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9 0 0 Google +0

Mike Creamer of Business Edge revisits his Masterclass series of articles, updating and adding to the

information which proved so useful to readers when the series was first published ten years ago. In this

reincarnation, the series will cover both air conditioning and refrigeration and serve as an on-going source

of technical reference for experienced personnel as well as providing a solid educational grounding for

newcomers to our industry

Most of the major air conditioning manufacturers can provide charts giving the equivalent hydraulic

diameters for rectangular duct sections. A print-out from a spread sheet using the above formula will be

published next month.

Additional information that has to be determined is the pressure drop required by the discharge diffusers

in order to achieve the required distribution characteristics.

This figure will have to be added to the duct pressure loss together with losses from all components, such

as inlet louvres, filters, pre-heaters, etc, fitted before the fan and between the fan discharge and

diffusers.

Velocity reduction

This method of calculation is based on setting the initial velocity at the beginning of the main duct, in

accordance with the recommended velocity for the given application as shown in Table 2.

This velocity is then reduced by an arbitrary amount after each junction. The reduction of velocity at each

junction will be influenced by the number of junctions from the main duct. The object is to maintain a

velocity greater than the recommenced velocity for a branch duct at the last duct junction.

Having determined the velocity, it is then a simple matter to calculate the required cross sectional area

required to achieve this figure using the formula:

Where

V = velocity in m/s

If rectangular ducts are to be used then enter the chart giving circular equivalents of rectangular ducts by

converting D from m to D in mm. Then select the desired length of one side in mm and move horizontally

until the dimension of the diameter is found. If necessary, interpolate between rows or columns.

Calculate the total pressure drop of the longest run, taking into consideration all fittings in the run,

(generally the longest run has the greatest pressure drop but a shorter run with a large number of fittings

may have a greater pressure drop, therefore unless it's obvious which run has the highest loss it will be

prudent to undertake check calculations on other runs.) The highest pressure drop run is called the Index

Run. This figure will be used to select the fan.

To minimise balancing of duct flows, a check calculation should be performed to establish the pressure

loss in each of the branches, then duct dimensions adjusted to equalise the losses to ensure the correct

pressure is available at each diffuser.

Return duct design should be undertaken in a similar manner with the highest velocity located nearest the

exhaust fan or discharge outlet.

Equal friction

As the name implies this method of design is based on all duct runs having the same friction loss. The

starting velocity is selected using Table 3 - Maximum Velocities. Using this figure in conjunction with the

total volume of air to be supplied, enter Table 1. With the total volume of air expressed in litres per sec

(l/s), move vertically along the volume line until it intersects with required angled velocity curve and at the

intersection of these two lines, traverse horizontally to read the fraction loss in Pascals per metre (Pa/m).

Note the name fraction, not friction. This is because we are looking at the pressure loss per unit length.

All remaining duct selections will be at the same pressure loss established above. All that has to be done

is to enter all subsequent air volumes on the 'x' axis and read the velocity at the point of intersection with

the pressure loss line. However care has to be taken to ensure that the velocities resulting from these

readings do not exceed the maximum velocities recommended. If this does occur, then a lower starting

velocity should be used. The total length of each run must be calculated including the equivalent length of

all fittings and this figure is then multiplied by the fractional pressure loss to establish the total loss of the

duct run. The fan is then selected to match to the total loss figure.

Static regain

A simplistic explanation of this method of calculation is to say that the object of this is to ensure that the

same pressure is available at each take off point by converting velocity head pressure to static pressure,

ie static regain. The conversion of velocity head takes place after each branch and is calculated to match

the loss in the length of duct up to the next branch. With this method of calculation, the balancing of the

system is made much easier and there can be cost savings resulting from the reduced need for balancing

dampers.

In order to explain the static regain method of calculation fully, it is necessary to use an example and

follow the calculation process, step by step. However in order to do this, a number of additional charts

and tables will be required, but insufficient space is available to incorporate these charts in this month's

article and these will be included next month.

