called a pipeline
Previous completion cfforls have concentrated on the completion fracture. This type of fracture trcatrncnt can bc summarimd as
of all intcrwds that were openin offwtting injection and produc- follows:
ing WCIIS,without regard to rock quaiity. By utilizing the inte-
--..-..I lGSV1
.,..,. -,,.:. ~... .:fit;fim.-C,IIIC
VU1l Ubacllpna, ..-OU.W,
. ...
c~~ iM p!a@
Perforate only the top 5-10 pcrccnt at high density
on maintaining conformance between producers and injectorsonly Pump normal fracture job (75,000 to 100,000 lbs of
over intcrvats of the reservoir which effectively contribute to oil
production. In addition, efforts can be concentrated on maintain- sand)
ing injection over the intervals that can achieve and maintain high Monitor pressures and rates carefully to ensure lateral
injectivity, instead of randomly injecting fluids into intervals with growth and effective proppant distribution
high porosity that may, or may not be effectively conncctcd.
Additional completion and stimulation work can bc optimized and Initialc forced closure and flow well for cleanup
costs can be rcduccd. Add additional perforations in payrock intcmls at
Pav Dclincatioq normal perforation density
The NRU was dcvclopcd using an aggressive 20-acre infill By utilizing this technique, the stimulation of large perforated in-
drilling program between lhc time of unitization(March 1987)and tervals at one time is eliminated. The downward growth of the
early 1991. During this time penod, 116 new 20-acre producing fracture is Iimitcd and the proppant material is well distributed.
WC1lS were added, and 107 of the 141 original 40-acre producers Downward fracture propagation is a major concern in the Lower
were convcrtcd to water injectors. Clearfork at the NRU due to the presence of tie water-filled
mu-- tu- :nnpIGUILAILaLWII
-...1 ... --+.,:-., ,.:,
h,.. :,. GII drill;
pu~. -...
ill 10Q7
. . . .-w,
, =- Clcarfork Lime at the base of the producing interval. This tech-
ramctcrs were established to identify the payquatity intcrvrdsin nique has been applied successfully in the Lower Clcarfork by an
each WCII.These paramclcrs included porosity, water saturation, offset operator. Through the implementation and design of more
and bulk water volume. Any inlcrval having a combination of effective hydraulic fracture treatments such as the pipelinefrac-
porosity greater than 3.6 pcrccnt and water saturation less than 65 ture, we hope to improve fracturing efficiency at the NRU.
pcrccnt qualified as potential pay rock. These parameters were
Coiled Tubing Workovers
used with only stight variations throughout the 20-acre infill pro-
gram. Duc to the fact that these simple pay cutoffs do not identify A woikovcr program ins been cicvisccito work over WIhijcckms
pay rock on tic basis of reservoir rock quality or continuity, we that show significant Iosscs in injectivity over any given six
feel that there may be additional uncontactcd pay rock within the month period. Coiled tubing has proven to be a viable method of
reservoir. operation for cleaning out and stimulating injection wells at the
NRU. The numerous casing problems encountered when entering
wellbores that are now almost forty years old (original 40-acre
The major concern with regard to WC1lcompletion work during producing WC1lS)make conventional well workovers extremely
each phase of Unit dcvclopmcnt was the need for a Iimited-entry risky and costs prohibitive. Leaking packer seats and collapsed
type fracture job to ensure that the entire productive section was casing strings were the major problems encountered. By using
being treated cquatly. The gross completion interval extends from coiled tubing, injection packers arc left in place, and the exposure
the top of the Gloricta to the base of the Lower Clcarfork (1200- of the casing to corrosive simulation fluids is minimized. The
1500 feet). This interval was complctcd and stimulated in two or results obtained from coiled tubing treatments have been about
three separate stages, depending on the characteristics of individ- equal to those obtained convcntionatly, and stimulation costs have
ual Wells. been reduced by approximately onc-th.ird.
0ptimii40n of the fracture treatment program has been an ongo- Cased-hole Logging
ing process during Unit dcvclopmcnt. RCSUIISof the fracture
Lrcatmcntson the original 40-acre primary producers were poor
duc to the fact that the bottomhole treating pressun?could not be We plan to usc radioactive tracer logs in an effort to monitor the
maintained at a sufficiently high lCVC1for fracture propagationduc preferential fluid movement in the near-wellbore regions of the
to burst limitations on the casing.

L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J,W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame 13

injection wells. These surveys yield the best quantitative results Use of all available dam to optimize hydraulic fracture
for injection profiling work, can bc rccordcd fairly inexpensively treatments
on a periodic basis, and will bc onc of the main components of
our reservoir swvcillancc plan. The tracer surveys will aid in the GEOSTATISTICAL SIMULATION
optimization of our injcclion WC1lconformance work by verifying Geostatistics will be utilized in this project to develop spatial rela-
that the inlcrvais wc utilix as the result of our integrated reservoir tionships of reservoir description variable-sof interest at unsam-
description arc, in fac~ continuous bctwccn injectors and pro- pled (interwell) locations across the Unit. Geostatistics was origi-
ducers, and by identifying any potential thie~ zones that might nally dcveloped~ for applications in mining engineering, and has
still exist in the nxervoir. been increasingly used in reservoir engineering to characterize
The use of temperature logs would be preferable since they do not reservoir properties.so In this paper, the geostatistical techniques
produce Ihe radioactive residue that accompanies the use of tracer to be used for the NRU project are described. A subsequent
surveys, however, they arc not especially effective in mature wa- paper will describe the results.
