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# AXIAL LOAD

! Principle of Superposition
! Axial - force / Stress diagram
! Strain
! Mechanical
! Thermal
! Force - deformation relationship
! Deformation
! Compatibility conditions

1
Principle of Superposition
P=P1+ P2

## The following two conditions must be

valid if the principle of superposition is
d to be applied.
1. The loading must be linearly
related to the stress or displacement that
=

P1 is to be determined.

## 2. The loading must not signif-

d icantly change the original geometry or
configuration of the member.

+ P2

2
Strain P
Mechanical Strain
A
(MPa)
LAB AB
400 B
350
LBC
300 BC
C
250
200
AB P
150
pl
100
50 AB
0 (mm/mm)
0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 Upper scale
0.0000 0.0010 0.0020 0.0030 0.0040 Lower scale
AB
AB =
LAB
3
Strain
Thermal Strain
A ()
= /L
LAB AB
B

LBC
BC
C
()AB

T (Co)
(T)AB
( T ) AB (mm/mm)/oC
=
(T ) AB

( T ) AB = ( T ) AB

4
Hookeans Force - deformation relationship P

(MPa) A
LAB AB
400 B
350
LBC
300 BC
C
250
200
AB P
150
pl
100
50 AB
0 (mm/mm)
0.0000 0.0010 0.0020 0.0030 0.0040

AB = AB LAB = AB LAB
E
PLAB
=
AE

5
Temperature - deformation relationship

()
AB A
= /L
LAB AB
B

LBC
BC
C
()AB

T (Co)
(T)AB
( T ) AB (mm/mm)/oC
=
(T ) AB

( T ) AB = ( T ) AB LAB

6
Total Strains
P1
()
A
P2
LAB AB
B

LBC
BC
C

P3
( Total ) AB = ( T ) AB + ( F ) AB
AB
= (T ) AB +
E

( Total ) AB = ( T ) AB + ( F ) AB
PAB LAB
= (T ) AB LAB +
AE

7
Elastic Deformation
(x)
x
dx

P0 P0

L

x E=

(mm/mm)
P0 P(x)
=E
P A(x)
P(x) P (x ) d
=E
A( x ) dx
x P ( x )dx
d =
A ( x )E
L
P(x) P( x)dx
(x) = d =
A(x) 0
A( x) E

x 8
Axial-force diagram di
P1/2 P2/2
RA P3

A B P1/2 C D
P2/2
ACD = (/4)(do2 - di2 ) AAC= (/4)(di2 )
LAB LBC LCD do

P PCD = RA + P1 + P2 = P3
PBC = RA + P1
PAB=RA +
+
x

CD

BC +
AB
+ x

9
Deformation diagram P2/2 di
P1/2
RA P3

A B P1/2 C D
P2/2
ACD = (/4)(do2 - di2 ) AAC= (/4)(di2 )
LAB LBC LCD do

P PCD = RA + P1 + P2 = P3
PBC = RA + P1
PAB=RA +
+
x PAB LAB
B = A + B/ A = o +
AAB E AB
PBC LBC
C = C/ A = B + C/B = B +
ABC E BC
C
x/A (mm) D = D/ A = C + D/C = C +
PCD LCD
B ACD ECD

x (mm)

D
10
Example 1

The rod is made from a solid steel section AB and aluminum section BC. If it is
fixed to a rigid support at A. A solid aluminum having an inner diameter of 30
mm and outer diameter of 60 mm. Determine (a) draw the quantitative stress and
strain diagram of the bar (b) the horizontal displacement of end D and the
displacement of C relative to B. Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 70 GPa

375 kN di = 30 mm
100 kN
400 kN

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm

11
100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
150 kN 400 kN

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A

## 500 mm 400 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm

P (kN) 150 kN
AB =
350
150 ( )(0.06) 2
+ 4
x (mm) = 53.05 MPa
-
-400 350 kN
Stress diagram BC =

( )( 0 . 06 2 )
(MPa) 4
= 159 . 2 MPa

159.2 400 kN
53.05 CD =
+
x (mm) ( )( 0 . 06 2 0 . 03 2 )
4
-
= 188 . 6 MPa
-188.6
12
100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
150 kN 400 kN