Constant velocity

The constant velocity method of calculation is usually restricted to dust and fume extraction systems

where the object is to entrain dust particles in the air stream. The velocity must be maintained at a

sufficiently high level to carry the particles to a collector receptacle. The velocity is then reduced to a level

which will no longer support or suspend the particles and they then simply drop out of the air stream for

collection. See the Contaminant Transport Velocities and Contaminant Capture Velocities in Part 30 next

month.

With the above parameters established we can prepare to design the duct system. However, correct duct

design requires the following information at various points in the design process:

When working with standard air this formula can be reduced to:

In order to arrive at the most efficient ductwork design, an iterative process is required. When starting the

design, a number of arbitrary parameters are used to establish dimensions and pressure losses

throughout the system.

On completion of the duct layout, the calculated friction losses may show an excessive loss and the

section of duct at the root of this can be identified. Therefore, an adjustment in sizes will be required

which may result in the main duct and/or the branch duct dimensions and types of elbows and branches

being altered.

For example, from a cost aspect, splitters and turning vanes may have been omitted. However, the

resultant friction losses could have shown that these cost savings are offset by increased cost of a larger

fan assembly.

After the duct design has been altered the losses will have to be recalculated.

There are a number of computer duct design programmes that can speed the process but not all

programmes can optimise the design. Since it is the optimising process that is time consuming and

determines the effectiveness of the installation, this feature should be sought after in any programme you

may consider purchasing.

The design velocity can be determined from Table 2 which shows a number of different applications and

the recommended velocities for each of them. The table differentiates between applications that have

noise as the primary consideration and those that have duct resistance as the controlling factor.

figure 1

Masterclass: Ducting Design Part 29 Published: 1 May 2008 - 00:00 9 0 0 Google +0 Mike Creamer of

Business Edge revisits his Masterclass series of articles, updating and adding to the information which

proved so useful to readers when the series was first published ten years ago. In this reincarnation, the

series will cover both air conditioning and refrigeration and serve as an on-going source of technical

reference for experienced personnel as well as providing a solid educational grounding for newcomers to

our industry Table 1: Suggested velocity and friction rate design limits Most of the major air conditioning

manufacturers can provide charts giving the equivalent hydraulic diameters for rectangular duct sections.

A print-out from a spread sheet using the above formula will be published next month. Additional

information that has to be determined is the pressure drop required by the discharge diffusers in order to

achieve the required distribution characteristics. This figure will have to be added to the duct pressure

loss together with losses from all components, such as inlet louvres, filters, pre-heaters, etc, fitted before

the fan and between the fan discharge and diffusers. Velocity reduction This method of calculation is

based on setting the initial velocity at the beginning of the main duct, in accordance with the

recommended velocity for the given application as shown in Table 2. Table 2: Recommended duct

velocities This velocity is then reduced by an arbitrary amount after each junction. The reduction of

velocity at each junction will be influenced by the number of junctions from the main duct. The object is to

maintain a velocity greater than the recommenced velocity for a branch duct at the last duct junction.

Having determined the velocity, it is then a simple matter to calculate the required cross sectional area

required to achieve this figure using the formula: Where V = velocity in m/s Q = air volume in m3/s A =

cross sectional area of duct in m2 Therefore the area A = Q/V Thus A = ?r2 and r = 1?2D so If

rectangular ducts are to be used then enter the chart giving circular equivalents of rectangular ducts by

converting D from m to D in mm. Then select the desired length of one side in mm and move horizontally

until the dimension of the diameter is found. If necessary, interpolate between rows or columns. Calculate

the total pressure drop of the longest run, taking into consideration all fittings in the run, (generally the

longest run has the greatest pressure drop but a shorter run with a large number of fittings may have a

greater pressure drop, therefore unless it's obvious which run has the highest loss it will be prudent to

undertake check calculations on other runs.) The highest pressure drop run is called the Index Run. This

figure will be used to select the fan. To minimise balancing of duct flows, a check calculation should be

performed to establish the pressure loss in each of the branches, then duct dimensions adjusted to

