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DEPARTMENT: AGRICULTURE

Dry bean
production

Editor
DR A.J. LIEBENBERG
2002

Compiled by Directorate Agricultural Information Services, Department of Agriculture


in cooperation with
ARC-Grain Crops Institute

Printed and published by Department of Agriculture


and obtainable from Resource Centre, Directorate Agricultural Information Services
Private Bag X144, Pretoria, 0001 South Africa

Contributions
M.J. du Plessis
D. Fourie
A.J. Liebenberg
M.M. Liebenberg
C.J. van Zyl

This publication is available on the web: www.nda.agric.za/publications

Information provided by
ARC-Grain Crops Institute (ARC-GCI)
Private Bag X1251, Potchefstroom, 2520
Tel. (018) 299 6100
Dry beans is at present regarded as one of
the most important field crops in South Africa
on account of its high protein content and
dietary benefits.
Of all the annual leguminous food crops
that are harvested for dry seeds, the
ordinary bean is by far the most important.
Dry beans (Phaseolus spp.) originated in
Central and South America. Within the
genus Phaseolus there are three species
which are agronomically important in
South Africa.
z Phaseolus vulgaris
Many different types and colours, the
most important of which are: small
white, red speckled or sugar beans,
carioca and green beans
z Phaseolus acutifolius
Tepary beans
z Phaseolus coccineus
Large white kidney beans
Within each species there are many seed
types which differ in size, shape and
colour. Within each type there are
different cultivars and the seeds of
these cultivars differ very little from
one another. However, considerable
differences may occur in adaptability,
growth habit, disease resistance and
many other characteristics. In this
publication, only P. vulgaris is discussed,
except where mentioned otherwise.

1
CLIMATIC REQUIREMENTS
The dry bean is an annual crop which thrives
in a warm climate. It grows optimally at
temperatures of 18 to 24 C. The maximum
temperature during flowering should not
exceed 30 C for P. vulgaris and 26 C for
P. coccineus. High temperatures during
the flowering stage lead to abscission of
flowers and a low pod set, resulting in
yield loss. Day temperatures below 20 C
will delay maturity and cause empty mature
pods to develop. Cultivated under rainfed
conditions the crop requires a minimum
of 400 to 500 mm of rain during the
growing season, but an annual total of
600 to 650 mm is considered ideal.

SOIL REQUIREMENTS
Beans have to be planted in warm soils
(minimum temperatures preferably above
13 C) after all danger of frost has passed.
They grow well in soils with a depth of at
least 90 cm, that have no deficiencies,
and are well drained. Sandy loam, sandy
clay loam or clay loam with a clay content
of between 15 and 35 % is suitable. With
sandy soils, problems of low fertility or
nematode damage may occur.
Beans prefer an optimum soil pH (H2O) of
5,8 to 6,5, and are very sensitive to acidic
(pH (H2O) < 5,2) soils (acid saturation
above 10 %). They will also not grow well
in soils that are compacted, too alkaline
or poorly drained.

2
CULTIVAR CHOICE
The National Dry Bean Cultivar Trials are
conducted by the ARCGCI annually and
the information is published by the DPO
in SA Dry Beans. Dry beans are classified
into types according to:

Colour and seed size


z Small white beans (1525 g/100 seeds),
used mainly for canning purposes; 10 to
20 % of local production
z Red speckled or speckled sugar beans
(red speckles on a beige background)
(4055 g/100 seeds); 65 to 75 % of
local production
z Large white kidney beans (80100 g/
100 seeds); 5 to 10 % of local
production
z Carioca beans (khaki stripes on a beige
background) 20 to 25 g/100 seeds);
3 to 5 % of local production
z Alubia beans (large white) (4555 g/
100 seeds); 1 to 5 % of local
production

Growth habit
z type 1: determinate or bush type
z type 2: indeterminate compact upright
z type 3: indeterminate runner type
(short runners)

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Growing season
Temperatures, especially during the night,
determine the length of the growing
season of a cultivar:
z short (8594 days)
z medium (95104 days)
z long (105115 days).