t.#Ifitdc w hprc Ihere May noL bc a ljiscerniblc downholc tem- Wc shouId be able to identify the dcgr~ of r~rvoir continuity by
~~~~~~;~i%~n-d~c-to the voh.rmcof water injeetcd, and in this weighting input data based on the method of acquisition, quaiiiy,
caiw, an cxtrcmcly low initial reservoir lcmperalure (110W). The and scale. Reservoir properties and heterogeneities can be effec-
rcsu!M Or this survey would probably only give an cxtremclY tively defmcd using four scrdelcvelsW31
qualitative injection profile. The usc of flowmeter surveys was
also considcrcd, however, the length of time required for well Microscopic
stabilization does not allow for proper tool calibration and negates micro scale data
the usc of the flowmeter for quantitative analysis, akhough pore and grain size distributions

flowing passes could bc made and a qualitative interpretation . pore throat radius
could bc perforrncd. rock lithology
While the cost associated with recording a great iiurnbc~ of - core seaic data
thermal neutron capture cross-section logs (TDT) may bc cost
prohibitive for most operators, the periodic utilizationof TDT logs . permeability
is amextremely useful too~for monitoring the preferential fluid porosity

movement in the near-wellbore regions of producing wells. We saturation

will run approximately tcn surveys in order to get updated fluid . Wcttabfity
saturation values for some of the 20-acre producing WC1lS drilled
in 1987-1991 for use in the history matching segment of reservoir Mcgascopic
simulation. -
.:.....1..;,wAd hlnelr
C4U1U aml. &au ,-n

Previous reservoir surveillance in Clcarfork watcrfloods has not Q wireline logs

included the use of TDT logs because they do not work WC1lin the seismic data
low porosity, low salinity conditions that exist. Advances in tool
design over the past five years have produced a tool that works Gigaseopic
well in both fairly fresh water and low porosity formations. If we reservoir serdedata
achieve posit.ivcresults using this new generation tool, it may be- pressure mnsient tests
come a part of our reservoir surveillance and monitoring program geologic model
for the NRU.
In order to utilize the different types of data and measure reservoir
The use.of ordinary gamma ray logs to identify preferential flow properties on a common scale (such as a reservoir simulator grid
paths will also be considered. Depicted intervals and zones block), the affect of the support volume of each data type must be
through which reservoir waters have passed arc likely to be lined accounted for. In addition, the volume scales of different types of
with uranium salLs,which can be easily dctectcd using a natural reservoir heterogeneities must also be deseribed in order to model
gamma ray tool. This phenomenon was noted on correlation logs reservoir performance. By utilizing an integrated modeling ap-
rccordcd prior to the tomographic survey on NRU WC1lS 403 and proach, in which personnel from all disciplines of the geoseienccxs
207, and may be useful in delineating the reservoir flow units. are involved, we will obtain the most complete memoir descrip-
Data Acquisition - Infill Drilling tion possible.
During the infill drilling phase of this project, wc hope to acquire Conditional Simulation Methods
as much ncw data as is economically feasible to verify the results Two conditional simulation methods, simulated annealing and ge-
of our previous geologic and engineering studies. This inchtdes: netic algorithm, will be used in this project. The advantages of
using conditional simulation techniquesover conventionalinterpo-
Production data lation are as follows:
- Verificationof simulation results
Additional whole core for anatysis Unlike simple interpolation or extrapolation, conditional simula-
- Vcritication of geologic model tion honors the entire sample data distribution rather than reducing
- Verificationof reek-log model the spread of the data distribution. This is importanl for retaining
- Special core analysis extreme values (outlicrs) irrthe sample data set, which form a very
Ncw generation open hole well logs small part of the overall sample, but which may greatly influence
- Usc of l.hcFMI tool to identify intervals with substantial the flow performance of the reservoir. An example would be a
secondary porosity and possible bypassed pay smatl streak of high permeability, which can have sigrdflcant in-
- Usc of the RFf 1001to record pressure data irreach of the fluence on waterflood pcrformancc, and still constitute a very
iacnt.ifiedreservoir iaycrs io cicterrnhmif tiiejjare in small part of the entire productive interval in terms of the total
communication sample distribution.
- Use of borehole imaging tools to confirm the preferential
fracture direction in the reservoir The second advantage of the conditional techniqueis that it honors
Pressure transient data acquisition

14 An Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit SPE29594

the spatial relationships developed from the sample data. Many selected based primarily on an understanding of the reservoir
conventional inicrpolalion methods gcncratc smooth distributions performance factors discussed below. In addition, the l~ations
which do not salisfy the spalial relationships established using the of the parlial-unit models have been vcnficd by cons]dcrmg the
sample data. geologic model and the results of the dcclinc type curve analysis.
