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Destructive Leadership and Emotional Exhaustion:

Intervening Effect of Job Stress on Employees Job


Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

By

Nadia Zubair Ahmed Khan

CIIT/FA13-MSMS-015/ LHR

MS Thesis

In

Master of Sciences in Management Sciences

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology

Lahore-Pakistan

Spring 2015
Destructive Leadership and Emotional Exhaustion:
Intervening Effect of Job Stress on Employees Job
Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

A Thesis Presented to

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore

In partial fulfillment
of the requirement for the degree of

Master of Sciences in Management Sciences


By

Nadia Zubair Ahmed Khan


CIIT/FA13-MSMS-015/ LHR

ii
Destructive Leadership and Emotional Exhaustion:
Intervening Effect of Job Stress on Employees Job
Satisfaction and Turnover Intention

A Post Graduate Thesis submitted to the Department of Management Sciences as partial


fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Degree of Master of Sciences in
Management Sciences.

Name Registration Number


Nadia Zubair Ahmed Khan CIIT/FA13-MSMS-015/LHR

Supervisor

Dr. Asma Imran


Assistant Professor, Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Lahore.

iii
Final Approval

This thesis titled

Destructive Leadership and Emotional Exhaustion:


Intervening Effect of Job Stress on Employees Job
Satisfaction and Turnover Intention
By

Nadia Zubair Ahmed Khan


CIIT/FA13-MSMS-015/LHR

Has been approved

For the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore

External Examiner: __________________________________________

Dr

Supervisor: _________Dr. Asma Imran ______________________

Department of Management Sciences

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore

HOD: ___ Dr. Abdus Satar Abbasi______ ____________

Department of Management Sciences

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore

iv
Declaration

I, Nadia Zubair Ahmed Khan, Registration No. CIIT/FA13-MSMS-015/LHR hereby declares


that I have produced the work presented in this thesis, during the scheduled period of study. I
also declare that I have not taken any material from any source except referred to
wherever due that amount of plagiarism is within acceptable range. If a violation of HEC
rules on research has occurred in this thesis, I shall be liable to punishable action under
the plagiarism rules of the HEC.

Date: _________________ Signature of the student:

______________________

Nadia Zubair Ahmed Khan

CIIT/FA13-MSMS-015/LHR

v
Certificate

It is certified that Ms Nadia Zubair Ahmed Khan Registration No. CIIT/FA13-MSMS-015/LHR


has carried out all the work related to this thesis under my supervision at the Department of
Management Sciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore and the work
fulfills the requirement for award of MS degree.

Date: _________________

Supervisor:

_________________________

Dr. Asma Imran,


Assistant Professor
Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information
Technology, Lahore.

Head of Department:

__________________________

Dr. Abdus Sataar Abbasi,


Associate Professor
Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore.

vi
DEDICATION

To my Mother, for her utmost love, care & support; to my Father, for his
undoubted trust and guidance.

vii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

With gratitude and appreciation, I thank my academic supervisor Dr. Asma Imran

For her expertise, guidance, and support throughout the study. Dr. Asma not only helped me to

take note of the issues that I tended to overlook, but also enhanced me to develop an analytical

mind. I am deeply indebted to her who supervised my thesis with unfailing support and

guidance. Her expertise in research inspired me a lot in critical reasoning and in analyzing

empirical Research. My great appreciation is extended to all frontline employees of

telecommunication call centers who participated in this study. This research would not be

possible without their contributions.

Last but not least, I would like to express my deepest thanks to my Mother and Father who had

given me full support and encouragement during my study. Although I have to work hard both

on my work and study, leaving less time in taking care of her, still she is always behind me.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Declaration .. v
Certificate vi
Dedication vii
Acknowledgement .. viii
Table of contents . ix
List of Tables ... xii
List of Figures .. xiii
Abstract xiv

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Overview ... 1
1.2 Rationale of the Study... 11
1.3 Significance of the Issue ... 12
1.4 Background of the Problem... 13
1.5 Research Problem.. 17
1.6 Aim & Objectives of the Study. 20
1.7 Research Questions .. 21
1.8 Significance of the Study.. 22
1.9 Contribution of the Study.. 22
1.9.1 Theoretical Contribution. 22
1.9.2 Practical Contribution 23
1.10 Structure of the Thesis. 25

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW


2.1 Destructive Leadership . 26
2.2 Emotional Exhaustion 44
2.3 Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction 52
2.4 Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention ... 54
2.5 Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention. 55
2.6 Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction.. 56
2.7 Job Satisfaction.. 58
2.8 Turnover Intention 60
2.9 Job Stress as Mediator .. 63
2.9.1 Destructive Leadership, Job stress and Work Outcomes... 65
2.9.2 Emotional Exhaustion, Job Stress and Work Outcomes 69
2.10 Identification of Knowledge Gap 70
2.11 Conceptual Model ... 72
2.12 Research Hypotheses .. 72
2.13 Hypothetical Framework. 73
2.14 Discussion ... 74

ix
CHAPTER 3: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction . 76
3.2 Rationale and Justification for Research Paradigm.. 76
3.3 Research Approach .. 78
3.4 Research Design... 79
3.5 Questionnaire Pilot Study. 79
3.5.1 Sample ... 80
3.5.2 Instruments 80
3.5.3 Procedure 81
3.5.4 Analyses.. 82
3.5.5 Results 82
3.5.6 Discussion .. 84
3.6 Ethical Clearance to Proceed 85
3.6.1 Confidentiality and Ethics . 85
3.6.2 Procedure ... 85
3.7 Sampling and Sample Selection .. 86
3.7.1 Unit of Analysis . 86
3.7.2 Target Population .. 86
3.7.3 Sample Size ... 87
3.7.4 Sampling Technique . 87
3.8 Measuring Instruments for Constructs 88
3.8.1 Questionnaire . 88
3.8.2 Mode of Questionnaire Development 88
3.8.3 Structure of the Questionnaire 88
3.8.4 Instrumentation... 89
3.9 Analytical Methodology .. 91
3.9.1 Statistical Measures ... 91
3.9.2 Data Analysis . 94

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS
4.1 Overview of Data Analysis... 95
4.2 Data Normality 95
4.3 Demographic Analysis 99
4.4 Descriptive Statistics ... 100
4.5 Reliability Analysis . 102
4.6 Validity Analysis . 103
4.6.1 Content Validity 103
4.6.2 Convergent Validity... 104
4.6.3 Divergent Validity . 108
4.7 Correlation Analysis. 109
4.8 Hypothesis Testing... 110
4.8.1 Regression Analysis... 110
4.8.1.1 Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction.. 110
4.8.1.2 Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention. 111
4.8.1.3 Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention... 112

x
4.8.1.4 Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction. 113
4.9 Multiple Regression Analysis... 113
4.9.1 Mediation Analysis.. ... 114
4.9.1.1 Job Stress between Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction . 115
4.9.1.2 Job Stress between Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention... 116
4.9.1.3 Job Stress between Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction 118
4.9.1.4 Job Stress between Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention... 119
4.10 Results Summary.. 121

CHAPTER 5: DISCUSSION
5.1 Introduction 122
5.2 Hypotheses Testing.. 122
5.2.1 Destructive Leadership effects on Job Satisfaction. 122
5.2.2 Destructive Leadership effects on Turnover Intention 123
5.2.3 Emotional Exhaustion effects on Turnover Intention.. 125
5.2.4 Emotional Exhaustion effects on Job Satisfaction.. 126
5.3 Mediating Effects of Job Stress... 127
5.3.1 Between Destructive Leadership and Job satisfaction 127
5.3.2 Between Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention.. 130
5.3.3 Between Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction. 132
5.3.4 Between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention 135
5.4 Summarized Results Table.. 138

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


6.1 Conclusion... 139
6.2 Implications of Study.. 142
6.3 Limitations and Recommendations of Study.. 143

REFERENCES .. 145
APPENDIX I
Survey Questionnaire 179
List of Telecommunication Call Centers 183

xi
List of Tables

Table 1 Mean, Standard Deviation and Skewness for Pilot Study .. 82


Table 2 Alpha Reliability coefficients for Pilot Study. 83
Table 3 Correlation Matrix of all Variables ... 83
Table 4 Data Normality Distribution .. 96
Table 5 Normal Distribution Descriptives... 97
Table 6 Gender distribution of the respondents .. 100
Table 7 Age Distribution of the Respondents.. 100
Table 8 Distribution of Respondents with respect to Education Level 100
Table 9 Distribution of Respondents with respect to Marital Status 101
Table 10 Distribution of respondents Designation wise 101
Table 11 Descriptive Statistics of All Variables 102
Table 12 Reliability Coefficients of All Scales.. 103
Table 13 Kaiser-Meyer and Bartletts test of sampling. 104
Table 14 Summary of KMO Bartletts assumptions.. 105
Table 15 Total Variance Explained 105
Table 16 Rotated Component Matrix. 106
Table 17 Inter-Item Correlation Matrix.. 108
Table 18 Correlation Analysis Matrix 109
Table 19 Regression Analysis for Destructive Leadership & Job Satisfaction.. 111
Table 20 Regression Analysis for Destructive Leadership & Turnover Intention. 112
Table 21 Regression Analysis for Emotional Exhaustion & Turnover Intention.. 112
Table 22 Regression Analysis for Emotional Exhaustion & Job Satisfaction... 113
Table 23 Mediation Path Analysis for Destructive Leadership & Job Satisfaction... 116
Table 24 Mediation Path Analysis for Destructive Leadership & Turnover Intention.. 117
Table 25 Sobel Test Analysis for Destructive Leadership & Turnover Intention.. 117
Table 26 Mediation Path Analysis for Emotional Exhaustion & Job Satisfaction 119
Table 27 Mediation Path Analysis for Emotional Exhaustion & Turnover Intention 120
Table 28 Sobel Test Analysis for Emotional Exhaustion & Turnover Intention 120
Table 29 Summarized Results Table... 138

xii
List of Figures

Figure 1 Conceptual Model of Destructive Leadership, Emotional Exhaustion, Job


Satisfaction and Turnover Intention with mediating role Job Stress 72
Figure 2 Hypothesized Model of Destructive Leadership, Emotional Exhaustion, Job
Satisfaction and Turnover Intention with mediating role Job Stress 74
Figure 3 Histogram with Normality Curve 98
Figure 4 Normal Distribution P-Plot. 99
Figure 5 Baron & Kennys (1986) Mediation Model .. 114
Figure 6 Model for Mediation Paths for Destructive Leadership, Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction 115
Figure 7 Model for Mediation Paths for Destructive Leadership, Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction 116
Figure 8 Model for Mediation Paths for Destructive Leadership, Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction 118
Figure 9 Model for Mediation Paths for Destructive Leadership, Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction 119

xiii
Abstract

The conducted study aimed at investigating relationship between destructive leadership,


emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, turnover intention and job stress in telecommunication
call centers sector in Pakistan. In addition, the study examined the relationship between
destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion as an independent variables and dependent
variables as job satisfaction and turnover intention moreover it has examined the impact of
destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion on job satisfaction and turnover intention further
this explored the intervening role of job stress between destructive leadership, emotional
exhaustion, job satisfaction and turnover intention. The main study was conducted through
systematic randomly selected sample of 365 employees working at low level frontline in call
centers of ages between 25 and 56 and above belonging to the city of Lahore. Survey method
was used to collect data comprising of five sections including the demographic sheet, Destructive
leadership behaviors Scale, Singh, Goolsby & Rhoads Emotional Exhaustion scale, job stress
scale based on anxiety and time pressure during the working hours, general satisfaction scale
and turnover intention scale. Correlation analysis exposed the significance and strength of
relationships between variables i.e. destructive leadership and job satisfaction (r = -.333,
p<0.05), emotional exhaustion and turnover intention (r =.167, p<0.05), job stress and
destructive leadership (r =.388, p<0.05). More over multiple regression analysis for Baron &
Kenny (1986) steps for mediation analysis was performed. The results showed that job stress
fully mediated between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention; partially mediated between
destructive leadership and turnover intention. Practical implications, study limitations were
discussed and research directions were recommended for future research.

Key words: Destructive Leadership, Emotional Exhaustion, Toxic Triangle, Stressor-emotion,


Turnover Intention, Job Stress, Call Centers

xiv
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview
Whenever sank deep in the literature of organizations concerning leadership, we get lost
in the labyrinth of never ending definitions, limitless articles and endless refutations of errors. So
far when the leadership studies are concerned, less is studied with more in depth intentional
investigations, ending up with a bunch of scholars studying the whole about zilch (zero). It has
become the centre of interest for many philosophers and scholars not by today but many years
ago. It is a complex phenomenon touching almost every organizational, personal and social lives.
Whatever definition is accepted is wholly a subjective option, by individual inclination,
condition in organization and viewpoints other than casual presumptions and deduction of
practical loom, as lined by Bennis & Nanus (1985) that Leadership is like the Abominable
Snowman, whose footprints are everywhere but who is nowhere to be seen.
Many studies (Tepper, 2000; Kellerman, 2004; Hogan & Kaiser, 2005; Lipman-Blumen,
2006; Paunonen et al., 2006; Padilla et al., 2007; Ferris et al., 2007; Harvey, Treadway, &
Heames, 2007; Erickson, Shaw, & Agabe, 2007; Einarsen et al., 2007) examined that
connections concerned with personality at dark side of leadership, and other concerning with the
transformational leadership. Dramatic aspects were predicted in both the cases. Theatrical facet
was found to be the optimistic interpreter of the transformational leadership where as egotistic
and vain aspects were found to be destructive interpreters. It is one of the earlier reports that shed
light on the untouched subject of relationship between both theatrical personality and
transformational leadership with an evidence worried between leadership and narcissism
relationship (Ashkanasay & Daus, 2002).
As the current literature provided by Ashkanasay & Daus (2002), supports the
development of leaders personality in normal way, additional evidence is on the increase
flanking is of the dark side of leadership behaviors that are more pessimistically implicative
attributes. It is coherent with meaning of destructive as inducing or inclining to engender

1
destruction. Work positions carries a long term outcomes like making a decision to leave the job,
to employ in opposed social acts thoroughly, or to employ in useful work activity. Representing
oneself as a tyrant or a dictator is a time-privileged leadership practice and getting the results
from tyrant leaders and its practitioners are undoubtedly unforgettable similar to Stalin, Genghis
Khan, Hitler or possibly our own prior manager or supervisor but the list carries on. It is too
obvious what happens in realm as it states when the helm is taken up by the destructive leaders.
When leaders engage is setting destructive management or goals by betrayal, abusive behavior,
power, stealth and bullying what do we know what happens in organizations?
Einarsen et al. (2007) put forward a definition of destructive leadership as the orderly and
frequent leaders, supervisor or managers behavior, with the intention to dishonor justifiable
concern of organization by discouraging, counteracting and subverting goals, resources and
activities of organization concerning efficiency and inspiration, subordinates job satisfaction or
welfare. The systematic and repeated behaviors that defy benefit and welfare of organization and
isolation of the misbehavior acts (like an outburst of uncharacteristic anger). Practices include
strategic bullying, tyranny, coercive power, abusive supervision, aversive leadership, verbal
abuse of supervisor and among many others have been conceptualized and fall under the
category of leadership.
Aryee et al. (2007) felt that abusive supervision among the individuals are predisposed by
being engaged having a fundamental call for control and are incapable of managing their
emotions. Mumford et al. (1993) also discovered that when self-efficacy is low, individuals tend
to engage in destructive behaviors.
Numerous studies have shown that charisma in itself is not destructive but it is often used
by destructive leaders as an instrument or a tool in order to manipulate and control their
followers (Padilla et al., 2007; Einarsen et al., 2007; Pelletier, 2012; Ferris et al., 2007).
Krasikova et al. (2013) in advance projected Narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism as
dark triad traits that are potential predictors of destructive leadership.
The theory of toxic triangle model directs to the association of three components consisting of
destructive leaders, susceptible followers and conducive environments (Padilla, Hogan & Kaiser,
2007).
Nevertheless, at some point colluders can be either opportunists having similarity in their
personalities with their destructive leaders and carrying out orders in a deal to get something in
2
exchange or they can be acolytes having shared harmonious and fitting standards and goals with
their leader and become a follower as their personal values are consistent with the destructive
leader (Thoroughgood et al., 2012a). Both success and failure rarely depend on the sole issue
(Meindl, Ehrlich & Dukerich, 1985 ; Meindl & Ehrlich, 1987). Leadership proof abundantly
identified as multifaceted procedure in the midst of position, followers and leaders (Shamir &
Howell, 1999; Osborn, Hunt & Jauch, 2002).
Accessing these issues and behaviors lead towards dark side analysis of leadership that
marked as destructive leadership as a whole. Blending of such access would signify the
classification of the leaders that plays destructive roles. Still to date there has been no validated
evidence in separating various types of leadership described in an aspect of dark side like
destructive, abusive, toxic, bad or bullying. As described by Kellerman (2004), the bad types of
leaders concerning rigid, incompetent, callous, insular, corrupt, evil and intemperate. Narcissism
is the only concept that appears enormously in social, clinical and psychological literature. It
seems that narcissism has been conceived by the social-personality as a trait that spread normally
in people and there seems to be no stopping for eminent narcissism (Foster & Campbell, 2007).
In relation with several variables, narcissism is associated with self-confidence esteem,
Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Bad or destructive supervisors make others angry, blowup
straight to their subordinates; explicitly mock them, accredited their success, and play the blame
game with subordinates for their failures of the organization. Destructive leadership kinds have
been fallen beneath many distinguishing aims like abusive supervisor, petty tyranny and
destructive leadership. Furthermore, the evidence on the dark side of behaviors in organizations
including, workplace aggressiveness, social depression, bullying at workplace tends to generate
negative behaviors at the high or supervisory levels (Paulhus &Williams, 2002).
Corporate scandals have been brought under light raising the issue of dark leadership
referring in the context of white-collar crime. Theoretical evidence has been in existence for the
past half century. White collar criminal profiles are alleged to direct towards the dark side of
leadership or dark leader profile linked with psychopathic syndrome. Other than leaders many
individuals engage in immoral practices and behavior. Identifying those individuals is difficult as
the size of organization grows and become decentralized. The absence of moral leadership can
come up with organizational conformity issues, ineffectiveness, disloyalty, lawfulness, financial
suffering and issues concerning with communication. Having moral leadership in organization
3
can build increase value, lower turnover, enhanced loyalty and motivation of employees
considering all are the necessities for organization to be competent in todays difficult business
environment (Husted, 2008).
The previous discussions on the sole subject were designed not to be a review in a broad
manner concerning theory of leadership. Despite rawness in a matter of theories presented, the
unifying and prevailing attention of center for research in leadership field in the past century has
been investigated for clarification and enlightenment of leader effectiveness. A lesser amount of
sound and formulated leadership flow is that of destructive leadership. Debatably, exploration
leadership concerning dark side considered evenly significant and negative impact on employee
morale, productivity, financial performance and outcomes of an organization (Takala, 2010;
Ouimet, 2010; Boddy, 2011).
An organized and frequent leaders behavior (i.e. destructive in nature) having negative
and significant impact on outcomes of organizations and/or employees as destructive
leadership had been outlined by Shaw et al., (2011). The stream of destructive leadership
comprises research investigating toxic leadership, bullying behavior, abusive supervision, also
including socially aversive leader personalities of narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism
(Tepper, 2000).
Over the last two decades, importance, attention and curiosity in the personality having
dark side during work has gained popularity increasingly (Hogan & Hogan, 2001; Furnham &
Taylor, 2004; Goldman, 2006; Burch, 2006), suggesting narcissism with a large extent of the
literature and more lately concerning psychopathy as most concerned in leadership (Lubit, 2002;
Conger, 1990; Rosenthal & Pittinsky, 2006; Conger & Kanungo, 1998; Babiak & Hare, 2006).
The emergent importance in the dark side of leadership is due in part to the findings that
the 'dark side' interferes with an ability of leader to build and maintain high performing teams,
degrades leader performance and interferes with their 'bright side' strengths (Nelson & Hogan,
2009). As previously noted, leaders are under increasing amounts of pressure and stress to
navigate their teams and organizations through transformation while maintaining the
organization's mission and direction. These increasing demands in unchartered landscapes can
present novel and potentially stressful situations which could allow the leaders' dark side to
emerge (Sankowsky, 1995).

