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What is transmission in telecommunication?

In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviation: Tx) is the process of sending and

propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or
point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.

Transmission Media

Guided Unguided
(Wired) (Wireless)

Twisted-Pair Fiber-Optic Free

Coaxial Cable
Cable Cable Space

Remark: Receiving is the reverse of transmission.

Transmission Media and Technology
Transmission Network

City - B
City - C
Backbone Transmission

Backbone Transmission

City - A
Twisted Pair Cable
Coaxial Cable
Fiber Transmission
How many Types of fiber?
Different Between single mode & multimode

Singlemode fiber can carry the light signal more than 100 km and it depend on Equipment.
Fiber Installation Method

1. Aerial with Pole

2. Trenching Technic

a. Low Enviromental Trenching (Micro Duct)

b. FOC cable laying in Duct

c. FOC cable laying in Direct Buried

3.Trenchless Technic

a. Directional Drilling

4.Other Technic

Installation in Building
1. Aerial with Pole

Main Material
1. Concrete Pole
2. Pole band (suspension clamp)
3. Join Box
4. Line accessories
2. Trenching Technic

a. Low Enviromental Trenching (Micro Duct)

b. FOC cable laying in Duct
c. FOC cable laying in Direct Buried
3.Trenchless Technic

a. Directional Drilling
What is Attenuation on Fiber Optic Cable?

Attenuation is a measure of the loss of signal strength or light power that occurs as
light pulses propagate through a run of multimode or single-mode fiber. Measurements are
typically defined in terms of decibels or dB/km.

The most common peak wavelengths are 780 nm, 850 nm, 1310 nm, 1550 nm, and
1625 nm. The 850 nm region, referred to as the first window, was used initially because of
the support for the original LED and detector technology. Today, the 1310 nm region is
popular because of the dramatically lower loss and lower dispersion.
You can also use the 1550 nm region, which can avoid the need for repeaters.
Generally, performance and cost increase as wavelength increases.
Multimode and single-mode fibers use different fiber types or sizes.
For example, single-mode fiber uses 9/125 um and multimode uses 62.5/125 or 50/125.
The different size fibers have different optical loss dB/km values. Fiber loss depends heavily
on the operating wavelength. Practical fibers have the lowest loss at 1550 nm and the highest
loss at 780 nm with all physical fiber sizes (for example, 9/125 or 62.5/125).
Chromatic Dispersion ( CD )
Light from laser consists of a range of wavelengths , each of which travels
at a slightly different speed.This results to light pulse spreading over time.

It is measured in psec/nm/km
The chromatic dispersion effects increase for high rates

Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD)

Single-mode fiber supports two polarization states
Fast and slow axes have different group velocities
Causes spreading of the light puls
It is measured in psec/
Link Budget for the Optical Link
You can now calculate the attenuation for this link. You can arrive at the total attenuation (TA)
of an elementary cable section as:

TA=n x C + c x J + L x a + M

n - number of connectors
C - attenuation for one optical connector (dB)
c number of splices in elementary cable section
J attenuation for one splice (dB)
M system margin (unpredictable optical attenuation events, and
so on, should be considered around 3dB)
a attenuation for optical cable ( dB/km)
L- total length of the optical cable