A full-unit model wiIl not be constructed duc to the large number
TIN last advantageof the conditional simulation method is its abil- of WC1lS in the Unit (259 WC1lS), and the ned to focus on detailed
ity to quantify uncertainties in the reservoir description through flow simulation in areas with the best potential for irttill drillig.
muhiplc, equiprobablc images of the reservoir. CondhionaJsimu- By using partial-unit models, we will be able to reduce both the
lation alIows construction of multiple picmrcs of the reservoir, all number and six of grid blocks to optimize results. A full-unit
observing the same constraint(s). simulation would result in a cumbersome model with a large
nurnbcr of grid blocks primarily duc to the large vertical section in
Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithm Methods the Gloricta/Clcarfork and the large number of layers required to
The simulated annealingand genetic algorithm methods are attrac- reptesent this vertical hebxogcneity (approximately 15-20 layers).
tive since they arc very robust and flexible and allow Reservoir Performance Criteria
incorporation of various scales of data in describing the mcrvoir
properties. This includes geological, petrophysical, cross- Reservoir performance factors have been considered to delineate
borcholc seismic, reservoir performance, and pressure transient the areas which possess good potential for itilll drilling from

data. Onc disadvantage of the m~uwu .I--A :. .L. * ~kn .Ionrithmc
IS U,~L u,~ ~.5v..
. . . . . -.+
those with little or no potential for infill drilling. These perfor-
slow and compulationally intensive, however, they still run faster mance attributes for selectingsimulationareas at NW am
than conventional reservoir flow simulators with the same number
of gridblock. of high productivity
These methods involve the definition of an arbitrary objective - High prima~ and secondary rccovcry.
... which
. must bc minimized. The more constraints (data - presence of pay rock types (rock types 1 and 2).
typcs) mm arc- mlpuwu
:--...~ U1lL
-- t...,~k;~~i;- f,,nrtinn the more
Uu,wu . .....-.., ---------
- Good iXXO@ant!Permeabilitycharactistics
putationally intensive these methods become. As wc intend to in-
corporate all available data types in order to produce the most Areas of poor reservoir continuity

complctc reservoir description possible, these methods best . Good primary recovery but poor secondary recovery.
satisfy our rcquircmcnts. With a ncw generation of high-spud - Poor waterflood pattcm balance of water injected to fluids
personal computers coming on to the market, computational produced
demands should not be a problem, and these techniques can be - Current production with high oil cut and relatively low
used by all operators. secondary production
- Primary decline much higher than normal primary and
Approach at North Robertson Unit
..C pLUU_Y
..2 . . . . ~m,,
n.., swwv..u-,
.rt-mdaw nav secondarydecline (idicative of compartmentalization)
The interwcii distribtttioii UI =-,, and
non-pay rock will be generated from intrawell rock type data

using the conditional simulation techniques described above. The Good pattern brdanceof water injectedto fluids produced
project geologists will then review these rock type distributions
and determine if they honor the geologic model developed for Flat or increasingoil cut (maybe indicativeof good
NRU (qualitative check). After realistic rock type distributions waterflood sweep efficiency)
have been achicvcd, pctrophysical parameters (porosity and
High ratio of secondary estimatedultimate recovery (EUR)
permeability) will bc assigned for each of the pay rock intervals
by honoring the poinl data (cores and WC1llogs), incorpora~g to primary EUR.
tomography data 10 understand the interwell changes m
Uniform increase in pressure in surrounding areas indicating
pctrophysical properties, and by honoring reservoir perforrnancc, good reservoir continuity.
pressure transicn~ and other available cngincxxingdata.
Selection of Modeling Areas
The geostatistical analysis will bc extremely useful in identifying
the best infill locations within the high quality areas of the reser- A selection or scoring criteria was devised to identify the desirable
voir, however, the quality and quantity of data is probably insuf- locations for infill drilling basedon the following readily available
ficient to assign a relative probability of success to any particular reservoir performanceparameters
infdl well location. Q cmm&&.VGyluwzl,
..&-., m.t-vi,,.,inq
,-. . ,
RESERVOIR SIMULATION Curmdativcprimary to secondary recovery ratio (PSR)
An important objcctivc of this project is to perform 3-D reservoir
simulation for history matching, infill drilling dcvclopmcnt fore- Cumulativereplacementratio (CRR)
casting, and validation. The results of convcntionrddeterministic Water/oilratio (WOR)
simulation runs will bc compared to the results of stochastic simu-
lation runs (using gcostatisticrdrealizations)to optimize rewlts. A For which the cumulative replacement ratio (CRR) is defined as
L.._,_ _., .L_- -A..a ratio
OlitCK oil, Ulrw-plhl.%
mlllu atul
+ u. -
. ,,lili7mi
% we will fQcMs on
. ..between
the cumulative volume of water injected and the cu-
-c .-. ~ -...,4,.,..4 O.,; A.
three main areas: miuauve volume WI umd pIUUUWu ~lww.

~rnr+,rtin. and inia~on gjata WSS dloeatcd to 5-spot waterflood

Selectionof optimum infiil drilhg sites within the North ~~fi;~~~.&.;c-~~oir performance parameters were calculated
Robertson Unit for each CC1l.Average Unit values for each of the scoring criteria

Predictionof future reservoir performance were calculated, and each cell was assigned onc scoring point for
having a higher than average CPP, PSR, or CRR, and a lower

Validationor comparison of prcdictcd and actual reservoir than averageWOR.
pt:va..am.v .I@+-
....~ I.-------
hi? Rcld Dcmonsuation phase of the The results of the selection process are shown in Fig. 51. The ar-
prOJCCt eas which are shaded lighter (higher score on O-4scaiej mprcsent
vs. P~ .,-.
t the desirable areas for infill drilling. llIcdarker regions rcprc.umt
areas which may bc undesirable for infill drilling. Theac desirable
The types of models which arc being constructed arc pariiai-urdi areas coincide with those idcntiiied by reservoir p~~f~fintii~~
models. The areas for these partial-unit models have been maps generated from decline type curve analysis on the 40-acre

SPk 29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame

]rimary producing WC1!S (Figs. 31-34). In addition, these desir- known, and pressures prior to water injection and during
~blcinfill drilling areas arc consistent with other reservoir perfor- reservoir fill-up arc available for 45 wells throughout the Unit
mancecharactctistics dcscribcd above, such as the consideration (Table 5). Additional pressure data will be available from
of primary and secondary dcclinc rates to identify areas of poor pressure falloff and buildup tests that are currently being
~rvoir connectivity. recorded.