4
End results of corporate psychopathic behavior are severe, financially and emotionally
both for organizations and employees working and associated with the organization, to
comprehend the importance of leadership from the dark side perspective it is essential to explore
its endeavor (Goldman, 2006).
The learning of dark side of behaviors plays a vital part in pointing out many
organizations with those having the latent Derailment and twisted conducts along with
unsatisfactory carrying out actions. Contained in this material, adverted the association of
transformational leadership and dark side of leadership, however inadequate investigation is
done. The purpose included the association of transformational leadership and dark side
leadership behaviors was negatively correlated (Khoo & Burch, 1984).
From this view point, the analysis of destructive leadership is an issue of long term
performance; in depicted rate of accomplishing organizational goals. At this point the core of
destructive leadership is an issue of consequences; destructive leadership implies long term
negative effects in organizations with such procedures probable to direct towards these
destructive consequences despite others. Hence, in concurrence if the leaders along with
followers and perspective eventually results in disaster and hardship to stakeholders both internal
and external and to other essentials; including the damage it caused to organization dwell in, then
it was obvious that destructive leadership has happened (Padilla et al., 2007; Hogan & Kaiser,
2005).
Still, destructive leadership has been frequently misnamed and misconducted formerly
when recognized in any organization. Casualties in bad leadership endure such post dramatic
stress type of stress might have devastating effect on ones self and the society (Leymann &
Gustafsson, 1996; Wilson, 1991). As outcomes in such implications, a growing need has been
developed by many researchers and scholars in interpreting and studying the leadership in the
context of dark side. A diversified range of exploratory studies have been conducted on topics
like bullying, Toxic leadership, abusive supervision, bad leadership, narcissistic leadership and
destructive leadership (Tepper, 2000; Erickson et al., 2007; Kellerman, 2004; Lipman-Blumen,
2006; Harvey, Treadway, & Heames, 2007; Ferris et al., 2007; Einarsen et al., 2007).
Suggested by Ashforth (1994) that petty tyranny may emerged from the contribution of
the stressors. With the intention to justify that dependent and low level employees who go
through stress are frequently look towards their high-ups for directive and strong leadership,
5
where as managers might be in the position to response towards stress with extra overtly and
directing powerful and vigorous behavior. Focusing entirely on the driving force of leaders
following the negative outcome might be able to neglect the full image of as to what exactly
going on. As a matter of fact, Robinson and Bennett (1995) renowned that workplace deviance
and only a single kind of destructive leadership behavior in organization reckons on the
background and situation in which occurrence of behavior exists.
It is widely accepted when it was first suggested by Burns (1978), that leaders act impact
on others, and emotions play a critical part in leading. To valuing a person is both a mental and
an emotional process. What role does emotion play in the leadership? Does the leaders behavior
affect the employees directly? Or there exist some intermediary that contains aspects of the
employees beyond leaders behavior? There exists the component of emotions in setting such
behaviors including the emotional reaction of the employees to such behaviors of leadership. It is
normally depicted that leaders communicate through symbols, actions and words, actually they
were creating, developing, sharing and understanding etc employees or followers emotions and
concepts. To understand completely we need to both the facts and the emotional relationship to
it, the more the connection is developed based on facts and emotions the more it will be
understandable (Ashkanasay & Daus, 2002).
The negative emotions are the adverse effect of the morally detachment of experiences in
responses to ill-treatment and violence. But the usefulness of the moral detachment was annulled
due to the moral identities were in position. The viewpoints gave an explanation for indulging in
destructive work by depicting themselves allocating a moral and a social cause due to being
influenced by the wrong acts. Most prominently that moral detachment exercises modestly by
egotism of decent distinctiveness. Persons moral distinctiveness being as most relevant
knowledge can re-colligate emotionally ones self to the moral aftermath (Aquino et al., 2007).
Emotions that were experienced are likely to be hindered by personal temperament like a
role in settings of organizations and the trials that provide reason to them, even if they are
comparatively trivial, must not be unnoticed. The kind of fuss that produces negative emotions
comprises connections with customers, supervisors, subordinates and peers. Emotions exist
inside and outside of organizational surroundings. When followers are open to abuse and misuse,
at that point leaders can be devious and shrewd especially emotionally challenging and
demanding. Its just the tip of the iceberg that is being realized that how much intense and
6
enduring challenges of workplace emotions can be. Fear, anger, guilt, sadness can be
experienced and seen in many of todays organizations both nationally and internationally
(Ashkanasy & Daus, 2002).
Environmental events-emotion-behavior model by Spector & Fox (2002) affirms
emotions that are negative in nature i.e anger, may help to alleviate deviant behaviors, while
positive emotions having positive effect incline to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB).
Emotional exhaustion is the condition in which emotional demands are made on people
psychologically. It is a particular kind of stress that is linked with reactions and referred to the
level of lower energy causing by intense emotional demands made on employees consisting in
border wrench plays. Facing a higher and intense demand levels on time and vigor lead to the
state of emotional exhaustion (Poddar & Madupall, 2012).
Emotional exhaustion is extensively considered as the final consequences when
concerned with customer service wrenching nature of job like call centers. Many scholars have
given great deal of thought, an increasing interest and consideration to the components of job
burnout faced by the employees at low level or frontline i.e. Customer Services Representatives
(CSRs) and sales personnel (Morris and Feldman, 1996; Boles et al., 1997; Singh, 2000; Deery
et al., 2002; Holman, 2003) due to which the work of services plays a vital part in achieving the
organizations viable and cut throat competition and job burnout at high cost concerning high
turnover rate of employees, be able to tempt the profitability of organization.
Call centers have been one of the small numbers of flourishing branches in recent years.
The major job of call centre operators is to interact with customers through computer systems
that provided with the facility of attending telephone calls directing to the concerned employees.
Furthermore, recommended high level of stress existing during job activities regarding tasks at
work and interacting with customers. As predicted most team leaders faced additional
multifaceted activities to be in charge of command. Also, team leaders were disclosed towards
work stressors as being in control that needed to be handled concerning the time required and
outcomes having less emotionally involved than the employees interacting with customers (Zapf
et al., 2003).
Call center working is a stressful experience as it is suggested by high rate of turnover
and absenteeism in many call centers (Holman, 2002, 2003; Deery, Iverson, & Walsh, 2002;
Baumgart et al., 2002).
7
Beehr & Newman (1978) defined stress as a condition that enforce an individual in
deviating from regular routine of work because of the change in psychological state causing
disruption or enhancement in a manner to diverge from regular routine.
As stress is a fraction of everybodys life, still, undue quantity of stress is associated to
decrease performance in quite many areas including relationships, home life at work also health
of individual both physical and psychological (Casey, 2011). Scholars, theorists and
psychologists emphasized that stress is ones response in a psychological manner in a certain
situation where there exists a great deal of risk is involved and more over the mental capability
exceeds and cannot absorb such state of emotions. Emotional exhaustion found to be negatively
associated with job satisfaction, and following the turnover intentions of employees; contributing
to the fact that organizational turnover intentions and occupational turnover intentions are
positively linked to each other (Poddar & Madupall, 2012).
Many empirical researches have indicated that intensification of positive emotions led to
higher level of job satisfaction of employees, also the decreasing effect on turnover intentions
among the employees. The inclusion of stress between the emotions, job satisfaction and
turnover intention is due to the fact and findings that these variables are debatably related to
leadership. The causal flow suggests that leadership and emotions are directly and indirectly
related with job satisfaction and turnover intentions (Hogan & Kaiser, 2005; Bass, 1990;
Ashforth, 1994; Poddar & Madupall, 2012; Van Dick et al., 2004; Einarsen et al., 2007; Spector
& Fox, 2005; Padilla et al., 2007).
Analysis of behaviors shows a broad array of emotional subordinate and behavioral
results related negatively; admitting diminished self-esteem and social capability, enhanced
anti-behaviors, aroused stress, frustration, confrontation and prevention and frown goal
performance, lessened life and job satisfaction, prescriptive and emotive obligation, enhanced
family-work dispute, turnover intentions and psychological suffering and lower performance and
working unit coherence including heightened annoyance, stress and strain, stimulant,
vulnerability and work isolation (Thoroughgood, 2010).
At some other place stress is said to a certain state that will enforce people to diverge
from their actual path because of interruption or changeling in the emotional state, they allow
them to depart from their actual cause. It is of great importance to people to distinguish the

8
facing stress in their daily routine of work. Many studies found the significance in the
relationship of job stress, turnover and job satisfaction as inversely related (Pathak, 2012).
The existence of the destructive leadership referring to an organized and recurring actions
behaviors of leader, manager or supervisor in infracting the rightful matters and concerns of
organization by deflating and countermining the tasks, assets, ends and usefulness and
motivation, welfare or subordinates job satisfaction in multifaceted organizations seems like an
area of concern for many senior management (Einarsen, Aasland, & Skogstad, 2007; Einarsen &
Raknes, 1997). Destructive leadership poses an unfavorable impacts on output and production
(Keelan, 2000), monetary outcomes including confidence of employee (Field, 2003; Olafsson &
Johannsdottir, 2004).
The destructive behaviors contributes towards the high level of turnover and empirical
evidence shows that there exist a strong relationship of turnover intentions and job stress
concerning frame of reference in destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion. The high rates
of turnover in organizations are due to mostly credited by the intense and job stress (Sawyerr et
al. 2009). Handling customers can be problematic in terms of being arrogant and rude (Grandey
et al. 2004).
Most of the significant end results of the organization like employees job satisfaction,
turnover intention, job performance and commitment to organization are keenly related with
such dark side leadership styles. Literature shows that the inconsistency that held linking the
concept of what is encountered and what was expected during the job may direct towards a
variety of negative end results like emotional exhaustion (Cherniss, 1980; Schwab, Jackson, &
Schuler, 1986), lower organizational commitment (Wanous et al., 1992), and enhanced rate of
turnover intentions (Pearson, 1995; Janssen, de Jonge, & Bakker, 1999; Houkes et al., 2003;
Major, Kozlowski, Chao & Gardner, 1995; Pearson, 1995; Turnley & Feldman, 2000).
Destructive leadership appears to have a much extensive affect in the organization despite
of negative attitudes reasons, as yet the employees consider the whole organization negatively.
Probably it will cost higher turnover intentions in that very organization (e.g., Van Dick et al.,
2004), seemingly the destructive leadership effects expected to be much wider, stirring personal
live of employees. Although lesser degree of relationships were found between destructive
leadership and affectivity and occupational stress but they are closely related (also to the

9
personal welfare). Definitely we cannot close out that having conflicting relationship, like stress
direct towards to an increased view of destructive leadership.
In provisions of performance and exhaustion, burnout directed towards the association
with malingering, vanity, social dispute, least productive, job dissatisfaction, condensed
commitment towards organization and turnover (Maslach & Jackson 1986). Being an element of
burnout, emotional exhaustion been related with stress associated end results repetitively. Fore
knowing the increase rate of sickness, tiredness and material ill-treatment (Cherniss 1980; Pines
& Maslach, 1978), including the dejection, anxiousness and bad temper (Jayaratne et al. 1986).
In dealing with routine management exercises that upshot in gratifying the work goes
through have revealed straight consequences in lowering turnover intentions (Vinokur-Kalpan et
al. 1994; Griffeth et al. 2000; Jamal 1990). Studies revealed that demands and resources of job as
well as striking emotional exhaustion are found to be strongly associated with turnover intentions
of employees (Ito & Brotheridge, 2005; Brashear et al., 2003; Zellars et al., 2001).
Organizational commitment has been described in diminution due to the increase in
turnover intentions of employees, standard job duration declines and many employees go out for
job hunting, leading towards many negative outcomes in organizations due to high rate of
turnover. Turnover is considered as the finest interpreter of definite turnover. Amongst other
factors affecting the intentions to turnover of an employees to leave the job, job satisfaction is
the one factor that has been found the most significant. It is a pleasing and agreeable state of
emotions that ensues from the assessment of any ones job or work practices (Locke, 1976).
At highest level of examination, there exists significant negative relationship of
turnover intentions and job satisfaction (Carsen & Spector, 1987). Likewise, the relationship
within intention to quit the job and job satisfaction was found significantly distinguished and
time after time negative (Hellman, 1997). In a survey it was deduced that employees who left the
job afterwards and those who stayed at their job posts evidently shows a negative relationship
between turnover and job satisfaction (Hulin, 1966).

1.1 Rationale of the Study


The concept of leadership is the new old concept that exists like forever. No
organization, institute, firms, companies, enterprises etc are free from the existence of leadership
(positive or negative). Emotions are the part of our very existence and leadership itself is an
10
emotional process. A lot of work has been done on bright side leadership and emotion
independently but the dark side is normally scorned. Even bright side has its dark side also. (AL-
Balqa, 2013). This dark side would be interesting to investigate in the light of the given
theoretical and empirical evidence over the past years and exploring more dimensions to study in
depth knowledge and analysis concerning what makes leadership destructive and why employees
in organization get emotionally exhausted and in what way it will affect on the employees as
depicted by previous studies of Hulin (1966), Locke (1976), Cherniss (1980), Folkman &
Lazarus (1984), Maslach & Jackson (1986), Carsen & Spector (1987), LePine et al. (2004),
Hellman (1997), Sawyerr et al. (2009), Bardes & Piccolo (2010).
The rationale for carrying out this research study lies in the well documented findings as
provided by many researchers and empirical evidences (Burns, 1978; Locke, 1976; Lee &
Ashforth, 1993; Ashforth, 1994; Ashkanasay & Daus, 2003; Kellerman, 2004; Einarsen et al.,
2007; Padilla et al., 2007; Deery et al., 2002; Tepper, 2000; Poddar & Madupall, 2012; Van Dick
et al., 2004) that destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion being as stressor agents may
lead to cause negative consequences in the organization and may found it difficult for employees
to work efficiently and diligently under the dark influence of leadership and being emotionally
exhausted in their work environment. Under such pressure, influence and hold of the top
management, stress is likely to be increase for the employees working at the non- managerial low
level as call centers works on top-down strategy for managerial perspectives.
The main purpose of the study is to develop theoretical model to help assess and measure
the consequences of destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion causes, and the impact it
creates on the employees work outcome i.e. job satisfaction and turnover intention with an
intervening component of job stress. To the best of our knowledge this model would prove to be
beneficial for top management in understanding the employees work side and thus enable them
to cope with certain difficult situations in terms of organizational growth and employees well
being.

