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Wednesday,

December 19, 2001

Part II

Department of
Transportation
National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration
49 CFR Parts 567, 571, 574, and 575
Tire Safety Information; Proposed Rule

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65536 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Standards, Telephone: (202) 3662720. VII. Request for Comments on Particular
Fax: (202) 3664329. Issues
National Highway Traffic Safety For legal issues: Nancy Bell, Attorney VIII. Benefits
Administration Advisor, Office of the Chief Counsel, IX. Costs
X. Effective Date
NCC20. Telephone: (202) 3662992. XI. Rulemaking Analyses and Notices
49 CFR Parts 567, 571, 574 and 575 Fax: (202) 3663820. A. Executive Order 12866 and DOT
All of these persons may be reached Regulatory Policies and Procedures
[Docket No. NHTSA0111157]
at the following address: National B. Regulatory Flexibility Act
RIN 2127AI32 Highway Traffic Safety Administration, C. National Environmental Policy Act
400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington D. Executive Order 13132 (Federalism)
Tire Safety Information DC 20590. E. Unfunded Mandates Act
F. Civil Justice Reform
AGENCY: National Highway Traffic SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:
G. Paperwork Reduction Act
Safety Administration (NHTSA), Table of Contents H. Plain Language
Department of Transportation. I. Executive Summary
XII. Submission of Comments
ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking XIII. Proposed Regulatory Text
II. Background
(NPRM). III. Existing Labeling Requirements I. Executive Summary
A. Generally The agency is proposing to establish
SUMMARY: In response to the B. Tire Identification Number (TIN)
Transportation Recall Enhancement, a new standard that would contain
C. Other Labeling
Accountability, and Documentation IV. Current Safety ProblemInadequacy of revisions to the agencys existing tire
(TREAD) Act of 2000, this document Existing Labeling Requirements labeling requirements, as well as
proposes to establish a new Federal A. Difficulty Locating the TIN contain revisions to its current
Motor Vehicle Safety Standard that B. Lack of Consumer Knowledge of Correct regulations to improve tire information
Tire Inflation Pressure for light vehicles and light vehicle tires
contains provisions to improve the C. Safety Problems Associated with Tires
labeling of tires to assist consumers in and its availability and
V. Agency Response to Safety Problem understandability to consumers. As
identifying tires that may be the subject A. Prior Agency Rulemaking Efforts
of a safety recall. It also contains used in this document, light vehicles
B. December 2000 Advanced Notice of
Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) are vehicles (except motorcycles and
proposals for providing other consumer
C. Summary of Public Comments on the low speed vehicles (LSVs)) with a gross
information to increase public
ANPRM vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000
awareness of the importance and
1. General Consumer Knowledge and pounds or less. The new standard will
methods of observing motor vehicle tire Behavior/Availability of Information to also contain requirements and test
load limits and maintaining proper tire Consumers procedures addressing various aspects
inflation levels for the safe operation of 2. TIN Information a. Location b. Content of tire performance. The agency will be
a motor vehicle. The proposals would and Readability
3. Other Tire Labeling Information
issuing a separate NPRM that proposes
apply to all new and retreaded tires for
a. Load Ratings these performance requirements and
use on vehicles with a gross vehicle
b. Plies and Cord Material procedures. Todays NPRM concerns the
weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less
c. Tread Wear Indicator labeling and other informational
and to all vehicles with a gross vehicle d. Uniform Tire Quality Grading System requirements.
weight rating of 10,000 pounds or less, (UTQGS) Todays proposed amendments
except for motorcycles and low speed e. Speed Rating address the following aspects of tire and
vehicles. NHTSA will also be proposing f. Run-Flat and Extended Mobility Tires vehicle labeling: Tire markings, the Tire
upgraded safety performance g. Retreaded Tires
Identification Number (TIN), vehicle
requirements for tires in a forthcoming h. Tire Inflation Pressure
i. Dissemination of Tire Safety Information placard content and format, placard
proposal, which would also be included location, and owners manual
in this new standard. j. Motorcycles and Trailers k. Font Height
for Labeling Information information. The proposal would extend
DATES: Written comments may be 4. Harmonization Issues all passenger car labeling requirements,
submitted to this agency and must be 5. Other Comments including those requiring the labeling of
received by February 19, 2002. D. Focus groups combined occupant and cargo weight
ADDRESSES: You may submit your VI. Agency Proposal
A. Summary of Proposal
capacity and designated seating
comments in writing to: Docket positions, to light trucks and
B. Applicability
Management, Room PL401, 400 C. Proposed Labeling Requirements multipurpose passenger vehicles
Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC, 1. Tire Markings (MPVs) with a GVWR or 10,000 pounds
20590. Alternatively, you may submit 2. TIN or less. The proposal is substantially
your comments electronically by logging 3. Placard Content and Format based on NHTSAs activities undertaken
onto the Docket Management System 4. Placard Location in response to the Transportation Recall
website at http://dms.dot.gov. Click on 5. Owners Manual Enhancement, Accountability, and
Help & Information or Help/Info to D. Other Issues
1. Modification to FMVSS Nos. 110 and Documentation (TREAD) Act of 2000,
view instructions for filing your 120 including publication of an ANPRM,
comments electronically. Regardless of 2. Rim Size and Type Designation for Light consideration of comments in response
how you submit your comments, you Trucks and Multipurpose Passenger to the ANPRM, data gathering and
should mention the docket number of Vehicles analysis, and NHTSA sponsored focus
this document. 3. Maximum Inflation Pressure groups.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For 4. UTQGS NHTSA proposes that the TIN, size
technical and policy issues: Mr. Roger 5. Consumer Information Campaign designation, maximum permissible
6. Point-of-Sale Information
Kurrus, Office of Planning and 7. Vehicle Certification Labels inflation pressure, and maximum load
Consumer Programs. Telephone: (202) 8. International Harmonization rating be placed on both sides of light
3662750. Fax: (202) 4932290. Mr. 9. Organization of Tire Labeling vehicle tires. The Firestone tire recalls
Joseph Scott, Office of Crash Avoidance Information last year highlighted the difficulty that

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Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules 65537

consumers have in determining whether information specified in the proposed correct tire inflation pressure
a tire is subject to a recall when the tire version of S4.3 (paragraphs (a)(e)).2 information for the tire size actually
is mounted so that the sidewall bearing This information would not be installed on his vehicle as original
the TIN and size designation faces combined with other labeling or equipment by the manufacturer.
inward, i.e., underneath the vehicle. certification requirements. The vehicle We are proposing these placard
Requiring the TIN and size designation placard would also meet the proposed changes in response to survey data
to be on both sides would ensure that color and content requirements as which indicate that consumers need
that information would be on the discussed below. assistance in locating recommended tire
sidewall facing outward, regardless of Second, the agency also proposes that pressures for their vehicles tires and
how the tire is mounted. Requiring that the tire inflation pressure label and understanding load limits. The use of
the other items of information be on vehicle placard meet the following three colors and a visual cue, such as a tire
both sidewalls would aid consumers in requirements: (1) The tire inflation symbol icon, would aid drivers in
maintaining their tires and loading their pressure information on the placards noticing and locating this imperative
vehicles. would be in colorred, yellow, and information. By expressing the vehicles
NHTSA is proposing two changes to black on a white background, (2) load limit in easily recognizable terms
the TIN. First, the agency proposes to contain a black and white tire symbol such as passenger and cargo weight,
require a re-ordering of information in icon in the upper left corner of the as opposed to vehicle capacity weight
the TIN so that the first six characters placards, 13 millimeters (.51 inches) the proposed placard revisions would
would contain the information required wide and 14 millimeters (.55 inches), also aid consumers in understanding
for determining whether a particular tire and (3) the placard and label would and adhering to load limit guidelines.
is subject to a recall. The first two both include the phrases Tire The agency proposes that the placard
characters would reflect the plant code, Information and See Owners Manual and/or label containing tire inflation
and the next four characters would For Additional Information in yellow pressure by tire size and other required
reflect the date code. Second, the agency text on a black background. information specified in S4.3 of FMVSS
proposes to require that each character Third, the agency proposes to replace No. 110 be located on the drivers side
be 6 mm (14) high. The agency believes the vehicle capacity weight statement B-pillar. If a vehicle does not have a B-
that a requirement for a uniform TIN on the vehicle placard with the pillar, then the placard and/or label
font size would significantly improve following sentence: [t]he combined would be placed on the edge of the
the readability of the TIN. weight of occupants and cargo should drivers door. Currently, S4.3 of 571.110
The agency proposes four sets of never exceed XXX pounds. The XXX specifies that the vehicle placard be
revisions for the presentation of tire amount would equal the vehicle affixed to the glove compartment door
inflation pressure and load limit capacity weight of the vehicle as or an equally accessible location. A
information on the vehicle placard defined in FMVSS No. 110. The standardized location for tire
currently required for passenger cars by information is the same as that currently information placards and labels would
S4.3 of 571.110 and to be required for required to be placed on the vehicle contribute to consumer awareness of
all light vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 placard by manufacturers. However, the recommended tire inflation pressures
pounds or less under this proposal.1 agency believes that the statement the and load limits.
This placard, permanently affixed to the combined weight of occupants and The agency proposes that owners
glove compartment door or an equally cargo should never exceed * * * is manuals for light vehicles contain
accessible location, currently displays easier for consumers to comprehend discussion of the following five subject
the vehicle capacity weight, the than a technical phrase such as vehicle areas: (1) Tire labeling, (2)
designated seating capacity (expressed capacity weight. Vehicle capacity recommended tire inflation pressure, (3)
in terms of total number of occupants weight is not intuitive to consumers glossary of tire terminology, (4) tire care,
and in terms of occupants for each seat and it requires a vehicle operator to look and (5) vehicle load limits. A single,
location), the vehicle manufacturers to the owners manual or standard to reliable source containing the proposed
recommended cold tire inflation understand which factors are included required information for the tires and
pressure for maximum loaded vehicle in the calculation of the sum/amount on tire safety information listed above
weight, and the manufacturers the placard. would aid consumers by providing to
recommended tire size designation. Fourth, the agency proposes to them, in one centralized location, the
First, the agency proposes that tire replace the vehicles recommended tire information that they need to properly
inflation pressure information would be size designation with the tire size maintain their tires and adhere to
visually separated by a red colored designation for the tire installed as recommended load limits.
border on the vehicle placard or, original equipment on the vehicle by the Finally, the agency proposes revising
alternatively, be placed on a separate vehicle manufacturer. While in most FMVSS Nos. 110, Tire selection and
tire inflation pressure label. The vehicle instances these two numbers would be rims, for passenger cars, 49 CFR
placard would contain only the identical, this minor revision insures 571.110, and 120 Tire selection and
information required by the proposed that the consumer is provided with the rims for motor vehicles other than
passenger cars, 49 CFR 571.120, to
1 FMVSS No. 120 currently requires that each
2 (a) Vehicle capacity weight expressed as THE reflect the applicability of the proposed
COMBINED WEIGHT OF OCCUPANTS AND light vehicle tire standard to vehicles
motor vehicle other than a passenger car show, on
CARGO SHOULD NEVER EXCEED XXX POUNDS;
the label required by 567.4, or on a tire with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less,
information label (S5.3.2(b)), the recommended tire (b) Designated seating capacity (expressed in
terms of total number of occupants and in terms of and revising FMVSS Nos. 117,
size designation appropriate for the GAWR, the tire
size and type designation of rims appropriate for occupant for each seat location); Retreaded pneumatic tires, 49 CFR
those tires, and the recommended cold inflation (c) Vehicle manufacturers recommended cold 571.117, and 129, New non-pneumatic
pressure for those tires such that the sum of the tire inflation pressure; tires for passenger cars, 49 CFR 571.129,
load ratings on the tires on each axle (when the (d) Tire size designation for the tire installed as to replace the labeling requirements
tires load carrying capacity at the specified original equipment on the vehicle by the vehicle
pressure is reduced by dividing 1.10, in the case of manufacturer; and contained therein with those specified
a tire subject to FMVSS No. 109, i.e., a passenger (e) SEE OWNERS MANUAL FOR ADDITIONAL in the proposed new light vehicle tire
car tire) is appropriate for the GAWR. INFORMATION. standard.

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65538 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

NHTSA believes that this proposal tire inflation levels for the safe S4.3.2 provide more extensive location
would result in minimal costs for tire operation of a motor vehicle. Section 11 requirements for other information (e.g.,
and manufacturers. NHTSA estimates states that such additional action may, the DOT certification and the name of
that the added cost for labeling tires for example, include a requirement that the manufacturer or brand name and
under this proposal would equal $0.01 the manufacturer of motor vehicles number assigned to the manufacturer) to
per tire or less. Vehicle labeling, provide the purchasers of the motor be placed on car tires. They provide that
including vehicle placards for passenger vehicles information on appropriate tire the labeling must be done in the manner
cars and owners manual information inflation levels and load limits if the specified in Part 574.5.
for light vehicles, is already required. agency determines that requiring such NHTSAs labeling requirement for
Therefore the cost of labeling the tire, manufacturers to provide that retreaded passenger car tires is set forth
printing new or revised placards and/or information is the most appropriate way in FMVSS No. 117, Pneumatic
tire inflation labels, the owners manual that information can be provided. Retreaded Tires (49 CFR 571.117).
pages and installation of the placard On December 1, 2000, this agency FMVSS No. 117 requires that each
and/or tire inflation pressure label published an Advance Notice of newly retreaded passenger car tire have
should be minimal. The only costs Proposed Rulemaking (ANPRM) (65 FR molded into its sidewalls information
would be one-time costs to change 75222), as required by the TREAD Act, similar to that required in FMVSS
production for the new vehicle placard announcing our plans to (1) improve the No.109, plus the words bias, or bias
and/or tire inflation pressure label, the labeling of tires, (2) assist consumers in belted, or radial, as applicable. FMVSS
application of the vehicle placard and/ identifying tires that may be the subject No. 117 does not, though, require that
or tire inflation pressure label to all light of a recall, and (3) ensure that the public the name of the manufacturer or brand
vehicles, not only passenger cars, and is aware of the importance of observing name and number assigned to the
the new owners manual pages. NHTSA motor vehicle tire load limits and manufacturer be placed on retreaded
estimates that, adding the total tire and maintaining proper tire inflation levels tires as is required on new passenger
vehicle manufacturing costs together, for the safe operation of a motor vehicle. vehicle tires by FMVSS No. 109.
the total annual costs equal Specifically, we discussed tire label NHTSAs labeling requirements for
approximately $5.5 million. requirements and prior rulemakings, as new tires for vehicles other than
NHTSA believes that this proposal well as presented a number of questions passenger cars are set forth in FMVSS
would be effective in increasing public for public comment on issues such as No. 119, New Pneumatic Tires for
awareness of tire safety, particularly the general consumer knowledge and Vehicles other than Passenger Cars (49
understanding and maintenance of behavior, availability of information to CFR 571.119). Paragraph S6.5 of
proper tire inflation and load limits. consumers, and Tire Identification FMVSS No. 119 specifies that all tires
This proposal will also enable Number (TIN) information and location. for vehicles other than passenger cars
consumers to more easily identify the must have certain markings on the
III. Existing Labeling Requirements
TIN and other tire information for sidewalls. Among other things, these
recalls and other notifications. The A. Generally tires must show the actual number of
proposal will standardize the location NHTSAs existing labeling plies in the tire, the composition of the
and content of important information requirements for new passenger car tires ply cord material (S6.5(f)), and a letter
relating to proper inflation and load are set forth in Federal Motor Vehicle designating the load range (S6.5(j)). S6.5
limits and other tire safety concerns. Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 109, New also provides that the designated
These measures, by increasing Pneumatic TiresPassenger Cars (49 information must appear, on at least one
consumer knowledge and awareness, CFR 571.109). Specifically, section S4.3 sidewall, in an area between the
should result in reduced tire failures of FMVSS No. 109 sets forth maximum section width and bead of the
and tire related crashes, and therefore information labeling requirements for tire, unless the maximum section width
fewer deaths and injuries. tires, including requirements regarding of the tire falls between the bead and
II. Background the positioning of the information on one-fourth of the distance from the bead
the sidewall to ensure that it is readily
The Transportation Recall tires for vehicles other than passenger cars. (49 FR
visible and to minimize the possibility
Enhancement, Accountability, and 37816; September 26, 1984 and 50 FR 10773; March
that it will be scuffed off if the sidewall
Documentation (TREAD) Act of 2000, 18, 1985). That rulemaking amended part 574, Tire
hits a curb or similar object. It provides Identification and Recordkeeping (49 CFR 574.4)
Pub. L. 106414, requires the agency to
that the information listed in paragraphs and FMVSS No. 119, New Pneumatic Tires for
address numerous matters through Motor Vehicles Other Than Passenger Cars (49 CFR
S4.3 (a) through (e) (e.g., number of
rulemaking. One of these matters, set 571.119) to permit placing markings at a different
plies and maximum permissible
forth in section 11 of the Act, is the inflation pressure) must appear, on at
location in order to permit the introduction of a
improvement of the labeling of tires new tire concept for vehicles other than cars where
least one sidewall, in an area between the tires maximum section width is at the bead. In
required by section 30123 of title 49, the maximum section width and the particular, Figure 1 of part 574 was amended to
United States Code, to assist consumers bead of the tire, unless the maximum specify the requirements for the labels position if
in identifying tires that may be the section width of the tire falls between
a tires maximum section width falls within one-
subject of a recall. Section 11 provides fourth of the distance from the bead to the tire
the bead and one-fourth of the distance shoulder. In that case, a marking must appear
that the agency must initiate a from the bead to the shoulder of the tire. between the bead and a point one half the distance
rulemaking proceeding for that purpose For tires for which the maximum from the bead to the shoulder of the tire. Amending
within 30 days after the enactment of section width falls in that area, all
part 574 had the practical effect of applying the new
the Act and must complete it not later requirement to section S4.3.1 and S4.3.2 of FMVSS
required labeling must be located No. 109, given that these provisions state that the
than June 1, 2002. between the bead and a point one-half tires must be labeled in the manner specified in
Additionally, that section provides part 574. However, the 1985 final rule did not
the distance from the bead to the
that the agency may take whatever amend the labeling requirements for car tires in
shoulder of the tire.3 Section S4.3.1 and section S4.3 of FMVSS No. 109. Nevertheless, the
additional action it deems appropriate
notice did expressly amend section S6.5 of FMVSS
to ensure that the public is aware of the 3 The agency initially addressed the problem of No. 119. A subsequent rulemaking (55 FR 41190;
importance of observing motor vehicle labeling tires whose maximum section width is October 10, 1990) amended FMVSS No. 109 to
tire load limits and maintaining proper close to the bead in a 1985 rulemaking regarding facilitate the use of this new tire technology.

