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SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT

DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION


TEACHING GUIDE

TOPIC / VOLCANO HAZARDS


LESSON NAME
CONTENT The learners demonstrate understanding of
STANDARDS Signs of impending volcanic eruptions Potential volcano-related hazards:
1. Lahar
2. Ash fall
3.Pyroclastic flow
4.Ballistic projectile
5.Volcanic gasses
6. Lava flow
PERFORMANCE The learners develop a family emergency preparedness plan to guide them on what to do
STANDARDS before, during, and after a volcanic eruption .
LEARNING The learners
COMPETENCIES 1. Explain various volcano-related hazards;
2. Differentiate among different volcano hazards; 3. Recognize signs of an impending
volcanic eruption;
4. Interpret different volcano hazard maps; and
5. Apply appropriate measures/interventions before, during, and after a volcanic eruption
SPECIFIC OVERLAY OF VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF MT. MATUTUM
LEARNING specifying the danger zones
OUTCOMES
TIME 6 hrs
ALLOTMENT
CONTENT VOLCANO HAZARDS
LESSON 1. Introduction / review: 15 minutes
OUTLINE 2. Motivation: 15 minutes
3. Instruction / Delivery 15 minutes
4. Practice: 5 days 6 hrs
5. Enrichment: 40 minutes
6. Evaluation: 10 minutes
MATERIALS LAPTOP, LCD PROJECTOR, TV, AUDIO DEVICE, cut out bond paper
or colored paper, masking tape
RESOURCES http://vm.observatory.ph/cw_maps.html
https://water.usgs.gov/edu/sinkholes.html
http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/landslide-warning-signs-and-
preparedness-1.1181599
http://gdis.denr.gov.ph/mgbviewer/
http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=57:acti
ve-volcanoes&catid=55&Itemid=114
https://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=271020
http://www.geoportal.gov.ph/viewer/

PROCEDURE
INTRODUCTION: 5 mins
1. Introduction of the objectives of the topic

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
MOTIVATION : 15 Mins The teacher prepares POWERPOINT OF
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE
POWERPOINT PRESENTATION MT. MATUTUM AND MT. PARKER
1. TALE OF MT.MATUTUM AND MT. PARKER

INSTRUCTION / DELIVERY: 30 mins The teacher will show distribute the


Day 1: (IS: DISCUSSION) news report..
1. After the video, the news report is presented to
the students. 10 Mins
2. Mindanews
3. Extinction protocol
4. Students are asked to write a one page reaction The teacher will allow the students to
to the news report to be submitted online in fb use their cellphones, submit online their
reaction
page.
The teacher will encourage reporters to
Day 3: (IS: group reporting) 55 MINS prepare maximum of 16 slides only.
5. Review of the previous day activity. 5 mins
6. The teacher will instruct the class to listen
to the group report about the following: 30
MINS .
7. Lahar
8. Ash fall
9. Pyroclastic flow
10. Ballistic projectile
11. Volcanic gasses
12. Laval flow
13. Signs of impending volcanic eruption
14. Precautionary measures, BEFORE, DURING &
after volcanic eruptions
15. Show sample Mayon alert level.

PRACTICE:
a. Day 4: (IS: case studies) 55 mins Case studies

Hands-On: Case Studies Mt. Matutum Volcano (20 mins) .


A
1. Divide the class into 4 groups. Groups 1 and 2 will use the Mayon
Volcano Base Surge Hazard Map while Groups 3 and 4 will use the
Mayon Volcano Pyroclastic flow Hazard Map.

2. Remember our previous lesson about volcanoes- there are


several hazards associated with erupting volcanoes: lava flows, ash
fall, pyroclastic flows/ surges, lahars, volcanic gases among
others.

3. For today we will focus on one of the most dangerous hazards


from a volcano. Pyroclastic flowsandsurges (Pyroclastic density
current)- turbulent mass of ejected fragmented volcanic materials
(ash and rocks), mixed with hot gases (200oC to 700oC to as hot as
900oC) that flow downslope at very high speeds (>60kph). Surges

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE
are the more dilute, more mobile derivatives or pyroclastic flows.