equalise the losses to ensure the correct pressure is available at each diffuser. Return duct design should

be undertaken in a similar manner with the highest velocity located nearest the exhaust fan or discharge

outlet. Equal friction As the name implies this method of design is based on all duct runs having the same

friction loss. The starting velocity is selected using Table 3 - Maximum Velocities. Using this figure in

conjunction with the total volume of air to be supplied, enter Table 1. With the total volume of air

expressed in litres per sec (l/s), move vertically along the volume line until it intersects with required

angled velocity curve and at the intersection of these two lines, traverse horizontally to read the fraction

loss in Pascals per metre (Pa/m). Note the name fraction, not friction. This is because we are looking at

the pressure loss per unit length. All remaining duct selections will be at the same pressure loss

established above. All that has to be done is to enter all subsequent air volumes on the 'x' axis and read

the velocity at the point of intersection with the pressure loss line. However care has to be taken to

ensure that the velocities resulting from these readings do not exceed the maximum velocities

recommended. If this does occur, then a lower starting velocity should be used. The total length of each

run must be calculated including the equivalent length of all fittings and this figure is then multiplied by the

fractional pressure loss to establish the total loss of the duct run. The fan is then selected to match to the

total loss figure. Table 3: Typical air velocities/maximum velocities Static regain A simplistic explanation of

this method of calculation is to say that the object of this is to ensure that the same pressure is available

at each take off point by converting velocity head pressure to static pressure, ie static regain. The

conversion of velocity head takes place after each branch and is calculated to match the loss in the length

of duct up to the next branch. With this method of calculation, the balancing of the system is made much

easier and there can be cost savings resulting from the reduced need for balancing dampers. In order to

explain the static regain method of calculation fully, it is necessary to use an example and follow the

calculation process, step by step. However in order to do this, a number of additional charts and tables

will be required, but insufficient space is available to incorporate these charts in this month's article and

these will be included next month. Constant velocity The constant velocity method of calculation is usually

restricted to dust and fume extraction systems where the object is to entrain dust particles in the air

stream. The velocity must be maintained at a sufficiently high level to carry the particles to a collector

receptacle. The velocity is then reduced to a level which will no longer support or suspend the particles

and they then simply drop out of the air stream for collection. See the Contaminant Transport Velocities

and Contaminant Capture Velocities in Part 30 next month. With the above parameters established we

can prepare to design the duct system. However, correct duct design requires the following information at

various points in the design process: Where Pv is velocity pressure in Pascals and e is air density in

kg/m3 (standard air = 1.204kg/m3) When working with standard air this formula can be reduced to: To

assist Table 4 below shows velocity v velocity pressure. In order to arrive at the most efficient ductwork

design, an iterative process is required. When starting the design, a number of arbitrary parameters are

used to establish dimensions and pressure losses throughout the system. On completion of the duct

layout, the calculated friction losses may show an excessive loss and the section of duct at the root of this

can be identified. Therefore, an adjustment in sizes will be required which may result in the main duct

and/or the branch duct dimensions and types of elbows and branches being altered. For example, from a

cost aspect, splitters and turning vanes may have been omitted. However, the resultant friction losses

could have shown that these cost savings are offset by increased cost of a larger fan assembly. After the

duct design has been altered the losses will have to be recalculated. There are a number of computer

duct design programmes that can speed the process but not all programmes can optimise the design.

Since it is the optimising process that is time consuming and determines the effectiveness of the

installation, this feature should be sought after in any programme you may consider purchasing. The

design velocity can be determined from Table 2 which shows a number of different applications and the

recommended velocities for each of them. The table differentiates between applications that have noise

as the primary consideration and those that have duct resistance as the controlling factor. figure 1

ACR-News

Masterclass: Ducting: Equal Friction Method Part 30

Published: 1 June 2008 - 00:00

0 0 0 Google +0

Mike Creamer of Business Edge revisits his Masterclass series of articles, updating and adding to

the information which proved so useful to readers when the series was first published ten years

ago. In this reincarnation, the series will cover both air conditioning and refrigeration and serve

as an on-going source of technical reference for experienced personnel as well as providing a

solid educational grounding for newcomers to our industry.