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Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules 65539

to the shoulder of the tire. For tires for name owners must identify tires for use descriptive code for identifying
which the maximum section width falls on motor vehicles. The purpose of these significant characteristics of the tire. If
in that area, all required labeling must requirements is to facilitate efforts by the tire is produced for a brand name
be located between the bead and a point tire manufacturers to notify purchasers owner, the third grouping must identify
one-half the distance from the bead to of defective or nonconforming tires and such brand name owner; and
the shoulder of the tire. Additionally, by such purchasers to identify those 4. The fourth group identifies the
section S6.5(b) requires that each tire be tires so that purchasers can take week and year of manufacture. The first
marked with the tire identification appropriate action in the interest of two figures identify the week, starting
required by part 574 of this chapter and motor vehicle safety.5 with 01 to represent the first full
that this number may be marked on only Specifically, 574.5 requires each new week of the calendar year; the second
one sidewall. tire manufacturer and each tire retreader two figures represent the year. For
NHTSAs labeling requirements for to mold a TIN into or onto the sidewall example, 2198 represents the 21st
new temporary spare non-pneumatic of each tire produced, in the manner week of 1998.6
tires for passenger cars are set forth in and location specified in the section and
C. Other Labeling
FMVSS No. 129, New non-pneumatic as depicted in Figures 1 and 2 of that
tires for passenger cars (49 CFR section. The TIN is composed of four Labeling requirements are also
571.129). The FMVSS No. 129 labeling groups: contained in 49 CFR part 567,
requirements are similar to those set 1. The first group represents the Certification, 49 CFR part 575,
forth in section S4.3 in FMVSS No. 109 manufacturers identification mark Consumer Information Regulations,
for size designation, load, rating, rim assigned to such manufacturer by this FMVSS No. 110, Tire Selection and
size and type designation, manufacturer agency in accordance with 574.6; Rims, applicable to passenger cars and
or brand name, certification, and tire 2. The second group represents the to non-pneumatic spare tire assemblies
identification number. The standard tire size for new tires; for retreaded tires, for use on passenger cars, and FMVSS
also includes temporary use and the second group represents the retread No. 120, Tire Selection and Rims for
maximum speed labeling requirements matrix in which the tire was processed Motor Vehicles Other Than Passenger
(which provide an extra margin of safety or, if no matrix was used, a tire size Cars.
relating to the handling and braking of code; Section 567.4 requires vehicle
these tires) and allows methods of 3. The third group may, at the option manufacturers to affix to each vehicle a
permanent marking other than of the manufacturer, be used as a label bearing, among other things, the
molding in anticipation of the Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR),
difficulty of molding required
5 The agency believed that an effective method of
which must not be less than the sum of
tire identification was essential to an effective the unloaded vehicle weight, rated cargo
information on non-pneumatic tire defect or noncompliance notification system for tire
designs. Paragraph S.4 of FMVSS No. owners. Accordingly, on July 23, 1970, NHTSA load, and 150 pounds times the vehicles
129 specifies that each non-pneumatic published a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
(NPRM) (35 FR 11800) proposing to establish a tire 6 In response to petitions for a rulemaking, the
tire must have certain markings on the identification system to provide a means to identify agency amended NHTSAs tire identification and
sidewalls including the non-pneumatic the manufacturer of the tire, the date of recordkeeping regulation in 1999 to require the date
tire identification code (NPTIC), the manufacture, the tire size, and, at the option of the of manufacture to be expressed in four digits,
load rating, and the tire identification manufacturer, additional information to further instead of the previously required three, so that
describe the type or other significant characteristics consumers would be able to determine the decade
number required in Part 574. These of the tire. The agency proposed a TIN composed of manufacture of their tires. (64 FR 36807; July 8,
labeling requirements also specify that of four groups of figures: the first group would 1999) This rule also reduced the minimum size of
the labeling information must appear on contain the manufacturers identification mark the digits from the then currently required
both sides of the tire, except, in the case which would be assigned by NHTSA; the second minimum of 6 millimeters (mm) (14 inch) to 4 mm
group would identify the tire size; the third group (532 inch) to relieve the manufacturers and
of a tire that has a particular side that would identify the date of manufacture of the tire; retreaders of the burden they might otherwise have
must always face outward where the and the fourth group would be the manufacturers incurred by having to redesign their tire molds to
information must appear on the outward optional description of the tire. The figures would accommodate the additional digit.
facing side. be a minimum of 14 inch high and would appear In that rulemaking, all commenters supported
on both sidewalls of the tire. adding a fourth digit to the date code. Two of the
B. Tire Identification Number (TIN) In a final rule published on November 10, 1970 commenters, though, opposed reducing the size of
(35 FR 17257), the agency revised the requirements the numbers in the TIN on the basis that such
Section 574.5 of Title 49, CFR, Tire proposed in the NPRM in response to the reduction would make it more difficult for
Identification Requirements, sets forth suggestions of various commenters. Specifically, consumers to see, especially those with visual
the methods by which new tire NHTSA reversed the order of the manufacturers pathologies. These commenters did not, however,
optional information and the date of manufacture, provide any data showing that drivers cannot read
manufacturers and new tire brand name so that the latter would appear in the fourth 4 mm figures. NHTSA said that its experience to
owners must identify tires for use on grouping and the manufacturers optional date with 4 mm figures on tires suggest that figures
motor vehicles.4 The section also sets information would appear in the third grouping. of that size do not present a problem. (It should be
forth the methods by which tire NHTSA also stated that the tire identification noted that many tire manufacturers actually use
number need only appear on one sidewall in figures larger than 4 mm for the date code. As
retreaders and retreaded tire brand response to concerns relating to worker safety, and discussed in the final rule, 4 mm is approximately
that the figures need only be 532 inch high on tires the equivalent of font size 16 in Windows 95, which
4 NHTSA originally proposed these requirements with a bead diameter of less than 13 inches. Many is approximately double the font size used in the
in response to the May 22, 1970 amendments to the commenters requested that the date code be Federal Register and also approximately double the
National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of expressed in alpha-numeric form in order to reduce size of the largest letters found on the U.S. quarters
1966, Pub. L. 89563, originally 15 U.S.C. 1581 et the date figures to two digits. NHTSA declined to being minted then. Additionally, this agency
seq. (Codified in 1995 and now found at 49 U.S.C. adopt the alpha-numeric system because it could be pointed out that the size of the UTQGS tire grades
30101 et seq.). Those amendments, among other confusing to the public and because retreaders may marked on tire sidewalls has always been 4 mm (532
things, required manufacturers and brand name not be able to easily determine the age of the casing inch) and the agency had not received any
owners of new and retreaded motor vehicle tires to to be retreaded. In order to shorten the stencil plate, complaints that those letters or numbers were too
maintain records of the names and addresses of the however, NHTSA dropped one of the two digits small to read. Finally, Part 574 permits tires of less
first purchasers of tires (other than dealers or representing the decade of manufacture, thereby than 13 inches in diameter or those that have less
distributors) in order to facilitate notification of reducing the date of manufacture group from four than a 6-inch cross section width to have a letter/
such purchasers in the event tires were found to be digits to three. The date of manufacture grouping number size of 4 mm. Again, the agency had not
defective or not to comply with applicable Federal was later expanded to four digits. (64 FR 36807; received any complaints about the size of those
motor vehicle safety standards. July 8, 1999) letters/numbers.

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65540 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

rated seating capacity; and the Gross 575.104(d)(1)(iii) requires vehicle FMVSS No. 120 requires that each
Axle Weight Rating (GAWR), which is manufacturers to list all possible grades vehicle show, on the label required by
the value specified by the manufacturer for traction and temperature resistance 567.4, or on a tire information label
as the load carrying capacity of a single and restate verbatim the explanation of (S5.3.2(b)), the recommended tire size
axle system. each of the three graded aspects of designation appropriate for the GAWR,
Section 30123(e) of Title 49, U.S. performance. The information must also the size and type designation of rims
Code, requires the Secretary of contain a statement referring the reader appropriate for those tires, and the
Transportation to prescribe a uniform to the tire sidewall for the specific recommended cold inflation pressure
quality grading system for motor vehicle graded performance of the tires with for those tires such that the sum of the
tires to help consumers make an which the vehicle is equipped. Section load ratings of the tires on each axle
informed choice when purchasing tires. 575.6(c) requires that each vehicle (when the tires load carrying capacity at
NHTSA implemented this statutory manufacturer, brand name owner of the specified pressure is reduced by
mandate by issuing the Uniform Tire tires, and manufacturer of tires for dividing 1.10, in the case of a tire
Quality Grading System (UTQGS) at 49 which there is no brand name owner to subject to FMVSS No. 109, i.e., a
CFR 575.104, applicable to new provide the information specified in passenger car tire) is appropriate for the
passenger car tires. The UTQGS require subpart B of Part 575 to prospective GAWR.12
passenger car and tire manufacturers purchasers at each location at which its
IV. Current Safety Problem
and tire brand name owners to provide vehicles or tires are offered for sale.
Paragraph S4.3 of FMVSS No. 110 Inadequacy of Existing Labeling
consumers with information with Requirements
respect to the treadwear,7 traction,8 and requires manufacturers to affix a placard
temperature resistance 9 performance of to each passenger cars glove A. Difficulty Locating the TIN
their tires. UTQGS information is compartment door or an equally The continued use of tires determined
required to be provided on two accessible location showing the to be unsafe poses a safety risk not only
locations on the tire: a paper label vehicles capacity weight, designated for the occupants of the vehicles
affixed to the tread, and molded into the seating capacity, the manufacturers equipped with those tires, but also for
sidewalls. Excluded from the UTQGS recommended cold tire inflation other highway users near those vehicles.
are deep-tread, winter-type snow tires, pressure for maximum loaded vehicle One effect of the combination of the
space-saver or temporary-use spare tires, weight, the manufacturers prevalence of long-life radial tires is that
tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 recommended tire size designation, and, tires have significantly longer service
inches or less and limited production for a vehicle equipped with a non- life now than 20 years ago. Another
tires as described in 49 CFR pneumatic spare tire assembly, the non- effect of radials is that there are large
575.104(c)(2). pneumatic identification code required numbers of persons who purchase a
Section 575.6(a) of Title 49, CFR, by FMVSS No. 129, New Non- used car with used radial tires. Unlike
requires that when a motor vehicle is Pneumatic Tires for Passenger Cars. The the case of first purchasers, there is no
delivered to the first purchaser for required information is intended to
procedure for providing tire
purposes other than resale, the vehicle promote the vehicles safe performance
manufacturers with the names and
manufacturer must provide, in writing by preventing overloading of the tires or
addresses of subsequent purchasers.
and in the English language, the the vehicle itself.11
Thus there is no way for the tire
information specified in Section manufacturers to directly contact
purchasers at the point of sale of new vehicles. The
575.103 applicable to that vehicle, and agency eliminated this requirement, instead subsequent purchasers in the event of a
in the owners manual, the information requiring that the information be contained within recall. The only way that either of these
specified in Section 575.104.10 Section the owners manual, because it believed that the groups could determine that their tires
elimination of the point-of-sale requirement would
7 The treadwear grade is a comparative rating
relieve a significant burden on vehicle
manufacturers and dealers and yet would have little existed a vast amount of information on proper tire
based on the wear rate of the tire when tested under effect on consumers. (64 FR 27921; May 24, 1999). maintenance. Additionally, the agency stated that
controlled conditions. For example, a tire graded 11 Herzlich Consulting (Herzlich) petitioned the there was no reason to believe that requiring the
200 should have its useful tread last twice as long same information be made available in another
agency on March 12, 1992, to amend FMVSS Nos.
as a tire graded 100. place would increase consumers responsiveness to
8 Traction grades represent the tires ability to
110 and 120 to include a requirement that the
manufacturers of the vehicles subject to those such information. Finally, the petitioner presented
stop on wet pavement as measured under standards place a warning in the glove no data, and this agency was aware of none, that
controlled conditions on asphalt and concrete test compartment or some other accessible/visible would support petitioners assertion that improper
surfaces. The traction grades from highest to lowest, location which would state, in high visibility maintenance causes the vast majority of tire failures
are AA, A, B and C. A tire graded AA letters: Warning: Underinflation, Overloading, or or that a significant number of vehicles are running
may have relatively better traction performance Damage can Cause any Tire to Fail Suddenly. In on underinflated, overloaded, worn out or damaged
than a tire graded A, B or C, based on support of the petition, Herzlich argued that tires.
straight ahead braking tests. The grades do not although the Federal and state governments and the In summary, NHTSA believed at that time that
reflect the cornering or turning traction tire industry continuously communicate tire safety the wealth of safety materials already available to
performance of the tires. information, such efforts are rather unsuccessful. the public through industry, government, and
9 Temperature grades represent the tires consumer sources adequately addressed the issue of
Herzlich also argued that tire failure due to road
resistance to heat and its ability to dissipate heat hazard damage, underinflation, or overload proper tire inflation and maintenance; that existing
when tested under controlled laboratory conditions. continues to be a problem. He stated that tires are labeling requirements provided sufficient
Sustained high temperature can cause the tire to the most important safety component on the vehicle information to enable consumers to maintain tires
degenerate and reduce tire life, and excessive and, perhaps because of their high degree of properly and safely; and that the petitioner had not
temperature can lead to sudden tire failure. The reliability, they are often taken for granted by shown that the amendments he proposed would
temperature grades from highest to lowest are A, consumers. Herzlich also referred to unspecified significantly change the behavior of the public in
B and C. The grade C corresponds to the surveys purporting to show that a significant that respect.
minimum performance required by FMVSS No. number of vehicles are running on underinflated, 12 In a final rule published on March 11, 1993 (58
109. The temperature grade is for a tire that is overloaded, worn-out or damaged tires, which, he FR 13424), the agency amended FMVSS No. 120 to
inflated properly and not overloaded. contended, indicates that people get careless and clarify the requirement about tire information labels
10 Prior to May 24, 1999 (64 FR 27921), passenger need to be reminded over and over again to inspect on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses,
car manufacturers were required to directly provide and properly maintain their tires. and trailers. Specifically, this amendment required
general UTQGS information and the information After a full and careful review of the petition, the label to specify a recommended tire inflation
specified in Section 575.104 in writing and the NHTSA decided to deny it based on several factors pressure when such vehicles are equipped with
English language to purchasers and potential (57 FR 45759; October 5, 1992). First, there already passenger car tires.