A cultivar can have any combination of


these characteristics. Further information
on cultivars can be obtained from the
ARC-GCI. Seed is produced by Dry Bean
Seed (Pty Ltd) tel. (012) 325 1850 and
PANNAR tel. (033) 413 1131.

SEED QUALITY
For successful production, it is important
that high-quality (certified) seed with a
high germination percentage (80 % or
higher) be used. This production cost
factor is slight when compared to
probable yield losses due to disease or
poor stand. Low-quality seed can cause
a poor and an uneven stand, resulting in
uneven maturity, harvesting problems and
yield losses. Using disease-free seed will
reduce the incidence of seed-borne
diseases such as bean common mosaic
virus (BCMV), bacterial diseases (common
blight, halo blight and bacterial brown
spot) and the fungal disease, anthrac-

4
nose. Other benefits of disease-free
seed are that it is:
z labelled to indicate germination
percentage
z guaranteed true to type and ensures
homogeneity
z guaranteed free of weed seeds and
foreign matter.

SOIL PREPARATION
Seedbed preparation for the planting of
dry beans follows the same pattern as
that for any row crop planted in the
spring. The seedbed must be deep, level
and firm because this ensures better
surface contact between the seed and
the soil, increasing the absorption of
moisture. A level seedbed also facilitates
planting to a uniform depth.

FERTILISATION
It is recommended that beans be planted
on soils which have been previously well
fertilised. General fertility is more
advantageous than direct fertilisation,
because beans are sensitive to high con-
centrations of mineral salts.

Macronutrients
The total withdrawal figure per 1 ton of
dry bean seed produced is about 36 kg N,
8 kg P and 18 kg K.

5
Nitrogen (N)
Inoculation of dry bean seed is regarded
as ineffective. Consequently, dry beans
should be considered as incapable of
satisfying all of their nitrogen requirements
through N-fixation. The application of all
the nitrogen at planting time is recom-
mended, particularly where undecomposed
material has been ploughed in before
planting.

Deficiency symptoms
Lower leaves become light green and then
yellow and eventually die. Young leaves
may be lighter green than normal.

Guidelines for nitrogen application

Yield potential (t/ha) 1,5 2,0 2,5


N fertilisation (kg/ha) 15,0 30,0 45,0

Phosphorus (P)
Under commercial production the yield
responses to phosphorus fertilisation
are not dramatic in dry beans and P is
not normally a yield-restrictive factor.
Under subsistence production, where
small quantities of fertiliser are applied
P can be a yield-limiting factor. Where
the P content of the soil is lower than
20 ppm (Bray 1) it is recommended that
superphosphate be broadcasted and

6
ploughed into the soil to a depth of
15 to 20 cm before planting.
Phosphorus fertiliser must still be band-
placed at the time of planting. In low pH
soils, phosphorus can be utilised
efficiently by bandplacing 3,5 cm to
the side and 5 cm below the seed.

Deficiency symptoms
Young leaves are small and dark green, older
leaves senesce prematurely. Plants have
short internodes and reduced branching.

Guidelines for phosphorus fertilisation

Soil analysis P application for


potential (t/ha)

Ambic Bray 1 1,5 2,0 2,5

P (mg/kg) P fertilisation
(kg/ha)

10 13 16 22 28
15 20 12 16 20
20 27 10 13 16
25 34 9 12 15
>45 >55 5 5 5

Potassium (K)
When dry beans are grown on soils with
a high clay content, potassium is not
normally a limiting factor. Deficiencies are
most likely to occur on sandy soils with an
analysis of less than 50 ppm K. The opti-
mum leaf content is 2 % potassium.

7
Deficiency symptoms
Bright yellow chlorosis of older leaves,
appearing from the margins and then ex-
tending rapidly to the centre of leaflets.

Guidelines for potassium fertilisation

Soil analysis K fertilisation for


potential (t/ha)

Ambic 1 NH4OAc 1,5 2,0 2,5

K (mg/kg) K fertilisation
(kg/ha)

40 40 22 27 32
60 59 19 24 29
80 78 17 21 26
100 98 15 19 24
>100 >98 0 0 0

Micronutrients
Molybdenum (Mo)
If the soil has a pH (H2O) of less than 6,
a seed treatment of 100 g sodium molyb-
date per 50 kg seed and/or a foliar spray
of 100 g sodium molybdate per hectare
should be given. If the pH (H2O) is below
5,3 and there are no Rhizobia in the soil,
no results will be achieved by applying
molybdenum.
Deficiency symptoms are similar to those
of nitrogen because it is important for N
metabolism.