In the previous article the various methods used to calculate the pressure loss through ducts were

briefly described. In this article we will follow a worked example using the Equal Friction

Method of calculation.

Duct design

When commencing the duct design, the heat load in the various spaces will have been calculated

and from this information the quantity of air and its condition will have been established using

the methods described in previous articles. We therefore know how much conditioned air has to

be circulated but do not know the required fan characteristics or how much energy is required to

circulate the air.

The duct manufacturing standards are different for each category of duct system but it is quite

common to combine categories of duct design in a single system. For example, a large office

complex requiring very large volumes of air may use high velocity ductwork for the main runs

and low velocity ductwork for the branch runs.

It is important to ensure that the appropriate duct manufacturing standard is used for each

category of ductwork. When designing ductwork numerous tables showing either the pressure

loss or the equivalent length of each fitting in the duct run have to be used and there are many

sources for this information, ranging from the established reference manuals such as HVCA

DW/143 / DW/144, CIBSE hand books or the ASHRAE Guide and Data Books. In addition,

many major equipment manufacturers publish data in their own design manuals.

Duct design, because of its use of tables and formulae lends itself to computer software programs

which undoubtedly make life easier for the design engineer. However, these still require skill in

their use by the engineer interpreting the information and converting this into an efficient and

cost effective installation.

Engineers will, over a period of time, have found a source of tables and charts which have

proven to be reliable and convenient to their style of working.

Distance of contaminant

Step 1 Study the conditioned spaces and locate the outlet diffusers and return air louvres. The

location of these items must take into consideration: the number of air changes; draughts; noise;

temperature gradients; work patterns of the occupants.

Establish the required pressure drop for each of the outlet and inlet fittings necessary to achieve

the design air pattern. (The design and selection of diffuser and louvres is a topic in its own right

and will be covered in the near future.)

Step 2 Identify the route of the ductwork, noting the space available. Maximise the use of

circular ductwork and when rectangular is used, endeavour to maintain the lowest practical

aspect ratio's for each of the runs.

Range of conveying velocities for different types of dusts

Step 3 Prepare a preliminary layout based on recommended velocities and ascertain if the duct

sizes can be accommodated.

Step 4 Calculate the duct losses. If the resultant calculations reveal excessive losses then adjust

duct sizes. Alternatively, it may be possible to identify duct sections which can be reduced to

improve the economics of the installation.

Step 5 It may be necessary to repeat steps 3 and 4 a number of times before the optimum design

is established.

Step 6 Analyse the design for potential noise problems and incorporate the necessary fittings.

Adjust calculations to take any additional pressure losses arising from the use of noise

attenuators into account.

Step 7 Prepare final manufacturing drawings.

To place the above steps into context we will examine and calculate the characteristics of the

duct layout shown in Figure 1.

This scheme assumes that we have based the design on a low velocity system and from our

preliminary layout the dimensions shown can be accommodated within the building. The overall

design parameters are as follows: The application is an open plan office.

The starting size of the main duct is established by table 1 in Master Class part 29 Recommended

and maximum velocities.

Using table 2 in Masterclass part 29 last month (circular equivalents of rectangular ducts) giving

the equivalent rectangular duct dimensions we find that a duct with the long side of 800 mm and

short side 400 mm has the equivalent diameter of 609 mm. Since this duct has a diameter slightly

less than was calculated, a check to find the actual velocity will show:

which is only 0.12m/s higher and acceptable.

On the basis of the known air volumes required in each branch duct and diffuser leg, we could

approximate the sizes for all the ducts and following calculations, amend the duct sizes until we

achieve the required result. However table 3 (Percent Section Area in Branches) allows us to

speed up the process with much more accurate results.

To use table 3 we must establish the percentage of air leaving the main duct at the branch. With

this percentage we can then read the duct Circular Equivalent (referred to as Ce) as a percentage

of the main ducts Ce area.