4. Pyroclastic flows and surges are potentially highly destructive


owing to their mass, high temperature, high velocity and great
mobility. Pyroclastic flows can:

I. Destroy anything on its path by direct impact

II. Burn sites with hot rocks debris

III. Burn forests, farmlands, destroy crops and buildings

5. Deadly effects include asphyxiation (inhalation of hot ash and


gases), burial, incineration (burns) and crushing from impacts.

6. The only effective method of risk mitigation is evacuation prior


to such eruptions from areas likely to be affected by pyroclastic
density currents

7. For today, examine the Mayon Volcano Pyroclastic Flow


Hazard Map. Again, as we have learned, for any map, before using
the map, be sure that you understand the basic parts-

I. Map Title (tells you what the map is all about);

II. Legend (details of what each symbols/ colors mean)

III. Scale (refer to the bar scale as this helps determine distances,
etc)

8. Based on the hand, For Mt. Matutum Volcano, which


municipalities, Barangay in Polomolok or communities on the slope
of Mt. Matutum? Write these on the Table provided.

9. Using the map, Fill in Table 1 and Table 2 Present in Class.

Group Report

Name of Volcano: ______________________________________

1. For Mt. Matutum Volcano, based on the hazard map identify the
municipalities/Cities that are likely to be affected by the pyroclastic
flows or surges? Identify barangays that are within 6-kilometer PDZ.
Which barangays are within 6-7 km? 7-8 km?

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

Table 1.

PUT SPECIFIC NAME BARANGAYS BARANGAYS BARANGAYS


WITHIN WITHIN WITHIN
6 KM 6-7 KM 7-8 KM

Municipality 1

Municipality 2..etc

3. Part of what disaster officers need to do prior to any event, as part


of a disaster plan is to identify areas for evacuation. If you are to
identify sites for evacuation, where will you put this? Take note, it is
important to be sensitive to the needs of the people living in affected
communities. An evacuation area should be outside the identified
hazard zone, accessible, least inconvenience for the evacuees.

Table 2.
DISTANCE OF
EVACUATION
BARANGAY TO BE RECOMMENDED AREAS FOR
AREA FROM
EVACUATED EVACUATION
BARANGAY
LOCATION

4. Fill out Table 2. For each of the Barangay you listed in Table 2,
select a temporary evacuation area based on parameters mentioned
in #3. Which areas will you suggest/ recommend for temporary
evacuation? Why did you suggest this?

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

ENRICHMENT: (40 Minutes) The teacher will provide input


1. Volcanic is activities in the Philippines are
usual and frequent because the country sits on
the Pacific Ring of Fire, a geologic location that
is characterized by frequent volcanic
movements
2. Volcanic explosion is a disaster by itself
especially if the enormity follows other related
hazards such as lahar flow, ashfalls, pyroclastic
flow, balistic projectiles, volcanic gases and lava
flow.
3. There will be a breakdown of electronic
equipment and transformers when in contact
with water.
4. Region XII is recognized by Philvocs as high risk
area for volcanic eruption.
DAY 5: (IS: INTERVIEW) 60 MINS
1. INTERVIEW: MDRRMO, MAHINTANA
FOUNDATION, MSWDO. Show them your
work
EVALUATION:
DAY 5: (IS: INTERVIEW) 60 MINS The teacher will prepare a letter to the
1. Quiz MDRRMO and DSWD and Mahintana
foundation.
2. REPORTING OF INTERVIEW
3. Submit 1 page reaction paper thru FB.

SUBMITTED BY:

REYMAN RUSTY S JAYME

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

ST. LORENZO SCHOOL OF POLOMOLOK, INC


Polomolok, South Cotabato

RUBRIC FOR MT. MATUTUM VOLCANIC ANALYSIS

4 3 2 1

The list of answers


The list of answers from the The list of answers from
from the learners
learners has 60%- 90% of the learners has 25%-
SUMMARY does not show any
The list is complete. expected items as 60% of expected items
TABLE of expected items as
mentioned in the teachers as mentioned in the
mentioned in the
guide. teachers guide
teachers guide.