Four areas in the Unil have been selected for detailed reservoir In the initial simulation and history match it will be assumed that
simulation (t%g.51). Areas 1,2, and 3 have good apparent infill there is no flux across the areas to be modeitedsince at] of the
drillingpotential. Area 4 has poor apparent infill potential but will model areas lie in multi-pattcmcd waterflood areas of the Unit. It
be simulated for validation purposes. The total number of wells is possible that this simplifying no-flow bound~ assumption is
in each modeling areas ranges between 18 and 32 wells. invalid due to suspected interwell fracture communication from
!fljec:ors ~~rv~~ boundary WC1lSfor all the simulation areas. pressure falloff test results. Tlds assumption may need to be re-
.--.: ~.-.,~..U1l =. ..,-.h~.eaa
~ulhlu~kGU WWU-UJ
~&s @ ~ch Of the model areas if it
This contlguration was chosen since it is more practical to allocate is difficult to obtain a history match and it is determined that the
injection than production in the boundary WC1lS.Also for alloca- flow boundary assumption has an important mechanistic role in
tkm pu~oscs, the injection rate data are more reliable than the the
.y. ---------
producuon data since water injection commcnccd more rcccntiy
than production. This project is very much a work in progress. The results of cur-
rent and future analyses, specifically, geostatisticaland 3-D reser-
Reservoir surveillance activities, consisting primarily of pressure voir simulation, will be summarized in great detail in a subsequent
transient tests rccordcd to monitor reservoir pressure and forma- work (Part 2) during the field demonstration(inffl drilling) phase.
tion flow characteristics, and TDT logs run 10 monitor water
movement in the reservoir, will be focused on the modeling areas SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
to obtain additional information for history matching and devel- As a result of this study we hope to identify useful and cost effec-
opment forecasting. tive measures for the exploitation of the shrdlow shelf carbonate
Simulation Initialization reservoirs of the Permian Basin. The techniques that are outlined
in this work for the formulation of an integrated reservoir descrip-
Initialization of each simulation model requires phase behavior tion apply to all oil and gas reservoirs, but are specitlcrdlytailored
(PVT) data and rock-fluid interaction parameters. Each of the data for usc in the heterogeneous, low permeability carbonate reser-
types required for initiatiixuionarc discussedbelow: voirs of west Texas.
.. . .
PVT D~ 1. A detailed reservoir characterizationcan be performed with a
The analysis of available fluid data has conclusively established - minimum of core data, as long as a competent geologic model
that the fluid properties of the Upper and Lower Clearfork reser- has been constnrctcd, and there is sufficient wireline log,
voir fl.uk-isare different and need to bc treated with two separate pressure transient, and historical production data available for
PVT regions during simulation to properly represent the phase be- malysis.
havior interactions in the reservoir. 2. Aside from the cross-borehole seismic and geostat.isticalsim-
Some of the differences between Upper and Lower Clearfork ulation work, all of the data acquisition and analysis tech-
reservoir fluid arc illustrated in Table 6. The data on the table are niques used for this integrated reservoir description are read-
based on black oil PVT laboratory studies conducted on fluid ily and economicallyavailableto all operators.
samples obtained from NRU 3522 and 3013 during 1991. 3. The matcriat balance decline type curve techniques summa-
The feasibility of using the original PVT data from bottomhole rized in this work give exccllcnt estimates of reservoir vol-
samples acquired on offset leases in 1947 (Lower Clcarfork) and umes (total and movable), and reasonableestimates of forma-
1958 (Upper Clcarfork) was considered. The utilization this data tion flow characteristics. Using this method to analyze and
(Table 7) was considered by using a phase behavior simulator to interpret long-term production data is relatively straightfor-
match the original and rcccntty acquired (1991) PVT data. The ward and can provide the same information as conventional
validation results indicate that the original data may be used 10 pressure transient analysis, witiout the associatedcost of data
rcprcscnt PVT properties since the data were found to be consis- acquisition, or loss of production.
tent with laboratory fluid tests conducted on the surface recom- 4. In order to better identify injection WC1lresponses and imp-
bined samples collcctcd in 1991. rove the analysis of long-term injection data, we need to
The accurate representation of the initial fluid data, along with the develop type curve techniques similar to those currentJy used
irnegratcd reservoir characterization wc have undertaken, witl in dcclinc curve and pressure transient analysis.
allow the physical proccsscs occumirrgin lhc reservoir to be accu-
rately modeled. By using the original data, the simulator will 5. At the NRU, we sce the same problems that arc associated
with the majority of hctcrogcncous, IOWpermeability c~-
automatically adjust original properties to fluid properties at any bonatc reservoirs--a lack of reservoir continuity, low water-
subsequent time in the history match or forecast. The fluid prop- flood sweep efficiency, early water breakthrough, and water
erties for the wide range of depletion and repressurization paths channeling.
can be properly rcprc.scnlcd.