From the table we read adjacent to 33% air volume that the duct area required is 41% of the Ce

area of the main duct.

From the table we read 73.5% of main duct area required = 0.291 x 0.735 = 0.214 m2 Ce area.

The exercise is repeated for all the ducts in the system (see chart 2 on opposite page).

Note: When using tables or charts calculations based on velocity eg velocity pressure, then the

actual velocity must be established by dividing the volume by the actual cross section area of the

fitting, not the equivalent area. Calculations to arrive at the friction loss through a fitting must

always use the equivalent area.

Duct Sizing

Table 4-10: Plane asymmetric diffuser at fn outlet with ductwork

Working in the direction away from the fan; the first duct fitting is the fan to duct transform

section, marked on figure 1 as (i). To obtain the local loss coefficient Co we enter the table

(Plane Asymmetric Diffuser with Ductwork).

The area of the fan outlet (rectangular dimensions 400mm x 400mm) is 0.16 m2

Using either the Velocity Pressure table 4 (Master Class 29) or the formula:

Therefore pressure loss for fan transform = velocity pressure x fitting loss coefficient = 119.1 x

0.1 = 11.9Pa.

The next fitting shown (ii) is a right angle mitred elbow with single thickness vanes. When

calculating the pressure loss for this fitting, the key elements are the radius of the vanes r, the

distance between vanes s and the length of the trailing edge of the vane L.

The radius and distance between vanes will be determined by the size of the elbow and its

associated manufacturing cost. For this size of elbow we will use a radius of 115mm set at 60mm

apart without any trailing extensions. For this design, the loss coefficient Co is 0.15. The velocity

pressure for a duct 800mm x 400mm with an actual velocity of 7.03m/s is 29.8Pa. Therefore the

loss through the elbow = 29.8 x 0.15 ? 4.5Pa.

Figure 1, shows that the next fitting in the main duct is a diverging 'Y' branch fitting (iii).

The calculation parameters are volume of air entering fitting (Qc), volume leaving at branch

(Qb). Area at entry to fitting (Ac) and area of branch outlet (Ab) together with area of main

outlet As. We also require the velocity pressure and since the duct section at Qc is the same as

the previous fitting and the air volume is the same, the velocity pressure will be 29.8Pa.

Since we are concentrating on the losses in the main duct run we enter the table top left

(diverging wye) at

The total length of duct between fittings (A) and (B) is made up of ducts D1 and D2. If we enter

Chart 5 (Masterclass Part 29) at the air quantity and rise vertically until the line intersects with

equivalent duct diameter 609 mm we establish the fraction loss is 0.8 Pa/m. Therefore the losses

through these ducts are:

D1 = 6 x 0.8 = 4.8 Pa

and D2 = 15 x 0.8 = 12.0 Pa

Immediately after fitting (iii) we must reduce down to duct section D3 via a duct transition piece

fitting (iv).

Table 6 is used in conjunction with the duct sizing table. We have to establish the inlet Ai to

outlet Ao area ratios together with the angle of slope between inlet and outlet. We have decided

the slope angle will be between 15 and 40. The ratio:

since this figure is less than 2 we look at the intersection of 2 on y axis and 15- 40 on the x axis

to read Co = 0.05. The velocity and velocity pressure are respectively:

We now come to fitting (v) a diverging 'T'. To establish the loss coefficient for this fitting we

have to calculate the velocity ratio of the air entering the 'T' and the velocity of the air leaving the

'T'. From figure 1 we see that the 'T' has a section 800mm x 300 mm and the volume entering is

1500 l/s. This equates to a velocity of 6.25m/s and a velocity pressure of 23.5Pa. The volume of

air leaving the 'T' is 750 l/s giving a velocity of 3.125m/s,

Chart 2

Following the 'T' we have a transformation piece (vi) and we have already shown how to

calculate the loss through this type of fitting, so we now examine fitting (vii) which is an elbow

without vanes in the main duct run. The variables used in calculating the losses are the ratio of

the centre line radius r divided by the width W of the duct:

With Ke being a correction factor for angles other than 90(see table 7) therefore in this instance

Ke= 1. KRe is the correction factor based on Reynolds number for standard air (66.3).