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Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules 65541

have been recalled would be to find the operation as determined by the vehicle 12 and 19, 2000, with consumers who
identification numbers on their tires and manufacturer. The recommended own or lease a vehicle they drive at least
compare them with the series of inflation pressure is often confused with once a week and are responsible for
identification numbers contained in the maximum inflation pressure which making decisions about the routine
general public announcements about the is labeled on the tire by the tire maintenance of their vehicle, explored
recall. manufacturer to provide the maximum the extent to which consumers are
As a result of the difficulty and cold inflation pressure to which a tire aware of and knowledgeable about tire
inconvenience of checking the TINs, the may be inflated based upon the safety.14 To assess tire maintenance
percentage of people who respond to a maximum load rating for that tire. knowledge, drivers were asked 16
tire recall campaign is reduced and Maintaining tires at their proper questions related to properly
motorists unknowingly continue to inflation pressure, instead of allowing maintaining automotive tires. Of these
drive their vehicles with potentially them to become underinflated, reduces questions pertaining to tire labeling,
unsafe tires. heat build up, minimizes tire wear, drivers were asked to name the best
The side of a tire bearing the TIN is contributes to good vehicle handling sources for the recommended tire
often mounted so that it faces inward. and improves fuel economy through pressure. In response, forty-five percent
In the case of whitewall tires, this decreasing the rolling resistance of the of drivers responded correctly to this
occurs because the TIN is almost always tires. In light of the trend toward self- question by saying the owners manual
molded on the blackwall (i.e., inside service gas stations, the motorists or decals on the inside of the vehicles
sidewall) of the tire. Whitewall tires responsibility for maintaining proper door or glove box. Twenty-seven
account for a small and declining inflation pressure is more significant. percent responded incorrectly by
percentage (currently about 5 percent or Unfortunately, surveys indicate that a reporting that the best source for the
less) of original equipment tire sales in significant number of vehicles are being recommended tire pressure was on the
this country, but about 40 percent of operated with underinflated, overloaded sidewall of the tire, 7% volunteered
replacement tires. There are about three and/or damaged tires and that the tire manufacturer information in
times as many replacement tires as public needs to be reminded to inspect general, and 12% said something else.
original equipment tires sold each year. and properly maintain their tires. Only 10% said they did not know.
Blackwall tires, which have the TIN on The 2000 Bureau of Transportation
In Spring 2001, the National Center
one sidewall, are as likely to be Statistics (BTS) Omnibus Survey,
for Statistics and Analysis (NCSA)
mounted with the number side facing in conducted in September 2000,
conducted the 2001 National
as out. Based on this information, we contained four questions on the publics
Automotive Sampling System (NASS)
estimate that approximately 65 percent knowledge of tire pressure issues. This
Tire Pressure Special Study (NASS
of all tires are mounted with their TINs survey, which contained 1,017
Study) in response to the TREAD Act.15
not readily visible. household interviews, indicated that,
The Preliminary Analysis of Findings,
When the TINs appear on the inside among other things, at least 54.7 percent
2001 NASS Tire Pressure Special Study,
sidewalls of the tires mounted on of the respondents do not know how to
dated May 4, 2001, has been placed in
vehicles, motorists have three determine the proper pressure for their
the NHTSA Docket No. NHTSA2000
inconvenient ways of finding and tires.
The AAA Tire Safety Survey, based 8572. The NASS Study was designed to
recording the TINs. They must either:
on an omnibus nationwide telephone assess, among other factors, the extent to
(1) Slide under the vehicle with a
survey of 1070 adult Americans (539 which passenger vehicle operators are
flashlight, pencil and paper and search
males and 531 females) who drive a car, aware of the recommended air pressure
the inside sidewalls for the TINs; (2)
motorcycle, or other motor vehicle at for their tires.
remove each tire, find and record the
TIN, and then replace the tire; or (3) least once a week, queried participants During a total of 336 visits to gas
enlist the aid of a garage or service on how to identify the correct tire stations, a NASS team collected survey
station which can perform option 1 or pressure.13 The survey indicated that, data from drivers from each of the
place the vehicle on a vehicle lift so that despite a consciousness about checking following vehicle categories: passenger
the TINs can be found and recorded. tire pressure (82% surveyed said they cars; sport utility vehicles; vans; and
checked their tire pressure at least every pickup trucks. A total of 11,350 vehicle
B. Lack of Consumer Knowledge three months and 48% said they drivers were surveyed about their
Concerning Correct Tire inflation checked their tire pressure at least once knowledge of the vehicle manufacturers
Pressure a month), American drivers lack recommended tire pressure.16 Survey
Maintaining proper inflation pressure sufficient knowledge about how to data were analyzed for the following
in motor vehicle tires is important to the determine optimum tire pressure. About three categories of vehicles: (1)
safe and efficient use of motor vehicles. half (48%) consult the tire sidewall, and Passenger cars with metric P-type tires;
The recommended inflation pressure fewer check more reliable methods such (2) Trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs),
is labeled on the vehicle on a placard or as the owners manual (27%) or the and Vans with metric P-type tires, and
the vehicle certification label by the vehicle placard (18%). (3) Trucks, SUVs, and Vans with either
vehicle manufacturer to provide the The Rubber Manufacturers metric LT-type or high flotation tires.
cold tire inflation pressure for the Association (RMA) survey, based on The drivers, asked how they determine
maximum loaded vehicle weight based four hundred 11-minute telephone at what pressure to set their tires,
upon vehicle specification and interviews conducted between October answered as follows:

13 Tire Safety Survey, prepared for AAA Manufacturers Association, by Fleishman-Hillard PSU, a random selection of zip codes was obtained
Foundation for Traffic Safety, by Roper Starch Research, October 2000. from a list of eligible zip codes. Within each zip
Worldwide, Inc., March 22, 1999. Interviews were 15 Data was collected through the infrastructure of code, a random selection of two gas stations was
conducted between March 10, 1999 and 14, 1999. the National Accident Sampling System obtained.
14 Consumer Tire Maintenance and Safety Crashworthiness Data System (NASSCDS). The 16 This total was comprised of 5,442 passenger

NASSCDS consists of 24 Primary Sampling Units cars, 1,874 SUVs, 1,376 vans, and 1,838 pickup
Awareness Research, A Report to Rubber
(PSUs) located across the country. Within each trucks.

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65542 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

Percent

Trucks, SUVs and Vans


How drivers determine at what pressure to set their tires Passenger
car P-metric LT or high
tires P-metric tires flotation tires

Owners Manual ................................................................................................................................. 17.84 14.8 21.9


Vehicle Placard .................................................................................................................................. 8.39 7.06 10.84
Tire Labeling ...................................................................................................................................... 21.56 31.47 44.35
Visually ............................................................................................................................................... 10.68 8.23 6.83
Other .................................................................................................................................................. 9.75 9.56 9.89
Does not Know .................................................................................................................................. 6.87 4.31 2.02
Other person maintains ..................................................................................................................... 23.8 23.07 4.11
Unknown ............................................................................................................................................ 1.1 1.51 0.06

This data indicates that only about 26 Goodyear indicating that significantly However, the agency does not have any
(17.84 + 8.39) percent of drivers of under-inflated tires increase a vehicles data on how often under-inflated tires
passenger cars, 22 (14.8 + 7.06) percent stopping distance on wet surfaces. cause crashes or contribute to their
of drivers of pick-up trucks, SUVS, and NHTSAs crash files do not contain occurrence.
vans with P-metric tires, and 32 (21.9 + any direct evidence that points to low Additionally, under-inflation
10.84) percent of drivers of pick-up tire pressure as the cause of any contributes to tire overload. Tire
trucks, SUVs, and vans with either LT particular crash. However, this lack of overload describes a condition in which
or flotation tires know how to consult data does not imply that low tire the vehicle is carrying more weight than
either the vehicle placard or the owners pressure does not cause or contribute to the tire is rated to carry at a specified
manual to determine the correct any crashes. It simply reflects the fact inflation pressure. For instance, for
inflation pressure for their vehicles that measurements of tire pressure are every 1-psi reduction in inflation
tires. not among the vehicle information pressure, a vehicles tires suffer a 1.6%
included in the crash reports received reduction in vehicle capacity weight
C. Safety Problems Associated With by the agency and placed in its crash
Tires (passenger plus cargo capacity).
data bases.17 Overloading can result in handling or
Tire under-inflation, high ambient The only tire-related data element in
steering problems, brake failure, and tire
temperatures, and vehicle overloading the agencys data bases is flat tire or
failure.
are among the factors being considered blowout. Even in crashes for which a
in the ongoing evaluation of the radial flat tire or blowout is reported, crash Several crash files contain
tire failures that have occurred in recent investigators cannot tell whether low information on general tire related
years which have been associated with tire pressure contributed to the tire problems that precipitate crashes. The
rollover and other crashes. For example, failure. more recent of these files are The
when a tire is used while significantly Under-inflated tires can contribute to National Automotive Sampling
under-inflated, its sidewalls flex more other types of crashes than those SystemCrashworthiness Data System
and the air temperature inside it resulting from blow outs or tire failure, (NASSCDS) 18 and the Fatality
increases, making the tire more prone to including crashes which result from: an Analysis Reporting System (FARS).19
failure. In addition, a significantly increase in stopping distance; skidding NASSCDS data for 1995 through
under-inflated tire loses lateral traction, and/or a loss of control of the vehicle in 1998 indicate that there are an estimated
making handling more difficult. The a curve or in a lane change maneuver; 23,464 tow-away crashes caused per
agency also has received data from or hydroplaning on a wet surface. year by blowouts or flat tires.

ESTIMATED ANNUAL AVERAGE NUMBER (199598 NASS) AND RATES OF BLOWOUTS OR FLAT TIRES CAUSING TOW-AWAY
CRASHES
Percent tire
Tire related cases related

Passenger Cars Total ...................................................................................................................................... 10,169 0.31


Rollover ..................................................................................................................................................... 1,837 (18%) 1.87
Non-rollover .............................................................................................................................................. 8,332 (82%) 0.26
Light Trucks Total* ........................................................................................................................................... 13,294 0.99
Rollover ..................................................................................................................................................... 9,577 (72%) 6.88

17 These crash databases are the National only be used when the tire went flat or there was while in others the vehicle may have slid sideways
Automotive Sampling SystemCrashworthiness a blowout that caused a loss of control of the and struck a curb, causing a flat tire which may or
Data System (NASSCDS) and the Fatality Analysis vehicle, resulting in a crash. The value is not used may not have influenced whether the vehicle
Reporting System (FARS). for cases in which one or more of a vehicles tires experienced rollover. Thus, while an indication of
18 For the NASSCDS system, trained was under-inflated, preventing the vehicle from
a tire problem in the FARS file give some indication
investigators collect data on a sample of tow-away performing as well as it could have in an emergency
situation. as to the potential magnitude of the tire problem in
crashes around the country. These data can be
weighted up to national estimates. A NASSCDS 19 In FARS, tire problems are noted after the fatal crashes, it can neither be considered the lowest
General Vehicle Form contains the following crash, if they are noted at all. The FARS file does possible number because the tire might not have
information: a critical pre-crash event, such as not indicate whether the tire problem caused the caused the crash, nor the highest number of cases
vehicle loss of control due to a blowout or flat tire. crash, influenced the severity of the crash, or just because not all crashes with tire problems might
This category includes only part of the tire-related occurred during the crash. For example, some have been coded by the police.
problems which cause crashes. This coding would crashes may have been caused by a tire blowout,

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Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules 65543

ESTIMATED ANNUAL AVERAGE NUMBER (199598 NASS) AND RATES OF BLOWOUTS OR FLAT TIRES CAUSING TOW-AWAY
CRASHESContinued
Percent tire
Tire related cases related

Non-rollover .............................................................................................................................................. 3,717 (28%) 0.31


Light Vehicles Total ......................................................................................................................................... 23,463 0.51
Rollover ..................................................................................................................................................... 11,414 (49%) 4.81
Non-rollover .............................................................................................................................................. 12,049 (51%) 0.28
* Light trucks, as used here, means pickup trucks, vans (all sizes), and SUVs.

Therefore, about one half of one information on the feasibility and costs to motor vehicle safety and because the
percent of all crashes are caused by of implementing the proposed compliance costs would be $4.25 to $5.9
these tire problems. The rate of blowout- requirements. Among the questions in million. Although the agency
caused crashes for light trucks (0.99 the special orders were ones asking anticipated that the adoption of the
percent) is more than three times the whether the tire presses were operated amendment would increase the
rate of those crashes for passenger cars 24 hours a day seven days a week and, response to tire recall campaigns and
(0.31 percent). Blowouts cause a much if so, what measures could be taken to that ultimately the action would reduce
higher proportion of rollover crashes ensure that workers could safely change the chance of potentially unsafe tires
(4.81) than non-rollover crashes (0.28); the identification number plates in the being used on public roads, it was not
and again more than three times the rate presses. (A tire press generally works able to provide a quantified estimate of
in light trucks (6.88 percent) than in like a clam shell. The lower half of the the benefits to be gained from the
passenger cars (1.87 percent). press remains in a fixed horizontal proposed amendment. The data relied
FARS data for 1995 through 1998 position, while the upper half is upon by the agency in issuing the
show that 1.10 percent of all light movable. The tire mold, which also has proposal consisted solely of anecdotal
vehicles in fatal crashes were coded upper and lower halves, fits inside the comments by 13 consumers on
with tire problems. Light trucks had press.) None of the respondents difficulties they experienced in locating
slightly higher rates of tire problems suggested that changing the number tire identification numbers. These 13
(1.20 percent) than passenger cars (1.04 plates would present insurmountable comments were among about 9,500
percent). The annual average number of safety problems.20 Further, based on its responses received by the agency in
vehicles with tire problems in FARS evaluation of these responses, NHTSA response to a survey in which it sent
was 535 (313 passenger cars and 222 determined that such a requirement questionnaires to approximately
light trucks). would impose costs of between $4.25 100,000 consumers. Thus, only 0.013
IV. Agency Response to Safety Problem million and $5.9 million. percent of the questionnaire recipients
On April 9, 1981, the agency and 0.14 percent of the respondents
A. Prior Agency Rulemaking Efforts published a notice of intent listing 17 reported this type of difficulty. Prior to
As stated above, the TIN originated actions that the agency said it intended issuing the proposal, the agency did not
with the May 22, 1970 amendments to to take to reduce unnecessary regulatory have any data or perform any analysis
the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle burdens upon the motor vehicle and regarding the extent to which the
Safety Act of 1966. Prior to that time, related manufacturing industries (46 FR proposed requirement would increase
there were no tire labeling requirements 21203). Among them was terminating the number of people who find the
in effect. Tire manufacturers simply rulemaking on the location of the TIN. identification number on their tires, the
followed standard industry practices. Subsequently, the agency terminated number of those people who respond to
In the early 1980s, NHTSA granted a the rulemaking (48 FR 19761; May 2, a recall, or the number of potentially
petition for rulemaking filed by the 1983). The agency stated that it was defective or noncomplying tires that
Center for Auto Safety (the Center) taking that action because it was unable would be removed from service. No
requesting that 49 CFR part 574, Tire to determine that the adoption of the additional data regarding benefits were
Identification and Recordkeeping, be proposal would significantly contribute obtained by the agency as a result of the
amended to require that the TIN be comment process.
placed on the outside sidewall (i.e., the 20 From the responses to the orders, the agency

sidewall visible when a tire is mounted learned that of the 52 tire plants operated by the B. December 2000 Advanced Notice of
on a vehicle) of whitewall tires and on respondents in this country, 46 of them operated Proposed Rulemaking
only five or six days a week. The remaining six
both sides of blackwall tires. The Center plants operated all week. In the case of those 46 On December 1, 2000, NHTSA
stated that the current tire industry plants, workers could safely and easily change the published an advanced notice of
practice of placing the TIN on the inside number plates during one of the days when the proposed rulemaking pursuant to the
sidewall of whitewall tires and on only molds were non-operational and at room TREAD Act and in recognition of the
temperature. The practice of the manufacturers was
one side of blackwall tires made it very to change the number plates on these molds during importance of obtaining public input
difficult for most motorists to find and their non-operational day. On that day, workers before making decision regarding
read the TINs on their tires once they could easily change the number plates on the upper activities under the provisions arising
are mounted on vehicles. mold as on the lower mold. Additionally, the under the TREAD Act. (65 FR 75222,
manufacturers operating seven days a week
Prior to publishing an NPRM (45 FR indicated that workers could safely change the December 1, 2000).
82293; December 15, 1980), the agency number plates on operating upper molds in any of The ANPRM discussed NHTSAs
sent special orders to nine tire several ways. One way would be to place insulated existing tire information labeling and
manufacturers who together represented blankets over the bottom molds. Another way marking requirements, tire
would be to mold the whitewall side of whitewall
84 percent of world tire production and tires on the lower mold so that the number plates
identification number requirements, and
90 percent of domestic production of could be placed on the more readily accessible other labeling requirements such as
tires for use in this country to gather upper molds. those contained within its Consumer

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65544 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