The Leader was able to


The Leader, Secretary, The learners do not
facilitate the discussion The learners know their
Reporter and the rest of the know their roles and
COOPERATION well, the Reporter was roles but were not
members were able to help the discussion was
AMONG able to clearly present actively portraying their
each other and were able to not properly
MEMBERS the summary of the responsibilities the
come up with a facilitated among
groups output within entire time
comprehensive output. the learners.
the given time.

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/html/update_VMEPD/Volcano/VolcanoList/matutum.
htm

Monitoring Network Volcano Observatory

NAME OF VOLCANO: MATUTUM


LOCATION: Cotabato, 15 km north of Polomolok, South Cotabato and around 30 km
north-northwest of General Santos City (622'N, 12506.5'E)

PHYSICAL FEATURES
Elevation: 2.286 km
Base Diameter: 25 km
Type of Volcano: Stratovolcano
Hotsprings: Akmoan and Linan springs (5.7 aerial km WSW of Matutum)
Adjacent Volcanic Edifice: Landayao, Tampad and Albulhek (west of Matutum), Magolo (north of Matutum)

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES
Rock Type: Andesite
Tectonic Setting: Cotabato Arc
Age of Deposits: 665+40 (Trimble/Martines, 1995, unpub. data) 2120+ 80, 2350+60 ybp (Rubin/Sabit, 1994, unpub.
data)
VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
Number of Historical Eruptions: 1
Date: 07 March 1911
Eruption Type: Phreatic (?)
MONITORING ACTIVITY
1992 - Short-term monitoring was conducted at Matutum Volcano from 04-20 November 1992. Results of
the survey showed that the volcano was seismically quiet.
2004 Establishment of Matutum-Parker Seismic Network that would monitor both volcanoes
SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION
Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE
Monitoring Stations:
Central Station: General Santos Seismic & Volcano Station, MSU, Tambler
Observation Stations:
Alnamang, Polomoloc, South Cotabato (Matutum)
Bagong Silang, Gen. Santos (Parker)
Repeater stations:
Upper Klinan, South Cotabato (Matutum)
Silway, Gen. Santos City (Matutum)
San Jose, Gen. Santos City (Parker)

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

MT. PARKER

NAME OF VOLCANO: PARKER


LOCATION: Cotabato, approximately 30 aerial kilometers west of General Santos City
and 44 kilometers south of Marbel (606.8' N, 12453.5' E)

PHYSICAL FEATURES
Elevation: 1.784 km
Base Diameter: 40 km
Type of Volcano: Stratovolcano
Crater Lake: Lake Maughan (caldera lake of roughly 2-km diameter)

GEOLOGICAL FEATURES
Rock Type: Andesite
Tectonic Setting: Cotabato Arc
Age of Deposits: 205 +_ 40 (Radiocarbon age , ybp), 1651-1955 AD (Calendar Age)

VOLCANIC ACTIVITY
Number of Historical Eruptions: 1
Latest Eruption/Activity: 1641 Jan. 4
Volcanic Hazards: pyroclastic flows, airfall tephra, lahar, lake break-out

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

MONITORING ACTIVITY
1995 Emergency investigation
On 06 September 1995, an alleged volcanic activity was reported to have occurred on its 2-km wide crater known as
Lake Maughan. This alleged activity caused extensive damage (landslide and flooding) along Ga-o River which drains
Lake Maughan and joins Allah River in the north. Due to this phenomenon, PHIVOLCS installed seismograph at TBoli
and Bgy. Hutol to verify the activity. It was found out later that the activity was man-made.

Less than a year after the 1995 activity, a temporary dam was formed at about 250 m from the outlet of Lake
Maughan, alarming the residents within the area due to fear of flashfloods. The deposited landslide debris dammed
the flowing water along Ga-o River and caused the lake level to rise by about 6 meters. Initial assessment of the
survey team sent revealed that the landslide impounded is weak. Such structure may not be able to hold future
increments of lake level ands thus will eventually result to a catastrophic lake break-out.