Re = 66.3 x D x Vo

Therefore

Co = Ke x KRe x C'o

Diverging Y's (viii) and (x) are calculated in the same way as (iii). See Chart 3-7a and Chart 4-5.

We now come to fitting (xii), a 90 radius bend containing a single turning vane. To establish Co

we must identify the interim loss coefficient C'o.

C'o is a function of the radius or curve ratio and the ratio of the depth of the duct W and its cross

sectional length H. The radius for this bend has been selected as 200 mm and the W dimension is

also 200 mm the H dimension is 275 mm.

From Table 4 velocity pressure (see Masterclass Part 29) using velocity 4.55 we interpolate

= 12.46

Pv = 12.46Pa

The total loss on the index run of the duct is the sum of all losses. The fan selection will be based

on this figure.

ACR-News Masterclass: Ducting: Equal Friction Method Part 30 Published: 1 June 2008 -

00:00 0 0 0 Google +0 Mike Creamer of Business Edge revisits his Masterclass series of

articles, updating and adding to the information which proved so useful to readers when the

series was first published ten years ago. In this reincarnation, the series will cover both air

conditioning and refrigeration and serve as an on-going source of technical reference for

experienced personnel as well as providing a solid educational grounding for newcomers to our

industry. In the previous article the various methods used to calculate the pressure loss through

ducts were briefly described. In this article we will follow a worked example using the Equal

Friction Method of calculation. Duct design When commencing the duct design, the heat load in

the various spaces will have been calculated and from this information the quantity of air and its

condition will have been established using the methods described in previous articles. We

therefore know how much conditioned air has to be circulated but do not know the required fan

characteristics or how much energy is required to circulate the air. The duct manufacturing

standards are different for each category of duct system but it is quite common to combine

categories of duct design in a single system. For example, a large office complex requiring very

large volumes of air may use high velocity ductwork for the main runs and low velocity

ductwork for the branch runs. It is important to ensure that the appropriate duct manufacturing

standard is used for each category of ductwork. When designing ductwork numerous tables

showing either the pressure loss or the equivalent length of each fitting in the duct run have to be

used and there are many sources for this information, ranging from the established reference

manuals such as HVCA DW/143 / DW/144, CIBSE hand books or the ASHRAE Guide and Data

Books. In addition, many major equipment manufacturers publish data in their own design

manuals. Duct design, because of its use of tables and formulae lends itself to computer software

programs which undoubtedly make life easier for the design engineer. However, these still

require skill in their use by the engineer interpreting the information and converting this into an

efficient and cost effective installation. Engineers will, over a period of time, have found a

source of tables and charts which have proven to be reliable and convenient to their style of

working. Distance of contaminant Step 1 Study the conditioned spaces and locate the outlet

diffusers and return air louvres. The location of these items must take into consideration: the

number of air changes; draughts; noise; temperature gradients; work patterns of the occupants.

Establish the required pressure drop for each of the outlet and inlet fittings necessary to achieve

the design air pattern. (The design and selection of diffuser and louvres is a topic in its own right

and will be covered in the near future.) Range of capture velocities Step 2 Identify the route of

the ductwork, noting the space available. Maximise the use of circular ductwork and when

rectangular is used, endeavour to maintain the lowest practical aspect ratio's for each of the runs.

Range of conveying velocities for different types of dusts Step 3 Prepare a preliminary layout

based on recommended velocities and ascertain if the duct sizes can be accommodated. Step 4

Calculate the duct losses. If the resultant calculations reveal excessive losses then adjust duct

sizes. Alternatively, it may be possible to identify duct sections which can be reduced to improve

the economics of the installation. Step 5 It may be necessary to repeat steps 3 and 4 a number of

times before the optimum design is established. Figure 1: Duct design layout Step 6 Analyse the

design for potential noise problems and incorporate the necessary fittings. Adjust calculations to

take any additional pressure losses arising from the use of noise attenuators into account. Step 7

Prepare final manufacturing drawings. Step 8 Select fan with the necessary characteristics. To

place the above steps into context we will examine and calculate the characteristics of the duct

layout shown in Figure 1. This scheme assumes that we have based the design on a low velocity

system and from our preliminary layout the dimensions shown can be accommodated within the

building. The overall design parameters are as follows: The application is an open plan office.