Information Regulations, e.g., UTQGS. Consumers Union (CU) recommended costs if they must change existing molds
Also discussed in the ANPRM were that additional wording of uniform size and that total costs to the economy
prior rulemaking actions and petitions and standard location appear on both (costs for changing existing molds,
pertinent to the tire labeling issues sidewalls stating cold operating including cost of lost production during
addressed by the TREAD Act, pressure: consult vehicle information. the initial change over plus the
particularly those relevant to the According to a tire safety survey additional ongoing weekly
location of the TIN, and underinflation prepared for the American Automobile manufacturing costs to make the
and overloading concerns. Association (AAA) Foundation for additional changes) could exceed $100
In addition, NHTSA solicited Traffic Safety, 50% of American drivers million annually. RMA states that,
comments in areas such as general who check their own tire pressure based on the number of recalls made
consumer knowledge and behavior, incorrectly consulted the sidewall, 27% over the past 30 years, the requirement
availability of information to consulted the owners manual and only to place the TIN on both sides of the
consumers, TIN information, and other 18% correctly consulted the vehicle sidewall is unnecessary given the cost of
tire labeling information. The agency (placard) to determine the correct tire implementation and lack of added
asked an extensive number of specific pressure. Ford reported that the owners benefit and proposes placement of the
questions related to such matters such guide was most popular source for TIN on the intended outboard side of
as tire identification number content, obtaining tire pressure information, the tire as a reasonable alternative
readability and location, loading, plies followed by the tire pressure solution.
and cord material, tread wear indicators, information on the tire itself and the According to tire manufacturing
UTQGS, speed rating, run-flat and certification label on the vehicle. association commenters, to place the
extended mobility tires, tire inflation Ford suggested that NHTSA TIN on both sidewalls, existing tire
pressure, and the dissemination of tire conduct a focus group to better molds would have to be changed and
safety information. understand consumer behavior. Prior to because tire production occurs 24 hours
tire recalls, consumers simply wanted a day, seven days a week, there would
C. Summary of Public Comments on
clear tire pressure information, but be substantial lost production costs to
ANPRM
Fords recent experience indicated that make the changes, plus on-going costs,
NHTSA received 21 comments on the to make changes to both sides of molds.
they also want to be able to easily read
December 1, 2000 ANPRM. The 21
their TIN numbers and to identify Commenters generally agreed that
comments were submitted by: 4 the TIN should be placed where there
recalled tires and suggested ways to
manufacturers (1 tire manufacturer and will be a minimum possibility of
improve tire safety.
3 vehicle manufacturers), 9 associations, scuffing. Commenters stated that the
and 6 other entities (2 consumer 2. TIN Information TIN should be placed as closely to the
advocacy organizations and 4 a. Location wheels mounting bead or rim flange as
individuals). The comments are possible, as is current practice, to avoid
summarized below. Commenters, as a group, generally contact with curbs. One of these
believed that the TIN would be easier to commenters stated that while it believes
1. General Consumer Knowledge and find for consumers if it were located on that the TIN would be easier for
Behavior/Availability of Information to the outward facing sidewall of tires or consumers if it were located on the
Consumers on both sidewalls and was of sufficient outboard sidewall of the tires, it would
Commenters, as a group, stated that size as to be easily found and read. be less vulnerable to abrasion as a result
consumers are generally provided with Several tire manufacturer of contact with curbs and other hard
the information that they need to association commenters objected to objects if it were on the inboard
properly maintain their tires, determine requiring a tire manufacturer to mark sidewall of the tire as compared with
safe loads, and identify recalled tires. the TIN on both tire sidewalls because the outboard sidewall. Two association
However, they also stated that this they believe that this continues to commenters stated that the TIN should
information must be presented in a present tire manufacturing workers with remain in its current location.
simple, accurate, and comprehensive a serious potential safety hazard. One of
manner that would be understood by these commenters stated that, when b. Content and Readability
the average consumer who is not well marking a TIN on both sidewalls, an No commenter suggested that
educated about tires and tire operator is exposed to danger such as a additional information be added to the
maintenance. fatal accident due to mis-operation of TIN. Most commenters suggested that
Commenters, as a group, also said curing machine, or burns, bone fracture no change be made to contents of the
that drivers are often unaware of tire or blow on head, arm, leg, the back and TIN. Ford recommended that NHTSA
safety and maintenance information or so on because the operator is forced to should require a standardized format
are confused by the information and work looking up inside of a curing and font height on the outward facing
need to be educated about the machine to put a stencil plate of the TIN sidewall of a tire and General Motors
interaction between the information on the upper mold. RMA suggested that recommended that the size code in the
provided. While a small percentage of the agency should require that the TIN TIN is redundant information that can
motorists understand and respond to be placed on the intended outward only be understood by reference to
load and speed rating, tread indicators, facing sidewall of the tire to minimize Section 574 and could be eliminated
ply and cord materials, the vast majority risks to workers. from the TIN. Consumers Union
remains unaware of this information. Tire manufacturing association recommended standardizing placement
RMA reports that only 45% of drivers in commenters stated that, besides adverse of the TIN and date of production
its survey responded correctly to the safety consequences, cost and time due information and including the lettering
question as to the source of information to changes in the manufacturing process Manuf. ID and Prod. Date. ww/yy
for recommended tire pressure and are issues of concern and they above these codes.
survey generally revealed that recommend a suitable phase-in period. Most commenters stated that
consumers do not know how to use tire RMA, for example, states that optional information in the TIN should
information currently available. manufacturers would face substantial not be removed because, for example,

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Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules 65545

the tire type may prove beneficial for of the tire dealers provide information c. Tread Wear Indicator
consumers seeking to replace their tires to all customers and approximately half Vehicle manufacturer and tire
with a similar type and because the supply information upon request. The manufacturer association commenters
optional symbols better enable the same commenter stated that most stated the treadwear indicator
identification of the tire construction of dealers do not routinely check to see information should not be required to be
the tire and because this information that the tires purchased are correct for labeled on the vehicle or tire because
could be important in distinguishing the GVWR and GAWR, although most the information is more effectively and
recalled tires from similar tires of the do reference GVWR or GAWR as comprehensively provided in owners
same brand and tire size. necessary. manuals. RMA recommends that
Consumer group commenters stated Commenters, as a group, agreed that NHTSA regulations for inspection of
that the TIN should be standardized by few motorists use or understand the vehicles in use (49 CFR 570.9 & 570.62)
NHTSA in terms of font, font size, load rating information found on be changed to indicate that the presence
space, raised letters, and placement and sidewall tires. Advocates suggested that of a treadwear indicator in any major
location on the sidewall. the load rating information remain on groove be used as an indication of wear
Tire manufacturer association the tire and that NHTSA needs to out rather than the current requirement
commenters stated that the symbol provide specific consumer information of the presence of treadwear indicators
height of the TIN should not be changed about the consequences of under- and of in two adjacent major grooves (at three
because it will complicate the limited overinflation of tires and their locations spaced approximately equally
sidewall space available and because interdependent relationship with around the tire.) One consumer
placing the TIN on the intended vehicle loads and potential instability. commenter stated that consumers could
outboard sidewall will eliminate any Tire manufacturer association benefit from clearer sidewall
perceived problem. Consumers Union commenters suggested that the load identification and that consumers
commented that 532 inch (4 mm) is not ratings be removed from the tires so that would benefit if the following words
an adequate font size for the TIN digits drivers will have to consult the vehicle appeared elsewhere on the sidewall,
to provide optimum visibility, placard for load limit information. replace tire when worn to indicator.
particularly for vision-impaired Vehicle manufacturers generally
individuals. support leaving load rating information d. Uniform Tire Quality Grading System
on the tire sidewalls. (UTQGS)
3. Other Tire Labeling Information
Commenters generally stated that One consumer commenter stated
a. Load Ratings motorists rarely know the weight of that the UTQGS information is possibly
Generally, commenters, as a group, their vehicles, empty or loaded, because the most important item of consumer
asserted that either the maximum load this would require weighing of the information regarding tire performance
rating or a load index value should vehicle. A tire manufacturer association and should be required to be marked on
continue to be shown on tires. Although stated that some motorists load to the tire sidewalls for all light vehicles
the commenters disagree on which form capacity of the dimensions of the weighing 10,000 GVWR or less. A
of information makes load information vehicle or they conduct an eyeball consumer commenter also stated that
more accessible to the consumer, most inspection. this information should be provided in
acknowledged that it is generally Commenters indicated that large block letters in contrasting colors.
difficult for a consumer to know the overloading frequently occurs, to Further, consumers should be provided
actual load on an individual tire. varying degrees, on pick-up trucks, with a plain language explanation of the
Several commenters suggested particularly full-size pick up-trucks. safety considerations underlying the
improvements in consumer education Data provided by a vehicle UTQGS ratings. The commenter also
concerning the importance of load and manufacturer indicate that almost all said it is preferable that an explanation
its relationship to proper tire inflation. respondents surveyed in a study of UTQGS be provided at the point of
RMA suggested that the maximum load underestimated load, with the average sale. A vehicle manufacturer added that
rating be removed from the tire so that respondent underestimating load for his more consumer education concerning
consumers will seek out the appropriate or her vehicle by 36%. Tire the effect of inflation and loading
vehicle loading on the certification label manufacturer association commenters conditions on UTQGS ratings is
or vehicle tire placard. asserted that consumer knowledge, or necessary. One tire manufacturer
RMA commented that the most lack thereof, instead of current association commenter argued that
effective way to communicate the allowances in tire load ratings, is to UTQGS only serves to confuse
relationship between a tires load blame for overloading. consumers, is generally ignored, and
carrying capacity and vehicle load at a should be discontinued. Another
b. Plies and Cord Materials
given wheel position and to ensure the commenter asserts that the treadwear
purchase of correct replacement tires is Commenters, as a group, generally rating should be changed to a statement
through the use of load index values. If agreed that while ply and cord concerning the expected miles of
a load index value were required on the information is generally of no value to treadwear.
tire and the vehicle tire placard, the consumers except when replacing tires Tire manufacturer association
consumer would then simply match a or in the event of a recall, it should commenters did not support labeling
two or three digit number on the tires remain on the tire for these purposes. additional categories of tires with
and vehicle tire placard to assure proper Commenters agreed that mileage UTQGS information and suggested that
tire load capacity for their vehicle. warranty information is of no safety UTQGS information either be
Tire manufacturer and dealer value to consumers and should be eliminated or be replaced by a service
associations commenters stated that communicated at point of sale instead of description (load index and speed
most customers rely on dealers for most on tires. One tire retread association rating) and that treadwear and traction
information on tire safety and commenter noted that ply and cord should be made available to consumers
maintenance. One tire dealer association material is important for tire retread, at point of sale. Consumer commenters,
commenter said that approximately half repair, and recycling. on the other hand, stated that UTQGS

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65546 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

should apply to all tires for use on cars, capacity should be on the certification trailer and motorcycle tires should be
SUVs, pickups, and on winter tires, label. required to have the same information
particularly because UTQG traction While General Motors and the as other highway tire categories molded
grades are probably the most meaningful International Tire and Rubber into the sidewall.
of the UTQG grades for the consumer Association (ITRA) supported retaining
the maximum inflation pressure label k. Font height for labeling information
and should also be applicable to mud
and snow tires. because it provides a point of Two tire manufacturer association
reference inflation pressure, most commenters stated that there is no need
e. Speed Rating commenters argued that the maximum to change the current font height
Generally, commenters, as a group, inflation pressure should be removed specified and indicated that this issue
believed that a tires speed rating is from the sidewall of tires because needs to be considered as a part of a
important, although not necessarily consumers confuse it with the broader evaluation of tire marking and
intuitive, to consumers and should be recommended inflation pressure found consumer awareness. Consumer group
required to be indicated on the tire. on vehicles and because inflating a tire commenters, however, argued that the
Commenters agreed that consumers to maximum inflation pressure may current font height is inadequate and
should be helped to understand, cause uneven wear and other failures. needs to be increased and made uniform
through consumer education, that they Further, one tire manufacturer for the different labeling requirements.
should purchase replacement tires of an association commenter suggested that Commenters generally expressed the
equal or greater speed rating to those consumers will look at the certification view that using contrasting colors for
issued as original equipment. One label or vehicle placard for pressure labeling is not feasible due to
consumer group commenter suggested information if pressure information is manufacturing process concerns and
that maximum speed limitations should not contained on the tire. One tire consumer preference.
be noted on the sidewall as speed manufacturer association commenter
asserted that removing the maximum 4. Harmonization Issues
capacity rather than maximum
speed and that UTQG temperature inflation pressure would improve safety RMA suggested that ECE
grades could be eliminated since they if the correct inflation pressure is clearly regulations 30 and 54 address issues
are redundant with the speed and conveniently communicated to similar to those raised in the ANPRM.
capacity information. consumers and if consumers act on this Additionally, RMA called attention to
information. One vehicle manufacturer the work being done under WP.29s
f. Run-Flat and Extended Mobility Tires commenter remarked that there should ongoing process for developing a global
Tire association commenters and be a marking requirement for tires that technical regulation for tires and the
Harley Davidson stated that run-flat and would direct operators to use the industrys GTS2000 proposal.
extended mobility tire capability should information contained on the vehicle Manufacturers and association
be labeled on the tire sidewall as well tire placard. commenters pointed to both the WP.29
as on the vehicle placard. General process and to the GTS2000 proposal
Motors (GM) commented that this i. Dissemination of Tire Safety as means to best accomplish
labeling would not add any additional Information harmonization of this standard with
value because low inflation pressure Commenters neither supported nor foreign standards and to reduce
warning systems accompany these tires opposed a tire inflation warning label. redundancy in the current situation.
and the capability is noted in the Most, however, suggested that consumer These commenters suggested that
owners manual. awareness of correct tire pressure, size, decreased costs and increased
and the relationship of load and tire information consistency would be
g. Retreaded Tires pressure is appropriately addressed benefits of minimizing regulatory
A tire retread association through consumer education. divergence.
commenter stated that the current Commenters, as a group, said that
labeling requirements for retreated tires messages about tire inflation, vehicle 5. Other Comments
are sufficient because those tires loads and handling, and other safety Some comments included
comprise a very small market share, are effects need to be communicated suggestions for improving the
used primarily for commercial repeatedly and through the use of organization and coherency of the tire
applications, and are serviced by well- different media such as agency information that currently appears in
trained service personnel. brochures, manufacturer labels, owners more than six different standards and
manual entries, and point-of-sale sections on tire information.
h. Tire Inflation Pressure
literature provided by tire Commenters also suggested
Commenters suggested that the manufacturers. Also, a hierarchical requiring improved availability of safety
following items be added to the vehicle system of providing safety information related service information, including
placard: payload information (including to consumers in varying forms and an in-vehicle safety information booklet
an explanation of payload), tire service details based on the essential nature of which, in addition to owners manual,
description (load index and speed the performance and safety information would provide explanations concerning
symbol), high speed inflation pressure should be employed. The placard the operation and use of safety related
information, and speed rating. should be mounted consistently in the systems and equipment such as tires.
Commenters suggested the following same place on all vehicles and be both
locations for the tire placard: Door edge D. Focus Groups
easily found and readable.
pillar, fuel door, visor, dashboard, glove In March 2001, NHTSA conducted a
box, door jamb. Commenters also j. Motorcycles and Trailers series of eight focus groups to (1)
suggested that the placard be in a One vehicle manufacturer opposed explore consumer perceptions of motor
standardized format and location in the including applying amendments to the vehicle tire labeling, (2) identify aspects
vehicle. One vehicle manufacturer tire information labeling requirements of motor vehicle tire labels that are
stated that the tire size, speed rating, to motorcycle tires. Two tire potentially confusing, and (3) identify
cold inflation pressure and load manufacturer associations stated that means for optimizing the likelihood that