1996 Establishment of seismic station


After the 1995 activity, a permanent remote seismic station was installed at Bgy. Bagong Silang, located 065.23N,
12456.9E and is about 6 km east-southeast of Lake Maughan. This relays data acquired to the manned station at
Mindanao State University (MSU) Campus in Tambler, General Santos City.

2004 Establishment of Matutum-Parker Seismic Network that would monitor both volcanoes

Monitoring Stations:
Central Station: General Santos Seismic & Volcano Station, MSU, Tambler
Observation Stations:
Alnamang, Polomoloc, South Cotabato (Matutum)
Bagong Silang, Gen. Santos (Parker)
Repeater stations:
Upper Klinan, South Cotabato (Matutum)
Silway, Gen. Santos City (Matutum)
San Jose, Gen. Santos City (Parker)

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

https://theextinctionprotocol.wordpress.com/2012/08/13/philippine-residents-fear-
the-mt-matutum-volcano-is-awakening-after-100-years/

August 13, 2012 TUPI, SOUTH COTABATO The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology
(Phivolcs) has allayed fears of volcanic activity in Mt. Matutum as claimed by residents. Phivolcs chief
Renato U. Solidum, Jr. said in a letter sent to Mayor Reynaldo S. Tamayo on Friday that the observations of
smoke and fire coming out of the crater were non-volcanic in nature. Ocular inspections at the crater area
and seismic records showed that there were no volcanic activities, specifically an imminent eruption, in Mt.
Matutum, Mr. Solidum said. Rolly T. Visaya, Tupi information officer, told BusinessWorld that weeks prior
to the Phivolcs letter, residents of Barangays Acmonan and Kablon in Tupi, and Maligo in Polomolok
observed certain developments such as: the descent of wild animals from the mountains, as well as burnt
vegetation. The locals also claimed to have felt the ground shaking and heard unusual rumblings from the
volcano, he added. To confirm the observations, both Tupi and Polomolok towns sent their rescue teams to
Mt. Matutum to get firsthand information through photographs and videos. From the information acquired,
Mr. Tamayo, who also chairs the Municipal Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council of Tupi, then
requested for Phivolcss investigation. The absence of micro-earthquake activity in the seismic record of the
agencys volcano-seismic observatory at Mindanao State University in General Santos City meant that the
phenomenon is not volcanic in origin, Mr. Solidum said. On the reported sighting of wild animals
descending to the lowlands, he said it could be due to scarcity of food or disturbances of their habitat, be it
man-made, lighting and other phenomena. Before Phivolcss response, there have been reports of several
families from the adjoining town of Malungon in Sarangani province who have evacuated from their houses
for safety, Mr. Visaya said. Mt. Matutum stands 2,286 meters, the 14th highest peak in the Philippines, and
has a base that covers the towns of Tupi and Polomolok in South Cotabato and Malungon in Sarangani. The
popular trekking destinations last recorded eruption was in 1911, Mr. Visaya said citing Phivolcs records.
Mr. Solidum explained that a new volcanic vent, as dormant volcano reactivates will not dissipate overnight,
but will become more vigorous over time. He explained that should the volcano end its dormancy and
enter a period of magmatic activity, unmistakable signs of unrest will be manifested, such as small ash and
gas explosions that can intensify through time, ground deformation, vegetation kill, unabated crater glow at
the summit and increasingly perceptible earthquakes. Mr. Visaya said Phivolcs national office personnel
are in town to further study the volcanic conditions. Business World
Mt. Matutums last eruption was believed to be in 1911

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

Phivolcs warns of Pinatubo-like eruptions in SouthCot, Sarangani


By

http://www.mindanews.com/top-stories/2014/05/phivolcs-warns-of-pinatubo-like-eruptions-in-southcot-sarangani/

MINDANEWS

MAY 28, 2014

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GENERAL SANTOS CITY (MindaNews / 28 May) A major devastation in the magnitude of the 1991
eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in Central Luzon could hit this city and other parts of Region 12 if one of the areas
two active volcanoes would eventually erupt.

