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Welding Safety Lectures

Know your Worksite and Safety


Know your environment (inside, outside, temperature, rain, small assembly plant, construction site, industrial, etc)

Right to Know - in the context of United States workplace and community environmental law, is the legal principle that the
individual has the right to know the chemicals to which they may be exposed in their daily living. It is embodied in
federal law in the United States as well as in local laws in several states. "Right to Know" laws take two forms:
Community Right to Know and Workplace Right to Know. Each grants certain rights to those groups. (From:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_to_know)
Right to refuse you can refuse to work if the conditions are unsafe (https://www.osha.gov/right-to-refuse.html)
Site safety plan contains information on the work site.
Site specific training training on site specific hazards (chemicals, etc)

OSHA Act (1970) Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Federal agency that requires all
employers to provide a safe working environment for their employees. Employers are responsible for the
employees training. This is done through new hire training, tool box talks, safety meetings, and continuous
training classes.

General Site Considerations


Safety Orientation
Evacuation plans
1st aid stations/team members
AED
Hot work permit
Chemicals
Asbestos

7 common hazards in the workplace


1. Working at heights
2. Poor housekeeping
3. Electrical extension cords
4. Forklifts
5. Lockout/tagout
6. Chemicals
7. Confined spaces
www.safetyandhealthmagazine.com

Elimination of Hazards in the Workplace (according to OSHA)


1. Engineering controls
2. Administrative controls
3. Personal Protective Equipment

6s
Sort Distinguish between what is needed and remove what is not needed

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Welding Safety Lectures
Stabilize Enforce a place for everything and everything in its place
Shine Clean up the work place and look for ways to keep it clean
Standardize Maintain and monitor adherence to first three Ss
Sustain Follow the rules to keep the workplace 6s-right-maintain the gain
Safety Eliminate hazards. (We added this sixth S so we can maintain the focus on safety within our
Lean events and embed safety conditions into all our improvements.)

Welders Hazards
Ultraviolet rays can injure eyes and skin
Gasses producing toxic fumes that can affect lungs
Fire risk (welding near flammable materials or containers that contain combustible materials)
Fire risk open frame (sparks, etc)
Cutting a used container without following procedures
Chemical residue of metals being cut can cause harmful fumes (substances include combustible, toxic, or corrosive)
Sparks (serious burns and fire)
Ionizing radiant energy (x-rays)
Non-ionizing (ultraviolet, visible, or infrared light)
Radiation (burn skin and damage eyes)
Keep you pocket lighter home not at work when welding

General Hazards
Flammability
Tanks properly chained
Working at heights (falls, fall protection, railings, etc)
Ladder (3 point rule, tie off)
scaffolding
Lockout tagout (electrical, mechanical, battery, etc)
Electrical
Extension cords
Confined spaces (permit, watch person, etc)
Shoring
Slip hazards
Trip hazards
Respirator (no beard, proper fit test, cartridges, etc)
House keeping (safety is being clean)
Fork lift/foot traffic
Ergonomics
Lifting (back injuries)

Protect non-welders from the work


Screens, curtains, and putting space between the work zone and passer bys can help stop refractions from welding arcs. Also,
barricade areas to prevent unauthorized people from entering the work area.

Equipment Safety
Follow manufacturers instructions at all times

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Welding Safety Lectures
Inspect before each use
NEVER USE BROKEN OR MALFUNCTIONING EQUIPMENT!!!!

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)


MUST be maintained and inspected before each use. Replace if it is defective before use.

Breathing
Respirators (half face, full face, cartridge, SCBA, air supplied)

Eye protection
Safety glasses goggles should be worn at all times especially during any process where flying debris is present

Head
Helmet can be handheld; fit over your head; fit over a hard hat; must have the proper lens for work; and protect face, neck, and
ears (not hearing protection)

Clothing
Clothing or coveralls should be fire resistant; no cuffs or pockets; made of natural materials like leather, wool, cotton,
and be heavy enough to prevent infrared and ultraviolet rays to penetrate to the skin
Leather jackets protect against spatter
Aprons are the BEST protect against spatter

Hands
Gloves should be heavy enough to prevent infrared and ultraviolet rays to penetrate to the skin, protect from hot work such as
spatter and pickup of welded metals when cooled down.

Feet
Boots leather should be approved safety shoes, steel toes, fire resistant, metatarsal protection, and pants NOT tucked into boots.

Hearing protection
High noise processes include chipping, peening, air carbon arc gouging, and plasma arc cutting. Also be aware of surrounding
noise if in an industrial environment.

Types include
Ear plugs (22 to 33 db reduction)
Ear muffs (20 to 30 db reduction)
Rated with a Noise Reduction Rating (NRR) which is the amount the protection will reduce the noise in decibels (BD)
Must take into account permissible exposure limits (see table G-16 below)
Hearing loss can be temporary or permanent

Reference: http://www.coopersafety.com/noisereduction.aspx

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Welding Safety Lectures

http://www.slideshare.net/windsgroup/asse-occupational-noise-webinar-20-nov-13

http://noiselimiters.co.uk/buy/noise-levels-what-is-noise.php

Confines Space

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Welding Safety Lectures
Defined
1. It is large enough and so configured that a person can bodily enter it and perform assigned work
2. Has limited or restricted means for entry or exit
3. Is not resigned for continuous occupancy

Permit required and should contain


It contents or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere.
It contains a material that has the potential to engulf the entrant.
It has an internal configuration such that the entrant can be trapped or asphyxiated by inwardly converging walls or by a
floor that slopes downward and tapers to a smaller cross section.
The space contains any other recognized serious safety or health hazard.