D
B 100 kN C 375 kN
A
Est = 200 GPa Eal = 80 GPa
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm

P (kN) (150 )( 0 . 5 )
B/A
350
150 ( ( 0 . 06 2 ))( 200 10 6 )
+ 4
x (mm) = 0 . 133 mm
-
-400 ( 350 )( 0 . 4 )
Displacement diagram C /B

( ( 0 . 06 2 ))( 200 10 6 )
x/A (mm) 0.133+0.248 = 0.381
4
= 0 . 248 mm
0.133 ( 400 )( 0 . 6 )
D /C =

( 0 . 06 2 0 . 03 2 ))( 70 10 6 )
(
4
= 1 . 617 mm
D = 0.381-1.617 = -1.236
13
Example 2

## The assembly shown consists of an aluminum tube AB having a cross-sectional

area of 400 mm2. A steel rod having a diameter of 10 mm is attached to a rigid
collar and passes through the tube. If a tensile load of 80 kN is applied to the rod,
determine the displacement of the end C of the rod. Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 70
GPa.

400 mm
B A
80 kN
C
600 mm

14
400 mm
B A
80 kN
C
600 mm

## - Aluminum tube AB - Rod BC

B A d = 10 mm
80 kN PAB = 80 kN
B C
80 kN 80 kN
A = 400 mm2 0.6 m
0.4 m

## PAB LAB PBC LBC

B/A = C /B =
Atube E al Arod E st
( 80 kN)( 0 . 4 m) ( 80 kN)( 0 . 6 m )
= =
( 400 10 6 m 2 )( 70 10 6 kN / m 2 ) [ ( 0 . 005 m) 2 ]( 200 10 6 kN / m 2 )
= 1 . 143 10 3 m = 1 . 143 10 3 m = 3 . 056 10 3 m

## - Displacement of the end C

+
( ) C = B + C / B = 0 . 001143 + 0 . 003056 = 0 . 00420 m = 4 . 20 m
15
Example 3

A rigid beam AB rests on the two short posts shown. AC is is made of steel and
has a diameter of 20 mm, and BD is made of aluminum and has a diameter of 40
mm. Determine the displacement of point F on AB if vertical load of 90 kN is
applied over this point. Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 70 GPa.

90 kN
200 mm 400 mm

A B
F

300 mm

C D

16
90 kN - Compatibility Equation
200 mm 400 mm
600 mm
A B
F 400 mm
60 kN 30 kN A F B
0.102 mm
0.286 mm F
dAC = 20 mm dBD = 40 mm 300 mm y 0.286 0.102
=
C Est = 200 GPa Eal = 70 GPa. D 400 600

400
y = (0.286 0.102)( )
60 kN 30 kN 600
PAC LAC ( 60 kN)( 0 . 3 m ) y = 0 . 123 mm
A = =
AAC E st [ ( 0 . 01 m ) 2 ]( 200 10 6 kN / m 2 )]
F = 0 . 102 + y
= 2 . 86 10 4 m = 0 . 286 mm = 0 . 102 + 0 . 123
= 0 . 225 mm
PBD LBD ( 30 kN)( 0 . 3 m )
B = =
ABD E al [ ( 0 . 02 m ) 2 ]( 70 10 6 kN / m 2 )

= 1 . 02 10 4 m = 0 . 102 mm 17
Example 4a

The rod is made from a solid steel section AB and aluminum section BC. If it is
fixed to a rigid support at A. A solid aluminum having an inner diameter of 30
mm and outer diameter of 60 mm. Draw the quantitative stress diagram of the
rod. Temperature in member AB and CD are increase 20 oC and 10 oC
respectively prior to the loads are applied. Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 70 GPa, st
= 12x10-6 /oC and al = 23x10-6 /oC.