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motor vehicle safety labels will be easily Consumers have little knowledge of requirements that address the following
read and comprehended. The Focus the information available on the tire aspects of tire and vehicle labeling: Tire
Group Report, dated March 20, 2001, sidewall, besides tire pressure, type and markings, the Tire Identification
has been placed in the docket for this brand name. Most were perplexed by Number (TIN), vehicle placard content
rulemaking. Four focus groups were the array of alpha and numeric codes and format, placard location, and
conducted in Richmond, Virginia, and appearing on the demonstration tire; owners manual information. The
four in Phoenix, Arizona. Each focus Metric numbers are not understood standard would require tires for
group was comprised of approximately by consumers; passenger cars, multipurpose passenger
nine persons 18 to 75 years old who Too much information on a tire is vehicles, trucks, buses and trailers with
fulfilled the following criteria: (1) preferable to too little information; a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of
possess a current drivers license, (2) Tire information sheets, similar to 4,536 (10,000 pounds) or less,
primarily responsibility for taking care those provided with prescription drugs, manufactured on or after November 1,
of personal vehicle, (3) owners/users of should be readily available to vehicle 2003, to comply with the labeling
passenger cars, SUVs, van or minivan, and tire purchasers; requirements.21 The proposed
motorcycle or pick-up truck, (4) no Consumers want to learn more requirements are summarized below.
current employment relating to about the meaning of the information NHTSA proposes that the TIN, size
marketing or public relations, motor that appears on tires, e.g., tire codes and designation, maximum permissible
vehicles or motor vehicle parts, or ratings; inflation pressure, and maximum load
government employment relating to the The following information should rating be placed on both sides of light
regulation of the motor vehicles. The be displayed on the tire: date of vehicle tires. Requiring the TIN and size
composition of the groups represented a manufacture and recommended designation to be on both sides would
mix of income, educational attainment, replacement interval; ensure that that information would be
household income and race. Tire information should be on the sidewall facing outward,
The moderator for the focus groups presented in plain language; regardless of how the tire is mounted.
conducted three exercises for each Tire information should be Requiring that the other items of
group of participants. In the first presented in a larger typeface; information be on both sidewalls would
exercise, the moderator discussed with Tire information should appear on aid consumers in properly maintaining
participants their current use of tire both sides of the tire; their tires and loading their vehicles.
information. In the second exercise, the Tire safety information is too NHTSA is proposing two changes to
important and too tire-specific to be the TIN. First, the agency proposes to
moderator solicited responses to a tire
relegated to the owners manual or tire require a reordering of information in
information presentation using a brand
placardit should be provided at the the TIN so that the first six characters
new tire and a diagram provided by
point of new vehicle or replacement tire would contain the information required
NHTSA to demonstrate the variety and
purchase in paper form, e.g., brochure; for determining whether a particular tire
nature of NHTSA-mandated information
Owners manuals, while a good is subject to a recall. The first two
on tires. In the third exercise, the
location for general tire safety and characters would reflect the plant code,
moderator presented four variations on
education information, is not an and the next four characters would
standard tire placards (called Concepts
appropriate location for tire-specific reflect the date code. Second, the agency
A through D in the Report) and solicited
information; and proposes to require that each character
comments from the participants. The be 6 mm (14) high. The agency believes
four formats included 2 black-and-white The term cold tire pressure is not
readily understood or is often that a requirement for a uniform TIN
and 2 color versions. The color and font size would significantly improve
black-and-white versions each included misunderstood as relating to the outside
temperature/weather conditions. the readability of the TIN.
a small version that focused on air The agency proposes four sets of
pressure and a longer version that With regard to the actual content,
revisions for the presentation of tire
included tire and other vehicle placement and design of the Tire Safety
inflation pressure and load limit
information, e.g., load, seating Information Placards discussed in the
information on the vehicle placard
designation, etc. Conclusions from the third exercise, the following
required for passenger cars by S4.3 of
first two exercises were: recommendations were made:
571.110 and to be required for all light
Tire information is ignored except Add/use color formats for the tire
vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds
when consumers are responding to placard instead of only black-and-white;
or less under this proposal.22 This
conspicuously low tire pressure or Use small placard formats rather
placard, permanently affixed to the
buying new tires; than large placard formats; glove compartment door or an equally
Participants only had knowledge of Use a tire icon, as a visual cue, on accessible location, currently displays
one or two of the following aspects of the placard (an icon makes the purpose the vehicle capacity weight, the
tire information: tire size, brand name, and subject matter of the placard more
price, weight load; easily identifiable and facilitates use of 21 Therefore, this proposal is applicable to LT

At point of sale, tire information the placard information by drivers with tires up to load range E. This load range is typically
and documentation other than price marginal literacy skills); and used on large SUVs, vans, and trucks.
receipt and warranty is not provided; Standardize the placement of tire 22 FMVSS No. 120 currently requires that each

motor vehicle other than a passenger car show, on


Retailers should be required to placards on the B-pillar. the label required by 567.4, or on a tire
provide tire information, e.g., adhesive VI. Agency Proposal information label (S5.3.2(b)), the recommended tire
tire information labels or brochure, at size designation appropriate for the GAWR, the tire
A. Summary of Proposal size and type designation of rims appropriate for
point of sale; those tires, and the recommended cold inflation
Consumers are unaware that there The agency is proposing a single pressure for those tires such that the sum of the
is a tire placard in their personal standard for light vehicle tires, FMVSS load ratings on the tires on each axle (when the
tires load carrying capacity at the specified
vehicle; No. 139, New Pneumatic Tires for Light pressure is reduced by dividing 1.10, in the case of
Owners manuals are used on a Vehicles, which would contain revised a tire subject to FMVSS No. 109, i.e., a passenger
limited basis for tire information; versions of the existing labeling car tire) is appropriate for the GAWR.

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65548 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

designated seating capacity (expressed to the owners manual or standard to after 1975, except for motorcycles and
in terms of total number of occupants understand which factors are included LSVs, and for new motor vehicles with
and in terms of occupants for each seat in the calculation of the sum on the a GVWR or 10,000 pounds or less
location), the vehicle manufacturers placard. manufactured after September 1, 2003.24
recommended cold tire inflation Fourth, the agency proposes to Given the increasing consumer
pressure for maximum loaded vehicle replace the vehicles recommended tire preference for light truck use for
weight, and the manufacturers size designation with the tire size passenger purposes, the agency is
recommended tire size designation. designation for the tire installed as proposing that the safety requirements
First, the agency proposes that tire original equipment on the vehicle by the for passenger car tires also be made
inflation pressure information would be vehicle manufacturer. While in most applicable to LT tires (load C, D, E) used
visually separated by a red colored instances these two numbers would be on light trucks. Further, LT tires are
border on the existing vehicle placard identical, this minor revision insures increasingly used in the same type of
or, alternatively, be placed on a separate that the consumer is provided with the on-road service as P-metric tires on light
tire inflation pressure label. The vehicle correct tire inflation pressure vehicles. Recent sales data for heavier
placard would contain only the information for the tire size actually trucks indicate that the use of these tires
information specified in the proposed installed on his vehicle as original on passenger vehicles will continue to
version of S4.3 (paragraphs (a)(e)).23 equipment by the vehicle manufacturer. increase in the near future.
This information could not be combined We are proposing these placard NHTSA is not proposing to require
with other labeling or certification changes in response to survey data that FMVSS No. 139 apply to
requirements. The vehicle placard which indicate that consumers need motorcycle tires because motorcycle
would also have to meet the proposed assistance in locating recommended tire tires are of a design and construction
color and content requirements as pressures for their vehicles tires and unlike the types of vehicle tires that
discussed below. understanding load limits. The use of would be subject to the proposed
Second, the agency also proposes that colors and a visual cue, such as a tire standard. Further, the agency is
the tire inflation pressure label and symbol icon, would aid drivers in currently not aware of any consumer
vehicle placard meet the following three noticing and locating this imperative information concerns or problems
requirements: (1) The tire inflation information. By expressing the vehicles associated with motorcycle tires. For
pressure information would be in load limit in easily recognizable terms similar reasons, NHTSA is also not
colorred, yellow, and black on a white such as passenger and cargo weight, proposing to require that the new
background, (2) contain a black and as opposed to vehicle capacity weight standard be applicable to tires beyond
white tire symbol icon in the upper left the proposed placard revisions would load range E, which are typically used
corner, 13 millimeters (.51 inches) wide also aid consumers in understanding on medium (10,00026,000 lbs. GVWR)
and 14 millimeters (.55 inches) tall/ and adhering to load limit guidelines. and heavy vehicles (greater than 26,001
high, and 3) include the phrases Tire The agency proposes that the placard lbs. GVWR), and temporary spare tires.
Information and See Owners Manual and/or label containing tire inflation To maintain consistent labeling
For Additional Information in yellow pressure be located on the drivers side requirements for all tires for use on light
text on a black background. B-pillar. If a vehicle does not have a B- vehicles, the proposed labeling
Third, the agency proposes to replace pillar, then the placard and/or label requirements would also be applicable
the vehicle capacity weight statement would be placed on the edge of the to retreaded pneumatic passenger car
on the vehicle placard with the drivers door. Currently, S4.3 of tires and new non-pneumatic tires for
following sentence: [t]he combined 571.110 specifies that the vehicle passenger cars. More specifically,
weight of occupants and cargo should placard be affixed to the glove FMVSS No. 117, which specifies
never exceed XXX pounds. The XXX compartment door or an equally requirements for retreaded pneumatic
amount would equal the vehicle accessible location. A standardized passenger tires and FMVSS No. 129,
capacity weight of the vehicle as location for tire information placards which specifies performance
defined in FMVSS No. 110. The and labels would contribute to requirements for new non-pneumatic
information is the same as that currently consumer awareness of recommended tires for passenger cars would be revised
required to be placed on the vehicle tire inflation pressures and load limits. to include the proposed labeling
placard by manufacturers. However, the The agency proposes that owners requirements.
agency believes that the statement the manuals for light vehicles contain
combined weight of occupants and discussion of the following five subject C. Proposed Labeling Requirements
cargo should never exceed * * * is areas: (1) Tire labeling, (2) 1. Tire Markings
easier for consumers to comprehend recommended tire inflation pressure, (3)
than a technical phrase such as vehicle NHTSA proposes that all labeling
glossary of tire terminology, (4) tire care,
capacity weight. Vehicle capacity information specified under S4.3 of
and (5) vehicle load limits. A single,
weight is not intuitive to consumers FMVSS No. 109, including the TIN, be
reliable source containing the proposed
and it requires a vehicle operator to look placed on both sides of light vehicle
required information for the tires and
tires except for that information cited in
tire safety information listed above
23 (a) Vehicle capacity weight expressed as THE paragraphs (d), (e), (f) and (g) of S4.3.
would aid consumers by providing the
COMBINED WEIGHT OF OCCUPANTS AND The required information in these
information that they need to properly
CARGO SHOULD NEVER EXCEED XXX POUNDS; paragraphs (generic name of cord
(b) Designated seating capacity (expressed in maintain their tires and adhere to
terms of total number of occupants and in terms of recommended load limits. 24 The agency anticipates that the proposed
occupant for each seat location); requirements of FMVSS No. 139, including the
(c) Vehicle manufacturers recommended cold B. Applicability
labeling revisions discussed here and the
tire inflation pressure; The proposed FMVSS No. 139 and its performance requirements and testing procedures to
(d) Tire size designation for the tire installed as labeling revisions would apply, except be proposed in a forthcoming rulemaking, if
original equipment on the vehicle by the vehicle adopted, would supersede the requirements of
manufacturer; and where noted, to new pneumatic tires for FMVSS No. 109. The deletion of FMVSS No. 109
(e) SEE OWNERS MANUAL FOR ADDITIONAL use on motor vehicles with a GVWR of will be discussed further in the forthcoming
INFORMATION. 10,000 pounds or less, manufactured proposal.

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Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules 65549

material, actual number of plies, consumers and industry professionals to result in cost savings to manufacturers
tubeless or tube type designation, determine the level of risk when that would offset some of the increased
and the word radial if applicable) inflating, repairing, retreading or costs resulting to changes to the TIN and
must be present on one of the sidewalls. servicing a specific tire. NHTSA the labeling of passenger car tires.
Requiring that ply, cord, and tube and believes that it is sufficient to require Several commenters suggested adding
tire type information only be present on that this information appear on one additional information to the tire
one sidewall would reduce the sidewall. There is no known advantage sidewall, e.g., load index values,
stringency of FMVSS No. 119 which that would arise from requiring this specifying what the digits of the TIN
currently requires that light truck and information on both sides of the tire. represent, a marking requirement
MPV tires display the information on Several tire manufacturer association directing the vehicle operator to use the
both sidewalls. commenters objected to requiring a tire information contained on the vehicle
Comments to the docket in response manufacturer to mark the TIN on both placard, a marking requirement for run-
to the ANPRM questions concerning tire sidewalls because they believe that flat and extended mobility tire
placement of the TIN expressed a range this continues to present workers with capability, and a warning stating:
of different viewpoints. Most a serious potential safety hazard. As replace tire when worn to indicator.
commenters stated that placing the TIN discussed above, the agency learned NHTSA believes that these suggestions
on the outside wall of the tire was a during prior rulemaking efforts (45 FR are not feasible. As run-flat tires and
desirable requirement. Further, many 82293, December 15, 1980) that high performance low-profile tires are
respondents also supported putting the changing the TIN number plates in the developed and become more common,
TIN on both sides of the tire to ensure tire molds would not present tire diameters will increase with
that it would be visible on the outboard insurmountable safety problems. consequent decrease in sidewall
tire wall, as well as the inside tire wall NHTSA believes that advances in tire heights. That means that reserving the
where there is a lesser chance of it being manufacturing technology, such as ever-decreasing space on tire sidewalls
scuffed off of the tire. However, several removable stencil plates, have allowed for displaying necessary and required
tire industry respondents did not
for a significant reduction in the safety information will become even more
support putting the TIN on both sides of
hazards associated with the important in the future. Other suggested
the tire because of manufacturing costs
manufacturing process by enabling tire labeling, such as load index values,
and safety issues.
The recent Firestone recall workers to change labeling information are not intuitive to consumers and
highlighted the difficulty that on the molds outside of the tire press (A would require the vehicle operator to
consumers have in identifying recalled tire press generally works like a clam seek out reference materials and/or
tires when tires are mounted so that the shell). Further, the costs associated with would require the agency to require
TIN is located on the sidewall facing changing molds to implement this more information to be added to the
inwards. Improved access to the TIN requirement are not considered to be already crowded vehicle placard.
would greatly enhance the consumers onerous as discussed in the Costs NHTSA believes the items,
ability to determine if their tires have section of this document. Additionally, explanations, and warnings suggested
been recalled. the tire manufacturers suggestion that by the commenters would be better and
Consumer commenters and focus the TIN be placed on the intended more effectively addressed through
group participants also said that other facing sidewall of the tire is not consumer information campaigns rather
tire labeling information, such as size, practicable because the vast majority of than through requirements for
speed rating, load rating and maximum tires produced are reversible, not additional in-vehicle and on-vehicle
pressure, should also be required on asymmetrical. information.
both sides of the tire to ensure that it is Requiring that the tire information 2. TIN
readily visible to consumers. specified above be placed on both sides
With regard to the number of plies of light vehicle tires would provide The agency proposes two revisions to
and generic name of cord material used consumers with readily accessible recall the TIN: (1) Require that the first six
in the plies, most respondents believed information, without creating significant characters of the TIN to contain the
that information to be of limited safety additional costs to tire manufacturers, following information: The first two
value to consumers and suggested its and would ensure that the retread, characters would reflect the plant code,
removal from the sidewall. The ITRA repair and service industries continue to and the next four characters would
expressed the view that the cord and ply be provided with necessary recall reflect the date code, and (2) require 6
material is very important to the tire information. Reducing the amount of mm (14) as a uniform height font size
retread, repair and recycling industries information required to be placed on (see Figures 1 & 2).
because this information enables both sides of light truck tires would also BILLING CODE 491059P

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65550 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

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BILLING CODE 491059C

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65552 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