6. Surface pressure acquisition during pressure falloff tests
Rock-Fluid Inlcraction Data for Initiali-zation yields data of sufficient quality for interpretation even when
._. special
, core data which will bc used for the simulation low precision pressure gauges arc utilized. This is a cheap
arc pnmamy rciadvc pCimGduJIJIY ..l.:l :,.. ,im,.,
A ,mlml nf !$;limw
A Wwl1
. .. .. ...--...
..,i A.
. . . . . . . --

state displacements for two cored WC1lS(NRU WC1lS207 and 7. The preferential fracture direction at the NRU appears to be
3522) have been conducted. The displacementsinclude data from cast-west. Several of the injection wells are in communica-
th. I~~-.,
Inm-r .Miri~le and ~wc~ ~l~ork. Additional spcciid COrC f:fi .,;. hwdm resu!ting from long-
. .... .-, ----
L,r,,,- 1.J
IV induced
J .... . ...-

work will bc complctcd when ncw WC1lSarc drilled during the tcrm injection at pressures WC1labove the fracture pressure of
ticld demonstration phase of tic project. the reservoir.
hrkt~iy Miikh Crkeria 0
W awl
-.. -!;s., uluil..
---:1 cl.s.m. @h I)lrl k a mainr
~ -..0. - .-.-J-- ~
n~. ~f~ Cff~-

Allocaicd production data (oil, water, gas) have been determined tivc waterflood surveillanceplan.
to be reliable and will bc the primary history match criteria. 9. The results of the previous hydraulicfracture treatments at the
Prrxsure data arc available for the primiuy depletion phase of the NRU have been extremely poor, resulting in extremely shofi
history match (1956- 1987). The initial reservoir pressure is low conductivity fractures.

16 An Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterizationof the Notth Robertson (Cltiork) Unit SPE 29594
A Case Study, Part 1

10. As with all oil field operations, wc recommend that quality REFERENCES
data be taken early and often to ensure more accurate analyses 1. Ghauri, W.K., et ak Changing Concepts in Carbonate
and intcrprctalions. Watcrflooding - West Texas Denver Unit Project - An
IIlustrativc Example, JPT (June 1974) 595-606.
2. Stiles, L.H.: OptimizingWaterflood Rccovcty in a Mature
Field Vatiabks Waterflood, The Fullerton Clearfork UniL paper SPE 6198
Formation and Fluid Parameters:
presented at the 1976 SPE Annual Fall Technical
A= draina~carea, fL2 ConEcrcnccand Exhibition, Ncw Orleans, LA, Octobtx 3-6.
B= oil formation volume factor, RB/STB
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rw = wellbore radius, ft Actual Experience in Nine Fields in Texas, Oklahoma, and
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McCraylg Oil Fields of Kern County, California, paper SPE 19855
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function as defined by McCraylg Exhibition, San Antonio, TX, October 8-11.
rD = rlrw, dimensionless radius 13. Harris, J.M.: Cross-Well Seismic Measurements in
r~ = dimcnsionks.sdrainage radius of reservoir Sedimentary Rocks, paper SPE 19871 presented at the
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Dd = dimcnsionlcsadcclinc variable SEG, Atlanta, GA, December 2-6.
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i = intcgrdl 1082-1090.
id = integralderivative 16. Chon, Yu-Taik: Crosswcll Bcd connectivity Analysis,
o = initialvalue prcscntcd at lhc 1993 SEG International Exposition,
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Washington, D.C., Scptcmbcr 26-30,
Wc acknowledge the permission to publish field data and the i?. -----
I%,,h]et-.. -.-.,
r. 1? -. . ... Dc~iinc CIMVe Ana!ysis Using TYPC
et al.:

cmmputingsuppor~scrviccs provided bv Fins Oil and Chemical, Curves--Analysis of Oil Well ProductIon Data Using
Co. (Western Division, USA). In particular, we would like to MaicriaiBaiancc Time: Appikatiim io Fkid C2iSes, papiX
thank Debbie Taylor, Manjou Banthia, and Susan King for their SPE 28688 presented at lhc 1994 Petroleum Conference and
help in indexing large amounts of data. Exhibition of Mexico, Vcracruz, Mexico, October 10-13.
We also acknowledge the technical and computing support scr- 18. Fctkovich, M.J.: Dcclinc Curve Analysis Using Type
viccs provided by the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Curves, JPT (June 1980) 1065-1077.
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(DOE) for funding provided through the DOE Class II Oil University, College Station, TX (1990).
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SPE 29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A, Blasingame 17

I sis Using Type Curves: Analysis of Gas Well Production

Data , paper SPE 25909 prcscntcd at tie 1993 SPE Rocky
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of Surface-Derived Pressure Mcasurcmcnts for Cost-
b,-.. DmwlwoirSu.Wciiizn~eof Waterflood Operations
.* *i-
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i 993:

An Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterizationof the Norlh Robertson (Clearfork)Uniti SPE 29594
A Case Study, Part 1

TAIII.11 1 - Reservoirand Fluid Property Dala for T/\13LE 4 - QuantitativeAnalysis of Mereury-Air Capllhry
the North Rohcrtsnn(Clearfork) Unit. Pressure Data, alter Thomeer (Ref. 11).