Dr. Renato Solidum, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (Phivolcs) director, gave this
scenario as he confirmed that the two volcanoes Mts. Parker and Matutum straddling the provinces of
South Cotabato and Sarangani are considered active and might erupt in due time.

He said Mts. Parker and Matutum may be considered small when compared to other volcanoes found in the
country but are highly capable of triggering violent eruptions.

Mt. Parker, which is locally known as Melibengoy, has a listed elevation of 1,824 meters while Mt.
Matutum was measured at 2,286 meters.

In the case of Mt. Parker, he said it is considered as a twin of Mt. Pinatubo due to their similarities in
terms of characteristics and chemical composition of their rocks and magma.

Mt. Parker, which has a crater-lake near its peak, is located at the boundary of South Cotabato and Sarangani
provinces.

Solidum said that in terms of eruption style, Mt. Parkers could be the same as that of Pinatubo since they
are both stratovolcanoes.

He said the same scenario could happen for Mt. Matutum, which is located at the tri-boundaries of South
Cotabato, Sarangani Province and Davao del Sur.

The scenario would be a large-scale eruption and vast areas would be affected. So it is very important for
us to prepare for that as early as now, he said during the two-day Region 12 leg of the Iba na ang Panahon
(INAP): Science for Safer Communities road show here that ended on Tuesday.

In the event that one of the two volcanoes would erupt, Solidum said all lower valleys and rivers in this city
and parts of South Cotabato, Sarangani and Sultan Kudarat provinces will likely be affected by pyroclastic
flows.

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE
When the rainy season comes, he said the pyroclastic materials, rocky debris and water would flow into the
lower portions of the area in the form of lahar or mudflow.

Solidum said such scenario already happened in the past, specifically in the last recorded eruption of Mt.
Matutum on March 7, 1911 and of Mt. Parkers on January 4, 1641.

Citing their studies on Mt. Parker, he said it already had two major past eruptions prior to 1641, which had
been confirmed through historical accounts of the areas Tboli and Blaan tribes.

He said the volcano first erupted between 23,000 to 27,000 years ago and the second was around 600 years
ago.

When the city airport was being constructed between 1995 and 1996, Solidum said workers then unearthed
charred remains of hardwood that were buried underneath the lahar that covered the area.

He said the areas lahar covering mainly came from the eruptions of Mt. Parker, which is only around 30
kilometers west of this city.

In fact, the entire city is almost covered and built under lahar that came from Mts. Parker and Matutum, he
said.

Solidum said that while the devastating impact of the potential volcano eruptions in the area could not be
stopped, they can be mitigated through early preparation by communities that would likely be affected.

He said it is important for the areas local government units to include such scenario in their local disaster
risk reduction and management plans and make sure that local communities are properly informed about
them.

The official said residents should also be educated on warning signs of an imminent volcano eruption that
includes the drying of nearby wells, drying of vegetation, unusual behavior of animals and smoke directly
coming from the crater.

For its part, Solidum said Phivolcs has set up monitoring stations for seismic activities in each of the two
volcanoes.

He said these stations are equipped with real-time communication systems that could immediately give out
proper warnings regarding possible volcanic activities