1.2 Significance of Issue


Information Technology is one of the largest growing sectors of twenty-first century that
includes services, production, industry, telecommunication, employees are working under the
influence of their top leaders and authority they face every day with inflexible environment and
11
working hours. Where it is likely to make employees emotionally exhausted and increases stress
at work. It is a global phenomenon now a day in the hectic and over burden job activities
especially in the services sector like telecommunication. Fatigue, anxiety, helplessness, fear are
the most common symptoms in the services sector. As a result decreases job performance, job
satisfaction level, inefficiency and ineffectiveness in work, and high rates of turnover
(Freudenberger, 1980).
Behaviors concerning destructive in nature by leaders not only affects subordinates but
the employees at non-managerial low level interacting with customers directly and answering
their calls without a delay. In such respect both affected by destructive leaders behavior and
being emotionally exhausted employees would not be able to concentrate on their work with
dedication and enthusiasm. An organization suffering from such employees and issues related
with dark side of leadership and emotions endures heavy financial expenses in the form of new
hiring and recruiting, placing advertisements in newspaper and on the internet websites, training
and development (Rivers et al., 2005).
As dearth of literature on destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion concerning the
work outcomes like job satisfaction and turnover intention in the context of Pakistan lead this
research to be initiated to contribute in the wide area of literature. In addition, this research will
provide an aid in promoting the awareness and effects of destructive leadership and emotional
exhaustion and their relationship with job satisfaction and turnover intention having a lineament
of job stress.

1.3 Background of the Problem


The learning of dark side of behaviors plays a vital part in pointing out many
organizations with those having the latent Derailment and twisted conducts along with
unsatisfactory carrying out actions. Contained in this material, adverted the relationship between
transformational and dark side of leadership, however inadequate investigation is done. The
purpose included the relationship between transformational and dark side leadership behaviors
was negatively correlated (Khoo & Burch, 1984). Leadership proof abundantly identified as
multifaceted procedure in the midst of position, followers and leaders (Shamir & Howell, 1999;
Osborn, Hunt & Jauch, 2002). Einarsen et al. (2007) put forward a definition of destructive
leadership as the orderly and frequent leaders, supervisor or managers behavior, with the
12
intention to dishonor justifiable concern of organization by discouraging, counteracting and
subverting goals, resources and activities of organization concerning efficiency and inspiration,
subordinates job satisfaction or welfare.
From this view point, the analysis of destructive leadership is an issue of long term
performance; in depicted rate of accomplishing organizational goals. At this point the core of
destructive leadership is an issue of consequences; destructive leadership implies long term
negative effects in organizations with such procedures probable to direct towards these
destructive consequences despite others. Hence, in concurrence if the leaders along with
followers and perspective eventually results in disaster and hardship to stakeholders both internal
and external and to other essentials; including the damage it caused to organization dwell in, then
it was obvious that destructive leadership has happened (Padilla et al., 2007; Hogan & Kaiser,
2005).
The existence of the destructive leadership referring to an organized and recurring actions
behaviors of leader, manager or supervisor in infracting the rightful matters and concerns of
organization by deflating and countermining the tasks, assets, ends and usefeulness and
motivation, welfare or subordinates job satisfaction in multifaceted organizations seems like an
area of concern for many senior management (Einarsen, Aasland, & Skogstad, 2007; Einarsen &
Raknes, & Matthiesen, 1997). A diversified range of exploratory studies have been conducted on
topics like bullying, Toxic leadership, abusive supervision, bad leadership, narcissistic leadership
and destructive leadership (Paunonen et al., 2006; Ferris et al., 2007; Harvey et al., 2007;
Lipman-Blumen, 2006; Tepper, 2000; Erickson et al., 2007; Kellerman, 2004; Einarsen et al.,
2007). Accessing these lead towards dark side analysis of leadership that marked as destructive
leadership as a whole. Blending of such access would signify the classification of the leaders
that plays destructive roles. Still to date there has been no validated evidence in separating
various types of leadership described in an aspect of dark side like destructive, abusive, toxic,
bad or bullying.
As described by Kellerman (2004), the bad types of leaders concerning rigid,
incompetent, callous, insular, corrupt, evil and intemperate. Destructive leadership kinds have
been fallen beneath many distinguishing aims like abusive supervisor, petty tyranny and
destructive leadership. Furthermore, the evidence on the dark side of behaviors in organizations
including, workplace aggressiveness, social depression, bullying at workplace tends to generate
13
negative behaviors at the high or supervisory levels. These destructive behaviors contributes
towards the high level of turnover and empirical evidence shows that there exist a strong
relationship of turnover intentions and job stress concerning frame of reference in destructive
leadership and emotional exhaustion. The high rates of turnover in organizations are due to
mostly credited by the intense and job stress (Sawyerr et al., 2009). Handling customers can be
problematic in terms of being arrogant and rude (Grandey et al. 2004).
At some other place stress is said to a certain state that will enforce people to diverge
from their actual path because of interruption or changeling in the emotional state, they allow
them to depart from their actual cause. It is of great importance to people to distinguish the
facing stress in their daily routine of work. Many studies found the significance in the
relationship of job stress, turnover and job satisfaction as inversely related (Pathak, 2012).
Analysis of behaviors shows a broad array of emotional subordinate and behavioral results
related negatively; admitting diminished self-esteem and social capability, enhanced anti-
behaviors, aroused stress, frustration, confrontation and prevention and frown goal performance,
lessened life and job satisfaction, prescriptive and emotive obligation, enhanced family-work
dispute, turnover intentions and psychological suffering and lower performance and working unit
coherence including heightened annoyance, stress and strain, stimulant, vulnerability and work
isolation (Thoroughgood, 2010).
Most of the significant end results of the organization like employees job satisfaction,
turnover intention, job performance and commitment to organization are keenly related with
such dark side leadership styles. Literature shows that the inconsistency that held linking the
concept of what is encountered and what was expected during the job may direct towards a
variety of negative end results like emotional exhaustion (Cherniss, 1980; Schwab, Jackson, &
Schuler, 1986), lower organizational commitment (Wanous et al., 1992), and enhanced rate of
turnover intentions (Houkes et al., 2003; Janssen, de Jonge, & Bakker, 1999; Major et al., 1995;
Pearson, 1995; Turnley & Feldman, 2000). In provisions of performance and exhaustion,
burnout directed towards the association with malingering, vanity, social dispute, least
productive, job dissatisfaction, condensed commitment towards organization and turnover
(Maslach & Jackson, 1986).
Being an element of burnout, emotional exhaustion been related with stress associated
end results repetitively. Fore knowing the increase rate of sickness, tiredness and material ill-
14
treatment (Cherniss, 1980; Pines & Maslach, 1978), including the dejection, anxiousness and bad
temper (Jayaratne et al., 1986). In dealing with routine management exercises that upshot in
gratifying the work goes through have revealed straight consequences in lowering turnover
intentions (Vinokur-Kalpan et al., 1994; Griffeth et al., 2000; Jamal, 1990). Studies reveals that
demands and resources of job as well as striking emotional exhaustion are found to be strongly
associated with turnover intentions of employees (Zellars et al., 2001; Brashear et al., 2003; Ito
& Brotheridge, 2005).
Turnover is considered as the finest interpreter of definite turnover. Amongst other
factors affecting the intentions to turnover of an employees to leave the job, job satisfaction is
the one factor that has been found the most significant. It is a pleasing and agreeable state of
emotions that ensues from the assessment of any ones job or work practices (Locke, 1976). At
highest level of examination, there exists significant negative relationship of turnover
intentions and job satisfaction (Carsen & Spector, 1987). Likewise, the relationship within
intention to quit the job and job satisfaction was found significantly distinguished and time after
time negative (Hellman, 1997). In a survey it was deduced that employees who left the job
afterwards and those who stayed at their job posts evidently showed negative relationship
between job satisfaction and turnover intention (Hulin, 1966).
Research shows that in the event where an individual is positioned at jobs which create
many and contradictory necessities, stress and dissatisfaction arise evidently. The less control
over their work, variety, significance, autonomy, feedback, identity of employees have low level,
generate stress and decrease satisfaction and participation during work (Robbins, 2003).
Many scholars have given great deal of thought, an increasing interest and consideration
to the components of job burnout faced by the employees at low level or frontline i.e. Customer
Services Representatives (CSRs) and sales personnel (Deery et al., 2002; Boles et al., 1997;
Holman, 2003; Morris & Feldman, 1996; Singh, 2000) due to which the work of services sector
plays a vital part in attaining the organizations viable and cut throat competition and exhaustion
at high cost concerning high turnover rate of employees, be able to tempt the profitability of
organization. In the sales field, emotional exhaustion, a component of burnout has received
significant consideration from scholars and researchers, many sales personnel were found to be
facing with the high level of job exhaustion from troubles inbuilt while in the practice of
fulfilling the necessities of organization and customers at the front end (Boles et al., 1997).
15
Information Technology sector is one the largest and growing sector and one of the main
reasons of its growth is the services sectors call centers. Call centers act as a basic business
necessity and entity for services, customer care and support, feedback and marketing for many
leading business giants in the business world. Call centers human resource or work force are
mentioned as customer service representatives (CSRs), customer service officers (CSOs), or
customer care representatives (CCRs) and they become the employees having the most
knowledge of customers and clients and the direct point of entry for customers for many
organizations. Consequently many organizations rely mostly on the CSRs services that they
provide. By means of joined telephone headset with the computer system, CSRs are provided
with the task to connect with their clients/customers.
Wegge et al., (2006) described that three types of challenges are faced by CSRs that as an
end result the outcomes appeared in the form of job stress and at the final stage draw them to quit
the organization. At first, the normal and daily routine work of call center in conformity with
working hours, issues and attitudes associated with computer, situations at work, high degree of
unpleasant sounds and different working shifts. Secondly, proper need of attention towards
several customers demands that are connected with the CSRs job itself that CSR have to listen
at once and to speak to customers in order to handle the situation and solve their problem at
hand, putting data into computer systems and at the same time read the data from the screen. At
last stage, job at call centers is coupled with many forms of emotional exhaustion. The key role
is played by the CSRs in building relationships with clients or customers. Consequently, the
service transactions quality has a critical influence in a manner in which CSRs demonstrate their
feelings towards their customers. For instance, CSR is obligated to reveal the positive emotions
uninterruptedly while interacting with customers like to demonstrate feelings of being happy
while the client may actually be angry or upset. The responsibility of CSRs is rather acute,
spending most of their time accountable for communicating with companys clients. As a result
it is vital for organizations to be attentive of psychological demands and emotional influence that
working conditions have on it employees in the call centers. Research and literature concerning
the study of job stress, job stressors, support of supervision in terms of leadership and their effect
on job satisfaction of employees and intentions to quit in call centers is very limited within
context of Pakistan (Malik et al., 2013).

16
Known the high levels of attribution in call centers of front line employees, draws
attention to comprehend what prospects at workplace that are under the control of management
persuade subordinate or employees intention to turnover. In this era where managerial functions
are provided through computing system, an argument can be made that another possible and
probable contributor to turnover in call centers could be the influence of destructive leadership
behaviors of leaders (Wallace & Eagleson, 2004).

1.4 Research Problem


A rising focus on the dark side of leadership is emerging including the individuality,
reasons and outcomes. Many terms has been depicted like petty tyrants, toxic leadership,
destructive leadership, bad leadership, leadership derailment and aversive leadership (Ashforth,
1994; Benson & Hogan, 2008; Einarsen, Aasland, & Skogstad, 2007; Kellerman, 2005; Tepper,
2000; Bligh et al., 2007). The incapability of distinguishing and expressing emotions are also
known to be alexithymia or emotional illiteracy. The significance for leadership ideologue,
theorists and mentors are bravely demanding and significant and in recent times scholars of
leadership began to talk explicitly regarding the dark side of leadership that exists in all of us one
way or the other (Clements & Washbush, 1999).
Influence plays a vital role in enhancing job satisfaction and retention through the
behavior of the leaders. Most managers recognize their leadership behaviors distinctively than
are being reported. Leadership exists in the eye of the beholder and the ratings of leadership
reveal the percept of people about their leaders behavior (Bormann, 2011).
Based on the research background the problem of understanding destructive leadership
and the behaviors concerned with it, may lead towards more negative acts, also exhibiting
emotional stream in affecting the lives and activities of employees in organizations. Accordingly,
impacts and influence of leadership and emotions including the exposure towards stress can be
investigated as a part of more comprehensive and coherent understanding of overall dark side of
leadership and emotions. Organizations work in hectic conditions both in and outside of it.
Employees are the one that makes organization an organization. Most of the organizational
leaders and middle level managers fail to recognize the fact that how much their leadership is
affecting them emotionally. The viewpoints gave an explanation for indulging in destructive
work by depicting themselves allocating a moral and a social cause due to being influenced by
17
the wrong acts. Most prominently that moral detachment exercises modestly by egotism of
decent distinctiveness. Persons moral distinctiveness being as most relevant knowledge can re-
colligate emotionally ones self to the moral aftermath (Aquino et al., 2007).
On the other hand both success and failure rarely depend on the sole issue (Meindl,
Ehrlich & Dukerich, 1985 ; Meindl & Ehrlich, 1987). Leadership proof abundantly identified as
multifaceted procedure in the midst of position, followers and leaders (Shamir & Howell, 1999;
Osborn, Hunt & Jauch, 2002). From this view point, the analysis of destructive leadership is an
issue of long term performance; in depicted rate of accomplishing organizational goals. At this
point the core of destructive leadership is an issue of consequences; destructive leadership
implies long term negative effects in organizations with such procedures probable to direct
towards these destructive consequences despite others.
Destructive leadership poses an unfavorable impacts on output and production (Keelan,
2000), monetary outcomes including confidence of employee (Field, 2003; Olafsson &
Johannsdottir, 2004). Still, destructive leadership has been frequently misnamed and
misconducted formerly when recognized in any organization. On the other hand employees
become emotionally drained casualties in bad leadership endure such post dramatic stress type of
stress might have devastating effect on ones self and the society (Leymann & Gustafsson, 1996;
Wilson, 1991).
Based on the research background the problem of understanding destructive leadership
and the behaviors concerned with it, may lead towards more negative acts, also exhibiting
emotional stream in affecting the lives and activities of employees in organizations. Accordingly,
impacts and influence of leadership and emotions including the exposure towards stress can be
investigated as a part of more comprehensive and coherent understanding of overall dark side of
leadership and emotions. Destructive leadership itself is an emotional process that assists in the
emergence of negative behaviors heightening the stress level, emotional exhaustion is a type of
strain which act as a predictor of job stress. As outcomes in such implications, a growing need
has been developed by many researchers and scholars in interpreting and studying the leadership
in the context of dark side but so far they failed to interpret due to ignoring the emotional side of
employees. The inconsistency that held linking the concept of what is encountered and what
was expected during the job may direct towards a variety of negative end results i.e. enhanced
rate of turnover intentions, low commitment, lower job satisfaction. The significance for
18
leadership ideologue, theorists and mentors are bravely demanding and significant and in recent
times scholars of leadership began to talk explicitly regarding the dark side of leadership that
exists in all of us one way or the other.
This study is undertaken to bring these issues to light to ascertain the effect of dark side
of leadership and emotions on organizational work outcomes of employees. Leaders hold all the
cards in their own hands, the previous researches focused on the part that leaders play in an
organization but issues related with employees have never been given much thought related with
their emotional state at workplace under the roof of dark shadow of destructive leadership and
the co-existence of emotional exhaustion at the parallel stage. Previous studies, theories and
empirical evidences provided by various researchers and scholars (Sawyerr et al., 2009;
Ashforth, 1994; Padilla et al., 2007; Hogan & Kaiser, 2005; Kellerman, 2004; Lipman-Blumen,
2006; Tepper, 2000), there exist mixed and inconsistent findings which is a worth researchable
problem. Due to which Destructive Leadership development there is no clarity and controversy
is surrounding, thats why it s worth investigating problem and debatable issue that how
destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion effects turnover intention and job satisfaction
through the mediating mechanism of job stress. There could be multiple mechanism through
which it effects, so that the understanding of this black box can be developed, also stakeholders
related to leadership, leadership development, consultants, trainers, development experts, those
in opposition leadership have this information to clarify that to what extend destructive
leadership would undermine job satisfaction and supports turnover intention that has consequent
effect. By reducing turnover intention, benefits and significance it provides like increase
productivity, less cost, employee and financial performance, sustainable competitive advantage
is attained including employee retention can be insured. Many scholars have investigated the
effect of destructive leadership on job satisfaction and turnover intention but some have taken as
moderator and some have taken as mediator, but job stress is under utilizing and under
developing economies perspective or from employee perspective is under researched. Thats why
it is an emerging issue that need to be investigated in manner of empirical contribution that how
destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion effects job satisfaction and turnover intention by
the intervening mechanism of job stress.

19
1.5 Aim and Objectives of the Study
As it is an Explanatory study, the aim of this conducted research is to focus on the dark
side of leadership and emotions in organizational life of employees. Though, there exists more
than one side or dimension of leadership and emotions concerning the dark side. The main
purpose is to relate destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion in the light of available
literature and empirical evidences.
This study extends research exploring the concept, considering a new insight and
phenomenon of bundling destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion, both considering as
the dark sides of leadership and emotions leading towards the work outcomes i.e. employees job
satisfaction and turnover intentions. It supports the previous researches that destructive
leadership and emotional exhaustion is negatively and significantly related to job satisfaction and
turnover intention. Extending further; by including the mediating role of job stress between the
dark side of leadership and emotions and work outcomes in terms of exploring organizational
behavior.
The intent of this study is to gain consent/ information from the CSOs (customer service
officer), CCRs (Customer Care Representative) or CSRs (Customer Sales Representatives) of
call centers in order to explore the impact of dark side of leadership and emotions on their
particular work outcomes.
To be more precise the objectives of the study are mentioned as follows:
To identify the relationship between destructive leadership and work outcomes i.e. job
satisfaction and turnover intention.
To identify the relationship between emotional exhaustion and work outcomes i.e. job
satisfaction and turnover intention.
To explore the mediating effect of Job stress between destructive leadership, job
satisfaction and turnover intention.
To explore the mediating effect of Job stress between emotional exhaustion, job
satisfaction and turnover intention.