## steel 375 kN aluminum di = 30 mm

400 kN

+ 20 oC + 10 oC C
B 375 kN
A
900 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm

18
steel 375 kN aluminum di = 30 mm
350 kN C
400 kN

## = 12x10-6 /oC (T)st = 20 oC (T)al = 10 oC

Est = 200 GPa B 375 kN E = 80 GPa
A al
900 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm
AAB = (/4)(0.062 ) ABC = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
P (kN) = 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
350
+
x (mm)
-
-400
350 10 N
3

(MPa) st =
( 2 . 827 10 3 m 2 )
123.8 = 123 . 8 MPa
P +
= x (mm)
A -
-188.6 = 400 10 3 N
al
( 2 . 121 10 3 m 2 )
= 188 . 6 MPa 19
steel 375 kN aluminum di = 30 mm
350 kN C
400 kN

## = 12x10-6 /oC (T)st = 20 oC (T)al = 10 oC

Est = 200 GPa B 375 kN E = 80 GPa
A al
900 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm
AAB = (/4)(0.062 ) ABC = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
P (kN) = 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
350
+
x (mm)
-
(350)(0.9) -400
B/ A = 3
+ (12 10 6
)(20)(0.9)
(2.827 10 )(200 10 )
6

## x/A (mm) = 0.557 mm + 0.216 mm = 0.773 mm

0.773
PL
= + (T ) L
AE x (mm)
0.773-1.479 = -0.706
( 400 )( 0 . 6 ) 6
C /B = + ( 23 10 )(10 )( 0 . 6 )
( 2 . 121 10 3 )( 70 10 6 )
= 1 . 617 mm + 0 . 138 mm = 1 . 479 mm 20
Example 4b

The rod is made from a solid steel section AB and aluminum section BC. If it is
fixed to a rigid support at A. A solid aluminum having an inner diameter of 30
mm and outer diameter of 60 mm. Temperature in member AB and CD are
increase 20 oC and 10 oC respectively. Determine the maximum load P the rod
can take at end C, if the allowable normal stress in steel is (st)allow = 120 MPa
and the in aluminum is (al)allow = 180 MPa . Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 70 GPa,
st = 12x10-6 /oC and al = 23x10-6 /oC.

## steel 375 kN aluminum di = 30 mm

P
+20 oC +10 oC C
B 375 kN
A
900 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm

21
375 kN di = 30 mm
steel aluminum
RA
P

## st = 12x10-6 /oC +20 oC +10 oC C

Est = 200 GPa B 375 kN
al = 23x10-6 /oC A Eal = 80 GPa
(st)allow = 120 MPa 900 mm 600 mm do = 60 mm
(al)allow = 180 MPa +

C = 0 Fx = 0 : RA + 750 P = 0, RA = 750 P
AAB = (/4)(0.062 ) ABC = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
P (kN) = 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
750-P
+
x (mm)
-
750 P -P
( st ) allow : 3
= 120 10 3 , P1 = 410 . 76 kN
( 2 . 827 10 )
P
( al ) allow : 3
= 180 10 3 , P2 = 381 . 78 kN
( 2 . 121 10 )
( 750 P )( 0 . 9) 6 ( P )( 0 . 6 )
C : + (12 10 )( 20 )( 0 . 9 ) +
( 2 . 827 10 3 )( 200 10 6 ) ( 2 . 121 10 3 )( 70 10 6 )
+ ( 23 10 6 )(10 )( 0 . 6 ) = 0 , P3 = 274 . 80 kN 22
Principle of Superposition
P=P1+ P2
P
The following two conditions must be
valid if the principle of superposition is
d to be applied.
1. The loading must be linearly
related to the stress or displacement that
=

P1 is to be determined.

## 2. The loading must not signif-

d icantly change the original geometry or
configuration of the member.

+ P2

23
Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members

## End to end bars Compatibility Conditions

P
A D D/A = B/A + C/B+ DC = 0
B P C

Co-axial bars
material#1, core

(B)1 = (B)2
P
A B
material#2, sleeve
F
Parallel bars E
P

B C D B C D
A = =
LAB LAC LAD

B C
D
24
Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members: End to End Bars
d2
d1 P1/2 P2/2 d1
RD
RA A B P1/2 P2/2 C D
Est
Steel Aluminum Steel Eal
LAB LBC LCD
RA+ P1
RA RA+ P1 - P2 = RD
P (kN)
x
- Equilibrium Equation : Fx = 0

- RA- P1 + P2 + RD = 0 -----(1)

- Compatibility Equation :

## D/A = B/A + C/B+ D/C = 0

R A LAB ( R A + P1 ) LBC RD LCD
+ + =0 (2)
AAB Est ABC Eal ACD Est 25
Example 5

## A solid steel rod shown in the figure, having an inner diameter of

30 mm and outer diameter of 60 mm. Determine the reactions at supports. Draw
the quantitative normal stress and deformation diagrams of the rod. Take E = 200
GPa.