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

http://www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=50&I
temid=86

Types of hazards posed by an active volcano


LAVA FLOW
Lava flow is a higly elongated mass of molten rock materials cascading downslope from an erupting vent. The lava
flow being extruded has low silica and low water contents.
Rate of flow: 3 km/day (slightly high viscosity) or 45 km/hour (low viscosity). Speed and geometry of lava flows
depend on local topography. Steep slopes encourage faster and longer flows than gentle slopes or terrain
DOME GROWTH
Lava dome is a pile or mound of lava that grew on the floor of an active crater, on the side slopes via a feeder vent
that breached through the surface of the edifice, or inside the volcanic edifice.
Types: Exodomes - lava domes that were formed on the surface of the volcanic edifice)
Cryptodomes - lava domes that grew anywhere inside the edifice
PYROCLASTIC FLOW
Pyriclastic flow refers to hot dry masses of fragmented volcanic materials that move along the slope and in contact
with ground surface. This includes: pumice flow, ash flow, block-and-ash flow, nuee ardente and glowing avalanche.
Mechanism...
Pyroclastic flow mechanism:
Nuee ardente is a glowing eruption cloud characterized by: extreme heat (about 500 C or higher)
1. high gas contentrapid flow down the slope of an erupting volcano enormous amounts of ash and other fragmental
volcanic materials
A nuee ardente may originate directly from an active crater or from a collapse of a growing lava dome.
PYROCLASTIC SURGE
Pyroclastic surges are turbulent low-concentration density currents of gases, rock debris and in some cases, water,
that move above the ground surface at high velocities.
Types: Ground surge, Ash-cloud surge, Base surge
HOT BLASTS
* Hot blasts arise when pent-up gases facilitate their way out through the impermeable overlying materials and
cause a very rapid escape into the atmosphere. Blasts that are directed obliquely often do much damage and could
exact a high toll in human lives.
* Lateral blasts are combination of pyroclastic flows and pyroclastic surges with an especially strong initial laterally-
directed thrust. They have an initial velocity of 600 kph and slow down to about 100 kph near its margin 25 km from
the volcano.
TEPHRA FALLS
Tephra falls may consist of pumice, scoria, dense lithic materials or crystals or combination of the four.
Particle size: less than 2 mm diameter (ash) , 2-64 mm diameter (lapilli) , more than 64 mm diameter (blocks and
bombs)
VOLCANIC GAS
Volcanic gas is one of the basic components of a magma or lava. Active and inactive volcanoes may release to the
atmosphere gases in the form of: water vapor, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide , carbon monoxide, hydrogen
chloride and hydrogen fluorid.
Aside from the major constituents, minor amounts of nitrogen, methane, argon and helium may be also present in
volcanic gases. The proportion of these components changes with changing temperature.
LAHAR
Lahar (an Indonesian term), sometimes called mudflows or volcanic debris flows, are flowing mixtures of volcanic
debris and water. Lahars are classfied into: Primary or hot lahar - associated directly with volcanic eruption and
Secondary or cold lahar - caused by heavy rainfall.

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE
Lahar distribute and redistribute volcanic ash and debris deposited around the volcano after the materials has
cooled and has become water logged.
Lahar in tropical areas can be produced by:
* sudden draining of a crater lake, caused by either an explosive eruption or collapse of a crater fall (e.g. Agua, Kelut,
Ruapehu)
* movement of a pyroclastic flow into a river or lake, displacing and mixing with water
* avalanche of water-sustained rock debris, where water can be from heavy rain, hydrothermal activity or other
sources
* torrential rainfall on unconsolidated deposits on slope of a volcano (e.g. Pinatubo)
* collapse of a temporary dam, where recent volcanic deposits have blocked a steam channel (e.g. Asama, Pinatubo
TSUNAMI
Tsunami are long-period sea waves or wave trains that are generated by the under-the-sea earthquake. Most
tsunamis are caused by fault displacements on the sea floor and of volcanic sudden displacement of water. They
travel at high speed water as low broad waves and build to great heights as they approach shores. Origin including
volcanic or volcano-tectonic earthquakes, explosions collapse or subsidence, landslides, lahars, pyroclastic flows or
debris avalanches entering bodies of water, and atmospheric waves that couple with the sea.
OTHER ERUPTION PHENOMENA
Debris avalanche - fast downhill movement of soil and rock, speed: 70 km/hr (due to high water content and steep
slopes) caused by slope failure on the cones of stratovolcanoes
Hydrothermal explosions - explosions from instantaneous flashing of steam upon contact with hot rocks
Secondary explosions are caused by the contact of water with hot pyroclastic flow deposits.
Subsidence is a ground deformation resulting from the downward adjustment of surface materials to the voids
caused by volcanic activity.
This may result also from mine workings or geothermal water or oil extraction.