8
Zinc (Zn)
The critical level of zinc in bean tissue is
15 to 20 ppm. Levels higher than 120 ppm
can decrease yields. The availability of
zinc is highest in slightly acid soils
(pH 6,06,8) and lowest at pH(H2O)
above 7,4.

Deficiency symptoms
Pale, yellow leaves, especially between
veins and near the tips. The plants be-
come deformed and dwarfed and may die.
Pod formation is hampered and the plants
are slow to mature.

Manganese (Mn)
Deficiencies only occur on soils with a
high pH value. Symptoms include small
leaves with a mosaic yellowing in the
interveinal areas while the veins remain
prominently green. Deficiencies can be
corrected by applying manganese sulphate
(MnSO4) at 15 to 20 kg/ha.

Boron (B)
Boron toxicity is a more frequent problem
than deficiency and symptoms include
chlorosis and dwarfing. With time, the
chlorosis increases and resembles burn,
with the leaf margins curling in. Beans
should not follow a sunflower crop which
has received boron fertiliser.

9
Iron (Fe)
Deficiency occurs on calcareous or saline
soils where pH (H2O) values are above
7,4. Symptoms are characterised by
bright yellow leaves and green veins.
Deficiencies can be rectified by a 1 %
FeSO4 solution or chelate applied as a
foliar spray.

SOIL ACIDITY (pH)


The optimum soil pH levels for dry beans
are:
z pH (H2O): 5,86,5
z pH (KCl): 4,85,5.
The percentage of acid saturation has to
be lower than 10 % for the cultivation of
dry beans. The soluble aluminium content
has to be less than 25 to 30 %.
The pH can be raised (acid saturation
reduced) by applications of agricultural
lime. These applications to acid (low pH)
soils can make certain micronutrients,
such as molybdenum, more available to
the plant. The availability of phosphorus
is influenced by the pH. It is readily
available at a pH (H2O) of 6 to 7.
Calcium and magnesium deficiencies can
be alleviated with agricultural lime. High
pH soils are often associated with an
excess of sodium salts which reduce
nutrient uptake. Beans will tolerate a

10
sodium saturation percentage of up to
8 or 10 and an electrical conductivity of
up to 1 mmho/cm.

PLANTING DATE
The most suitable planting date is deter-
mined by the following factors:
z Correct soil temperature
z Probability of heavy rain which may lead
to soil crusting and restrict seedling
emergence
z Possibility of high temperatures later in
the season which may cause blossom drop
z Length of the growing season (high
temperatures during flowering, rain
during harvest and frost damage
should be avoided)
z Crop rotation programmes (position of the
bean crop in the total crop setup, i.e.
planted after another crop, such as maize).
Planting dates are mainly restricted by
the possible occurrence of frost (planting
too late), and rain at harvesting, resulting
in poor quality (planting too early). Plant-
ing dates in South Africa range from
November to mid-January in areas where
frost occurs. In frost-free areas, March
and April are the best months for plant-
ing beans. The large white kidney bean
(P. coccineus) is an exception and is planted
from mid-November to mid-December
and is not adapted to winter production.

11
SPACING, PLANT POPULATION
AND PLANTING DEPTH
The between-row spacing for all types of
beans under commercial production is
900 mm because dry beans are usually
cultivated in rotation with maize. For
early maturing cultivars, especially those
with a determinate growth habit, a row
spacing of 750 mm is recommended if
mechanisation is practical (see table).

Spacing and plant population

Type Spacing Spacing Plant


within rows between rows population
(mm) (mm) seeds/ha
Early maturing,
determinate 75 750 177 000
Medium and late
maturing 75 900 150 000
Large white
kidney 100150 900 115 000

Planting depth is determined by the soil


texture and its moisture content. Generally
the seeds are placed 2,5 to 5,0 cm below
the soil surface.