20
1.6 Research Questions
The basic objective of this study is the confirming and identifying the affects of relationship
among the dark side of leadership and emotions on the work outcome components by studying
the various Call Centers of telecommunication sector in the Lahore city of Pakistan. Hence, the
present study addresses the following research questions:
1. What is the relationship among the destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion on
employees job satisfaction?
2. What is the relationship among the destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion on
employees turnover intention?
3. Does Job Stress play a mediating role between destructive leadership and employee job
satisfaction and turnover intentions, also between emotional exhaustion and employee job
satisfaction and turnover intentions?

1.7 Significance of the Study


Perception and the approach of individuals from the working and organizational
environment plays a critical role in determination of the type of leaders behavior at the work
place. One of the most important perceptions at the work place is the perception of
organizational leadership which can extremely influence other perceptions of work condition
such as perception of job stress and also the type of working behaviors of employees related with
their work outcomes i.e. job satisfaction and turnover intentions and the role of emotions play.
The key significance of the current study is the investigation of the impact of destruction
leadership and emotional exhaustion which is rare and incomparable in organizations when it
comes to exploring employees work outcomes.
For many decades, most of the academic and practical research on leadership has been
solely focused on the positive perception and conceptions of leaders behaviors, how these
behaviors have positive impact on followers, employees and on the organization as a whole
(Sosik, Avolio & Kahai, 1997). Factually, many studies investigated the relation of supervisor-
subordinate lead to explore various leadership behaviors and its effects (Yammarino & Bass,
1990). Having only some exclusions (Luthans, Peterson, & Ibrayeva, 1998; Kellerman, 2004),
though, dark side of leadership have been avoided by social scientists and researchers (Padilla,

21
Hogan, & Kaiser, 2007), in its contribution departing literature of leadership positively skewed
in both theory and practice.

1.8 Contribution to the Study


1.8.1 Theoretical Contribution
In consideration at theory expansion point, the study seeks in widen the span of
leadership especially when the dark side is of great interest i.e. destructive leadership theories
and behavioral concerns. Also expanding in the new direction with a touch of emotions that
ought to dealt with in the organizational work environment. One dimension of job burnout i.e.
emotional exhaustion has been taken under consideration after the having extensive review of
literature at present. This thesis has offered further contribution in the leadership domain,
followers, managers and low level non-managerial employees.
This research also contributes to the literature on destructive leadership behaviors
accounted for in the organizational sector concerning the stress level that dark side produces. The
study presented a framework of dark side of leadership and emotions in the various
telecommunications call centers in Pakistan as well as the variables related to this direction.
Theoretically, there exist inconsistent mixed findings, so the nature of the relationship is not
clear. On conceptualization and analysis state, the study demonstrates an effort in clarifying
leadership concepts and its associated behaviors and emotions with its dark aspects in the call
centers of telecommunication sector. This sort of research on emotionality is gaining rapid
adaptation in both public and private organizations worldwide. There is an immense need to take
into consideration leadership behaviors and emotional condition of employees at work as an
important factor leading to enhance productivity and efficiency for call centers by improving the
satisfaction level of employees and retaining the employees by lowering intention to quit job.
The study also contributed theoretically in organizational behaviors i.e. job satisfaction and
attitudes i.e. turnover intention. It also provides empirical evidences exhibits a significant
contribution as it ties together leadership and emotions and work outcomes of job satisfaction
and turnover intention with mediating role of job stress that is of significance for researchers,
scholars, practitioners, organizations and employees. In this way, organizations that focus on
individuals can have a better understanding approach of leadership and emotions at work that
may have impact on employees job satisfaction and turnover intention. This study is highly
22
contributed to the destructive outcomes but not on the constructive outcomes which can be used
for future researches to come.

1.8.2 Practical Contribution


The study renders guiding principles of efficient execution of measuring destructive
leadership behaviors and emotional exhaustion in organizational outcomes. Further, an
apprehension and learning the acting upon effects of destructive leadership and emotional
exhaustion at the low level employees in call centers can help managers and top level
management to assess the outcomes of their employees at the very foundations of the
organization while having the influences of destructive leadership and emotionally exhaustive
employees creating and increasing the stress level making them more lifeless and inactive.
The study will highlight the problems facing by the employees at the front-line end
where the stress is at its highest level due to the pressure or influence being exerted on them.
Managers will find a great deal of difficulty in facing such horrific and disastrous consequences
leading the organization towards failure. To prevent from such harm, the dark side model would
be of great use in pointing and depicting out the real facts that may hinder in the organizational
performance and financial benefits.
Practically, the value of this information related with leadership development and
consultant, how they can turn and reduce turnover intention and retaining the satisfaction level of
employees, so consequent favorable effect could be attained by the organization. Thats why it is
going to be conducted that destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion effects job
satisfaction and turnover intention through the mediating mechanism of job stress. Thats why it
is an emerging issue that need to be investigated in manner of empirical and practical
contribution that how destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion effects job satisfaction
and turnover intention by the intervening mechanism of job stress. The present study not only
spurs future research on Padilla et al.s (2007) toxic triangle theory, Spector & Foxs (2005)
Stressor-emotion Model and Golparvar et al.s (2009, 2011) Stress-non-equilibrium
compensation approach but also an impetus for researchers to move past the overly simplistic
trait-based perspectives of destructive leadership involving the emotional side that have
dominated the theoretical landscape to date.

23
1.10 Structure of the Thesis

Chapter 1 presents the background of the study, research objectives and significance of the
research.

Chapter 2 is a comprehensive chapter on literature review which covers conceptual expansion


and development in the area of dark side concerning leadership and emotions by studying diverse
and enormous definitions and quantitative studies. The literature also provides association
between proposed variables and develops research hypotheses based on literature review to test
the conceptual model.

Chapter 3 explains and rationalizes the research methodology used for the study in order to
empirically investigate the proposed hypothesis.

Chapter 4 presents the empirical findings from the analysis of data collected from the
telecommunication call centers. It also provides information about demographics of respondents
of the study.

Chapter 5 discusses the findings of the study and how they address the underlying research
questions and also links them to the literature reviewed.

Chapter 6 provides the conclusion drawn from the findings of the study. It explains several
theoretical and practical implications of the study, limitations of the findings and also provides
recommendations for future research directions.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter consists on literature review of key concepts such as destructive leadership,
emotional exhaustion, job stress, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Formal definitions of
these variables were discussed in this chapter whereas empirical evidence for relationship
between these variables from previous studies is also presented in this chapter and in the end
hypotheses are formulated on behalf of theories and empirical evidence.

2.1 Destructive Leadership


The literary support in the context of organizational leadership appears to be a maze of
endless terms and concepts and never ending contradiction. For years it seemed more and more
studies were explored about less and less, mockingly ending up studying everything about
nothing in particular. It provoked a humor to say that studying the recent literature on leadership
aspects is like going from beginning to end the Persian directory of telephone numbers whilst try
interpreting in Chinese. The observations verify that victorious organizational leaders are
illogical and unreasonable in behavior rather than being sane, sound, levelheaded and reliable on
other human beings. If the idiosyncrasy and irrationality procedures that exist as the part of
leaders inner self are unnoticed, then organizations cannot successfully perform. This particular
aspect of human act requires consideration if engagement in preventing measures and thriving
intrusion is wanted. The recognition with the provoker, bribe to work in a group think is escorted
by few rites of passage; the understated is to contribute the pressure in aggression that lead
towards the provokers chosen opponent. Distribution of such remorse performed in this way
bears a clear mark of pledge on which the leader can enrich with continual contribution of people
to be made out as villains. Strangled between love and fear of the leader, the preponderance of
followers will put forth to the demands. Accessible with many doormats on which to take out
vengeance when things do not go according to leaders plan, scheming on physical individuals
of which they are frightened and appeared to be wicked and intimidating to the system. These
acts produce the horrifying end results. It can direct to whole self-annihilation of the existing
25
organization or the destruction of complete nation in case of a national leader. These negative
acts of traits exist in minor degree among many individuals but in the case of leaders the
exposure of their position can push intense demonstrations of disability in their emotions.
Sometimes leaders who got strangled in the mesh of ludicrousness at phobic organization,
breaking out are never easy. In many cases they cannot get away from their own self made
reformatory alone. They are enslaved to their own personality and without any expert help that
cannot break the shackles and chains that confined their actions and behavior and direct then
towards debilitated organizations. Leaders themselves must identify the probable destructiveness
of their behavior and realize the degree to which past practices can manipulate their behavior
concerning present and future. How much the leaders are aware, it is indeed of great importance
that they regularly keep ensure of their narcissistic behavior. The leaders arrogance is all
familiar and the narcissism and arrogance both go side by side. Glory or magnificence is
enchantress and the hunt for magnificence can amazingly lead to self-destructiveness. In
adequate attention remunerated to its risks. For many leaders, the pull of narcissism is normally
strong enough to drag them down to the abyss of dark side. Napoleon once said: Glory is
fleeting but obscurity lasts forever. Many able leaders were victimized by the arrogance in
pursuing glory. An end like that can be averted if they pay thoughtful consideration to their
egosyntonic behaviors and can find all the help they can in retrieving their blind spots (Manfred
& De Vries, 1994).
Concordant by Palmer, the clear and pointed distinction between night and day, light and
darkness, between heaven and hell, moral and immoral leaders, reflects the same distinction
between destructive behaviors and those who reveal broken and flawed personal attributes.
These type of behaviors and traits cause considerable damage to organizations and the followers.
Destructive leadership weakens the success rate of groups effort and the comfort of the
followers. Destructive leadership can be contradictory to both organization and subordinates.
Abusing and using followers to reach their goals are Tyrannical leaders. Caring for the well-
being of subordinates depending on the expenditure of goals attainment in organization are the
Supportive-disloyal leaders; enduring lingering and thievery are the examples. Acting adjacent to
the benefits and welfare of organization and the subordinates are the Derailed leaders.
Simultaneously they intimidating, bullying, deceiving, manipulating and harassing followers and
other subordinates, quite possibly thieving from the organization part, embezzling and
26
employing in falsified and deceitful actions, and doing almost nothing than least expected.
Restricting leadership exclusively to good side of leadership brushes aside the facts that many
enormous leaders employed in destructive leadership (Johnson, 2011).
Work positions carries a long term outcomes like making a decision to leave the job, to
employ in opposed social acts thoroughly, or to employ in useful work activity. Emotions that
were experienced before are likely to be hindered by personal temperament like a role in settings
of organizations and the trials that provide reason to them, even if they are comparatively trivial,
must not be unnoticed. A notion of expecting from employees to have a smiley face while being
at work can be expressively cost them in conditions of burnout, stress and job dissatisfaction.
Narcissists think of themselves as superior individuals. They reflect negative aspects of being
self-centeredness given to pretentious imaginations and are socially scheming. The supporting
study revealed that unhappy people tend to be sensible in figuring the eventuality of events. In
another way while making precise conclusions are vital and positive attitude can be a drawback.
(Judge & Ilies, 2004).
Only a narrow theoretical position is taken into account concerning dark side of
leadership with many existing definitions but not considering the different aspects of leadership
have a feature of environmental dynamics and the followers perspective seen as a problem. For
instance, Einarsen et al. (2007) put forward a definition of destructive leadership as the orderly
and frequent leaders, supervisor or managers behavior, with the intention to dishonor justifiable
concern of organization by discouraging, counteracting and subverting goals, resources and
activities of organization concerning efficiency and inspiration, subordinates job satisfaction or
welfare.
Einarsen et al. (2007) emphasized solely on continuing behaviors of leader as the main
influence over followers and organizations outcomes. Nevertheless, the proposed definition fails
to concentrate on what is known about leadership concerning four aspects. At first, there is a lack
of consideration involving situational or environmental factors, which have been verified
increased competition in market or organizational crisis as leadership behaviors influence
(Kellerman, 2004).
Secondly, the personality factors and traits are missing that have been verified also
having an effect on behavior of leader (Hogan & Kaiser, 2005; Hogan & Hogan, 2001). Thirdly,
motives and relationships concerned with power are neglected (Raven, 1993; Hughes, Ginnett, &
27
Curphy, 1995; Elias, 2008) Fourth, it also neglected the opportunity of characteristics that are
related to leadership concerning charisma and narcissism in the context of dark side, might be
appear on a continuum of destructive and constructive leadership behaviors, with positive and
negative end results of organizations (Padilla & Mulvey, 2008; Maccoby, 2004; Padilla et al.,
2007).
Consequently, to remedy such deficiencies, the later proposed definition that leadership
with dark side perspectives are behaviors that are continuing practice and form that leader
displayed resulting as a whole negative end results of organization grounded between the
communications of organizations head, employees and organizational climate of work (Semann
& Slattery, 2009). Targets concerning organizations, confidence and contentment of employees
be baffled in course for leaders egocentrism and abuse of power. The above mentioned
definition poses a number of advantages. Firstly, taking into consideration of followers
contribution to the process of leadership. Without followership there exists no Leadership.
Secondly, taking under consideration positional changing entity having an effect on leaders
behavior (Hersey & Blanchard, 1995). Thirdly, leaders and followers self-centeredness and
abuse of power are implied. This particular contrasts with Padilla et al. (2007) idea contributing
towards susceptibility of followers. If self-centeredness of followers is coped, the end results will
continue to contribute towards negative outcomes. Like selfish interests of followers within
Enron which encouraged further risk taking and deceitful behavior were rewarded through
bonuses (Spector, 2003).
An additional definition of dark side leadership or destructive leadership is presented by
McIntosh and Rima (1997) interiorized the problem inside individuals rather than in a societal or
systemic level by placing the battle between good and evil, defined central impulse, obsession
and coercion in personality of oneself frequently undergo unexampled even stay hidden to
ourselves till an explosion of emotions gone through. On the other hand, any definition of such
concept ought to consider Harassing leaders (Brodsky, 1976), Petty tyranny (Ashforth,
1994), (Rosovsky, 1993; Hornstein , 1996), Work place mistreatment (Blas & Blase, 2002),
Intolerable bosses (Lombardo & McCall, 1984), derailed leaders (Shackleton, 1995),
Abusive managerial behavior or supervision (Bassman, 1992) and work place bullying
(Namie, Namie, & Lutgen-Sandvik, 2010)