R k ronl fksdiuz I)isplmccmcnl Iner[cclivc

Reservoir Prnpertlrs T;PC (#m) Pressure rorudly al Soa
(psi.) p&$:Jcut~m
WcllhmC rdiw. r. 0.3I fed
in P
EUkMcd avcrakx gnm pay interval 1200- Imft-et

Avzncc net Fly thickncm.h unknown I 1 I 76-S30I 2-10 I 2-296

Avemgc Pormily. e 0.07s

AVUUZ irmkibfe water SWALIII, S=.n 0.30

f%maiim fmmdlilily. i O.1-lonul

Rcrerwir IMIPCCnUrC 1l@P

C2tiginal nrmiml well SPzcing 40 ame:

Currm mmiml -11 Sp2ring 20 -m

Fluid Properlirr I 5 I ,.07-,.78 I 60.,s0 I 21.7 -57.2

Jnitid saruratimpmsum 17CK3
psia (UCF)
1S40 psia(fIF)
Initial brrm!ion volume factor. B 1.285 RBKTO (UCFl
1.382 Ro/sTf3 (LCP)
I 610331mlm
lnitid oil viscosity.II I .05 q (Ucrf 7 ..
0.81 Cp(La=)
Initial I.JUIccwnfncs$itility.cti 12.OXl@ P.@
8 .- .-

Initial API oil grwuy al 60#/tC+ 34.40 (UCF3

39.W WFi
Average fomu!ion volume kclor, B 1.30 R0/STfS

Averageod viscosity.II I ..30Cfl

Avmsc owl compms<ihili!y.rti TA23LE S - S20tlomhole Premore Dsts For Reservoir Simulation History Rfstchimg.

Prior 1* Unllllslkn rruydnnyP#sd ed ~,~-~g, ,nu.p

Production Parameters (3/s7)
hlual IXXrvuIr pressure.p, 2(125psiu(UL19 tplis) (+ I
2%Uf psi. (LCFI I(JI 201 Iv>)
F6nwinghti!,mlmle pressure.p,.f unknown 2M 651 m 119
s 20! 452 207 11s1 .W am
Ian 9s5
7 41M !320
# 2WI X6 4.X)2 207 4N1 ilso
9 lKII E64
T.\Dl,E 2 . k%rr Types Idcntilied FromCoreThin-srclion% XRD. and SEhl Anmhsis. 291 1 I(I2 lt.a 21UI 7(J6 1I(N I.w
110s 1247 I
1%,, Size hp. C..rdin.d.a Aped R.trn A178wIIC.1 G*.1.#1. 1010
M* (Pm) Is lna.lplc+
3106 >.s0- Iw.1
A I wmlm Omwadck)
I (MtakMc) (h-) lNUrMnR@
2216 719
WJ 1Icil
.P*=I Skll hwdl I IM

Olu,h) Ildmti DilmMaa 326 nil 953 2701 8431 lrnl
v.,, 2a01 1296
plolwl -
(High) .&l 172 ml I 991
.!:7 .3003 Imt .3D13 lsya
<501 11s9

(k-) 157
- I
,- .. . .VJ,=
...- .-
(-) i8tmmm@ .72s mlrl 47>
3WI Ins 3510 W.2
<2), I 7:- 3517
. .. . . ..
,n, J
F 3105 rClrsr.hl
(Low) ,MfKmnmd I ,.lmauilw .r2*
661 3!11
I 199

I ...
c <3 .Sklm19 (Ink.lc.yudim (:lNm-p4trp4t
I* nm,l.)

TAIILE 6- Itesulls of PVT Analysis on 1991 Surhce Fluid

Samples (Upper & Lower Clearfork)
TAf21.E 3 . Rnck Types Dclintd for the Clrwfork snd Gloricla Fc.rmations.

Ffuid Pro~rlirs NRU 3522 NRU 3013
(Scclion 329) (.SectIan 327)
I WOumR A B.C.D 5.4I 5.$2

I l B.C
D.E 6.10 I .71
I S2n@i.gDYe I FetItu2rY7,1991 I FebruaIYll,WPl I
3 cmlmlm= c D.E 4.19 0.20
I Rccm+ination Duhhk
1.330 pzis 1.30J ptia 1

d ImlmMt 0 F 6.W 002 ,, l*lMmlc

L 1 I
. . .5 [-alcld
011Vlsmnily M Lruklhk
2.67 Cp 1.32 Cp
I . 1>- c A.D.E.F 7..12 0.14 (W8CI (w-

P- oil FMnYii Volum 1.132 RkVSTB 1.280 RWSTB

I *
Fata u Buhhfr ibim

oil 12Mg: frubbfr o.64a gnlkx 0.762 cmfcc

1 0
1-1- Stak Tmk Oil API
Gmvity at MPF
SO.Y 33.P

SPE 29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame

PiM4JClt0N/WJECIDN(1956- 1994)
TA131.I? 7 - Rcmdts O( PVT Analysis on Original IJotlomhnle
Fluid Snmplcs (Upper & Lnwer Clearfork) 105

I FluidI-rnpcrlim Wdl Fe* 11-21. Wdl I.-m E.4U

?Alllc Upper LMuhk Lnwcr Ckulark

SumplingO.uc July 16.1958 January 17.1947
r I 1 1 1 1 1 I i
1 1 1 1 8 1 I r 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 [ 1 1 1

Illllllllllljllll I I [ I I 1 I
Wngitwl- Nuhhk Pnml i .7ti~ p~ia ,, ,.W
..,I ..,.