Currently, the plant code resides in the 3. Vehicle Placard Content and Format Third, the vehicle capacity weight
first two digits of the TIN and the date The agency proposes four sets of statement on the vehicle placard would
of manufacture resides in the ninth revisions for the presentation of tire be replaced by the following statement:
through twelfth digits of the TIN. These inflation pressure and vehicle placard [t]he combined weight of occupants
two required sets of information are information. This placard, permanently and cargo should never exceed XXX
separated by optional and tire size affixed to the glove compartment door pounds. The XXX amount would
information that reside in the third or an equally accessible location on equal the vehicle capacity weight of the
through eighth digits in the TIN. The passenger cars and to be required for all vehicle as defined in FMVSS No. 110.
optional information is only useful to light vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 The information is the same as that
the tire manufacturer and the tire size pounds or less under this proposal,25 currently required to be placed on the
information is already labeled elsewhere currently displays the vehicle capacity vehicle placard by manufacturers.
on the tire. weight, the designated seating capacity However, the agency believes that the
The commenters on the ANPRM and (expressed in terms of total number of statement the combined weight of
the focus groups expressed consistent occupants and in terms of occupants for occupants and cargo should never
support for making the TIN more user- each seat location), the vehicle exceed * * * is easier for consumers
friendly and readable. To that end, the manufacturers recommended cold tire to comprehend than a technical phrase
first proposed revision to the TIN inflation pressure for maximum loaded such as vehicle capacity weight,
reorders the sequence of the TIN vehicle weight, and the manufacturers which is not intuitive to consumers. To
characters to require that the first six recommended tire size designation. understand the term vehicle capacity
numbers be those that are necessary for First, the agency proposes that tire weight, a driver must look through the
identifying recalled tires (i.e., the plant inflation pressure information would be owners manual for an explanation of
code and the date code). Since the tire visually separated from the other how that weight is calculated and what
size is required to be labeled elsewhere information by a red colored border on significance that weight has for the safe
on the tire under another provision, the the existing vehicle placard 13 required operation of his or her vehicle.
requirement for including the tire size by S4.3 of 571.110 or, alternatively, be Fourth, the agency proposes to
code in TIN would be deleted. The placed on a separate tire inflation replace the vehicles recommended tire
proposed revisions to the sequence of pressure label. The vehicle placard size designation with the tire size
information in the TIN would make the would contain only the information designation for the tire installed as
TIN easier for consumers to read and required by S4.3 of 571.110, could not original equipment on the vehicle by the
understand for recall and other be combined with information or vehicle manufacturer. While in most
purposes. statements required by other labeling or instances these two numbers would be
The second proposal, which would certification requirements, and would identical, this minor revision insures
require a 6 mm (14) uniform height font meet the proposed color and content that the consumer is provided with the
size, would enhance the readability of requirements as described below. correct tire inflation pressure
the of the TIN. Currently, 574.5 requires Second, the agency also proposes that information for the tire size actually
the characters in the TIN, except for if a vehicle manufacturer uses the installed on his vehicle as original
those in the fourth grouping, to be a separate tire inflation pressure label, equipment by the vehicle manufacturer.
minimum height of 14. The characters that label must meet the following three The agency considered adding a
in the fourth grouping are presently requirements: (1) the tire inflation requirement for the vehicle
required to have a minimum height of pressure information on the placard manufacturer to label all recommended
532. would be in colorred, yellow, and optional tire size designations on the
In previous rulemakings and black on a white backgroundas vehicle placard and/or tire inflation
comments to the ANPRM, consumer illustrated in Figures 3 & 4 below, (2) pressure label. While this consideration
group commenters have suggested that 4 contain a black and white tire symbol would provide recommended tire
mm was not a sufficient font size for the icon that is in the upper left corner of inflation pressure information for
TIN, particularly for individuals with the placard, and is 13 millimeters (.51
consumers who opt to replace factory
visual impairment. Comments on the inches) wide and 14 millimeters (.55
installed tire sizes with optional tire
ANPRM and from the focus groups inches) (see Figures 3 & 4 below), and
sizes, we have tentatively concluded
concerning the readability of the TIN (3) the label and placard would both
that this is not a feasible requirement for
did not specify a particular font size. include the phrases Tire Information
three reasons. First, most light vehicles
and See Owners Manual For
The agency believes that a uniform 6 are equipped with original equipment
Additional Information, in yellow text
mm TIN font height is a more and replacement tires having the same
on a black background as illustrated in
appropriate size for information that is tire size designation as those tires
Figures 3 and 4 below. If, alternatively,
critical in the event of a recall. The installed by the vehicle manufacturer.
the manufacturer uses the separate tire
larger size will make the TIN easier to Second, consumers are typically not
inflation pressure label, that label must
read, without imposing a significant familiar with or cognizant of the size of
meet those three requirements.
burden on tire manufacturers. 6 mm is the tires on their vehicles. A listing of
approximately the equivalent of Times 25 FMVSS No. 120 currently requires that each more than one tire size designation and
New Roman font size 20 in Windows motor vehicle other than a passenger car show, on recommended tire inflation pressure
2000. While 6 mm would be the the label required by 567.4, or on a tire would require the vehicle operator to
minimum required font size, there is no information label (S5.3.2(b)), the recommended tire seek out the tire size designation on the
size designation appropriate for the GAWR, the tire
restriction that would prevent tire size and type designation of rims appropriate for
vehicles tires. Third, listing more than
manufacturers from using a larger font those tires, and the recommended cold inflation one tire size designation and
size for the TIN characters. The agency pressure for those tires such that the sum of the recommended inflation pressure would
requests comments on the readability of load ratings on the tires on each axle (when the require more information to be added to
tires load carrying capacity at the specified
a 6 mm font size for the TIN characters. pressure is reduced by dividing 1.10, in the case of
the already crowded vehicle placard.
Please be specific in your response and a tire subject to FMVSS No. 109, i.e., a passenger The agency believes that requiring a
provide a basis for your answer. car tire) is appropriate for the GAWR. vehicle operator to take an extra step to

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properly inflate his tire and potentially tire inflation pressure information on The following are samples of the
overcrowding the vehicle placard and/ the placard and/or the label. proposed vehicle placard and tire
or tire inflation pressure label with inflation pressure label:
information would discourage use of BILLING CODE 491059P

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As discussed above, survey data group results indicate that many (d) the adverse safety consequences of
indicate that most individuals are consumers are unaware of the existence overloading on handling and stopping
unaware of the existence and/or of and or location of tire inflation and on tires, and
location of the tire inflation pressure pressure and load limit information. (e) when to use either the
and load limit information placards. Participants in the focus groups noted a recommended inflation pressure or a
Surveys also confirm that maximum tire strong preference for one standardized higher pressure (up to the maximum
pressure is often confused with location for the placard. Both the focus inflation pressure) based on the amount
recommended inflation pressure. group participants and commenters on of load being carried by the tires. This
Surveys have not addressed load limit the ANPRM cited the B-pillar, followed inflation pressure and load limit
issues, but the results from NHTSAs by the drivers door edge, as the most information could, for example, be
focus groups and comments received in preferable locations for the placard. A provided on an insert in the following
response to the ANPRM indicate that standardized location for tire format:
consumers are unaware of that these information placards would contribute
limits exist, where they are located, and Figure 5.Locating and Understanding
to consumer awareness of recommended
how to use them. Load Limit Information
tire inflation pressure and load limits by
NHTSAs focus groups tested different providing a consistent and predictable
versions of existing and proposed tire Steps for Determining Correct Load Limit
place for this information. (1) Locate the statement The combined
placards to help determine the most
5. Owners Manual weight of occupants and cargo should
effective way of attracting the attention never exceed XXX pounds on your ve-
of consumers to this information and The agency proposes that owners hicles placard.
making it more understandable to them. manuals for light vehicles contain (2) Determine the combined weight of the
In response to the testing, focus group discussion of the following five subject passengers that will be riding in your
participants overwhelmingly preferred areas: vehicle.
color formats with contrasting colors, 1. Tire labeling, including a (3) Subtract the combined weight of the
e.g., yellow on black, instead of black description and explanation of passengers from XXX pounds.
and white formats because the color (4) The resulting figure equals the avail-
(a) each marking on the tire, able amount of cargo and luggage load
attracted their attention and aided in (b) locating information that will aid
their comprehension of the material. capacity. For example, if the XXX
consumers in identifying tires subject to amount equals 1500 lbs. and there will
Participants also strongly believed that a recall campaign, and be 5150 lb passengers in your vehicle,
a visual cue, such as a tire symbol icon, (c) the TIN; the amount of available cargo and lug-
would aid drivers in identifying and 2. Recommended tire inflation gage load capacity is 750 lbs. (1500
locating this imperative information. pressure, including a description and 750 (5 150) = 750 lbs.)
Based on the comments to the (5) Determine the combined weight of lug-
explanation of
ANPRM and the focus group results, gage and cargo being loaded on the ve-
(a) recommended cold tire inflation
NHTSA also recognizes that consumers hicle. That weight may not safely ex-
pressure, ceed the available cargo and luggage
need assistance in understanding load
limits and how inflation pressure affects (b) the vehicle placard and tire load capacity calculated in Step 4.
the load carrying capacity for their inflation pressure label required in (6) If your vehicle will be towing a trailer,
vehicle and in determining the total Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard load from your trailer will be trans-
load limit in pounds for their vehicle. No. 110 and their location in the ferred to your vehicle. Consult this
vehicle, manual to determine how this may re-
For instance, by replacing the technical duce the available cargo and luggage
term vehicle capacity weight on the (c) the adverse safety consequences of
underinflation (including tire failure), load capacity of your vehicle.
placard with a sentence containing (7) A higher inflation pressure (up to the
easily understandable terms such as and maximum inflation pressure) may be
passenger weight and cargo weight, (d) measuring and adjusting air necessary to carry safely the combined
the proposed placard revisions should pressure to achieve proper inflation; weight of the passengers, cargo and lug-
also aid consumers in locating and 3. Glossary of tire terminology, gage being carried in your vehicle. Con-
adhering to recommended load limit including cold tire pressure, sult this manual to determine whether a
maximum inflation pressure, and higher inflation pressure is necessary.
guidelines as well as recommended
inflation pressures. recommended inflation pressure, and
all non-technical terms defined in S3 of The agency requests comments on
4. Placard Location FMVSS Nos. 110 & 139; whether the statements in Figure 5
The agency proposes that the vehicle 4. Tire care, including maintenance should be required to be included
placard and tire inflation pressure label and safety practices; and verbatim in owners manual and on how
be located on the drivers side B-pillar. 5. Vehicle load limits, including a to make those statements as vehicle
If a vehicle does not have a B-pillar, description and explanation of owner friendly as possible.
then the placard and label would be (a) locating and understanding load Some commenters on the ANPRM
placed on the edge of the drivers door. limit information, total load capacity, indicated that a majority of consumers
The tire inflation pressure label would seating capacity, towing capacity, and rarely consult the owners manual or
be placed proximate to the vehicle cargo capacity, have knowledge of the information that
placard. There would be no prohibition (b) calculating total and cargo load it contains. Commenters and focus
on placing additional tire inflation capacities with varying seating group participants, however, agreed that
pressure labels on the vehicle in configurations including quantitative the owners manual should be a primary
locations other than the B-pillar, except examples showing/illustrating how the source of information for vehicle owners
as precluded by other safety standards. vehicles cargo and luggage capacity and, in particular, is a good location for
Currently, S4.3 of 571.110 specifies decreases as the combined number and/ general tire safety information. As
that the vehicle placard be affixed to the or size of occupants increases, discussed earlier in this document,
glove compartment door or an equally (c) determining compatibility of tire survey research indicates that a
accessible location. NHTSAs focus and load capabilities, significant minority of participants, up

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65556 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

to 45 percent in some surveys, cites the deflated tire in the event of a rapid loss clarify the distinction between
owners manual as the best source of of inflation pressure from a vehicle maximum inflation pressure and
information concerning proper tire speed of 97 km/h until the vehicle is recommended inflation pressure.
inflation pressure. stopped with a controlled braking Sidewalls are becoming progressively
The agencys review of a limited operation, to light trucks and vans for smaller with the advent of low profile
number of owners manuals revealed the first time. tires and requiring additional
that the amount and type of information information in this already crowded
provided in these documents varies 2. Rim Size and Type Designation for
Light Trucks and Multipurpose space could cause greater consumer
widely. Based on this observation, as confusion.
well as the ANPRM comments and Passenger Vehicles
Several commenters and focus group
focus group results, the agency believes Currently, the rim size and type participants also noted that the
that a single, reliable source containing designation label information maximum inflation pressure provides a
the proposed required information for requirements for light trucks and failsafe guideline for tire inflation. The
the tires and tire safety information multipurpose passenger vehicles agency concurs that the greatest
listed above would aid consumers in (MPVs) (which include SUVs) are likelihood of tire failure results from
properly maintaining their tires and specified in S5.3.2 of FMVSS No. 120. underinflation. Additionally, the
adhering to load limits. Light trucks and MPVs, unlike inflating of tires to the maximum
passenger cars, may be outfitted with inflation pressure while warm (i.e.,
C. Other Issues different sized rims which would after being driven for any amount of
1. FMVSS Nos. 110 and 120 require different size tires and time) will most likely result in the tires
The purpose of FMVSS Nos. 110 and recommended inflation pressures for being inflated to an amount below the
120 is to provide safe operational those tires. Under this proposal, the rim maximum inflation pressure because the
performance by ensuring that vehicles size and designation label requirement warm tire will register a higher inflation
to which they apply are equipped with on the certification label would be pressure than when the tire is measured
tires of adequate load rating and rims of added to FMVSS No. 110 for all light when cold (not driven for at least
appropriate size and type designation. vehicles to which FMVSS No. 120 is three hours).
FMVSS No. 110 currently applies to presently applicable. Rim information The agency also anticipates that
passenger cars and FMVSS No. 120 would not, however, appear on the improvements in the tire placard,
currently applies to vehicles other than proposed vehicle placard or tire standardizing the placard location, and
inflation pressure label. an expanded consumer information
passenger cars including motorcycles
and trailers. 3. Maximum Permissible Inflation program would reduce the number of
The agency proposes that FMVSS Pressure consumers who mistake the maximum
Nos. 110 and 120 be revised to The agency is not proposing to inflation pressure for the recommended
correspond with the applicability of the remove or to revise the requirement for inflation pressure.
new light vehicle tire standard. FMVSS the maximum permissible inflation 4. UTQGS
No. 110 would include passenger cars pressure marking on the tire, except to
and other light vehicles with a GVWR Several commenters on the ANPRM
extend this requirement to tires for use
of 10,000 pounds or less. Therefore, questioned the utility of the UTQGS
on all light vehicles with a GVWR of
most SUVs, vans, trailers, and pickup ratings to consumers and suggested that
10,000 pounds or less, except LSVs and
trucks would be required to comply they be repealed. Other commenters
motorcycles.28
with the same tire selection and rim Commenters on the ANPRM and recommended extending the
requirements as passenger cars. FMVSS survey data noted that applicability of UTQGS to additional
No. 120 will continue to apply to misunderstanding as to the meaning of categories of tires, e.g., mud and snow.
vehicles over 10,000 pounds GVWR and maximum permissible inflation pressure One commenter suggested that
motorcycles. does exist among consumers. temperature grades could be eliminated
Most current requirements of FMVSS Consumers often confuse the maximum since they are redundant with speed
No. 110 would be retained, including permissible inflation pressure labeled rating information.29 Since the TREAD
S4.2.2, which establishes a linkage on the tire for the recommended Act imposed an 18-month deadline on
between the vehicle normal load 26 and inflation pressure labeled on the vehicle this rulemaking, the agency does not
the load specified for the high-speed test placard. Nevertheless, most commenters have sufficient time to study and
in FMVSS No. 109.27 S4.2.2 will be did not recommend deleting this analyze the issues involved with
extended to cover SUVs, vans, trailers, labeling requirement. Several proposing revisions to the UTQGS.
and pickup trucks for the first time, commenters to the docket suggested Additionally, the UTQGS is statutorily
which means that P-metric and LT tires adding information to the tire to mandated (see 49 U.S.C. 30123(b). The
used on these vehicles will have a load distinguish the maximum permissible agency, in a future rulemaking, may
reserve similar to P-metric tires used on inflation pressure from the propose to revise some or all of the
passenger cars. recommended inflation pressure. grading requirements in Part 575.104,
The proposal also would extend However, most expressed the view that Uniform Tire Quality Grading
S4.4.1(b) of FMVSS No. 110, which improved consumer information would Standards.
requires that each rim shall retain a be the most effective means to correct 5. Consumer Information Campaign
the misunderstanding. The agency
26 Vehicle normal load on the tire means that load
believes that it would be less effective In conjunction with the proposals
on an individual tire that is determined by discussed above and in response to the
distributing to each axle its share of the curb to require tire manufacturers to add
weight, accessory weight, and normal occupant additional language to the sidewall to TREAD Act, the agency is also
weight and dividing by 2. launching a consumer information
27 This, under the proposed high speed test, 28 FMVSS No. 119 does not contain a requirement

would ensure at least a 15 percent load reserve that the maximum permissible inflation pressure be 29 The speed rating of a tire is generally indicated

(high speed test load proposed is 85 percent) when labeled on new pneumatic tires for vehicles other on the tire although not required by either FMVSS
the vehicle is operated at normal load. than passenger cars. Nos. 109 and 119.