28
The effectiveness of the leadership behavior is considered to be the success of an
organization. If a leader shows negative leadership behavior with effective leadership traits,
consequently shows negative effects as an end results on the organization also including outsized
amount of employees to have an effect (Tepper, 2000).
Keashly, Trott & MacLean (1994) recognized two means of measures to might assist in
reinforcing conductsof leadership with destructive capabilities. Environments that are likely to
create possibility for toxic leadership that includes organizations that are unsteady and uncertain
having apparent threats and lacking proper checks and balances.
For that reason, Burke (2006) classified such behaviors that are destructive in nature into
deluded, obsessed, psychopathic and egotistic. Constraints around the task including previous
occurrences, about themselves deceived leaders are denied. Exhibiting the destructive behavior
by paranoid leader is distinguished by an extreme concentration to turn, efficient by an all
passing through others mistrust. The sociopathic leader time after time ignores and defies rights
of other people. Exhibiting destructive behavior by sociopathic leaders is characterized by
lacking of constant remorse and unresponsiveness to mistreating and hurt others. Like futile or
ineffectual leadership, can play a big hand in poisoning organizations. Charismatic leaders tend
to attract followers that are loyal especially in the times of organizational crisis, when followers
look towards their leader, significant change in organization are willing to follow their vision
(OConnor, Mumford, Clifton, Gessner, & Connelly, 1995).
Goldman (2006) argues as to arising troubles in organizations referable towards leaders
with extended disorder position of personality. Taken into account four main ideal themes;
superiority and arrogance, a sense of entitlement, authority and being the centre of attention, self
admiration and self absorption (Emmons, 1997).
Acknowledging the researchers highly admit influential leadership on followers but not
much thought has been given to the destructive side of leadership process. Ongoing discussion
requires more sophisticated acceptance of unusual vulnerable kinds of followers that blends the
study from corner to corner in the field of academics. Based on the noxious triad of destructive
leadership, the study transverse to many literary evidence in developing a unified classification
of defenseless followers that was later called as vulnerably encircled. Organizations succeed and
some fail. They fail enormously due to having destructive leadership in their midst, causes
massive social and economic and social fatalities. And they likely to be extend ahead of
29
exaggerated organizations limits (Tepper et al., 2006). Joint and interaction of mentioned
standpoints added in detecting results of organizations either prove to be positive or negative.
More productive portrayal when comes to destructive leadership is pursued by indicating the
reflection of destructive leadership as a multifaceted procedure concerning three main rudiments:
destructive leadership, vulnerable followers and contributive atmosphere (Padilla et al., 2007).
The theory of toxic triangle entails three domains namely destructive leaders, susceptible
followers and conducive environments related to destructive leadership. Destructive leaders are
portrayed by narcissism, charisma, need for adapted power, philosophy of hate and negativity in
their life history. Only a single element is not enough in achieving the selfish need of power
driven by the hateful thoughts and philosophy but being ignorant of metaphoric capabilities and
endurance may not be able to get them what they want. Mostly two types of followers support
destructive leadership either conformers or colluders. The first category permit bad leaders to let
them believe of having power in their hands due to their unfulfilled demands and needs and
infantile behavior would make them susceptible to this influences. The second category props up
destructive leadership due to the fact being persuaded towards the world of endeavor
consistently. The third domain of the toxic triangle concerns relative facts and figures that
maintaining destructive leadership. Its almost impossible concerning destructive leadership in
getting succeeded being as a part of steady environment having regular checks on control
including power. Conducive environments encourage and contribute in many different ways to
emergence and outgrowth concerning destructive leadership however sometimes only destructive
leaders and colluding employees were enough in taking command causing drastic consequences
in the form of negative organizational and employee work outcomes concerning performance
and satisfaction (Padilla, Hogan & Kaiser, 2007).
The traits of leadership perception are possibly the admired rational custom when it
comes to study in leadership. The pragmatic support and the concepts in this specific area hold
up behind theoretical evidence. From a present view, the context supports the evolutionary
psychology and behavioral genetics including rational customs. Considering the positive and the
negative cores of personality traits included the big five traits, self-rating, perception and
personal appeal. Also taking into account the positive and negative cores of dark side of leader
traits included narcissism, arrogance, supremacy and unscrupulous (Judge, Piccolo & Kosalka,
2009).
30
The five characteristics of destructive leadership play a vital in understanding the true
nature of destructive abilities if any one possesses it. Firstly, Destructive leadership is repeatedly
or completely destructive. Many leaders when concerned in context of followers and the
surroundings add to the end results dispersed alongside of destructive-constructive range, having
consequences connected with destructive leadership mainly fall at the bottom of the negative end
of range. Dennis Kozlowski, Hitler, Mussolini, Bernie Ebbers, Mussolini, Mao and Dennis
Kozlowski were the worst political and business leaders that shaped some of the positive results
for their supporters. (Padilla et al., 2007; Kellerman, 2004).
Inspite of those, leaders similar to Bobby Knight, Lyndon Johnson and Steve Jobs were
renowned as effectual leaders in terms of vital force in greatly challenging, belligerent and even
egocentric, obsessive, idealist (Young & Simon, 2005; Feinstein, 1989; Deutschman, 2001;
Logue & Patton, 1982).
Ultimately destructive leadership end up with destruction if organization like Enron or
Nazi Germany, in many occasions where bad leaders were derailed devoid of fulfilling long
term engagements and end results performance. Secondly, destructive leadership involves power,
bullying and exploitation instead of influencing and dedicating (Sankowsky, 1995; Howell &
Avolio, 1992).
By certain views and acts considered as focus point for discourse of destructive
leadership given by (Einarsen, 2000; Einarsen et al., 2007), reveals the vital part of the
multifaceted procedure by being the smart part of the riddle only. Thirdly, destructive leadership
is intrinsically egocentric in personality by putting his own interest first rather than the
requirements of organizational constituents. (McClelland, 1970, 1975; Howell, 1988; Howell &
Avolio, 1992; Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; Conger, 1990).
Fourthly, outcomes of destructive leadership existing evidently having end results of
organization that weakened internally and externally the worth of life for division and withdraw
from their paths of purposes and principles (Hogan & Kaiser, 2005). Lastly, vulnerable followers
and favorable surroundings are the main cause of destructive leadership consequences (Lipman-
Blumen, 2005; Mulvey & Padilla, 2010; Padilla, 2012; Padilla et al., 2007). It only reflects the
portion of multifaceted mixture. The vulnerable encircle reflects the significance of followers in
the procedure of destructive leadership, providing forward motion for many leadership

31
researchers to pass on crude, character based loom to take under study the phenomena of
dominating destructive leadership (Thoroughgood et al., 2012).
The idea of Corporate psychopaths assumed to be merciless and coldblooded employees
who have the productive rate of getting inside of organizations and then gradually get easily
promoted and faster than any other employee within organizations and leap towards top
managerial and leadership positions. However the other decent consequences are to dealt with
just liability and several problems related with likely hood of viewing employees for the signs of
psychopathy. When concerned with leadership study, bad leaders are called as coldheartedly
ignoring the wants and needs of other fellow employees and willing to manipulate, terrorize and
deceive and damage the well being of others (Perkel, 2005). All these attributes are normally
related with psychopathy. It is one of the main motive that why study in Corporate Psychopathy
is indeed vital; being as a portion for realizing from where it came. In addition, impersonating
and reflecting the leaders of organizations fall into the perspective of lethal leadership
organizations (Goldman, 2006). And furthermore the existence of corporate psychopaths in
organizations may cause a pernicious consequence on the whole organization in the matter of
moral decision making process (Bobby, Ladyshewsky & Galvin, 2010). This is of vital
importance to the organizations because when organizations dumped in huge financial crisis and
ruined by the deliberate actions of their leading directors, during such situations employees were
out of jobs and many times so does their living, shareholders suffered from losing their funds and
many times their savings and social communities lose their economic substructure. Enterprise
cast off their credibleness in such matters. The knowledge concerning existence of corporate
psychopaths in organizations and many corporations, may prove to be vital for durability in the
long run of competition and industrialism for social and corporate justness and yet concerning
constancy in financial situations and endurance (Boddy, 2011).
Comparatively, it is a novel sector of investigation on the negative aspects of leadership.
Prior studies give evidence on the emphasis to encourage positive aspect of leadership. There is
not much to talk about when it concern abusive and offensive supervision. It is considered as the
working career having a dark side. Abusing and bullying can be bottled up with a dirty secret as
all the cards are in leaders hand, monitoring and directing the working rewards and security of
job (Rafferty & Howard, 2010).

32
Many psychologists, theorists and psychiatrists exploring the evident possibilities to
know what are personality disorders, non-adaptive perspectives that can be and cannot be
linked with nervousness and dejection, the conventional pointers of neurosis, but which are
related with deprived societal and job-related performance. Considerable agreements concerning
the variety in behavioral disorders are rampart in social life. Worse case, they require a lot of
comfort and support which are very difficult to gratify. Consequently, they lured into changing
jobs influencing on their disastrous relationships; they simply get frustrated and confused and
when dealing in such state of frustration their initial mark up is to depart and to quit. Extensive
evidence is available concerning the defective inclination related ineffective managerial ability
(Hogan & Hogan, 2010).
Leaders fit in any of these class possesses distinguish behavioral aspects like; ego-trip;
mocking of followers; deficiency of thoughtfulness for others; pushing style of lash declaration;
penalty for no clear motive and daunting inventiveness; weaken or undercut goals of
organizations and the interests of the followers or employees. Most charismatic leaders are
dimmed by their own charm of power and vision and they deliberately use such charisma in
negative behavior (Slattery, 2009).
Noxious and lethal leaders take advantage of numerous psychological needs, doubts and
worries from their followers like requirement of authority, sorting, safety measures, sense of
belongingness and the want of recognition. According to Jean Lipman-Blumen (2005) Toxic
leaders are destructive, power-hungry people, seeking to control those around them and
possessing a dysfunctional behavior and toxic traits, for example that intimidate, demoralize or
marginalize others.
Lipman-Blumen, (2005) affirm that in the time of crisis, followers need their leaders
more than ever as vagueness and ambiguity is the partner of toxic leader. By definition of Toxic
leaders anticipated by the same author, persons having merit of destructive acts and behaviors
including personal dysfunctional qualities or traits, impose severe lasting harm on the people,
peer groups, organizations, communities even the nations that they lead (Popoiu et al., 2002).
Dominance of organization on the society penetrate with effectual and intellectual right
would endure negative outcomes. In this competing war, power proves to be both the way and
conclusion. Conation refers to the process of arbitrating fear and coercion in stabling the
surrounding by riveting novel rudiments into the leadership or determining the policy
33
arrangements of an organization, resulting in conciliation that distract an organization from its
goals to achieve at first place, so the end results diverge from its prescriptive values or
anticipations. The argument radiate as the dark side/bright side duality to underline distinction
from typical handling of organizational behaviors (Vaughan, 1999).
Studies on several management activities concerning motivation, revealed two power
kinds, one is egocentric, manipulating people in gaining personal benefits and the other kind is
social, providing ease to group by cooperation and effort in achieving the general good for all.
Obviously the need for power is closely linked with the concept of leadership. Defining the
leadership in a moral brightness can be both deceiving and perilous. Fail to admit the followers
part and observing the leader-follower dark side acts be capable of easily deform labors in
recognizing control procedures in a bona fide manner. Certain effects of the failure can be awful
decision making, annoyance, flawed organizations, unintentional outcomes, resource wastage,
career wrecking, organizational slump, and mark of many other negatives. These consequences
are not chance events. Reverberating, narcissism and illiteracy in emotions. The incapability of
distinguishing and expressing emotions are also known to be alexithymia or emotional
illiteracy. The significance for leadership ideologue, theorists and mentors are bravely
demanding and significant and in recent times scholars of leadership began to talk explicitly
regarding the dark side of leadership that exists in all of us one way or the other (Clements &
Washbush, 1999).
Despite the knowledge and investing activities occurred, most of the organizations
realized their failure rate is increasing and the occupancy of the organizational leaders has
progressively declined in the past decade. Anyone can be skilled as much from successes of
leadership as from the failures of leadership that is the dark side of leadership. But proceeding to
disregard the dark side will definitely direct to imperfect consideration of leadership. No doubt it
is frustrating, deceptive and preventing to expand good leaders. Most failure in leadership is
concerned with derailment in career (Leslie & VanVelsor, 1995, 1996).
Leadership derailment is said to be living reluctantly plateau, relegated under the
expected success level or failing unexpectedly in reaching that level. Kellerman (2004) described
and concerned mostly two classes of bad leadership; unproductive and immoral, reflecting the
most common seven types of bad leaders; lacking will or skills to create positive and effective
change are the incompetent ones, inflexible are the rigid ones, deficient in self-control are the
34
intemperate ones, arrogant and selfish are the callous, cheaters, liars stealers are the corrupt ones,
does not care about the well being of outside group are the insulars, psychopaths in harming
others are the evil ones. First three mentioned types are unproductive and the later four fall in the
category of immorality.
Evil leaders are the most challenging than the Incompetent leaders. Means and ends
needs to be considered. Ineffective leaders have the failure rate of not accomplishing the
preferred outcomes. Immoral leaders cannot make a distinction between what is right and what is
wrong. Before their own interest, Moral or ethical leaders put followers interest first, revealing
secretive qualities like daring and self-control; dedication in serving common good. A
deliberation of dark side of leadership is probable in enhancing the capability in developing the
leaders, that organizations might necessitate in the era of twenty first century having dearth of
efficient leaders. The assumption tells the fact that current leaders who are executing poorly in
large organizations lies between 50 and 75 percent (Burke, 2006).
Precise problems included the harsh and rough behavior with others and seeming
insensate, distant and self-important. Persons having these problems may also found to deficient
the capability in balancing and maintenance of social relationships having a diversify range of
communities concurrently. Specific class of hindrance correlated with social relationships admits
the incapability of building a team and the incapability of resolving disputes in the midst of team
players (Van Velsor & Leslie, 1995; Lombardo & McCauley, 1988; Hogan & Hogan, 2001;
McNally & Parry, 2002).
Another insufficiency of leadership linked to derailment is the incapability to opt for
alterations when faced up with novel conditions (Van Velsor & Leslie, 1995). The variability,
docile, modesty and appreciation are all contributing towards efficient leaders. Whereas
inflexibility seems to be the most common trait of derail leaders or executives. Derailment of
leaders got the attention and needs to be realized ones failure and success in organizations
(McCartney & Campbell, 2006).
Leaders reveal such intuitive behavior exactly due to the belief that this kind of behavior
is essential and add significantly to their continued existence and performance. At the very time,
near history exposes masses of ineffective alternatives which let to overabundance of corporate
failure as an outcome of deprived decision making. Weak and feeble leadership can prove to be
destructive as the behaviors concerning the leadership can thoroughly repetitively undercut or
35
disobey the legitimate concern for others existing in organizations. Weak leadership counteracts
and subverts others goals and ends, errands, capital and efficiency and motivation can prove to
be destructive as impulsive, autocratic, derailed and supportive-disloyal leadership behaviors
(Einarsen et al., 2007).
Deficiency of leadership capability and proficiency can direct towards impulsive
behavior on the division of mangers and leaders alike. The inclination directing at intuitive
behavior considered highly less striking traits for any leader but it is a real problem. It would be
primitive to imagine that there exist a cure for all these disease, still perceptivity in the intuitive
behavior can help out leader in an attempt to extenuate the nastiest consequences and by
accrediting his own intuitive behavior allowing the perceptivity that he might desires to
extenuate its nastiest consequences in him deliberately describing the four forms of intuitive
behavior resulting as undeveloped immature, inflexible stubborn, feeble weak and
impulsive unpredictable leader (Sheard, Kakabadse & Kakabadse, 2013).
Providing the training to leaders for difficult, unsure and equivocal purposes can be
affirmed by concentrating on the mythological tales and stories of ones self and cognizant, thus
investigating on how enormous liquefied and continually changing connections of awake
conscious and unconscious subconscious egos can possibly be employed in order to ratify a
self-conscious leadership (Lumby & English, 2009).
Ruminating on the findings of dark side context, the quality of the dark side seems far
more difficult and complex than original thought and proposed a great deal of research need to
be done in accordance of comprehending that how it involves leadership (Harms et al. 2011).
The change in emotions in organizations that occurred from negative and illogical leading
towards a positive aspect of booming leaders is delineated by representing the role of emotions
assembled in organizations conventionally in achieving active and influential goals. Dasborough
and Ashkanasy (2002) depicted unauthentic transformational leadership, that implied in
accomplishing dishonest and immoral means in end (Fambrough & Hart, 2008).
It is demonstrated that emotions are aroused within the leadership process, and the
aspects that are in relation with leadership as working life is changing rapidly are of increasing
interest to scholars, researchers, theorists and practitioners. In modern era, where ones loyalty
towards own carrier is greatly interchanging unrestricted loyalty for authorities for numerous
knowledge workers, like individuals functioning in sector of Information Technology sector.
36
whereas negative end results can be associated with passive leadership concerning employees
and organizations (Akpinar, Tas & Okur, 2013). Also Leadership is an emotional procedure
showing and exhibiting emotions and effort in arousing the emotional stream in their fellows
inherently. Moreover, leadership is a procedure communal interface and is suitably described in
provisions of social-psychological theories like Attribution Theory. Simulated pseudo changing
transformational leadership but then is the Dark side of the transformational leadership (Howell
& Avolio, 1992; Howell, 1988; Conger, 1990). It may or may not be destructive concerning the
self-seeking having inner centre (Weierter, 1997).
From the early 1990s, the ever-increasing center of attention on emotions in leadership
reflecting a firm inclination in organizations in opposing conventional hierarchy of leadership for
further responsive and relational leaning leader (Glas, 2006).
In the support provided stated that pseudo transformational leaders act unprofessionally
and corruptly (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). The behavior issue is the most challenging when they
are truly and internally focused on personal interest and magnified and finally gone mad by
losing the reality touch (Conger, 1990). In such cases the leaders applies their abilities to corrupt
other fellows in a style of authoritarian and ordering to be subtle or unjust by the fellows, such
kind of behavior comes into the comparison with Machiavellian leaders (Dasborough &
Ashkansay, 2002).
According to Conger (1990), the dark side often becomes visible when it is associated
with a leaders vision. Although entrepreneurship and being visionary differentiate leaders from
managers, these distinguishing characteristics and behaviors themselves potentially become
disastrous and may represent a danger for the organization. Specifically Conger (1990)
emphasizes on the major domains that lead to dark side of leaders; strategic visions of leaders,
qualities regarding communication and general managerial practices. Evidently leadership does
exist with its dark side. The qualities of leaders and their situations can become the origin of
darkness; even greathearted people endure this side of darkness. It is conceivably due to human
nature is restrained in conducting with realism and the relationships in which they are indulged
are usually build abreast delicate realism. On the destructive side, these leaders are usually sore
to disapproval, turn away from emotions, and are piteous listeners, absence of empathy, have
calamity for instructing and improvement and are extremely competitor (Bolden, 2004).