Permits are only issues for a specific amount of time and work must be completed during that time or a new permit is required at
the end of the expired time.

Examples are
Tanks
Tank cars
Silos
Trash compactors
Storage bins
Hoppers
Vaults
Pits
Trenches

Precautions
Stand by person guarding the opening
Proper ventilation
Perform oxygen checks before entering and during work

Procedures should include (if applicable)


Hazards of welding product
Fumes and gases
Electric shock
Noise
Heat
Burns
Radiation

Ventilation:
Must have sufficient movement of air to prevent
Accumulation of toxic fumes
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Welding Safety Lectures
Oxygen deficiency

Critical in confined spaces where fumes, smoke, and dust can build up

Additional ventilation includes


Fans (intrinsic or non-intrinsic)
Exhaust system (especially needed for cutting or welding zinc, brass, bronze, lead, cadmium, beryllium, galvanized steel,
and painted metals. These can cause fumes that are toxic and hazardous.)

Fire Prevention
Sparks and falling slag can travel and fall injuring yourself; people in the area; or start fires and explosions.

Cutting safety
Never use torch where sparks are a hazard near flammable rooms (dipping or spraying room; near flammable storage
areas, etc)
Sweep floors
Use bucket or pan of water to catch dripping slag
Use fire resistant guards or screens near flammable materials that cant be removed
Use extra precautions in greasy dirty, or gaseous atmospheres to prevent explosions
KEEP FLAME AND SPARKS AWAY FROM CYLINDERS AND HOSES
KEEP COMBISTUABLS AT LEAST 35 FEET AWAY FROM WELDING OPERATION
Never cut near ventilators
Never use oxygen to blow off dirt from clothing or work pieces
Never use oxygen as a substitute for compressed air

Oxyacetylene Welding Safety


Handle cylinders properly
Operate regulators properly
Properly use/handle oxygen and acetylene
Care for welding hoses
Test for leaks
Light torch properly
Use proper piping and oil free compounds
Locate the nearest fire extinguisher
Keep Oxyacetylene (cylinders, hosed, pipes, etc) free of grease
Keep heat and flames away from combustibles
Open cylinder valves slowly
Purge hoses when needed safely
Move cylinders in a safe manner

Fire tetrahedron

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Welding Safety Lectures

The fire tetrahedron represents the addition of a component in the chemical chain reaction, to the three already present in the
fire triangle. Once a fire has started, the resulting exothermic chain reaction sustains the fire and allows it to continue until or
unless at least one of the elements of the fire is blocked. Foam can be used to deny the fire the oxygen it needs. Water can be
used to lower the temperature of the fuel below the ignition point or to remove or disperse the fuel. Halon can be used to
remove free radicals and create a barrier of inert gas in a direct attack on the chemical reaction responsible for the fire. (Not to be
confused with the NFPA 704) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_triangle

NFPA 704
Standard System for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response" is a standard maintained by the
U.S.-based National Fire Protection Association. First "tentatively adopted as a guide" in 1960,[1] and revised several times since
then, it defines the colloquial "fire diamond" used by emergency personnel to quickly and easily identify the risks posed by
hazardous materials. This helps determine what, if any, special equipment should be used, procedures followed, or precautions
taken during the initial stages of an emergency response. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NFPA_704)

Visit http://ufra.flyuvu.com/awareness/page19.php for more details and labels

Types of Fires

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Welding Safety Lectures
Fire class Symbol Pictogram Intended Use Mnemonic
A Ordinary solid A for "Ash"
combustibles Wood
Paper
Rubber
Plastic
Cloth
B B for "Barrel" or Boil
Flammable liquids Flammable
and gases liquids
Grease
Gases
C Energized C for "Current"
electrical Electrical
equipment

D Combustible D for "Dynamite"


metals Combustible
metals
Magnesium
Titanium
Zirconium
Sodium
K Oils and fats K for "Kitchen"
Commercial
cooking grease
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fire_extinguisher and modified according to Welding Skills 3rd edition Moniz and Miller (page 26)

40 hour HAZMAT/24 and 8 hour site specific


Levels of protection such as A, B, C, D (A = fully encapsulated with supplied air positive pressure and D = protection from dust)

SDS sheets The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires chemical manufacturers, distributors, or importers to provide
Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) (formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets or MSDSs) to communicate the hazards
of hazardous chemical products.

Carcinogen known to cause cancer

Reference: https://chemm.nlm.nih.gov/ppe.htm and http://www.osha.com/courses/hazwoper.html

Information taken from


Above references
Instructors past training
The internet Google searches for images
Welding Skills 3rd edition Moniz and Miller (chapter 2)
www.osha.gov
www.safeopedia.com

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