IRRIGATION
Irrigation offers the potential for
increasing yields and enabling production
in otherwise unsuitable soils. Sprinkler

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irrigation is the most frequent means of
irrigation for dry beans. The system used
is determined by the size and shape of
the lands, as well as available labour and
capital. In areas where water is unre-
stricted (not merely supplementary irri-
gation), the soil should be wet to field
capacity to the depth of the 1 m root
zone before planting. As soon as the soil
is sufficiently dry, the seedbed should be
prepared and planted and thereafter the
field should not be irrigated until the
seedlings have emerged.

Irrigation scheduling is essential for


optimum yield per unit of water. The
critical, moisture-sensitive growth stages
are flowering and early pod set which
occur at 40 to 50 % and 50 to 60 % of
the growing season. It is important that
irrigation cycles be correctly scheduled,
because excess moisture can create
conditions conducive to root rot and
Sclerotinia. Moisture stress can also
aggravate some root rots such as
Fusarium oxysporum. Irrigation should
cease when a quarter of the bean pods
have turned yellow. For the correct
irrigation scheduling, expert advice must
be obtained.

HARVESTING
Dry beans have a moisture content of
about 50 % at physiological maturity.

13
The beans, however, are only ready for
harvesting when the moisture content
drops to 16 %, the ideal being 15 %.
Seeds may split during threshing when
the moisture content is less than 12 %
and such seeds are rejected by canners
and seed companies. It is difficult to
clean without further seed split or
broken seed coats. Dry beans should be
harvested when all the pods have turned
yellow, but before they have become so
dry that the pods begin to shatter.

Dry beans can be harvested


as follows:

z Handpulling and threshing by driving


a tractor over them on a threshing
floor. Smaller volumes can be
threshed by hand by beating with a
stick covered in a hessian sack. The
wind can be used to separate the seed
from the chaff

z Partially mechanised systems, where


the plants are pulled up by hand,
placed in windrows and threshed with
a harvester or stacked, whereafter
they are threshed with a stationary
threshing machine

z Fully automated system with mechanical


pulling. The beans are raked into wind-
rows and threshed by means of an
automated combine.

14
Tips
z Pulling of beans should start when the moisture
content of the pods is temporarily high (to
prevent shattering), i.e. early in the morning
before the dew has evaporated.
z Mechanised harvesting must be done when
there is no danger of crop damage by rain.
z To prevent cracking and splitting beans should be
threshed at slow cylinder speeds with a machine
equipped with an axial flow threshing mechanism.

WEED CONTROL
Effective weed control is a prerequisite
for high dry-bean yields. Dry beans, being
low-growing plants, struggle to compete
with or overshadow weeds. Early control
is extremely important, because the root
system of the plant develops at this
stage and some weeds secrete chemical
inhibitors which limit plant growth. At a
later stage weeds hamper the harvesting
and threshing processes, adversely
affecting the quality of the crop.

Mechanical weed control


Mechanical weed control should begin
during seedbed preparation (remove all
weeds) and be repeated with a tiller
between the rows when necessary up to
the flowering stage. Care should be taken
that implements do not damage the crop

15
by using row spacings which permit easy
access and taking care that roots are not
damaged. Cultivation between the rows is
also advantageous because it loosens the
soil and improves aeration and water
penetration. Weeds in the row have
to be handpulled.

Chemical weed control


Chemical weed control can be implemented
before planting or before and/or after
emergence. A sufficient number of
herbicides have been registered to
control all weeds throughout the entire
growing period of dry beans. Information
in this regard is obtainable from the
different agrochemical companies.

DISEASES AND PESTS


Diseases and pests may have been partially
responsible for the unstable production
that has been experienced in the past.
Incidence and severity vary between
seasons because of environmental and
management practices. Integrated disease
and pest management, using all suitable
control measures, is recommended.