37
Evidently late criminal behavior in life activated by the dormant attributes of narcissism.
Adding to distinguishing sight on the white collar criminal profiles and the derailed leadership,
dual faced nature of victorious and reputable people who are abruptly uncover the dark and
criminal secrets has always captivated many writer since Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde (Stevenson,
1886).
With two such conception in todays modern social sciences discipline are dark side of
leadership mainly concerned with the destructive nature of apparently reliable leaders (Conger,
1992). The other conception concerning white-collar criminals is the attracting concentration to
the realism that people with high education and status, power, riches and outbound manifestation
of decorum are like to commit crimes also (Sutherland, 1940).
Last few decades, this particular conception is being associated with apparently capable
people who can go undetected, not even litigated if by far discovered, or not even considered to
be put behind bars if arraigned; in simple words an elite in society and in crime. These kinds of
people are not only notorious but more probable to be leaders and inclined for sums of income
and riches, intended to exist in large organizations. They played as a leader when it comes to
committing crimes than being played as an ally (Arnulf & Gottschalk, 2013).
The ambush that expects charismatic leaders having a victorious and clean track record to
some extend lie in the rewards that go with their achievements. In many organizations employees
and workers cited to the Rat system, marked those team players opposed to each other eradicate
counter-productive behavior (Boone, 2006).
Leadership disaster ethically rises from the calamity of weal character of the leaders. The
character of leader acts as a ground having core ideals of morality, integrity, trust, loyalty, truth
and dignity that charm the visions of leaders in ethics and in behavior. Leaders having attributes
with great level of narcissism are repelled by extreme requirements for control and status.
Bullying, terrorizing and deceiving are some of the common tricks and pricks practiced to
increase clarity of power for these charismatic leaders. Self-destruction is one of the phenomena
that is related with isolation and disjunction that come up as self- defeating behavior (Sankar,
2003).
Self-awareness seeks to depicts social intellect at high level in order to look better, can
boomerang. Many people are reluctant to hide their emotions. Identifying the areas of weakness
and vulnerability also strong areas and then modification of the behavior is the best way. Under a
38
lot of stress and pressure, even the best communication skills broke down. When the stakes are
high, losing control on their behavior and manner is difficult to maintain in such severe situation
of pressure and disasters, inexpert people go under the mental phases of deniability and slowness
and sometimes act like dead when taking huge decisions. When peoples lives are at risk, stress
can mount to severe levels (Davidson et al., 2011).
Shared values in the environment of organizations emphasized strongly can prove to be a
double-edge sword. Reaping the benefits of organizations strength and values though annulling
perception of duplicity creates loop holes that needed to be filled with enough evidence (Cha &
Edmondson, 2006).
Normally accepted notion that many organizations has capability to change the recent
foundations, protocol, codes, surroundings, direction including economy and many positions,
penning of boards of directors in checks and balance arrangement can be able to develop such
processes for supervision to forehead directing each other and the leaders in circumstances that
eventually provide means for dark leadership (Liu, Liao & Loi, 2012).
The question rises whether personal de-functions are the cause to Dark side of
leadership that carry the possible resolved issue as to what can be shown as honest and fair issues
dealing in business and corporate society or the current crisis are the outcomes of huge political,
social or economic situations that has anything to do with societal structure than having issues
with leader apparently turn to the dark side? The main reason is its not systematic rather
personal and psychological. By literature many supported the thought that Dark side leadership
related to the subject of ones ethics or absence of ethics in combination with unconscious wants
and needs relatively than inherently contained by corporate culture (Woods, 2007).
The mood swings and emotions act as middle play in subjective procedures and behavior
and purposely, during work activities the conclusions were taken, predicting the instinctive
employment of such emotions might cause people to perform at their best in their relevant tasks
in organization (Downey, Papageorgiou & Stough, 2006).
Carefully analysis depicts that destructive leadership was clearly not defined. In
discussing dark side of charisma entails, blind extremism in the examination of egoists and
perilous ethics, power abusing, difficult or even catastrophic outcomes, destructive acts, may be
more interested in personal outcomes (Bentz, 1985).

39
Narcissism is intimately connected to charisma and the personalized utilization of control
calls for supremacy, ostentation, egotism, privilege, and the selfish chase of gratification
(Rosenthal & Pittinskya, 2006; American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
Leaders those are narcissistic in nature are mostly self-centered, seek attentions of others
and ignores viewpoints of others in doing well for them (Conger & Kanungo, 1998). They
usually assert particular information and insisted on unthinking conformity (O'Connor et al.,
1995) intellect in privilege usually directs towards abusing of self-seeking authority (Conger,
1990; Maccoby, 2000; Sankowsky, 1995), including that leadership approach is normally
considered as tyrannical (Rosenthal & Pittinskya, 2006).
Destructive leadership proved to be realistic difficulty as it is an academic one. The
definition of destructive leadership needs to accentuate the negative destructive consequence
that bargains the quality life that individuals want, luck in merely huge socially regarded
organization, relatively centering on the distinctiveness of character leaders (Padilla, Hogan &
Kaiser, 2007).
Influence plays a vital role in enhancing job satisfaction and retention through the
behavior of the leaders. Most managers recognize their leadership behaviors distinctively than
are being reported. Leadership exists in the eye of the beholder and the ratings of leadership
reveal the percept of people about their leaders behavior (Bormann, 2011).
Both transformational and transactional leadership manners are likely to take part in
defining the significance in job satisfaction and turnover intentions of employees. The outcomes
exposes that transformation constructive leadership behaviors have a stronger impact on job
satisfaction than transactional destructive leadership behaviors. Also negative significance
revealed between turnover intentions of employees and transformational constructive and
transactional destructive leadership behaviors. Theoretical evidence proves the positive
significance between leadership styles concerning transformational and transactional as
constructive and destructive in a manner of quoting and job satisfaction. Likewise, strong
significance of negativity between leadership styles concerning both transformational and
transactional as constructive and destructive and turnover intentions (Bormann, 2013).
Depending on the level of leader in an organizational hierarchy, less malicious
alternatives are possible for lower ranking leaders as compare to leaders at senior level. Assume
the leaders existing in the three levels of organization first line, middle level and top level. At
40
first line level, most supervisors tear down their teams by their behavior and attitudes. Dark side
measure of personality contains a well defined taxonomy of such bad managerial behaviors
(Hogan, 2009); such behaviors include exploiting, bullying, lying, harassing, betraying,
manipulating, in a straight way denying employees and subordinates their basic humanity. Such
destructive and disrupted behaviors set against the subordinates and in return as a response, get
engaged in a range of reactive and violent behaviors undermining the teams performance. They
also strike back aggressively with direct violence some times. Destructive leaders being at the
second or middle level have clearance to full range of behavioral options as possible. In adding
up, by making bad decisions tactics by practicing bad judgment and can destroy their teams. A
middle level manager routinely overspends the budget as the scope of the damage created by bad
tactical decisions is relatively limited. Senior leaders tend to have larger and greater judgment to
act destructively (Kaiser, Hogan & Craig, 2008). Availing themselves of the full range of
behavioral alternatives as bullying, exploitation, harassment and many more. In adding up,
middle level managers, are authorized to make tactical bad decisions. But it is at the level of
strategic decision making that senior managers can be most destructive, and in ways that vastly
exceed the capacity of lower level managers. The big reason most people behave badly is that
they are self-centered and preoccupied with their own agendas, and unable or unwilling to
consider how their actions might affect others (Kile, 1990). These self-centered focus behaviors
are caused by insecurity and arrogance (Conger & Kanungo, 1990). People who are insecure,
lacking confidence and are primarily concerned with their own psychic survival as they live in
almost constant state of panic as they react emotionally to real and imaginary perceived threats.
If a subordinate makes a mistake, it may reflect badly on the leader, who then reacts irritably and
excessively to the mistake of subordinate. They explode and blame the mistake on external
factors when they are confronted with data indicating that they have made bad decisions (Bullis
& Reed, 2003). Leaders who are arrogant in nature are too much confident, and subordinates as
items to be used for their own purposes. Arrogant leaders feel entitled to exploit and abuse their
subordinates because the subordinates are existentially unworthy. They are like farm animals that
can be slaughtered for an evening meal. They typically ignore the feedback and say that it is time
to move on when confronted with data indicating that they have made bad decisions (Lipman-
Blumen, 2010) frequently experienced negative behaviors before turning to the relationship
among destructive leadership, subordinate satisfaction and turnover level.
41
2.2 Emotional Exhaustion
A state of mental weariness is commonly used to describe Burnout metaphorically
(Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). It is determined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion from
individuals work in response to chronic organizational stressors (Maslach & Jackson, 1981),
particularly to the emotional strain of commencing extensively with other people (Ledgerwood et
al., 1998). Employees suffering from being emotionally exhausted unfavorably influence
outcomes of organization with a decrease in job satisfaction and performance, increases in
turnover, and personal negative outcomes both physical and mental illness and disturbance in
family and social lives (Maslach et al., 2001; Cameron et al., 1994).
The burnout syndrome is widespread among individuals who do people work especially
providing services of some kind (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), like hospitality and services
industry. Therefore, the integral focal point of burnout research, particularly in its preliminary
stage, has been on human service providers. In the late 1990s, the burnout concept was extended
to professions beyond pure human service, and was extended to managerial level concerning
managers als (Maslach & Leiter, 1997; Maslach et al., 2001).
Burnout is a phrase that is used to express a meticulous type of stress reaction or strain
that is defines as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion and cynicism towards ones work in
response to chronic organizational stressors (Maslach & Jackson, 1981, 1982).
Maslach, Jackson and Leiter (1996) indicated that there are three moderately diverse
proportions of risk for job burnout come into view namely Emotional exhaustion, Job Cynicism
and Professional Efficacy.
Emotional exhaustion is debated to be at the core of the burnout syndrome (Maslach,
1982). Apparently there seems to be general agreement in the literature that emotional
exhaustion is the key or core feature and characteristic of burnout (Gaines & Jermier, 1983; de
Rijk et al., 1998; Maslach & Jackson, 1981; Maslach et al., 2001; Green et al., 1991; Maslach,
1982). Emotional exhaustion represents not only employees general loss of feeling and
concern, trust, interest, and spirit (Maslach, 1982), but also involves feelings of irritability,
fatigue, being used up, frustration, and being worn out (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). Emotional
exhaustion has long been considered to be similar to unending fatigue because of its persistent
and enduring nature (Griffith et al., 1950).

42
Weariness and thoughtfulness are labeled precisely as the states instead of emotions as
they lie in the definition of emotion can prove to be sentimental responses to any of particular
occasion. With evidence both weariness and thoughtfulness refer to as emotions but it was
noticed that such kinds of expressions exists outside the arena of basic emotions category like
fury, rage, joy, pleasure, terror, fright, delight and smugness (Scott & Judge, 2006).
As a symptom of psychological strain, emotional exhaustion refers to the feelings of
being over extended and depleted of ones emotional and physical resources (Maslach & Leiter,
2008). It represents the first element of the three-way formulation of burnout. The second
component of burnout, Depersonalization that depicts a detachment or separation interpersonally,
condensed accomplishment personally, relates to a self-evaluation negatively when concerned
with ones working effectiveness with coworkers and clients in a matter of fulfilling ones job
responsibilities (Lee & Ashforth, 1990).
In comparison to other burnout attributes, emotional exhaustion ruminate a type of strain
caused by the stressors at work place. Since it process as distinctive quality of work life marker
having the likelihood to figure out the accumulative work stress effect, emotional exhaustion is
being regarded vital to the phenomenon of burnout (Aryee et al., 2008).
Psychological strain (emotional exhaustion) act as a stressor, which causes abusive
supervision and may contribute towards reduction of relative performance to behavioral strain
symptom. From a perception of stress, emotional exhaustion promotes mistreated subordinates to
protect resources by not overstraining themselves, in turn can contribute in reducing unrestricted
behavioral roles. Many researchers reported emotional exhaustion as negatively associated to
organization directed citizenship behavior and supervisor (Cropanzano, Rupp & Bryne, 2003).
Burnout is a figure of speech that generally used to portray a state of mental weariness
(Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). Also defined as a syndrome of emotional exhaustion from ones
work in response to chronic organizational stressors (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), particularly in
dealing with extensive emotional strain with other people (Ledgerwood et al., 1998). Employees
experiencing emotionally exhausted negatively regulate towards organizational outcomes with
decreased levels in job satisfaction and performance, turnover increases, and adversely personal
outcomes like mental and physical illness, disturbance in family and social lives, drug use and
alcohol (Maslach et al., 2001; Cameron et al., 1994).

43
Emotional exhaustion is the main dimension is enquired, considered as one of the most
extensive and intensive variety of work-related strain. It is demonstrated as general loss of
feeling and concern, interest, spirit and trust in employees. Also calls for feelings of fatigue,
irritability, wearing out, being used up and frustration. Putting differently, emotional resources of
employees become exhausted and they stand in no position to feel able enough to give their best
efforts at such psychological level. At first, there seems to be consent in general that appeared in
the literature that emotional exhaustion is the vital and core component and dimension of
burnout. Secondly, emotional exhaustion can be formulated as the initial stage of burnout
consequently providing a significant and decisive point of involvement. Hence, emotional
exhaustion is associated with other types of strain, i.e. tension, insomnia, physical fatigue,
anxiety, drug use and alcohol, poor relations and withdrawal from people; it is one of those few
concepts of strains that captivate both chronic and extremely affective aspects of work
experience. Emotional exhaustion is the element of burnout that appears almost relevant to jobs
other than individual services (Gaines & Jermier, 1983).
Emotional exhaustion is debated to be the interior of burnout syndrome. Increased
feelings of emotional exhaustion are experienced by employees when they come to at the point
where emotional resources are drained out. Summing up, there appears to be a general agreement
in the emotional exhaustion is the key or interior aspect of burnout (Green et al., 1991; Maslach
et al., 2001; de Rijk et al., 1998; Gaines & Jermier, 1983; Maslach & Jackson, 1981; Maslach,
1982).
Emotional exhaustion can be expanded from employees dealing with customers at front
line in managerial posts might not be in direct contact with customers. In the hospitality and
services industry, managers faces many workload challenges like commodity shortage,
mechanical failure, dependence on suppliers, including seasonality and availability of non-
managerial employees, from dynamic and unpredictable environment, which increases the stress
level. The tiring and anxious work load in the services and hospitability industry can make
managers strained emotionally even when they are not in direct contact with customers directly
(Gaines & Jermier, 1983; Krone et al., 1989; ONeill & Xiao, 2010).
The strenuous work environment in the industry of hospitality and services might be able
to make managers be strained emotionally, even when they do not often cooperate directly with
customers (Karasek, 1979). The working nature of job also appears to be related to emotional
44
exhaustion. When a work requires more frequent and intensive interaction with people,
individuals strain increases both physically and psychologically (Cordes & Dougherty, 1993;
Erickson & Ritter, 2001; Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002). As occupations or work that more
frequently deal with interpersonal relations, like service representatives, are more likely to have
higher employee emotional strain (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002).
In addition, emotional exhaustion is more likely to be experienced by employees in the
jobs that require emotional control (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002). Hiding their actual feelings
to meet work demands, they feel emotionally exhausted when employees are forced to manage
their emotions and expressions. Frequent emotional control is required at the positions of
Customer contact (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002).
Studies of emotional exhaustion are focused on work related characteristics in majority
(Cordes & Dougherty, 1993). Even though studies have not yet provided explanations for
individual differences in emotional exhaustion levels given the same kinds and intensity of
occupation stress but a number of empirical studies have found significant influences of
occupational stressors on employees experience of emotional exhaustion (Zellars et al., 2000),
i.e. within the same context of occupation, some employees may experience lower or higher
levels of emotional exhaustion than others.
Emotional exhaustion is considered to be the most significant proportion of burnout
(Stremmel et al., 1993; Shirom & Ezrachi, 2003; Rohland et al., 2004). Exhaustion is the primary
stress factor of burnout constituting an energy loss feeling and a sense of being drained out
completely of physical and emotional strength (Nagar, 2012). Emotional exhaustion is
characterized by feelings of emotional reduction, extremely tired, a lacking of energy and being
drained of emotional resources feeling to cope with ongoing demands (Maslach et al., 2001;
Cordes and Dougherty, 1993).
Emotional exhaustion, the most important indicator of burnout (Cropanzano, Rupp, &
Byrne, 2003), indicates a state of feeling emotionally fatigued and drained (Maslach & Jackson,
1984). Emotional exhaustion has been linked to individual and organizational outcomes. For
example, emotionally exhausted employees have higher turnover intentions, lower commitment
(Alarcon, 2011; Lee & Ashforth, 1996), lower job performance (Swider & Zimmerman, 2010;
Wright & Bonett, 1997; Wright & Cropanzano, 1998), and engage less frequently in
organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB; Cropanzano et al., 2003). Further, emotionally
45
exhausted employees can often experience both depression and family difficulties (Cropanzano
et al., 2003; Kahill, 1988; Lee & Ashforth, 1996). The above outcomes of emotional exhaustion
set the foundation for research focused primarily on counterproductive work behaviors
(Hershcovis & Barling, 2010; Mulki, Jaramillo, & Locander, 2006; van Jaarsveld, Walker, &
Skarlicki, 2010).
Emotional exhaustion, the significant indicator of burnout, describes the feeling of
figured and drained emotionally. Emotional exhaustion, in many studies has been associated with
organizational and individual outcomes. Such as, employees in the state of exhausted
emotionally will have higher turnover intentions, lower job performance, lower commitment, and
less engagement in organizational citizenship behavior. Emotional exhaustion in the past studies
have found to be strongly related with outcome variables as compare to other burnout indicators
and revealed to be an antecedent to other dimensions of burnout. As a result, emotional
exhaustion is well-thought out to be distinctive indicator of strain and the very first symptom in a
causal model of burnout (Diestel & Schmidt, 2010; Wright & Bonett, 1997; Alarcon, 2011; Lee
& Ashforth, 1993, 1996; Banks et al., 2012). Emotional exhaustion was associated turnover of
employee i.e. intention to leave job (Deery, Iverson & Walsh, 2002; Huang et al., 2010).
Recently developed studies of aggression-frustration, the stressor-emotion model (Fox,
Spector & Miles, 2001) suggests counterproductive work behavior (CWB), i.e. enlisting in
bullying behavior; depicted as an emotional response towards stressful conditions as experienced
and encountered by employees. Employees review their environment at work uniquely, and
employees inclination and comprehended work control are considered as important components
in the process of job stress. From this point of view, actions in the environment of work are
measure on the basis of employees earnestness for the employees involved, and trials and
chances with the job stressors measured as bullying to well being can cause induction of negative
emotional reactions i.e. anxiety or anger. Psychological (i.e. reduction in job satisfaction level),
physical (i.e. somantic symptoms), or behavioral strain (i.e. aggression, frustration etc) are
considered probable outcomes and consequences of job stress process (Spector & Fox, 2005).
The process of job stress can initiate a quest for whipping boy, as pressure engendered by the
environmental stressors can be comforted by foretelling practiced disappointment on to others
(Thylefors, 1987; Brodsky, 1976; Johan, Skogstad & Einarsen, 2007).