Total air volume flow rate = 2.25m3/s Main duct velocity = 7.6m3/s The starting size of the main

duct is established by table 1 in Master Class part 29 Recommended and maximum velocities.

Main duct size, circular area = Using table 2 in Masterclass part 29 last month (circular

equivalents of rectangular ducts) giving the equivalent rectangular duct dimensions we find that

a duct with the long side of 800 mm and short side 400 mm has the equivalent diameter of 609

mm. Since this duct has a diameter slightly less than was calculated, a check to find the actual

velocity will show: which is only 0.12m/s higher and acceptable. On the basis of the known air

volumes required in each branch duct and diffuser leg, we could approximate the sizes for all the

ducts and following calculations, amend the duct sizes until we achieve the required result.

However table 3 (Percent Section Area in Branches) allows us to speed up the process with much

more accurate results. To use table 3 we must establish the percentage of air leaving the main

duct at the branch. With this percentage we can then read the duct Circular Equivalent (referred

to as Ce) as a percentage of the main ducts Ce area. In figure 1: 750 l/s passes into the branch

duct at (B); From the table we read adjacent to 33% air volume that the duct area required is 41%

of the Ce area of the main duct. Main ducts Ce area = 0.291 m2 Therefore branch duct Ce area =

0.291 x 0.41 = 0.119 m2 Volume of air in the next section of duct = 1500 l/s. From the table we

read 73.5% of main duct area required = 0.291 x 0.735 = 0.214 m2 Ce area. The exercise is

repeated for all the ducts in the system (see chart 2 on opposite page). Note: When using tables

or charts calculations based on velocity eg velocity pressure, then the actual velocity must be

established by dividing the volume by the actual cross section area of the fitting, not the

equivalent area. Calculations to arrive at the friction loss through a fitting must always use the

equivalent area. Duct Sizing Table 4-10: Plane asymmetric diffuser at fn outlet with ductwork

Table 3: percent section area in branchesdiv> Working in the direction away from the fan; the

first duct fitting is the fan to duct transform section, marked on figure 1 as (i). To obtain the local

loss coefficient Co we enter the table (Plane Asymmetric Diffuser with Ductwork). Therefore the

ratio will be The duct divergence angle is designed to be 20. for this fitting is: Co = 0.1 (by

interpolation). The area of the fan outlet (rectangular dimensions 400mm x 400mm) is 0.16 m2

Using either the Velocity Pressure table 4 (Master Class 29) or the formula: we establish the

velocity pressure (Pv) = 119.1Pa. Therefore pressure loss for fan transform = velocity pressure x

fitting loss coefficient = 119.1 x 0.1 = 11.9Pa. The next fitting shown (ii) is a right angle mitred

elbow with single thickness vanes. When calculating the pressure loss for this fitting, the key

elements are the radius of the vanes r, the distance between vanes s and the length of the trailing

edge of the vane L. The radius and distance between vanes will be determined by the size of the

elbow and its associated manufacturing cost. For this size of elbow we will use a radius of

115mm set at 60mm apart without any trailing extensions. For this design, the loss coefficient Co

is 0.15. The velocity pressure for a duct 800mm x 400mm with an actual velocity of 7.03m/s is

29.8Pa. Therefore the loss through the elbow = 29.8 x 0.15 ? 4.5Pa. Figure 1, shows that the next

fitting in the main duct is a diverging 'Y' branch fitting (iii). The calculation parameters are

volume of air entering fitting (Qc), volume leaving at branch (Qb). Area at entry to fitting (Ac)

and area of branch outlet (Ab) together with area of main outlet As. We also require the velocity

pressure and since the duct section at Qc is the same as the previous fitting and the air volume is

the same, the velocity pressure will be 29.8Pa. Since we are concentrating on the losses in the

main duct run we enter the table top left (diverging wye) at Then the loss or (gain) will be Pv x