16
Causal organism, symptoms, ideal conditions, prevention and treatment of important dry-bean diseases

Disease Causal Symptoms Ideal Prevention/treatment


organism conditions

Angular Phaeoisariopsis Dark grey to brown angular lesions Moderate to Plant resistant cultivars;
leaf spot griseola on leaves. Small spore-carrying hot, prolonged especially small seeded; work
organs resembling beard stubble periods of high bean debris into the soil
on underside of lesions. Severe humidity after harvesting
infection leads to leaf yellowing and
defoliation. Large, round, flat,
reddish lesions on pods and
elongated dark brown lesions on
stems

Anthrac- Colletotrichum Brick-red to purplish darkening of Cool and humid Plant disease-free seed; work
nose lindemuthianum veins on lower leaf surface. Brown bean debris into the soil
lesions, becoming sunken with after harvesting; restrict
a reddish-brown border, on pods. movement in field; apply
Dark lesions (various sizes) on suitable fungicides;
seeds crop rotation with nonhosts
(beans every 3-4 years)

Ascochyta Phoma exigua Dark brown to black concentric Cool to moder- Work bean debris into the
lesions on leaves and pods. Can ate and humid soil after harvesting; apply
cause ragged leaves and defoliation suitable fungicides

17
Causal organism, symptoms, ideal conditions, prevention and treatment of important dry-bean diseases (continued)

18
Disease Causal Symptoms Ideal Prevention/treatment
organism conditions

Bacterial Pseudomonas Leaf symptoms are small, irregular Moderate Plant disease-free work bean
brown spot syringae pv. brown spots which are sometimes temperatures, debris into the soil after
syringae surrounded by a light-green zone. humid harvesting: apply copper-
Older leaves have a tattered based bactericides as a
appearance. Pod symptoms are preventive measure; control
small, dark-brown sunken lesions. weeds and volunteer beans
Infection of pods at an early stage,
inhibits growth at the point of
infection, which results in malfor-
mation and twisting of pods. Beans
without visible symptoms can
harbour substantial populations of
the pathogen

BCM(N)V Bean common Both diseases cause dark-green Presence of Plant resistant cultivars/
mosaic (ne- vein banding, downward curl of infected disease-free seed; plant
crotic) virus the leaves and leaf malformation. sources, aphids early to avoid large aphid
Leaves have an arched, puckered and susceptible populations; control aphids
and blistered appearance and cultivar with suitable pesticide
look thinner. BCMNV causes
systemic necrosis (black root)
in plants containing the I-gene
Causal organism, symptoms, ideal conditions, prevention and treatment of important dry-bean diseases (continued)

Disease Causal Symptoms Ideal Prevention/treatment


organism conditions

Charcoal Macrophomina Small, sunken black lesions on Hot and dry Seed treatment with suitable
root rot phaseolina stems at soil level, spreading fungicides (only effective at
(Ashy stem upward to blacken lower stems. an early stage); flooding or
blight) Foliage may yellow, wilt and die very wet conditions for a few
off. Minute black dots (pycnidia) weeks before planting; good
barely visible on blackened stems. irrigation; work in bean debris
More conspicuous on mature after harvesting. Crop rotation
plants has limited value because
maize, sorghum and small-grain
crops are also hosts

Common Xanthomonas Leaf symptoms appear as large, Hot and humid Plant disease-free seed; work
blight axonopodis pv. brown necrotic lesions surrounded bean debris into the soil
phaseoli by a narrow, bright yellow margin. after harvesting; apply
Pod symptoms are circular, slightly copper-based bactericides as
sunken, dark reddish-brown lesions. a preventive measure; control
Seeds directly connected with pod weeds and volunteer beans
lesions may be discoloured

*Fusarium Fusarium solani Elongated reddish discoloration of Stress condi- Crop rotation with maize or
root rot f. sp phaseoli the taproot, (root may rot com- tions, especially other grain crop; deep
(dry root) pletely), Plants may become drought. Path- ploughing; avoid stress, poor
rot) stunted, show premature defolia- ogen occurs in nutrition and damage to
tion and evenually die. Secondary most soils and stems (by for example bean
roots near the soil surface. may be spread fly, hoeing, machinery); use
Infection most severe when the in soil dust (wind) tillage which minimises soil
root system is under stress or on seeds) compaction