46
An emerging path of research study are positioned mostly in call centers that focalizes on
different assessments of employee well being that include depression, stress, anxiety, emotional
exhaustion and burnout in call centers (Singh, 2000; Holman, 2001; Singh, Goolsby & Rhoads
1994; Holman, Chissick, & Totterdell 2001; Deery, Iverson & Walsh, 1999; Singh, Berbeke &
Rhoads, 1996). Call centers characteristics of call center work includes scripts, routines,
interactions with the customers, work load, and emphasis of managerial aspects on quantity were
related with emotional exhaustion in return predicted absenteeism (Deery et al., 1999; Batt &
Moynihan, 2002).
It is taken normally the perception regarding job satisfaction of employees working at the
front line level in call centers, are generally not consider as a measure critically. Mostly call
centers are linked with high levels of stress, high turnover of staff, and emotional burnout. ACA
(1998) conducted research described that employees at call centers have high profile when
concerned with stress as compare to coal miners and established that a particular reasonable stay
of call centers agents to be 15 months. More over control systems with heavy task forced are
required to pursue supportive supervision at call centers in a manner of avoiding burnout. in
addition, a research study at Ireland indicates that in order to gain significant benefits at call
centers is by the way of supportive and proactive managerial approach incorporating
empowerment (Marr & Neely, 2004).
Enormous studies indicate that rigorous monitoring of performance at call centers can
lead towards higher levels of strain, and heightening rates of emotional exhaustion, anxiety and
depression (Sprigg & Jackson, 2006; Holman, 2002). Even so, the part where monitoring
involves such effects of strain depend on the way it is conducted. Another research depicted that
having clear criteria of rating and constructive feedback of performance leading from the system
of monitoring increases both job satisfaction of employees in call center setting and having
satisfaction with the system of monitoring. In addition, certain practices to measure job related
stress, strain and anxiety are concerned with human resource policies, admitting training
investment, development of skills, opportunities for promotion and the degree to which
supporting of supervisors towards their employees. These mentioned practices all have been
found to contribute in lowering emotional exhaustion, depression and anxiety in call centers.
Rigorous and extensive studies in call centers have exhibited that practices related with
managerial activities that are ought to decrease control of employee on their work i.e.
47
standardization of work, and script use and rigorous monitoring are related with higher quit rates,
and increased intentions to quit and higher absenteeism rate. These are usually assigned to such
effects of practices on strain; lowering control of employee can contribute in anxiety, burnout
and emotional exhaustion which lead to decrease commitment of employee towards their
employer (Hales et al., 1994).
It was found by Deerey et al. (2002) that higher absenteeism among employees was
higher enduring from emotional exhaustion. Call center employees are frequently dealt with
stress by quitting their jobs.
Emotional exhaustion is the condition in which emotional demands are made on people
psychologically. It is a particular kind of stress that is linked with reactions and referred to the
level of lower energy causing by intense emotional demands made on employees consisting in
border wrench plays. Facing a higher and intense demand levels on time and vigor lead to the
state of emotional exhaustion. Burnout and mostly emotional exhaustion is extensively
considered as the final consequences when concerned with customer service wrenching nature of
job. The procedure of emotional management happens unequally and constant interruptions
mainly ascend emotional exhaustion. When practices such attributes of aggressiveness and
abusiveness of customers in marketing context, their emotional level will impact highly negative
on the levels of emotional exhaustion (Deery et al., 2002).
As depicted by Voon et al. (2011) that emotional exhaustion is normally recognized with
reduced performance of employees, frown state of job satisfaction, diluted commitment towards
organization and exceeding turnover intentions. Job satisfaction is considered a comparative
evaluation for employees positions that explicate other variable like commitment and turnover
intentions towards organization. Job satisfaction is an attribute that speculate the likes and
dislikes of people about their job. It can be defined as the pleasing and constructive state of
emotions consequentially from the view of job or job practices. In such conditions the sense of
annoyance or the absence of concentration are likely to be occur.
Turnover intentions or intention to leave, calls for persons intent to leave the job and
the organization. In marketing context, between job satisfaction and turnover intentions impact
negatively both in empirically and theoretically. Direct relationship between job satisfaction and
turnover intentions is supported by current literature. In marketing research the main focus is on

48
the turnover intentions and eventually towards the association of emotional exhaustion levels
(Voon et al., 2011).
Surface acting contributes towards the positive relationship having a negative mood, that
is the point where it explains the phenomena of relationship between surface acting with
amplified emotional exhaustion and reduced job satisfaction. A meta-analysis was conducted and
showed that job satisfaction is quite strongly impacted by negative rather than positive influence
but here the interpreter of emotional exhaustion has negative impact (Judge, Woolf & Hurst,
2009).
Stressor-emotion model is based on incorporating human anxiety and the job stress. Most
models and theories of human anxiety have been linked to anger, exhaustion and frustration
(Berkowitz, 1989; Anderson, Deuser, & DeNeve, 1995; Neuman & Baron, 1997; Dollard et al.,
1939). The model suggested that exhaustion would lead to anxiety and stress and ultimately
would affect the final results in the form of outcomes. Also later work in the organizational arena
shows a causal relationship between exhaustion, frustration in and environmental conditions
causing anxiety and more stressful effects. A stressor is an environmental condition that induces
a negative emotional reaction, which acts as environmental stressor at workplace which is
perceived as stressor by the people (Spector & Fox 1998).

2.3 Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction


Comparatively, it is a novel sector of investigation on the negative aspects of leadership.
Prior studies give evidence on the emphasis to encourage positive aspect of leadership. There is
not much to talk about when it concerned with abusive and offensive supervision. It is
considered as the working career on dark side. Abusing and bullying can be bottled up with a
dirty secret because leaders tend to have all the cards in his hand, monitoring and directing the
rewards for working and job security. Bullying is apprehensive, but in different aspects as abuse
is a hostile, negative comment in calling people, related to their work. When people felt that they
have been laid to and behind their backs, supervisor has talked badly about them, or behaving
angrily and rudely to them. Such types of people have more difficulty in dealing with negative
leaders due to issues they are coping with in their life and simply because of their personalities.
Amazingly, people with high self-esteem are worst exaggerated because they are used to being
treated well and receiving positive comments. It is hard for their egos when they are treated

49
badly or unexpectedly in a wrong way. Comprehensible details were found that rude and
offensive supervision is harmful to employees and can decline an organization and create lower
job satisfaction and performance for employees and it will affect on their private and routine
lives (Rafferty & Howard, 2010).
Influence plays a vital role in enhancing job satisfaction and retention through the
behavior of the leaders. Most managers recognize their leadership behaviors distinctively than
are being reported. Leadership exists in the eye of the beholder and the ratings of leadership
reveal the percept of people about their leaders behavior (Bormann, 2011).
Both transformational and transactional leadership manners are likely to take part in
defining the significance in job satisfaction and turnover intentions of employees. The outcomes
exposes that transformation constructive leadership behaviors have a stronger impact on job
satisfaction than transactional destructive leadership behaviors. Also negative significance
revealed between turnover intentions of employees and transformational constructive and
transactional destructive leadership behaviors. Theoretical evidence proves the positive
significance between leadership styles concerning transformational as constructive and
transactional as destructive in a manner of quoting and job satisfaction having negative
significance (Bormann, 2013).
Leadership styles and the leaders of the organizations are considered the main reasons for
any success of particular organization in achieving its goals and objectives. Leaders can
influence employee commitment, job satisfaction and productivity by taking on the suitable
styles of leadership. Whereas job satisfaction is said to be a positive feeling or satisfying
emotional position of ones self in assessing his experience or job (Locke, 1976).
It is stated that leadership style stage an imperative role in determining job satisfaction of
employees (Lashbrook, 1997). Many researchers came upon that different styles of leadership
will stimulate diverse working environment and affect directly the job satisfaction of employees
(McKee, 1991; Heller, 1993; Timothy & Ronald, 2004; Bogler, 2001, 2002). Being a prolonged
victim of such negative behavior at workplace also cuts down the satisfaction of employees
towards organization causing a negative relationship (Vartia, 2001; Keashly & Jagatic, 2003;
Hoel & Cooper, 2000; Quine, 1999; McCormack, Casimir, Djurkovic & Yang, 2009; Kivimaki,
Elovainio, and Vahtera, 2000).

50
Leaders at the low level or frontline in the form of supervisors; destroys their teams
exclusively through their behavior. There is perhaps a reasonable and well defined classification
of abusive and destructive managerial behavior detained by dark side personality measure
including behaviors like bullying, lying, betraying, harassing, manipulating, exploiting
straightforwardly denying the basic humanity of subordinates in terms of behaviors and attitudes.
As a result of these behaviors subordinates were alienated and a response their work was affected
and their satisfaction level declines (Hogan, 2009).

2.4 Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention


Both transformational and transactional leadership manners are likely to take part in
defining the significance in job satisfaction and turnover intentions of employees. The outcomes
exposes that transformation constructive leadership behaviors have a stronger impact on job
satisfaction than transactional destructive leadership behaviors. Also negative significance
revealed between turnover intentions of employees and transformational constructive and
transactional destructive leadership behaviors. Theoretical evidence showed strong significance
of negativity between leadership styles concerning both transformational and transactional as
constructive and destructive and turnover intentions (Bormann, 2013).
Previous studies by Vartia (2001), Keashly & Jagatic (2003), Hoel & Cooper, (2000),
Quine, (1999); McCormack, Casimir, Djurkovic & Yang, (2009), Kivimaki, Elovainio, &
Vahtera, (2000) suggested that being a prolonged victim of such negative behavior at workplace
also cuts down the commitment and satisfaction towards organization, reduces productivity,
enhances absenteeism, absence due to sickness, and most importantly predisposition and
inclination to leave, quit and turnover.
Turnover of employees causes unpleasant outcomes for effective functioning of
organization. The energy and time dedicated in finding proper fresh employees and the time
taken by these new employees in reaching the maximum level of productivity might seldom
times causes difficulties in achieving objectives of organizations (Waldman, Kelly, Arora &
51
Smith, 2004). Due to these imperative implications of turnover, a great extent of reasrch
attention has been dedicated in identifying correlatives of employees intention to leave the
organization. The outcomes of these studies have indicated that intention to leave is correlated
positively with several job stressors (Podsakof, LePine & LePine, 2007; Hang-yue, Foley & Loi,
2005).
Workplace bullying is one of the concerned behavior in Destructive leadership that act as
one of the job stressor in relation to intention to leave has been studied. Some researchers have
analysed the central results of destructive leadership (or bullying) while others have analyzed the
interactional outcomes of differences of individual variables and being victim of negative acts on
intention to leave (Nishii & Mayer, 2009; Djurkovic, McCormack & Casimir, 2008).
Bullying at workplace that plays as negative act was found to be a predictor of turnover
intention significantly, which acquire considerable cost for organization (Waldman, Kelly, Arora
& Smith, 2004).

2.5 Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention


Turnover intentions or intention to leave, calls for persons intent to leave the job and
the organization. In marketing context, between job satisfaction and turnover intentions impact
negatively both in empirically and theoretically. Direct relationship between job satisfaction and
turnover intentions is supported by current literature.
It was found by Deerey et al. (2002) that higher absenteeism among employees was
higher enduring from emotional exhaustion. Call center employees are frequently dealt with
stress by quitting their jobs.
These mentioned practices all have been found to contribute in lowering emotional
exhaustion, depression and anxiety in call centers. Rigorous and extensive studies in call centers
have exhibited that practices related with managerial activities that are ought to decrease control
of employee on their work i.e. standardization of work, and script use and rigorous monitoring
are related with higher quit rates, and increased intentions to quit and higher absenteeism rate. In

52
marketing research the main focus is on the turnover intentions and eventually towards the
association of emotional exhaustion levels (Voon et al., 2011).
Emotional exhaustion was associated with turnover of employee i.e. intention to leave job
(Deery, Iverson & Walsh, 2002; Huang et al., 2010). Organizational commitment has been
described in diminution due to the increase in turnover intentions of employees, standard job
duration declines and many employees go out for job hunting, leading towards many negative
outcomes in organizations due to high rate of turnover. In dealing with routine management
exercises that upshot in gratifying the work goes through have revealed straight consequences in
lowering turnover intentions (Vinokur-Kalpan et al., 1994; Griffeth et al. 2000; Jamal 1990).
Studies reveals that demands and resources of job as well as striking emotional exhaustion are
found to be strongly associated with turnover intentions of employees (Zellars et al., 2001;
Brashear et al., 2003; Ito & Brotheridge, 2005).
Although it makes intuitive sense to assume that stressful work experienced by the
employees increases the intention to quit the job, employees might perceive more stressors than
their colleagues and coworkers who plane to leave the organization facing the same situation but
their intention was to stay not to quit. Empirical evidences for the assumption of numerous
studies that stressors in the work environment are related with higher turnover intentions also
with intentions to quit, behavior concerning job hunting and turnover (Cavanaugh et al., 2000;
Chen & Spector, 1992).

2.6 Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction


Employees experiencing emotionally exhausted negatively regulate towards
organizational outcomes with decreased levels in job satisfaction and performance, turnover
increases, and adversely personal outcomes like mental and physical illness, disturbance in
family and social lives, drug use and alcohol (Cameron et al., 1994; Maslach et al., 2001).
Job satisfaction is considered a comparative evaluation for employees positions that
explicate other variable like commitment and turnover intentions towards organization. Job
satisfaction is an attribute that speculate the likes and dislikes of people about their job. It can be
53
defined as the pleasing and constructive state of emotions consequentially from the view of job
or job practices. In such conditions the sense of annoyance or the absence of concentration are
likely to be occur.
Surface acting contributes towards the positive relationship having a negative mood, that
is the point where it explains the phenomena of relationship between surface acting with
amplified emotional exhaustion and reduced job satisfaction. A meta-analysis was conducted and
showed that job satisfaction is quite strongly impacted by negative rather than positive influence
but here the interpreter of emotional exhaustion has negative impact (Judge, Woolf & Hurst,
2009).
Emotional exhaustion in the past studies have found to be strongly related with outcome
variables as compare to other burnout indicators and revealed to be an antecedent to other
dimensions of burnout. As a result, emotional exhaustion is well-thought out to be distinctive
indicator of strain and the very first symptom in a causal model of burnout (Diestel & Schmidt,
2010; Wright & Bonett, 1997; Alarcon, 2011; Lee & Ashforth, 1993, 1996; Banks et al., 2012).
Emotional exhaustion was associated with turnover of employee i.e. intention to leave job
(Deery, Iverson & Walsh, 2002; Huang et al., 2010).
Studies suggests that positive outcomes like job satisfaction and organizational
commitment are positively related with the most challenge stressor, and negative outcomes like
withdrawal behaviors and turnover are negatively related with these challenge stressor
(Podsakoff, LePine, & LePine, 2007).
Emotional exhaustion found to be negatively connected to job satisfaction, and following
the turnover intentions of employees; contributing to the fact that organizational turnover
intentions and occupational turnover intentions are positively linked to each other (Poddar &
Madupall, 2012).
In provisions of performance and exhaustion, burnout directed towards the association
with malingering, vanity, social dispute, least productive, job dissatisfaction, condensed
commitment towards organization and turnover (Maslach & Jackson 1986).
As mentioned by Maslach (2003), that personal accomplishment considered emotional
exhaustion so the core component of burnout, at this phase a worker start perceiving that he or
she can not accomplish anything and this lead toward personal collapse. Previour studies by
Zapf,Seifert,Schmutte, Mertini, & Holz (2001), mentioned that burnout effect employee so
54
much that he or she actually went into a trauma and researchers expressed consequences of
burnout such as inefficiency, absenteeism, turnover, low level of job satisfaction, low self
esteem, work life conflict (Leiter & Laschinger, 2006; Glasberg, Erikkson & Norberg, 2007;
Clarke, Sloan & Aiken, 2002).