100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm

26
100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
RA RD

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm
AAC = (/4)(0.062 ) ACD = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
= 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
P (kN) RA + 200
RA
+ RA -550 = RD
x (mm)

## - Compatibility equation: D/A = B/A + C/B + D/C = 0

R A ( 0 . 5) (R A + 200 )( 0 . 4 ) (R A 550 )( 0 . 6 )
+ + = 0 ( 2 )
( 2 . 827 10 3 )( 200 10 6 ) ( 2 . 827 10 3 )( 200 10 6 ) ( 2 . 121 10 3 )( 200 10 6 )

RA = 211.73 kN

## RD = RA - 550 = 211.73 -550 = -338.27 kN 27

100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
211.73 kN 338.27 kN

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm
AAC = (/4)(0.062 ) ACD = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
P (kN) = 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
411.73
211.73
+
x (mm)
-
-338.27
(MPa) ( 411 . 73 kN)
BC =
145.64 (2.827 10 - 3 m 2 )
P 74.9 = 145 . 64 MPa
= +
A x (mm)
( 211 . 73 kN) -
AB =
(2.827 10 -3 m 2 ) -159.49 ( 338 . 27 kN)
CD =
= 74 . 9 MPa (2.121 10 - 3 m 2 )
= 159 . 49 MPa 28
100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
211.73 kN 338.27 kN

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm
AAC = (/4)(0.062 ) ACD = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
P (kN) = 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
411.73
211.73
+
x (mm)
-
-338.27
x/A (mm)
0.48
0.19
x (mm)

## ( 211 . 73 )( 0 . 5 ) ( 411 . 73 )( 0 . 4 ) ( 338 . 27 )( 0 . 6 )

D/A = + +
( 2 . 827 10 3 )( 200 10 6 ) ( 2 . 827 10 3 )( 200 10 6 ) ( 2 . 121 10 3 )( 200 10 6 )
= 0 . 19 + 0 . 29 0 . 48 = 0 mm 29
Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members: Coaxial Bars
material#1 core, d1 material#1 core, d1
RA = F1+ F2
P
A B
material#2, sleeve
L
Axial material#2 post, d2
Force (F1+ F2) = P
F2/2
x
F1 P

## - (F1+ F2) + P = 0 ------(1)

- Compatibility Equation :

(B/A)1 = (B/A)2

F1 L FL
= 2 ( 2)
A1 E1 A2 E2
30
Example 6

The rod is made from a solid steel section AB and a tubular portion made of
steel and having a aluminum core section BC. If it is fixed to a rigid support
at A. Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 80 GPa
(a) Compute the normal stress in steel and aluminum.
(b) Determine the displacement of the end C of the rod.

Aluminum core
175 kN dal = 30 mm
200 kN

C
A B 175 kN
1.0 m 0.6 m steel dst = 50 mm

31
(a) Compute the normal stress in steel and aluminum. Aluminum core
175 kN di = 30 mm
150 kN 200 kN

A C
B 175 kN
1.0 m 0.6 m
do = 50 mm
P (kN) 200
+
x (mm)
-
-150
- Compatibility equation - Equilibrium equation

## PL PL 4 . 444 Pal + Pal = 200 (2)

( ) st = ( ) al
AE AE
Pal = 36 . 75 kN
Pst (0.6) Pal (0.6)
= (1) Pst = 163 . 25 kN
( / 4)(0.05 0.03 )(200 10 ) ( / 4)(0.03 )(80 10 )
2 2 6 2 6

## Pst = ( 4 . 444 )Pal

32
Aluminum core
175 kN di = 30 mm
150 kN 200 kN

A C
B 175 kN
1.0 m 0.6 m
do = 50 mm
P (kN) 200
+
x (mm)
-
-150 Pal = 36.75 kN

Pst = 163.25 kN
- Normal stress

(PBC ) st (163 . 25 )
( BC ) st = = = 129 . 91 MPa
Ast ( / 4 )( 0 . 05 0 . 03 )
2 2