19
Causal organism, symptoms, ideal conditions, prevention and treatment of important dry-bean diseases (continued)

20
Disease Causal Symptoms Ideal Prevention/treatment
organism conditions

Fusarium Fusarium Visible in field as groups of Hot and dry, Crop rotation with grain
yellows oxysporum yellowing plants. Leaves become stress condi- crops (maize, wheat, etc);
(F. wilt) f. sp. phaseoli yellow and die off. Internal tions deep ploughing; avoid stress
discoloration of lower stem and damage to stems (by for
(vascular tissue). Younger plants example bean fly, hoeing,
stunted, may wilt and die machinery)

Halo blight Pseudomonas Leaf symptoms initially appear as Cool and humid Plant disease-free seed; work
savastanoi pv small, water-soaked lesions on the bean debris into the soil
phaseolicola underside. Lesions turn reddish after harvesting; apply
brown and become necrotic with copper-based bactericides as
age. The most characteristic a preventive measure; control
symptom is a light-green zone weeds and volunteer beans
(halo) surrounding the necrotic
spot. Pod symptoms are greasy,
water-soaked spots of various
sizes. Lesion margins may turn
brown as they mature. Lesions
normally stay green on dry pods.
Plants with infected vascular
systems (systemic infection)
appear stunted, generally showing
a lime-green colour and a reddish
discoloration at the nodes
Causal organism, symptoms, ideal conditions, prevention and treatment of important dry-bean diseases (continued)

Disease Causal Symptoms Ideal Prevention/treatment


organism conditions

Powdery Erysiphe Originally faint blackened superfi- Hot and Resistant cultivars, suitable
mildew polygoni cial starlike blotches, becoming moderately fungicides
white, coalescing to cover aerial humid
parts in a dry powdery film.
Plants may dry out and become
defoliated

*Pythium Pythium spp Poor emergence, wilting and dying Cool and wet Seed treatment with suitable
off of young seedlings. Water- conditions fungicides; good drainage;
soaked, then grey to brown lesions crop rotation
near soil surface,
spreading to stems and roots and
leading to soft rot. Areas in rows
with dead plants bordered by
stunted plants. In severe cases,
large areas may be affected

*Rhizocto- Rhizoctonia Reddish-brown lesions on lower Moderate to Seed treatment with suitable
nia root rot solani stems, becoming sunken and high soil fungicides; good drainage;
spreading to cause wilting and moisture and deep ploughing; shallow
dying off of plant. Often more temperatures planting; crop rotation
severe at seedling stage but may
cause stunting and uneven matura-
tion in older plants

21
Causal organism, symptoms, ideal conditions, prevention and treatment of important dry-bean diseases (continued)

22
Disease Causal Symptoms Ideal Prevention/treatment
organism conditions

Rust Uromyces Small, white spots develop on leaves, Moderate Resistant cultivars; suitable
appendiculatus (sometimes only on underside), temperatures, fungicides; work in plant
lesions enlarge and burst open to alternate wet debris after harvesting; re-
form raised, rust-coloured pustules and dry periods, move volunteer beans
releasing a reddish-brown dust windy
(spores) when rubbed. Spores may
become black at end of season.
Pustules sometimes surrounded by
yellow halo or necrotic (dead) tissue.
Leaves may yellow and die off.
Pustules on pods elongated.

Scab Elsino phaseoli New leaves and shoots curl up- Hot and humid Plant disease-free seed;
wards. On older leaves, grey to plant resistant cultivars;
light-brown circular scab-like apply suitable fungicides
lesions, usually concentrated near
the veins. Similar lesions, darkening
with age, on the pods

Sclerotinia Sclerotinia Early symptoms small, water-soaked Humid, dense Crop rotation with maize; use
(white sclerotiorum spots on leaves and stem, followed leaf canopy disease-free seed; schedule
mould) by white masses of mycelium. irrigation cycles so that
Sclerotia form on this mass and plants do not remain wet for
turn black after 710 days. Dried long periods; avoid over-
out infected tissue have a charac- irrigation; apply suitable
teristic bleached appearance fungicides
Causal organism, symptoms, ideal conditions, prevention and treatment of important dry-bean diseases (continued)

Disease Causal Symptoms Ideal Prevention/treatment


organism conditions

*Sclerotium Sclerotium Grey water-soaked lesions, becoming Dry weather Good drainage; crop rotation;
root rot rolfsii brown, near the soil surface, followed by hot work in bean stubble after
(southern spreading to the taproot and and humid harvesting; deep ploughing
blight) leading to wilting and death of the
plant. Lower leaves may also be
affected. Characteristic small
round light-yellow to brown
sclerotia and white fungus growth
visible on established lesions.