Cc = 29.8 x -0.04 = -1.192 Pa. The total length of duct between fittings (A) and (B) is made up

of ducts D1 and D2. If we enter Chart 5 (Masterclass Part 29) at the air quantity and rise

vertically until the line intersects with equivalent duct diameter 609 mm we establish the fraction

loss is 0.8 Pa/m. Therefore the losses through these ducts are: D1 = 6 x 0.8 = 4.8 Pa and D2 = 15

x 0.8 = 12.0 Pa Immediately after fitting (iii) we must reduce down to duct section D3 via a duct

transition piece fitting (iv). Table 6 is used in conjunction with the duct sizing table. We have to

establish the inlet Ai to outlet Ao area ratios together with the angle of slope between inlet and

outlet. We have decided the slope angle will be between 15 and 40. The ratio: since this figure

is less than 2 we look at the intersection of 2 on y axis and 15- 40 on the x axis to read Co =

0.05. The velocity and velocity pressure are respectively: and from the Velocity Pressure table

Pv = 23.5 Pa. Therefore the loss will be 23.5 x 0.05 = 1.2 Pa. We now come to fitting (v) a

diverging 'T'. To establish the loss coefficient for this fitting we have to calculate the velocity

ratio of the air entering the 'T' and the velocity of the air leaving the 'T'. From figure 1 we see

that the 'T' has a section 800mm x 300 mm and the volume entering is 1500 l/s. This equates to a

velocity of 6.25m/s and a velocity pressure of 23.5Pa. The volume of air leaving the 'T' is 750 l/s

giving a velocity of 3.125m/s, From the Chart 2 we find Cc = 0.09. Pressure loss = 23.5 x 0.09 =

2.12Pa. Chart 2 Following the 'T' we have a transformation piece (vi) and we have already

shown how to calculate the loss through this type of fitting, so we now examine fitting (vii)

which is an elbow without vanes in the main duct run. The variables used in calculating the

losses are the ratio of the centre line radius r divided by the width W of the duct: However the

loss coefficient Co = Ke x KRe x C'o With Ke being a correction factor for angles other than

90(see table 7) therefore in this instance Ke= 1. KRe is the correction factor based on Reynolds

number for standard air (66.3). D = the circular equivalent diameter in mm Vo is the velocity in

m/s Re = 66.3 x D x Vo Re = 66.3 x 390 x 5.56 = 143765 Re x 10-4 Therefore 143765 x 10-4 =

14.3765 Table 8 shows that if Re x 10-4 =>14 and if Therefore Co = Ke x KRe x C'o Co = 1 x

1.15 x 0.18 = 0.21 Diverging Y's (viii) and (x) are calculated in the same way as (iii). See Chart

3-7a and Chart 4-5. We now come to fitting (xii), a 90 radius bend containing a single turning

vane. To establish Co we must identify the interim loss coefficient C'o. C'o is a function of the

radius or curve ratio and the ratio of the depth of the duct W and its cross sectional length H. The

radius for this bend has been selected as 200 mm and the W dimension is also 200 mm the H

dimension is 275 mm. The intersection of these 2 numbers shows C'o = 0.05 Ke is found from

Table 7 Using the angle 90 Ke = 1. Since Co = Ke x C'o = 1 x 0.05 = 0.05. The loss at this

fitting is Pv x Co. From Table 4 velocity pressure (see Masterclass Part 29) using velocity 4.55

we interpolate @ 4.50 = 12 and @ 4.60 = 13, thus 4.55 = 12.5Pa. To double check we calculate

using the formula = 12.46 Pv = 12.46Pa Then loss at this elbow = 0.05 x 12.46 = 0.62Pa. The

total loss on the index run of the duct is the sum of all losses. The fan selection will be based on

this figure.

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