,rw. I I II


2,625 psia 29$4)psia

lmtid I@.motr Pressure


1 StockTank Od API
Gnwity at M?T
34.40 39.6

Tut k.ofs

I Fqure 3. Production@ I@clion Hklory for b Nwlh Robe- (Clsarfwk) Urut

I . .....
I ,,.., ,.
I .... ..
;/ ...C*
,++.:(_.L. _._. T. L._. _.r.L
~fl ,+$
I i
-,s I
rl- .- .- A-1.-l1


C.C.50 & R.c.tlc.,

Figure 1- LosatoOnof the Norlh RObe!tsOn(Clearlork) Unil, Permian Basin, West Texas.
, r--
/f 1.
IL. .
-- ,:- ~~:
x< 8
FWro 4. I.oulion d bad Web w+lhiilb North.%berlson (Chatfork) Uml.

--------------- J

..<s :
&---- ..-.
IlOanl nOumrawUm
----.xr.,----- -, -.. ..n
Fgure 5- OapOsilknal SnvirOnmn IS - upper wdde ckeaddr, UPW cMW* ~ G1-.

w ! le.-

20 An Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork) Unit: SPE 29594
A Case Study, Pm 1

F~ra 9. Slmclum M6p - lop 01 Gbrisls Seclion d NRU.




Figure 10- Rdaliw Vdums Propdons 01%s Typss (A-G) in Esch Rod Type (l-S).

Figure 7- Stfuclure Map. Top d Tubb Seclii al NRU.

+ NRUZ07.7142.S II
o tmuwzzmt.ssn
m )MIJZ07.7014R

2Q 40 60 m
\\,c!linf h= *twr.lrn. (%}
Figure 8- Slruclurc Map - Top of Uppsr C1.adti SscOon d NRU.

Figuro 11. Mmwymif Cspissry Pr.ssuro Cunf.s. Rack Typs 1.

L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. B1a.singame 21
SPE 29594

NRU :7wan

1- Cbf Fork


II Chat F&k

0 :0 S4 1o11
Bm. Satw.nion (e. We u me)
FQWO 15. ClsJ8riOIWG101MaType LW . NRU Well 207.

Figure 12. Waler/Oil Relalive Permeability CuIVes. Flock Type


..,.,. .. ..*C



#27 o Qo

. Rock Type 14
16 0- Psck TYP~ 5
. . Reck Type 6 (anhydritc]
O. Rock Type 7
. . Rock Type 8

4 6 8 10 12 14 16
Usess (@masks)
O.ml 1 1
0 5 15 Zo

Figure 13- Porosity/Permeability Relationship - Entire ClearIorWGlorieta Section.

Figure 16- Rock Type Delineation Plot.

r- ,.?Hi!M4


0 5 10 15 20 k%-., ,.-1 .- l-l

Figure 14- Porosily/Permeability
--.. POROS~ 1%),
. . . . . . . . ,..

Relationship by Rosk Type - Rock Type 1.

1 . .-. .-1

22 An Integrated Geologic and Engineering ReservoirCharacterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork) UniL
A Case Study, Pan 1

cro~~ Bor~ho!~ r~rn.~manhv Data.-

~- r... __. Acquisition
T..-. ..
NW ,Cin.4c,b) ?,, COlhUy btcdan 4&m WM h
PDSA l-survey CO@CtC(! July, 1994
I -s

. .-
...: NRU 40J Injaclor

(\ $#
i A

~ /

~ -: -.. .

. ..-



* . .-.! ------------

; . .

, NRU 207 Producer /
Corad Well

E- 1*-k PDSA III-Survey Planned for February, 199S


? z a !
NRU 3a22 Producer

07 Corad W*II
6 K&
X& & aim .

Fgure 18- Continuity Study From 40-acre WeU Dala - NRU Saclii$ 5,325,329. NRU 3S1$ Injaeeor

NRU 3S24 Producer b

,\ c?

Figure 2! - Complalad nd Planwd Tomogrvhy Work (Saclbm 5 h 329)

Connectivity Mapping
Processing Flow Chart
I ln~ulDaln1


u u i


NUU 403
]hy Paths for NRU 403 to 207 NRU 207
.50..,., w.]! Tomography Survey R...i... W*N F,gure 22- Processiq Fbw Chatl 101ConnaclMly Mapping.
n n
(U1rl+.wwcw Connccwity Map I*
SP .

I u u
Fw*20-Rv PtibIMU~7T_Wb SWWY. Tnmdwau r.urar Iamb

, # 1
F~ro 23. NRU 40&7 ~ Map tih Q- Ray nd VOlOdty Lcqs.

10 W+ d d WJ lti

FrIWNe24- FelkO@VMC&Sy qm q= d qm Type CurveS.