(PBC ) al ( 36 . 75 )
( BC ) al = = = 51 . 28 MPa
Aal ( / 4 )( 0 . 03 2 )

33
(b) Determine the displacement of the end C of the rod. Aluminum core
175 kN di = 30 mm
150 kN 200 kN

A C
B 175 kN
1.0 m 0.6 m
do = 50 mm
P (kN) 200
+
x (mm)
-
-150 Pal = 36.75 kN

Pst = 163.25 kN

## C/A = B/A + C/B

( 150 )(1 . 0 ) ( 36 . 75 )( 0 . 6 )
C / A = + = 0 . 115 mm
( / 4 )( 0 . 05 2 )( 200 10 6 ) ( / 4 )( 0 . 03 2 )( 80 10 6 )

34
Statically Indeterminate Axially Loaded Members: Parallel Bars

F F
E E
P P

A B C D A B C D

B C
Ay FBE FCF
D
P

A B C D B C D
= =
LAB LAC LAD

## + Fy = 0: FBE LBE FCF

Ay + FBE + FCF - P = 0 -----(1) = (3)
ABE EBE ACF ECF
+ MA = 0:
FBE(LAB) + FCF(LAC) + P(LAD) = 0 -----(2)
35
Example 8

The three A-36 steel bar shown are pin-connected to a rigid member. If the
applied load on the member is 15 kN, determine the fore developed in each bar.
Bars AB and EF each have a cross-sectional area of 25 mm2 , and bar CD has a
cross-sectional area of 15 mm2

B D F

0.5 m
A C E

15 kN

36
B D F

0.5 m
A C E

A C E

## 0.2 m 0.2 m 0.4 m

15 kN

- Equilibrium Equation

37
B D F

0.5 m
A C E

## 0.2 m 0.2 m 0.4 m

A 15 kN C E
E
A E
C C
A
- Compatibility Equation
A E C E
=
0.8 m 0.4 m
1 1
C = A + E
2 2
FCD ( 0 . 5 m ) 1 FAB ( 0 . 5 m ) 1 FEF ( 0 . 5 m )
2
= [ 2
] + [ 2
] ( 3)
(15 mm )E st 2 ( 25 mm )E st 2 ( 25 mm )E st

Solving Eqs. 1-3 : FAB = 9.52 kN, FCD = 3.46 kN, FEF = 2.02 kN, 38
Thermal Stress
/L

(/ L)

Temp(oC)
L L
T
T = T dx = (T )dx = (/ L)/(T) (mm/mm)/oC
0 0

= (T)L

T = (T)

39
RA RB

A B d
L

P (kN) RA = RB

x (mm)

R AL
B/A = 0 = + ( T )L
AE
R A = ( T ) AE = R B

40
Compatibility condition with thermal strain

d2
d1 P1/2 P2/2 d1
RD
RA A B P1/2 P2/2 C D

## Steel Aluminum Steel Eal

LAB LBC LCD st

RA+ P1 Eal
RA RA+ P1 - P2 = RD
al
P (kN)
x

## = Force + = [(Force L) + ( L)] = [(PL/ AE)] + [() L]

Compatibility equation:

41
Example 7

## A solid steel rod shown in the figure, having an inner diameter of

30 mm and outer diameter of 60 mm. Draw the quantitative normal
stress and the Elongation of the rod. Temperature in member AB and
CD are increase 30 oC. Take E = 200 GPa, = 12x10-6 /oC.

0.5 mm
100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm

42
100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
+30 oC +30 oC
RA RD

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm
AAC = (/4)(0.062 ) ACD = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
= 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
- Equilibrium equation:
P (kN) RA + 200
RA
+ RA -550 = RD
x (mm)

## - Compatibility equation: D/A = 0.5x10-3 m = Force + = [(PL/ AE) + ()L]

R A ( 0 . 5) (R A + 200 )( 0 . 4 )
0 . 5 10 3 = + (12 10 6
)( +30 )( 0 . 5 ) +
( 2 . 827 10 3 )( 200 10 6 ) ( 2 . 827 10 3 )( 200 10 6 )
(R A 550 )( 0 . 6 ) 6
+ 3
+ (12 10 )( +30 )( 0 . 6 )
( 2 . 121 10 )( 200 10 ) 6