* Diseases of the roots and stem, known as root rot, often occur in a complex and can include any of the following:
fusarium, pythium, rhizoctonia, charcoal rot and sclerotium root rot (Southern blight), the first three being the most
frequent. The latter four can also cause rotting of seed and damping off. To some extent root rot can be prevented,
but not treated. Fungicides can only be applied to seed as a preventive measure against Pythium and Rhizoctonia root
rot

23
24
Pests

Insect Scientific name Damage Treatment

Black bean aphid Aphis fabae Vectors of various viruses Apply suitable insecticide

Groundnut aphid Aphis craccivora Vectors of various viruses Apply suitable insecticide

Tobacco whitefly Bemisia tabaci Potential vector of bean No insecticide currently


golden mosaic virus registered

Tobacco leafhopper Jacobiella fascialis Suck sap from leaves No treatment necessary

Bean seed maggot Delia platura Maggots attack cotyledons, Control with a seed dressing
mine into stems below soil insecticide
level and pupate

Bean stem maggot Ophiomyia spencerella Maggots mine into stems No insecticide currently
Ophiomyia phaseoli and pupate registered

Spotted maize beetle Astylus atromaculatus Feed on pollen, destroy No insecticide currently
flowers registered

CMR beetle Mylabris oculata Destroy flowers Apply suitable insecticide


Pests (continued)

Insect Scientific name Damage Treatment

Black maize beetle Heteronycus arator Damage stems on or beneath Apply suitable insecticide
soil surface

Chafer beetle Adoretus cribrosus Feed on young leaves, petals Apply suitable insecticide
Adoretus tessulatus and pollen

Bean bug Clavigralla Suck sap from leaves, stems No insecticide currently
tomentosicollis and podscause wilting of registered
developing pods

Tip wilter Anoplocnemis Suck sap from stemscause No insecticide currently


curvipes wilting and dying of tips of registered
shoots

Green vegetable bug Nezara viridula Suck sap from podscause No insecticide currently
browing of seeds inside registered

Common cutworm Agrotis segetum Damage stems on or beneath Apply suitable insecticide
soil surface

African bollwurm Helicoverpa armigera Feed into pods and damage Apply suitable insecticide
seeds

Cabbage semi- Trichoplusia Feed into pods and damage Apply suitable insecticide
looper orichalcea seeds

25
Pests (continued)

26
Insect Scientific name Damage Treatment

American Liriomyza trifolii Larvae tunnel into leaves Apply suitable insecticide
leafminer

South American Liriomyza Larvae tunnel into leaves No insecticide currently


leafminer/Potato huidobrensis registered
leafminer

Bean flower thrips Megalurothrips Feed in flowers, causing Apply suitable insecticide
sjstedti a roughened, silvery texture
on pods

Bean thrips Sericothrips Feed in flowers, causing Apply suitable insecticide


occipitalis a roughened, silvery texture
on pods

Bean weevil Acanthoscelides Larvae enter seed and hollow Apply suitable insecticide
obtectus it out by feeding

Bean gall weevil Alcidodes Larvae enter stems, pupate Apply suitable insecticide
erythropterus in the galls formed
Enquiries
For futher information on bean production
contact:
z ARC-Grain Crops Institute (ARCGCI)
Private Bag X1251
Potchefstroom
2520
Tel. (018) 299 6100
z Dry Bean Producers Organisation (DPO)
P.O. Box 26269
Arcadia
0007
Tel. (012) 325 1850
and subscribe to SA Dry Beans,
a quarterly magazine.

The Dry Bean Production Manual can


also be ordered from the same address.

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