Figure29- Match01ProductionOstaforNRUWetl3510- Clesrlodr(RsdmlFlowTypeCuwe).

1 I 1 1
m{ .
. t
4 .

Figure25- NRU Well 3S10 - Seclion 329 of NorthRobartacm(Cleariork) Unil, & eo-

1 1

9-U . =ww
s. . 0 loomo Smom Smmo 4oomJ
1$ . . . h.., -t N,, L3TB

., .:-= Figure 30- Movable 011Estimation from Ra!e History.

10 I

o 2&l uioo emo mm moo lsooo

Figure 26- Semilog Production Plot for NRU Well 3510- (Clearfork).

. .



nlw -

Fgure 27- Log-log Producticm Plot for NRU Well 3510- (Clearlork). F~rc 31. Malefiel Bdensa Oadine Type Cuwa Analysis - Map or Odginal Oil-in--- MM3TB.

24 An Integrated Geologic and Engineering Reservoir Characterization of the North Robertson (Clearfork) UniL SPE 29594
A Case Study, Part 1

, Joooo
oo*. .g@

-. .- . .-
~igure 32- Maiwisi =aianca k-m Type CIJIV9&Idysis - Mep wi%msfy tuH, MS I b.

35- Bubble Map d NRU Primary CurmJ181A.eOd Pmduolbn (1956-198T).

o* @o.
? .**.. ? m

F,gur& 33- MaIeriel Balsnce Oedine TYIM Curve hdyeis - Map of Flow Capacity (kb), d-low

figure 36- BubbleMap of NRU Prirnery Cumulative Water Production (195G1 9S7).

I 1
h\ \ \ .

b sacs ..-

. .
h ,.. \

.0 ,000000 000

.wll//ll/ l-{l\ \ 1 II

MOmLm. z20um
gwe 34- Malarial Balarm O@chneTyps Curve AIIS@iS - Msp cd Eslbneted Primery Drdrse90 Area

F-37 - Bubble -p d NRU Sewn&y Cumddiw Oil Proshdon (19S7.1604).

SPE 29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Nevans, and T.A. Blasingame 25

F o


Icf hplsd,

7 I
8WS (1987- 1994)

. o ::00
00000 00

f 00000 00
o@. 0000

oQ &
co 000

~~ --lmm

CumWalerInj (Mbbls)

Figure 41. Waterflood Parlormansa Dlagnoetk PM. drw Jordan (f4ef. 22).


Cumddk WolsrPrcdussd.
m (19s7-1994)



o- Peuwmr.a@w

- --





. . * ..
.0 .0. 0 :

000 :
,0. / ----
-- I / ---
* /
9. 0.ooem ----
/ -z-
t .000 C

%: ****



o ~tlm~

Figure 39- Bubble Map of NRU Cumrslaltie Waler Injaclion (1987.1994).

F~re 42- Example of Hal Pbl, flar Thakur (Rd. 24).

I 3 - b!dlwd W (Cdm4Y Od (tw)

_ Wd.hjtdm Rde (CdEI@ b) (*)

1 1 J I

10~1 . . . ..
o 4ccoo
Cum Wolcr Inj (Mbbk) Cum.bliie Woterhjesled (Mbbls)

FtguIo 40. NRU Daily Told ln@cd and Pmdusad Fluii Vdurnas (1 987-1 WW4). FWIC 43- Hal PW Fkld Exam#a.

SPE 29594
26 An Integrated Geologic and Engineering ReservoirCharacterizationof the North Robertson (Clearfork)UniL
A Case Study, Part 1

v I


. t ,8
. : ,i
! I

08 mo 400 Xo
,., I
0 Im ?00 18

CiurIIJlolii Woler Injecled (Ubbls) 3k4-n Ti411w

F$gure44- Hall Plot Ios NRU Well 301 Figbw 47- NRU Wdl 301 Proscum Fdbll &sdysi8 Using D41iv6tiv4 usd Inlogrd Andy8is.


,0* ! 0

Figure 45- NRU Well 1000 Pressure Buldup Analysis Using Oarivdivc and Intagrd Analysis. Figure
46-NRU WCU3510 Pmswra Falloff Analysis Udng O.rWdivs nd InWgml AMt@c.



+00.10 +-
II ,.a a! n
.. . . .

I I 1 d
!0 L lIY 10 d 1(
-hr~ab SWM rm.u *
F-46 - NRu wd 3s10 I+OSSW aIJMUP hdpk using 04mmow and IIsbgrd hdph FiWM
40. Cu16eian Pbt 01 P- VWU8 Skl-kI Tsw fos NRU W63 301 F%8ssumFdlD41Toct
SPE 29594 L.E. Doublet, P.K. Pande, M.B. Clark, J.W. Newms, and T.A. Blasingame

, 1 L
5000 ,IOlm !31Q M TOSM
NMI . F- P*


:!gure 50- Compari=X 01 Average Parting Pressures from Step-Rate Tesla (19SS-1 993).

.-. -. u
->=z. _
-----~ ---------~
- n

Figure 51- Map of Partial-Unit Model Areas to be Used for Reservoir Simulalior