## RA = 246.32 kN , RD = RA - 550 = 246.32 -550 = -303.68 kN 43

100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
246.32 kN 303.68 kN

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm
AAC = (/4)(0.062 ) ACD = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
P (kN) = 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
446.32
246.32
+
x (mm)
-
-303.68
(MPa) ( 446 . 32 kN)
BC =
157.88 ( 2 . 827 10 3 m 2 )
P 87.13
= +
A x (mm)
-
( 246 . 32 kN)
AB = -143.18 ( 303 . 68 kN)
( 2 . 827 10 3 m 2 ) CD =
( 2 . 121 10 3 m 2 )
= 87 . 13 MPa
= 143 . 18 MPa 44
100 kN 375 kN di = 30 mm
246.32 kN 303.68 kN

100 kN C 375 kN D
B
A
500 mm 400 mm 600 mm
do = 60 mm
AAC = (/4)(0.062 ) ACD = (/4)(0.062 - 0.032 )
P (kN) = 2.827x10-3 m2 = 2.121x10-3 m2
446.32
246.32
+
x (mm)
-
(mm) -303.68
0.72
0.4 0.50
x (mm)
( 246.32)(0.5) 103 ( 446.32)(0.4) 103
D/ A = 3
6
+ (12 10 )(30)(.500) +
(2.827 10 )(200 10 ) 6
(2.827 10 3 )(200 106 )
( 303.68)(0.6) 103
+ 3
+ (12 10 6 )(30)(.600)
( 2.12110 )(200 10 ) 6

Example 8

## From the frame shown, determine:

(a) Reactions at all support
(b) Normal stress in steel and aluminum
(c) Displacement at A and B
Take Est = 200 GPa, Eal = 70 GPa, st = 12x10-6 /oC and al = 23x10-6 /oC.

800 kN
0.75 m
C
A
B
+10oC
Aluminum 0.6 m
+20oC
0.90 m di = 30 mm
Steel

do = 60 mm
d = 60 mm

0.5 m 0.5 m
46
800 kN
Compatibility
0.75 m A
C B
A st al
B A
+10oC Cy B C
Aluminum 0.6 m 0.5 m 0.5 m
+20oC
0.90 m di = 30 mm st al
Steel =
1 0.5
st = 2 al (2)
Fal do = 60 mm
d = 60 mm Fst (0.9)
st =
Fst
0.5 m 0.5 m ( (0.06 2 ))(200 106 )
4
(a) Reactions at all support + (12 10 6 )(20)(0.9)
Equilibrium equation Fal (0.6)
al =

+ M C = 0 : 800(0.75) + 0.5 Fal + 1Fst = 0 ( (0.062 0.032 ))(70 106 )
4
Fal = 1200 2 Fst (1) + (23 106 )(10)(0.6)

## Substitute st and al in eq.(2) from eq.(1) and (2) can solve

Fst = -542.78 kN (C) Fal = -114.44 kN (C)
+ Fy = 0 : 542 . 78 + 114 . 44 800 C y = 0 , C y = 142 . 78 kN, 47
800 kN
(b) Normal stress in steel and aluminum
0.75 m
C
A 542 . 78 kN
B st = = 191 . 97 MPa (C )
+10oC 142.78 kN
( 0 . 06 2 )
Aluminum 0.6 m 4
+20oC
0.90 m di = 30 mm 114 . 44 kN
Steel al = = 53 . 97 MPa(C )

( 0 . 06 2 0 . 03 2 )
4
do = 60 mm
114.44 kN
d = 60 mm

## 542.78 kN 0.5 m 0.5 m (c) Displacement at A and B

(542 . 78 )( 0 . 9)
st = + (12 10 6 )( 20 )( 0 . 9)
Est = 200 GPa
Eal = 70 GPa ( 0 . 06 2 ))( 200 10 6 )
(
4
st = 12x10-6 /oC = 0 . 864 mm + 0 . 216 mm = 0 . 648 mm
al = 23x10-6 /oC.
( 114 . 44 kN)( 0 . 6 )
al = + ( 23 10 6 )(10 )( 0 . 6 )

( 0 . 06 2 0 . 03 2 ))( 70 10 6 )
(
4
= 0 . 463 mm + 0 . 138 mm = 0 . 325 mm
48