Precursors of an Impending Volcanic Eruption


The following are commonly observed signs that a volcano is about to erupt. These precursors may vary from
volcano to volcano.

1. Increase in the frequency of volcanic quakes with rumbling sounds; occurrence of volcanic tremors

2. Increased steaming activity; change in color of steam emission from white to gray due to entrained ash

3. Crater glow due to presence of magma at or near the crater

4. Ground swells (or inflation), ground tilt and ground fissuring due to magma intrusion

5. Localized landslides, rockfalls and landslides from the summit area not attributable to heavy rains

6. Noticeable increase in the extent of drying up of vegetation around the volcano's upper slopes

7. Increase in the temperature of hot springs, wells (e.g. Bulusan and Canlaon) and crater lake (e.g. Taal) near the
volcano
8. Noticeable variation in the chemical content of springs, crater lakes within the vicinity of the volcano

9. Drying up of springs/wells around the volcano


10. Development of new thermal areas and/or reactivation of old ones;appearance of solfataras.

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

MAYON VOLCANO ALERT LEVELS

Mayon Volcano Alert Levels


Alert
Main Criteria Interpretation/ Recommendations
Level
Quiet. No eruption in foreseeable future.
0 All monitored parameters within background Entry in the 6-km radius Permanent Danger Zone
No Alert levels. (PDZ) is not advised because phreatic explosions
and ash puffs may occur without precursors.
Low level unrest. No eruption imminent.
Slight increase in seismicity.
Slight increase in SO2 gas output above the Activity may be hydrothermal, magmatic or
1
background level. tectonic in origin.
Abnormal
Very faint glow of the crater may occur but no
conclusive evidence of magma ascent. No entry in the 6-km radius PDZ.
Phreatic explosion or ash puffs may occur.
Moderate unrest. Unrest probably of magmatic origin; could
Low to moderate level of seismic activity. eventually lead to eruption.
2 Increasing SO2 flux.
Increasing Faint/intermittent crater glow. 6-km radius Danger Zone may be extended to 7 km
Unrest Swelling of edifice may be detected. in the sector where the crater rim is low.
Confirmed reports of decrease in flow of wells
and springs during rainy season.

Relatively high unrest. Magma is close to the crater.


3 Volcanic quakes and tremor may become
Increased more frequent. If trend is one of increasing unrest, eruption is
Tendency Further increase in SO2 flux. possible within weeks.
Towards Occurrence of rockfalls in summit area. Extension of Danger Zone in the sector where the
Eruption Vigorous steaming / sustained crater glow. crater rim is low will be considered.
Persistent swelling of edifice.
Intense unrest. Hazardous eruption is possible within days.
Persistent tremor, many low frequency-type
4
earthquakes. Extension of Danger zone to 8 km or more in the
Hazardous
SO2 emission level may show sustained sector where the crater rim is low will be
Eruption
increase or abrupt decrease. recommended.
Imminent
Intense crater glow. Incandescent lava dome,
lava fountain, lava flow in the summit area.
Hazardous eruption ongoing. Pyroclastic flows may sweep down along gullies and
Occurrence of pyroclastic flows, tall eruption channels, especially along those fronting the low
columns and extensive ashfall. part(s) of the crater rim.
5
Additional danger areas may be identified as
Hazardous
eruption progresses.
Eruption
Danger to aircraft, by way of ash cloud encounter,
depending on height of eruption column and/or
wind drift.

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

http://www.geoportal.gov.ph/viewer/

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)
SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL CORE SUBJECT
DISASTER READINESS AND RISK REDUCTION
TEACHING GUIDE

SLSPI: DISASTER READINESS and RISK REDUCTION


Reyman Rusty S. Jayme PRC DRR Instructor (Phil. Red Cross SoCot Chapter)