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campaign addressing tire safety and same year, the U.S. imported 45 million 9. Organization of Tire Labeling
maintenance. Consumer information passenger car tires and 5.4 million light Information
campaigns are an institutionalized part truck tires from foreign sources. It is Some comments on the ANPRM
of NHTSAs statutory mandate and apparent, therefore, that maximum suggested improving the organization
operating practices. Quantifiable data harmonization of tire requirements and coherency of the tire information
confirming the crash reduction would benefit both U.S. and foreign that currently appears in more than six
effectiveness of these programs is vehicle and tire manufacturers. different standards and sections on tire
minimal, as funding does not exist to At this time, however, the overall
information. The agency will try to
perform the evaluations necessary to need for safety precludes, in NHTSAs
develop a simple brochure that explains
establish this level of effectiveness. view, the adoption of foreign or
to the public what the tire information
However, the successes of increased seat international labeling provisions. The
requirements are and what they mean.
belt use, greater air bag knowledge, labeling requirements contained in
reduced drunk driving, knowledge of GTS2000 and ECE 30 and 54 do not VII. Request for Comments on
star ratings, vastly increased NCAP web contain counterparts for some of the Particular Issues
site use, knowledge of rollover dangers, provisions in our current requirements, (1) 49 U.S.C. 30123 states: (c)
greater knowledge of child safety issues, e.g., labeling of maximum permissible Maximum load standards. The Secretary
and increased dissemination of the inflation pressure on the tire, and in our shall require a motor vehicle to be
brochures Buying A Safer Car and proposed requirements, e.g., labeling of equipped with tires that meet maximum
Buying a Safer Car For Child passenger and cargo weight on the load standards when the vehicle is
Passengers demonstrate that the vehicle. Additionally, Canadas tire loaded with a reasonable amount of
agencys consumer information labeling provisions mirror our current luggage and the total number of
programs are effective in increasing requirements but do not contain the passengers the vehicle is designed to
public awareness of safety issues and, novel labeling requirements proposed in carry. Should NHTSA define or specify
consequently, reducing deaths and this document. what a reasonable amount of luggage
injuries. Furthermore, we believe the two is for a vehicle with an occupant in
6. Point-of-Sale Information labeling requirements contained in every designated seating position? The
GTS2000 and ECE 30 and 54, speed- agency requests comments on this
The agency, as part of this category symbol and load index 30, have
rulemaking, does not propose to require question. Please be specific in your
not been shown to communicate response and provide a basis for your
dealers to provide point-of-sale tire information effectively to the U.S.
information. The agency does not answer.
public. (2) Tire manufacturer commenters
possess evidence that point-of-sale The following chart illustrates the
information would prove more pointed to GTS2000 and ECE
rated speed in km/h for each speed Regulations 30 and 54 to address issues
successful than consumer information symbol. ZR is an open-ended speed
campaigns at educating the consumer raised in the ANPRM. These
category for tires with a maximum commenters generally cited decreased
concerning tire safety. Therefore, it speed capability above 240 km/h, but is
cannot presently justify the additional costs and increased information
also used specifically for tires having a consistency as a benefit of minimized
costs to manufacturers and dealers of maximum speed capability above 300
such a requirement. If the agencys regulatory divergence. These
km/h. commenters, however, did not cite
consumer information campaign proves
unsuccessful at increasing the public specific labeling requirements in these
Rated Rated
Speed Speed international and foreign standards and
awareness of tire safety, the agency symbol speed symbol speed
could reexamine this issue in a future km/h km/h did not discuss the safety impacts from
rulemaking. the adoption of these standards. NHTSA
F .................. 80 R 170 requests comments on which, if any,
7. Vehicle Certification Labels G .................. 90 S 180 labeling requirements in any foreign or
J ................... 100 T 190
Vehicle certification label international standard should be
K .................. 110 U 200
requirements, contained in part 567, L ................... 120 H 210 considered by NHTSA and why. Please
would not be revised by this proposal M .................. 130 V 240 be specific in your response and provide
except to reference the proposed N .................. 140 W 270 a basis for your answer.
FMVSS No. 110, as well as FMVSS No. P .................. 150 Y 300 (3) Most commenters agree that
120, in 567.4 concerning tire-rim Q .................. 160 ZR > 300 adding additional required information
combinations for light trucks and MPVs, to the tire sidewall is unwarranted or
and to require that the label contain the The load index requirement in GTS challenging due to space and readability
tire-rim combination installed as 2000 and ECE Regulation Nos. 30 and concerns. Additionally, some
original equipment on the vehicle by the 54, in contrast to our current commenters have indicated that certain
vehicle manufacturer. requirement to provide the maximum information added at the option of the
load rating on the sidewall of the tire, manufacturer, e.g., warranty
8. International Harmonization provides a value which is not intuitive information, is not useful to consumers.
NHTSA generally supports to consumers and would require a Based on these sentiments, should the
international harmonization in cases vehicle operator to look to the owners agency consider prohibiting some or all
where such harmonization is consistent manual or standard to determine the non-required information from being
with its statutory mandate to ensure actual tire maximum load. labeled on the tire sidewalls? Please be
motor vehicle safety. The tire industry specific in your response and provide a
has become global in manufacturing, 30 Under these regulations, the speed-category
basis for your answer.
marketing, and sales. In 1999, domestic symbol and the load index are to be placed together
tire manufacturers exported 22.3 million near the size designation. For example, the sidewall VIII. Benefits
would contain the size designation PS15/65R15
passenger car tires and 3.8 million light 89H where H is the speed-category symbol and NHTSA believes that this proposal
truck tires to foreign markets. In the 89 is the load index. would be effective in increasing public

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65558 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

awareness of tire safety, particularly the For the owners manual information, placard and/or tire inflation pressure
understanding and maintenance of NHTSA estimates that one time writing label, or vehicle owners manual pages
proper tire inflation and load limits. and editing costs would equal $12,000 and a minimal costs for installation of
This proposal will also enable ((8 hours labor $30.00 per hour) x (50 the vehicle placard and/or tire inflation
consumers to more easily identify the owners manuals (25 manufacturers, 2 pressure label to all light vehicles.
TIN and other tire information for manuals each (one for passenger cars
B. Regulatory Flexibility Act
recalls and other notifications. The and one for light trucks, MPVs, or
proposal will standardize the location trailers)))). The print and layout costs The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980
and content of important information per manual are estimated at $0.10 per (5 U.S.C. 601 et seq.) requires agencies
relating to proper inflation and load manual. Since 17 million light vehicles to evaluate the potential effects of their
limits and other tire safety concerns. are produced annually, the total print proposed and final rules on small
These measures, by increasing and layout costs for the manuals equal business, small organizations and small
consumer knowledge and awareness, $1,870,000 with an overprint margin of governmental jurisdictions. I hereby
should result in reduced tire failures 10 percent, and the total owners certify that the proposed amendment
and tire related crashes, and therefore manual costs equal $1,882,000. would not have a significant economic
fewer deaths and injuries. Adding the total tire and vehicle impact on a substantial number of small
manufacturing costs together results in entities.
IX. Costs
approximately $5.5 million in annual The proposed rule would affect motor
NHTSA believes that this proposal costs. The agency requests comment on vehicle manufacturers and tire
would result in minimal costs for tire this estimate. Please be specific in your manufacturers. The agency does not
manufacturers. Tire labeling response and provide a basis for your believe that any of the tire
information is already required for tires answer. manufacturers are small businesses.
for light vehicles. Therefore, the cost of However, there are about 1,000 retread
X. Lead Time
molding this information should be the manufacturers in the United States, of
same, even if the information is Section 11 of the TREAD Act requires
the agency to issue a final rule on this which about 750 deal with light vehicle
changed. NHTSA estimates that the tires that will in some small way be
added cost for labeling tires under this tire labeling proposal by June 1, 2002.
Congress did not set a date by which all impacted by this rule. Most of these
proposal would equal $0.01 per tire or retreaders are small businesses.
less. Since 300 million tires are covered tires and vehicles would have
produced per year the total annual cost to meet the improved tire information NHTSA estimates that there are only
for the proposed tire labeling requirements. The agency proposes to about four small passenger car and light
requirements would equal $3 million phase-in compliance for tires according truck vehicle manufacturers in the
($0.01 300 million). to the following schedule: All P-metric United States. These manufacturers
tires manufactured on or after serve a niche market. The agency
NHTSA also believes that this
September 1, 2003, and all LT tires believes that small manufacturers
proposal would result in minimal costs
manufactured on or after September 1, manufacture less than 0.1 percent of
for vehicle manufacturers and
2004. Additionally, all light vehicles total U.S. passenger car and light truck
consumers. Vehicle placard information
manufactured on or after September 1, production per year.
is already required for passenger cars
and owners manual information is 2003 would have to comply with the The agency requests comments
already required for light vehicles. final rule. This proposed lead time concerning the economic impact of the
Therefore, the costs of printing a new or would be consistent with the lead time proposed rule on retreaders and small
revised vehicle placard and/or tire proposed for the tire performance vehicle manufacturers.
inflation pressure label, the owners upgrade.
C. National Environmental Policy Act
manual pages, and installation of the XI. Rulemaking Notices and Analyses
placard and/or label should be minimal. NHTSA has analyzed this proposal for
The only cost would be a one time cost A. Executive Order 12866 and DOT the purposes of the National
to change production for the new Regulatory Policies and Procedures Environmental Policy Act. The agency
vehicle placard and/or tire inflation NHTSA has considered the impact of has determined that implementation of
pressure label, the application of the this rulemaking action under E.O. 12866 this action would not have any
vehicle placard and/or tire inflation and the Department of Transportations significant impact on the quality of the
pressure label to all light vehicles, not regulatory policies and procedures. This human environment.
only passenger cars, and the new rulemaking document was not reviewed D. Executive Order 13132 (Federalism)
owners manual pages. under E.O. 12866, Regulatory Planning
NHTSA estimates that the cost of a and Review. This action has been The agency has analyzed this
new vehicle placard or tire inflation determined to be not significant rulemaking in accordance with the
pressure label would be $0.01 or less under the Department of principles and criteria contained in
per vehicle for producing the new Transportations regulatory policies and Executive Order 13132 and has
placard or label and $0.04 for the procedures. The proposal is likely to determined that it does not have
application of the new placard or label. result in expenditure by tire and sufficient federal implications to
NHTSA estimates that with automobile manufacturers of warrant consultation with State and
approximately 100% of light trucks, approximately $5.5 million in annual local officials or the preparation of a
MPVs, and trailers (9 million annually) costs. As explained above, NHTSA federalism summary impact statement.
utilizing both the placard and label and believes that this proposal would result The proposal would not have any
30% of passenger cars (.30 8 million in minimal cost for manufacturers and substantial impact on the States, or on
= 2.4 million) utilizing both the placard consumers. As this is a proposal to the current Federal-State relationship,
and label, the total costs for the vehicle change existing requirements, the only or on the current distribution of power
placard and tire inflation pressure label cost would be a one-time cost to change and responsibilities among the various
proposals would equal $626,000. production to the new tire, vehicle local officials.

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E. Unfunded Mandates Act retreaders of tires. The agency estimates Type of Request: Additional
The Unfunded Mandates Reform Act that there are about 8 such new tire collection of information for an existing
of 1995 requires agencies to prepare a manufacturers and 1200 retread collection.
written assessment of the costs, benefits manufacturers. The placard labeling OMB Clearance Number: 21270541.
and other effects of proposed or final respondents are manufacturers of MPVs Affected Public: The respondents are
rules that include a Federal mandate covered by FMVSS 571.120. The agency manufacturers of motor vehicles with a
likely to result in the expenditure by estimates that there are 935 vehicle gross vehicle weight rating of 10,000
State, local or tribal governments, in the manufacturers affected by this pounds or less, except for motorcycles
aggregate, or by the private sector, of collection. and LSVs. The agency estimates that
more than $100 million annually Estimate of the Total Annual there are 50 model lines for which there
(adjusted annually for inflation with Reporting and Record Keeping Burden are owners manuals. It is estimated that
base year of 1995). Adjusting this Resulting from the Collection of about 25 vehicle manufacturers are
amount by the implicit gross domestic Information: NHTSA estimates that the affected by this collection.
product price deflator for the year 2000 total annual hour burden is 111,539 Estimate of the Total Annual
results in $109 million (106.99/98.11 = hours for tire labeling and 25,184 for Reporting and Record Keeping Burden
1.09). The assessment may be included vehicle placard requirements. Resulting from the Collection of
in conjunction with other assessments, Estimated Costs: NHTSA estimates Information: NHTSA estimates that the
as it is here. the total cost annual burden for tire total annual hour burden is 400 hours
This proposal is likely to result in labeling to be $3,000,000. The estimated for this information collection.
expenditure by tire and automobile total cost annual burden for vehicle Estimated Costs: NHTSA estimates
manufacturers of approximately $5.5 placards is $626,000. No additional the total cost annual burden for revising
million in annual costs. resources would be expended by the owners manuals to be $1,882,000.
manufacturers to gather additional Summary of the Collection of
F. Civil Justice Reform information because they already Information: The provisions of the
This proposal would not have any compile this data for their own uses. proposed amendments herein requiring
retroactive effect. Under 49 U.S.C. Summary of the Collection of manufacturers to provide information in
21403, whenever a Federal motor Information: The provisions of the owners manuals explaining tire and
vehicle safety standard is in effect, a proposed amendments herein requiring vehicle load limit information for the
State may not adopt or maintain a safety manufacturers to provide certain benefit of consumers are considered to
standard applicable to the same aspect information on both sidewalls of tires, be third-party information collection
of performance which is not identical to e.g., the TIN, and certain information on requirements as defined by the Office of
the Federal standard, except to the a placard or label for vehicles other than Management and Budget (OMB) in 5
extent that the state requirement passenger cars, e.g., vehicle capacity CFR part 1320.
imposes a higher level of performance weight, seating capacity, for the benefit Description of the Need for the
and applies only to vehicles procured of consumers are considered to be third- Information and Proposed Use of the
for the States use. 49 U.S.C. 21461 sets party information collection Information: The provisions of the
forth a procedure for judicial review of requirements as defined by the Office of proposed amendments herein requiring
final rules establishing, amending or Management and Budget (OMB) in 5 manufacturers to provide information in
revoking Federal motor vehicle safety CFR part 1320. owners manuals explaining tire and
standards. That section does not require vehicle load limit information are for
Description of the Need for the
submission of a petition for the benefit of consumers. NHTSA
Information and Proposed Use of the
reconsideration or other administrative requests comments on the agencys
Information: The provisions of the
proceedings before parties may file suit estimates of the total annual hour and
proposed amendments herein requiring
in court. cost burdens resulting from this
manufacturers to provide certain
collection of information. These
G. Paperwork Reduction Act information on both sidewalls of tires,
comments must be received on or before
e.g., the TIN, and certain information on
This proposal contains the following February 19, 2002.
a placard or label for vehicles other than
collections of information, as that
passenger cars, e.g., vehicle capacity H. Plain Language
term is defined in 5 CFR Part 1320
weight, seating capacity, are for the Executive Order 12866 and the
Controlling Paperwork Burdens on the
benefit of consumers. NHTSA requests Presidents memorandum of June 1,
Public:
comments on the agencys estimates of 1998, require each agency to write all
Tire and Vehicle Placard Labeling
the total annual hour and cost burdens rules in plain language. Application of
RequirementsThe Department of
resulting from this collection of the principles of plain language
Transportation is submitting the
information. These comments must be includes consideration of the following
following information collection request
received on or before February 19, 2002. questions:
to OMB for review and clearance under
the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 Vehicle Owners Manual Have we organized the material to
(Pub. L. 10413, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). RequirementsThe Department of suit the publics needs?
Agency: National Highway Traffic Transportation is submitting the Are the requirements in the rule
Safety Administration (NHTSA). following information collection request clearly stated?
Title: Tires and Rims Labeling, and to OMB for review and clearance under Does the rule contain technical
Vehicle Placard Requirements. the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 language or jargon that isnt clear?
Type of Request: Additional (Pub. L. 10413, 44 U.S.C. Chapter 35). Would a different format (grouping
collection of information for an existing Agency: National Highway Traffic and order of sections, use of headings,
collection. Safety Administration (NHTSA). paragraphing) make the rule easier to
OMB Clearance Number: 21270503. Title: Consolidated Vehicle Owners understand?
Affected Public: The tire-labeling Manual Requirements of Motor Vehicles Would more (but shorter) sections
respondents are manufacturers and and Motor Vehicle Equipment. be better?

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65560 Federal Register / Vol. 66, No. 244 / Wednesday, December 19, 2001 / Proposed Rules

Could we improve clarity by adding Comments may also be submitted to (1) Go to the Docket Management
tables, lists, or diagrams? the docket electronically by logging onto System (DMS) Web page of the
What else could we do to make the the Dockets Management System Web Department of Transportation (http://
rule easier to understand? site at http://dms.dot.gov. Click on dms.dot.gov/).
If you have any responses to these Help & Information or Help/Info to (2) On that page, click on search.
questions, please include them in your obtain instructions for filing the (3) On the next page (http://
comments on this proposal. document electronically. dms.dot.gov/search/), type in the four-
XII. Submission of Comments digit docket number shown at the
How Can I Be Sure That My Comments
beginning of this document. Example: If
How Can I Influence NHTSAs Thinking Were Received?
the docket number were NHTSA
on This Proposed Rule? If you wish Docket Management to 19981234, you would type 1234.
In developing this proposal, we tried notify you upon its receipt of your After typing the docket number, click on
to address the concerns of all our comments, enclose a self-addressed, search.
stakeholders. Your comments will help stamped postcard in the envelope (4) On the next page, which contains
us improve this rule. We invite you to containing your comments. Upon docket summary information for the
provide views on options we propose, to receiving your comments, Docket docket you selected, click on the desired
suggest new approaches we have not Management will return the postcard by comments. You may download the
considered, provide new data, indicate mail. comments. However, since the
how this proposed rule may affect you, How Do I Submit Confidential Business comments are imaged documents,
or provide other relevant information. Information? instead of word processing documents,
We welcome your views on all aspects the downloaded comments are not word
If you wish to submit any information searchable.
of this proposed rule, but request
under a claim of confidentiality, you Please note that even after the
comments on specific issues throughout
should submit three copies of your comment closing date, we will continue
this document. We grouped these
complete submission, including the to file relevant information in the
specific requests near the end of the
information you claim to be confidential Docket as it becomes available. Further,
sections in which we discuss the
business information, to the Chief some people may submit late comments.
relevant issues. Your comments will be
Counsel, NHTSA, at the address given Accordingly, we recommend that you
most effective if you follow the
above under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION periodically check the Docket for new
suggestions below:
CONTACT. In addition, you should
Explain your views and reasoning material.
as clearly as possible. submit two copies, from which you
Provide solid technical and cost have deleted the claimed confidential XII. Proposed Regulatory Text
data to support your views. business information, to Docket List of Subjects in 49 CFR Parts 567,
If you estimate potential costs, Management at the address given above 571, 574, and 575
explain how you arrived at the estimate. under ADDRESSES. When you send a
Tell us which parts of the proposal comment containing information Certification, Consumer information,
you support, as well as those with claimed to be confidential business Imports, Motor vehicle safety, Motor
which you disagree. information, you should include a cover vehicles, Rubber and rubber products,
Provide specific examples to letter setting forth the information Tires.
illustrate your concerns. specified in our confidential business In consideration of the foregoing, we
Offer specific alternatives. information regulation. (49 CFR part propose to amend 49 CFR parts 567,
Refer your comments to specific 512.) 571, 574 and 575 as follows:
sections of the proposal, such as the
Will the Agency Consider Late PART 567CERTIFICATION
units or page numbers of the preamble,
Comments?
or the regulatory sections. 1. The authority citation for part 567
Be sure to include the name, date, We will consider all comments that
Docket Management receives before the would continue to read as follows:
and docket number with your
comments. close of business on the comment Authority: 49 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115,
closing date indicated above under 30117, 30166, 32502, 32504, 3310133104,
How Do I Prepare and Submit DATES. To the extent possible, we will 33108, and 33109; delegation of authority at
Comments? also consider comments that Docket 49 CFR 1.50.
Your comments must be written and Management receives after that date. If 2. Part 567 would be amended by
in English. To ensure that your Docket Management receives a comment revising 567.4(h)(2) as follows:
comments are correctly filed in the too late for us to consider it in
Docket, please include the docket developing a final rule (assuming that 567.4 Requirements for manufacturers of
number of this document in your motor vehicles.
one is issued), we will consider that
comments. comment as an informal suggestion for * * * * *
Your comments must not be more future rulemaking action. (h) * * *
than 15 pages long. (49 CFR 553.21). We (2) (For multipurpose passenger
established this limit to encourage you How Can I Read the Comments vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, and
to write your primary comments in a Submitted by Other People? motorcycles.) The manufacturer may, at
concise fashion. However, you may You may read the comments received its option, list more than one GVWR-
attach necessary additional documents by Docket Management at the address GAWR-tire-rim combination on the
to your comments. There is no limit on given above under ADDRESSES. The label as long as the listing contains the
the length of the attachments. hours of the Docket are indicated above tire-rim combination installed as
Please submit two copies of your in the same location. original equipment on the vehicle by the
comments, including the attachments, You may also see the comments on vehicle manufacturer and conforms in
to Docket Management at the address the Internet. To read the comments on content and format to the requirements
given above under ADDRESSES. the Internet, take the following steps: for the Tire-rim-inflation information set

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forth in 571.120, 571.129 and S4.3(c) and (d) may be shown, the type designation of rims (not
571.139 of this chapter. alternatively, on a tire inflation pressure necessarily those on the vehicle)
* * * * * label, and conform in size, color, and appropriate for the tire appropriate for
format as set forth in Figure 2 in S4.3, use on that vehicle, including the tire
PART 571FEDERAL MOTOR permanently affixed and proximate to installed as original equipment on the
VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS the placard required by this paragraph. vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer,
The information specified in S4.3(e) after each GAWR listed on the
3. The authority citation for part 571 shall be shown on both the vehicle certification label required by 567.4 or
would continue to read as follows: placard and on any existing tire 567.5 of this chapter. This information
Authority: 49 U.S.C. 322, 2011, 30115, inflation pressure label in the format shall be in the English language, lettered
30166 and 30177; delegation of authority at and color scheme set forth in Figures 1 in block capitals and numerals not less
49 CFR 1.50. and 2. than 2.4 millimeters high and in the
4. Section 571.110 would be amended (a) Vehicle capacity weight expressed following format:
by revising its heading and S2, S4.3 and as THE COMBINED WEIGHT OF Truck ExampleSuitable Tire-Rim Choice
S4.3.1, by adding S4.3.2, and by adding OCCUPANTS AND CARGO SHOULD GVWR: 2,441 kilograms (5381 pounds)
Figure 1 and Figure 2 at the end of NEVER EXCEED XXX POUNDS; GAWR: Front1,299 kilograms (2,864
Section 571.110, to read as follows: (b) Designated seated capacity pounds) with P265/70R16 tires, 16 x 8.0
(expressed in terms of total number of rims at 240 kPa (36 psi) cold single.
571.110 Standard No. 110Tire selection occupants and number of occupants for GAWR: Rear1,142 kilograms (2,864
and rims for motor vehicles with a GVWR each seat location); pounds) with P265/70R16 tires, 16 x 8.00
of 10,000 pounds or less. (c) Vehicle manufacturers rims, at 245 kPa (36 psi) cold single.
* * * * * recommended cold tire inflation S4.3.2 No inflation pressure other
S2. Application. This standard pressure, subject to the limitations of than the maximum permissible inflation
applies to motor vehicles with a gross 4.3.2; pressure may be shown unless
vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 (d) Tire size designation for the tire (a) It is less than the maximum
pounds or less, except for motorcycles, installed as original equipment on the permissible inflation pressure;
and to non-pneumatic spare tire vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer; (b) It is appropriate for the load limits
assemblies for use on those vehicles. (e) TIRE INFORMATION; as calculated in accordance with S4.2;
S4. * * * (f) SEE OWNERS MANUAL FOR and
S4.3 Placard. Each vehicle shall ADDITIONAL INFORMATION; and (c) The tire load rating specified in a
show the information specified in S4.3 (g) For a vehicle equipped with a non-
submission by an individual
(a) through (f) on a placard permanently pneumatic assembly, the tire
manufacturer, pursuant to S4.1.1(a) of
affixed to the B-pillar, or, if the vehicle identification code with which that
571.139 or contained in one of the
does not contain a B-pillar, the drivers assembly is labeled pursuant to the
publications described in S4.1.1.(b) of
side door edge. This information shall requirements of S4.3(a) of 571.129,
571.139, for the tire size at that
be in the English language, lettered in New Non-Pneumatic Tires for Passenger
inflation pressure is not less than the
block capitals and numerals not less Cars.
vehicle maximum load and the vehicle
than 2.4 millimeters high and conform S4.3.1 Additional labeling
normal load.
in size, color, and format as set forth in information for vehicles other than
Figure 1 in S4.3. At the manufacturers passenger cars. Each vehicle shall show * * * * *
option, the information specified in the size designation and, if applicable, BILLING CODE 491059P

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BILLING CODE 491059C 571.120 Standard No. 120; Tire selection with the requirements of S5.5 of
5. Section 571.117 would be amended and rims for motor vehicles with a GVWR 571.139.
by revising S6.3 (including removing of more than 10,000 pounds.
* * * * *
Table 1 and the undesignated paragraph * * * * * 8. Section 571.139 would be added to
following S6.3(h)), to read as follows: S3. Application. This standard read as follows:
applies to motor vehicles with a gross
571.117 Standard No. 117; Retreaded vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of more 571.139 Standard No. 139; New
pneumatic tires. than 10,000 pounds and motorcycles, to pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a
rims for use on those vehicles, and to GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less.
* * * * *
non-pneumatic spare tire assemblies for S1. Scope and purpose. This standard
S6. * * * specified tire dimensions, test
use on those vehicles.
S6.3. Labeling. Each retreaded tire * * * * * requirements, labeling requirements,
shall comply with the requirements of 7. Section 571.129 would be amended and defines tire load ratings.
S5.5. of 571.139. by revising S4.3 to read as follows: S2. Application. This standard
applies to new pneumatic tires for use
* * * * *
571.129 Standard No. 129; New non- on motor vehicles (other than
6. Section 571.120 would be amended pneumatic tires for passenger cars. motorcycles) that have a gross vehicle
by revising its heading, and S3 to read * * * * * weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds
as follows: S4. * * * or less and that were manufactured after
S4.3. Labeling Requirements. Each 1975.
new non-pneumatic tire shall comply S3. Definitions. [Reserved]

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S4. Tire and rim matching bead to the shoulder of the tire. If the they are obstructed by the flange of any
information. maximum section width falls within rim designated for use with that tire in
S4.1. Each manufacturer of tires shall that area, those markings shall appear this standard or in Standard No. 110
ensure that a listing of the rims that may between the bead and a point one-half ( 571.110 of this part).
be used with each tire that it produces the distance from the bead to the S6. Test procedures, conditions and
is provided to the public in accordance shoulder of the tire, on at least one performance requirements. [Reserved]
with S4.1.1 and S4.1.2. sidewall. The markings shall be in
S4.1.1 Each rim listing for a tire letters and numerals not less than 0.078 S7. [Reserved]
shall include dimensional specifications inch high and raised above or sunk
and a diagram of the rim and shall be PART 574TIRE IDENTIFICATION AND
below the tire surface not less than RECORD KEEPING
in one of the following forms: 0.015 inch. The tire identification and
(a) Listed by manufacturer name or DOT symbol labeling shall comply with 9. The authority citation for part 574
brand name in a document furnished to part 574 of this chapter. would continue to read as follows:
dealers of the manufacturers tires, to (a) The symbol DOT, which shall
any person upon request, and in constitute a certification that the tire Authority: 15 U.S.C. 1392, 1401, 1403,
duplicate to: Docket Section, National conforms to applicable Federal motor 1407, 14111420, 1421; delegation of
Highway Traffic Safety Administration, authority at CFR 1.50.
vehicle safety standards;
400 Seventh Street, SW, Washington, (b) The tire identification number 10. Section 574.5 would be amended
DC 20590; or required by part 574 of this chapter; by revising paragraphs (b) and (d), and
(b) Contained in publications, current (c) The tire size designation as listed Figures 1 and 2 to read as follows:
at the date of manufacture of the tire or in the documents and publications
any later date, of at least one of the specified in S4.1.1; 574.5 Tire identification requirements.
following organizations: (d) The maximum permissible * * * * *
(1) The Tire and Rim Association. inflation pressure;
(2) The European Tyre and Rim (e) The maximum load rating; (b) Second grouping. For tires
Technical Organization. (f) The generic name of each cord produced or retreaded on and after
(3) Japan Automobile Tire material used in the plies (both sidewall September 1, 2003, the second grouping,
Manufacturers Association, Inc. and tread area) of the tire; consisting of four numerical symbols,
(4) Tyre & Rim Association of (g) The actual number of plies in the must identify the week and year of
Australia. sidewall, and the actual number of plies manufacture. The first two symbols
(5) Associacao Latino Americana de in the tread area if different; must identify the week of the year by
Pneus e Aros (Brazil). (h) The words tubeless or tube using 01 for the first full calendar
(6) South African Bureau of type as applicable; and week in each year, 02 for the second
Standards. (i) The word radial if the tire is a full calendar week, and so on. The
S4.1.2 A listing compiled in radial ply tire. calendar week runs from Sunday
accordance with paragraph (a) of S4.1.1 S5.5.1 Each tire shall be labeled through the following Saturday. The
need not include dimensional with the name of the manufacturer, or final week of each year may include not
specifications or a diagram of a rim brand name and number assigned to the more than 6 days of the following year.
whose dimensional specifications and manufacturer in the manner specified in The third and fourth symbols must
diagram are contained in a listing part 574. identify the year. Example: 0101 means
published in accordance with paragraph S5.5.2 [Reserved] the 1st week of 2001, or the week
(b) of S4.1.1. S5.5.3 If the maximum inflation beginning Sunday, January 7, 2001, and
S4.2. Information contained in a pressure of a tire is 240, 280, 290, 300, ending Saturday, January 13, 2001.
publication specified in S4.1(b) that lists 330, 340, 350 or 390 kPa, then: * * * * *
general categories of tires and rims by (a) Each marking of that inflation
size designation, type of construction, pressure pursuant to S5.5(d) shall be (d) Fourth grouping. For new tires, the
and/or intended use, shall be followed in parenthesis by the fourth group, consisting of no more than
considered to be manufacturers equivalent psi, rounded to the next 2 symbols, may be used at the option of
information pursuant to S4.1 for the higher whole number; and the manufacturer, to identify the tire
listed tires, unless the publication itself (b) Each marking of the tires size. For a new non-pneumatic tire or a
or specific information provided maximum load rating pursuant to non-pneumatic tire assembly, the fourth
according to S4.1(a) indicates otherwise. S5.5(e) in kilograms shall be followed in group, of not more than two symbols,
S5. General requirements. [Reserved] parenthesis by the equivalent load shall be used to identify the non-
S5.5 Tire Markings. Except as rating in pounds, rounded to the nearest pneumatic tire identification code. For
specified in paragraphs (a) through (i) of whole number. retreaded tires, the fourth group, of no
this S5.5, each tire shall be marked on S5.5.4 If the maximum inflation more than two symbols, shall identify
each sidewall with the information pressure of a tire is 420 kPa (60 psi), the the retread matrix in which the tire was
specified in S5.5 (a) through (e) and on tire shall have permanently molded into processed or a tire size code if a matrix
one sidewall with the information or onto both sidewalls, in letters and was not used to process the retreaded
specified in S5.5 (f) through (i). The numerals not less than 12 inch high, the tire. Each new tire manufacturer and
markings shall be placed between the words Inflate to 60 psi or Inflate to retreader shall maintain a record of each
maximum section width and the bead 420 kPa (60 psi). On both sidewalls, symbol used, with the corresponding
on at least one sidewall, unless the the words shall be positioned in an area matrix or tire size, and shall provide
maximum section width of the tire is between the tire shoulder and the bead such record to the NHTSA upon written
located in an area which is not more of the tire. However, in no case shall the request.
than one-fourth of the distance from the words be positioned on the tire so that BILLING CODE 491059P

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BILLING CODE 491059C

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* * * * * Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard Steps for Determining Correct Load Limit
No. 110 and their location in the (1) Locate the statement The combined
PART 575CONSUMER vehicle, weight of occupants and cargo should
INFORMATION REGULATIONS (C) Adverse safety consequences of never exceed XXX pounds on your ve-
11. The authority citation for part 575 underinflation (including tire failure), hicles placard.
would continue to read as follows: and (2) Determine the combined weight of the
(D) Measuring and adjusting air passengers that will be riding in your
Authority: 15 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115, pressure to achieve proper inflation; vehicle.
30117, and 30166; delegation of authority at (iii) Glossary of tire terminology, (3) Subtract the combined weight of the
CFR 1.50. including cold tire pressure, passengers from XXX pounds.
12. Section 575.6 would be amended maximum inflation pressure, and (4) The resulting figure equals the avail-
by adding paragraph (a)(4) to read as recommended inflation pressure, and able amount of cargo and luggage load
follows: all non-technical terms defined in S3 of capacity. For example, if the XXX
FMVSS Nos. 110 & 139; amount equals 1500 lbs. and there will
575.6 Requirements (iv) Tire care, including maintenance be 5150 lb passengers in your vehicle,
* * * * * the amount of available cargo and lug-
and safety practices;
(a)(4) At the time that a motor vehicle gage load capacity is 750 lbs. (1500
(v) Vehicle load limits, including a 750 (5 150) = 750 lbs.)
with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less, description and explanation of (5) Determine the combined weight of lug-
except a motorcycle or low speed (A) Locating and understanding load gage and cargo being loaded on the ve-
vehicle, manufactured on or after limit information, total load capacity, hicle. That weight may not safely ex-
September 1, 2003 is delivered to the seating capacity, towing capacity, and ceed the available cargo and luggage
first purchaser for purposes other than cargo capacity, load capacity calculated in Step 4.
resale, the manufacturer shall provide to (B) Calculating total and cargo load (6) If your vehicle will be towing a trailer,
the purchaser, in writing in the English capacities with varying seating load from your trailer will be trans-
language and not less than 10 point configurations including quantitative ferred to your vehicle. Consult this
type, a discussion of the items specified examples showing/illustrating how the manual to determine how this reduces
in paragraphs (a)(4) (i) through (v) of vehicles cargo and luggage capacity the available cargo and luggage load ca-
this section in the owners manual, or, decreases as the combined number and pacity of your vehicle.
size of occupants increases, (7) Under certain loading or driving con-
if there is no owners manual, in a
(C) Determining compatibility of tire ditions, a higher inflation pressure may
document. be required. Consult your owners man-
(i) Tire labeling, including a and load capabilities, ual for further information.
description and explanation of each (D) Adverse safety consequences of
marking on the tires provided with the overloading on handling and stopping
* * * * *
vehicle, including locating the Tire and on tires, and
Identification Number (TIN); (E) When to use either the Issued: December 12, 2001.
(ii) Recommended tire inflation recommended inflation pressure or a Stephen R. Kratzke,
pressure, including a description and higher inflation pressure (up to the Associate Administrator for Safety
explanation of maximum inflation pressure) based on Performance Standards.
(A) Recommended cold tire inflation the amount of load being carried by the [FR Doc. 0130989 Filed 121301; 10:40
pressure, tires. This information, for example, am]
(B) The vehicle placard and tire could be provided on an insert in the
BILLING CODE 491059P
inflation pressure label specified in following format:

VerDate 11<MAY>2000 16:07 Dec 18, 2001 Jkt 197001 PO 00000 Frm 00033 Fmt 4701 Sfmt 4702 E:\FR\FM\19DEP2.SGM pfrm01 PsN: 19DEP2