2.7 Job Satisfaction


Leadership styles and the leaders of the organizations are considered the main reasons for
any success of particular organization in achieving its goals and objectives. Leaders can
influence employee commitment, job satisfaction and productivity by taking on the suitable
styles of leadership. Whereas job satisfaction is said to be a positive feeling or satisfying
emotional position of ones self in assessing his experience or job (Locke, 1976). The description
proposes that employees build their mind-set towards their job in relation of their behaviors,
beliefs and feelings (Akehurst, Comeche, & Galindo, 2009; Robbins, 2005).
Employees tend to be more satisfied if their job are fulfilling and rewarding.
Organizational success highly depends on the job satisfaction as it plays an important ingredient
in the overall success (Spector, 1985). Normally most successful organizations have employees
with high satisfaction level wile organizations with poor satisfaction of job may let it go cripple
(Galup, Klein & Jiang, 2008). Job satisfaction does not contain only general satisfaction of job
but also the variety of satisfactory aspects (Friday & Friday, 2003; Cranny et al., 1992).
It is subjective to various components like non-verbal propinquity (closeness) (Madlock,
2006b; Richmond & McCroskey, 2000), hilarity or sense of humor (Avtgis & Taber, 2006),
contentment of communication (Hilgerman, 1998), gender impressions (Madlock, 2006a), and
the style of supervisors communication (Richmond, McCroskey, Davis, & Koontz, 1980). It
was found that job satisfaction have an effect on the job satisfaction levels, malingering,
expression of accusation, lethargy, lower self esteem, higher turnover, enhancement of quality
and involution of making decisions will successfully have an effect on the organizations overall
55
performance (Scroggins, 2008; Page & Vella-Brodrick, 2008; Klein Hesselink, Kooij-de Bode,
& Koppenrade, 2008; Pitts, 2009; Riketta, 2008).
It is stated that leadership style stage an imperative role in determining job satisfaction of
employees (Lashbrook, 1997). Many researchers came upon that different styles of leadership
will stimulate diverse working environment and affect directly the job satisfaction of employees
(Bogler, 2001, 2002; Heller, 1993; McKee, 1991; Timothy & Ronald, 2004). Transformational
leadership may essentially promote more job satisfaction agreed on its capability to convey the
sense of task and rational motivation. Organizations having the capability of leadership to change
their approach of management by using the appropriate skills of leadership will resolve and
promote betterment in their performance (Bass, 1985).
Job satisfaction is the extent to which they like their job by taking into account their
feelings, behaviors and beliefs in describing the attitude they form towards their work
environment and job (Weiss, 2002; Spector, 1997). The job satisfaction level is reflected by the
work experiences as well as their present situation and future expectations. Job satisfaction is an
attitude very sensitive to the features of the context in which it is studied. There is no model of
job satisfaction applicable to all work settings as there are no general truths regarding the factors
and the mechanisms accounting for such an elusive and subjective concept.
Primary factors that regulate job satisfaction are firstly, the rewards that are referred to
salary or pay, promotion mostly associated with job satisfaction due to the fact that employees
experience towards satisfaction for their job is increased by the feelings of being rewarded fairly.
Secondly, supportive work environment, thirdly mentally challenging work and last is the
supportive colleagues (Robbins, 2003).
Defining job satisfaction as the range of explicit satisfactions and dissatisfactions that an
employee goes through with various aspects of working scope. Including what the person expect
from its job and what they get (Locke, 1976). Every employee has different level of expectations
concerning the salary and pay scale, rewards in working conditions. Many firms used dissimilar
proficiencies for example survey to find what the employees expectations are regarding their
current jobs (Kinicki & Kreitner, 2003).
Job satisfaction was defined as a pleasurable or positive emotional state, resulting from
the appraisal of ones job or job experiences by Edwin Locke in hand Handbook of Industrial
Psychology (Locke, 1976). The common perception of job satisfaction is used organizational
56
research as a social attitude and speculates the significance of both influence, or sentiments, and
noesis or supposing (Judge & Klinger, 2007).
Job satisfaction is the positive stance of a person towards their job. Researchers asserted
that some of the factors have substantial persuasion on job satisfaction like job security,
relationship with co-workers, salary, and work rewards. Scholars impersonated that
representative work at call centers is highly stressful.
Previous research depicts that if the employees with knowledge and skills reaches the
nerve-wracking state in their jobs, they will definitely be faced with lower level of job
satisfaction. Having high level of stress, these employees cannot enjoy their job anymore and
will have low job satisfaction. When employees tend to maintain such low job satisfaction level
they intend to increase the intention of leaving the job.
An attitude that person have towards their jobs, resulting from the perception of the jobs
they are in and the degree to which there exist a good fit between the organization and that
person is normally defined as job satisfaction (Ivancevich et al., 1997). The nature of job
satisfaction incriminate that a person would likely to be reside with a satisfying job and
relinquish a dissatisfying job (Spencer, 1985). Nevertheless, the negative and positive tempers,
also the sentiments and consequences associated with the job are theoretically dissimilar from
rating in relation to job. As a matter of fact, applying the same procedures to evaluate
knowledgeable opinions and concerns, are easily misapprehended what actually are needed to be
assessed while evaluating job satisfaction (Weiss, 2002; Sanecka, 2013).

2.8 Turnover Intention


The emotional conflict on turnover intentions related possibly is linked with reduction of
psychological resourcefulness of employees. Employees suffering from such stress might
remove from their own self and organization. This stress may direct to feel separated from their
place of work and may point them for new job hunting. More the employees live in emotional
conflict, turnover intentions will be enhanced including the unreasoned absentees from work.
Eventually leading toward personal disintegration of may contribute in lowering the rates of
turnover intentions (Celik & Oz, 2011).
Rewards related with financial terms can help in reducing the rate of turnover intentions
in the roof of depersonalization, while turnover intentions increase when personal achievements
57
are reduced. A career direction also helps in reducing turnover intentions with both
depersonalization and condensed personal achievement (Choi, Cheong & Feinberg, 2012).
The consequences of challenging behaviors regarding customers when relates to
customer service employee position and following organizational and occupational turnover
intentions. Emotional exhaustion found to be negatively connected to job satisfaction, and
following the turnover intentions of employees; contributing to the fact that organizational
turnover intentions and occupational turnover intentions are positively linked to each other
(Poddar & Madupall, 2012).
Justification of many unfulfilled expectations and desires at the work place that what was
estimated by the employees, direct to many unseen negative consequences like emotional
exhaustion, frown obligation to organization and enhanced turnover intentions. Furthermore,
emotional exhaustion is recognized to be linked with turnover intentions. At some places it was
indicated that enhanced turnover intentions are linked to unfulfilled expectations and desires by
means of interceding component of emotional exhaustion (Proost, Van Ruysseveldt & Van
Dijke, 2012).
Emotional stability in individuals is the main cause that they do not likely to be
emotionally exhausted and lower possibility to turnover. Individuals reveal themselves as open
and outward, facing new challenges everyday exhibit the lower state of performance and
elevated levels of turnover intentions. More over it depicts that the concepts of introversion and
extraversion is not related with in other way when measuring performance and emotional
exhaustion (Sawyerr, Sirinivas & Wang, 2009).
Emotional exhaustion is generally induced by demands of job like job burden and
problems in role performing, where depersonalization and lowered personal achievements are
induced by the absence of resources required for job and work. Interferences that are linked by
job demands may come handy in describing emotional exhaustion. The moderating result of
emotional exhaustion can impact on job stress thus lowering turnover intentions (Choi, Cheong
& Feinberg, 2012).
In the context of job performance, job burnout is related with malingering, incompetence,
social disagreement, least productivity, job dissatisfaction, lower commitment to organization
and turnover. As an element of burnout, emotional exhaustion repetitively been related with the
stress associated end results. Emotional exhaustion forecasts amplified ranks of sickness,
58
weariness, and mistreat also dejection, anxiousness and bad temperament (Der Aa, Bloemer &
Henseler, 2012).
Workload attributes of the working environment considerably exaggerate both results and
the coworkers defense was considerably and reciprocally linked to emotional exhaustion and
turnover intention. The intention to quit is lowered both indirectly and directly by means of
emotional exhaustion (Ducharme, Knudsen & Roman, 2008).
The innermost play of emotional labor varies the practices of emotional exhaustion and
satisfaction at work place. Also confirms the supremacy of emotional conflict as brought into
comparison of emotional demands that influences emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction
(Lewig & Dollard, 2003). Emotional exhaustion defined as the mood of being emotionally
absolute and tired by work alongside having depersonalization and absence of personal
achievement is one of the three evidence that qualifies burnout. The persistent consequence of
emotional exhaustion is mainly perceptible in different professions where employees are usually
confronted with exceedingly emotionally-charged and tense circumstances. Emotional
exhaustion is not only a grave conclusion but also ensuing in weakening of liveliness and
psychological resources can direct towards stress and may get affected leading towards more
grave outcomes (Babakus, Yavas & Karatepe, 2008).
Previously conducted studies signify the result of having a negative relationship between
turnover intentions and job satisfaction. As much as the job satisfaction is higher, lower the
intention of individual to leave the job. It depicts that satisfaction or dissatisfaction of job play a
vital task in molding the employees turnover intentions. Satisfied people do their jobs; work
hard with determination and loyalty and obviously with a lower intention to leave the
organization and the other way around. In modern configuration of job and service, one
organization career has become rare and exceptional. Its employers responsibility to keep their
employees satisfied at work hours and place so they hardly bring thought of quitting their jobs
(Randhawa, 2007).
Turnover intention is conceived as subjective approach of thinking, planning and
desiring to leave the job. Two forecasters were focused organizational commitment and
organizational citizenship behavior in the analysis to determine the impression of turnover
intentions on employees. The lack of both forecasters amongst employees might hinder the
growth of organization, capacity and effectiveness will lead towards higher turnover of
59
employees (Ahmad et al., 2011). In short every dark aspect of leadership comes under the
umbrella of destructive leadership causes an contrary outcomes for the object in sight. Many
researchers have described being a continuous victim of destructive leadership behaviors (or
bullying) causes self esteem to its lower levels, producing psychological illness and troubles like
post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, fear, helplessness, and anxiety (Mathiesen & Einarsen,
2007; Vartia, 2003; Mathiesen & Einarsen, 2004; Mikkelsen & Einarsen, 2001). Destructive
leadership also causes widespread negative consequences as a whole on the organization. As
described by many researchers that victims of such negative acts exhibit lower organizational
citizenship and more counterproductive behavior (Einarsen et al., 2003; Constantino, Domingez
& Galan, 2006).

2.9 Job Stress as Mediator


Occupational stress is considered as job stress in an organizational context. There are two
main dimensions of occupational stress, one is physiological stress and the other is psychological
stress. Physiological responses of your body like migraine, headache, fatigue, chest pain etc. are
called physiological stress. An emotional response like anxiety, anger, tension, and nervousness
etc. shows psychological stress. It will negatively affect the workers attitude and behavior, if the
worker cannot control these stress. According to Sager (1994) stress plays an important role in
many job-related attitudes (turnover) and behaviors (job satisfaction, organizational
commitment). When the pressures overcome workers which are common to their field, they
workers change careers in order to decrease stress. When an individual faces emotional,
physical, social and organizational troubles then the stress is negative. The negative relationship
exists in job stress and job satisfaction amongst the employees, however the moderating effect of
organizational support lower down the stress and leads towards increased job satisfaction. Stress
free surroundings both inside and outside of organization provides opportunities for employees
to promote the levels of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Psychological contract
between the employees and the organization may have an impact on the levels of stress
encountered by employees in their current jobs. By in depth analysis depicts that the role of
people and the organizations in lowering down the stress, employers can raise the level of job
satisfaction which will diffusely impact employees commitment and reducing the rate of

60
employee absence and turnover. Literature shows that job stress dominates on employees job
satisfaction also performance in the work as a whole. Most organizations are becoming
demanding for improved job end results. In twenty first century it is normally called as age of
anxiety and stress. In such chaotic times stress is influenced by many stressors around it. At
some other place stress is said to a certain state that will enforce people to diverge from their
actual path because of interruption or changeling in the emotional state, they allow them to
depart from their actual cause. It is of great importance to people to distinguish the facing stress
in their daily routine of work. Many studies found the significance in the relationship of job
stress, turnover and job satisfaction as inversely related (Pathak, 2012).
Stress determined as a persons reaction of emotional state in a condition where
something is at risk and it surpasses the capability of that certain person (LePine, LePine, &
Jackson, 2004). This description derivative is from Lazarus and Folkmans (1984) cognitive
theory of stress, proposes with the intention that at times when a person is disclosed to probable
stress agent, that particular person enlists into noesis (cognitive) assessments of the stress agent
(stressor) and determines whether it (i) will induces damage and (ii) handled or controlled.
Lazarus and Folkman (1984) put forward that when a probable stressor is viewed as a
gainsay (an exceptional stressor that provides success, opportunities or growth) or jeopardizing
(an obstacle stressor, that blocks success, learning or growth) and whenever strain of
requirements surpasses the existing resourcefulness.
As referred earlier, stress originates in reaction to conditions where something is at risk
and the requirements of the condition surpasses the existing persons resourcefulness (LePine et
al., 2004). In the organization it is very important to understanding job stress because it seriously
affects the key attitudes associated with job like job satisfaction, organizational commitment etc.
and it also affects the behaviors of people like turnover intentions (Sager, 1994). In developing
and developed countries job stress is among the most serious workplace health exploits for
workers (Paul, 2002; Danna & Griffin, 2002).
On the job when workers feels stress then it sometimes demonstrates itself as a negative
practice of job dissatisfaction. Previous studies showed that either a positive linear, inverted U-
shape, a negative linear, or no association exists between job satisfaction and job stress (Sullivan
& Bhagat, 1992). Several previous studies suggest that less job satisfaction is caused by the
higher level of job stress (Chandraiah, Marimuthu & Manoharan, 2003). There is a relationship
61
between job satisfaction and the, overall productivity, performance of the work force and
profitability of the organization (Santhapparaj & Alam, 2005; Bloch, 2009).
The resignation of experienced worker has a negative impact on the success of a
company. The organizations bear the costs of hiring and training of the new employees for the
replacement of the employees who leave the job. Previous research results prove that turnover
intention is affected by the job stress. Increased absenteeism high turnover, deteriorating
personal health, emotional exhaustion, reduced organizational commitment, and lower job
performances are the examples of stress. Finally, in various studies stress has been associated
with career change intention. When the pressures frequently faced by the worker in his field
increases then for the purpose of reducing this stress the worker will change careers. On the basis
of this evidence it is predicted that overstressed employees will follow suit and change careers.

2.9.1 Destructive Leadership, Job stress and Work Outcomes


Being revealed to a stressor of the individual, making the achievement of such goals
relevant, the stress will be likely to increase by the stressor. Having negative consequences of not
fulfilling the achievement of goals are extremely notable which in turn would likely to increase
stress feelings also. The stress level of leaders also contributes to the mechanism of
psychological stress in encouraging negative behaviors of leaders while having stable and
relative dimensions of an individual. Previous researches indicated that traumatic (stressful) and
stress cases can become as a means of initiation of destructive behavior. A meta-analysis
acquitted by Hershcovis et al. (2007) described that people utilize the hostility of workplace as a
method of dealing with stress resulting from stressors of workplace in the variety of conflicts and
constraints. Correspondingly, studies have initiated that job stress from conflict and constraints is
associated with counterproductive and destructive action (e.g., Chen & Spector, 1992).
Countless analysis have described that stressors at workplace like too much workload or
restraining of resources, are associated with counterproductive work behaviors (Fox & Spector,
1999; Fox, Spector, & Miles, 2001; Spector & Fox, 2005). In addition, study supporting the
relation between abusive behavior and stress are to be found in the researches in relating
aggressive behavior to stress and negative emotions. Negative emotions such as anxiety, fear,
and anger are characterization of stress (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984), and destructive behaviors
are constantly associated with these emotions.
62
Likewise, leaders engagement towards destructive behaviors is the result of experiencing
high levels of stress. Hence, psychological stress effects and increases when destructive
leadership behaviors are met with negative emotions in attaining the goal. Investigation indicates
a progression in stressor that lead to challenging or obstacle stress, leading to the outcomes
(Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).
The studies contributed less attention to the destructive leadership behaviors and
destructive behaviors described by the mediating effect of stress. Also the study of negative
outcomes investigated under with destructive behavior can prove to less or more that lead
towards negative outcomes (like counterproductive behavior, abusive supervision, and unethical
behavior). Various characteristics of supervisors are normally related with destructive behaviors
that might persuade the goals-negative outcome affiliation like negative affectivity (Aquino &
Bradfield, 2000), trait anger (Bardes & Ambrose, 2008; Herschcovis et al., 2007), and hostile
attribution bias (Neuman & Baron, 1998).
Studies suggests that positive outcomes like job satisfaction and organizational
commitment are positively related with the most challenge stressor, and negative outcomes like
withdrawal behaviors and turnover are negatively related with these challenge stressor
(Podsakoff, LePine, & LePine, 2007). In many studies stress remained as the illuminating
method like as a mediator in the relationship of leaders goals and goal-contingent reward with
destructive leadership behaviors.
Most investigated outcomes when it comes to destructive leadership are stress and
welfare probably, as it appears that the relationship between them are opposite like destructive
leadership having a positive relation with stress and negative relation with welfare. Long and
enduring elucidation to the destructive leadership behavior from an individual that is likely to be
in charge, causes stress and escort towards the lower welfare and security are all examined in the
sample studies of stress (Tepper, 2000; Chen & Kao, 2009) and (Burris et al., 2008; Hobman et
al., 2009) for the welfare of employees.
Medium-sized correlations are showed with destructive leadership to the organization
associated constructs like turnover intention and justice experience and job associated constructs
like job satisfaction, but not as eminent as counterproductive behavior. Indications were found
by the researches that leader behavior has much effects and wider than merely work associated,
especially when destructive leadership is related with stress. Exhausted emotions are most
63
strongly exaggerated by destructive leadership, whilst influencing stress. Most colleagues are
disclosed to exact common type of destructive leadership behavior might work arbitrator in
lowering the levels of stress (by sharing problems). Unconvincingly only destructive leadership
is a response towards negative positions. Adding up by the previous studies concerning
workplace bullying and job satisfaction suggested that lower job satisfaction is a doing by
bullying rather than job satisfaction stimulating bullying at workplace (Rodriguez-Munoz,
Baillien, De Witte, Moreno-Jimenez, & Pastor, 2009).
Conversely, Ferris, Zinko, Brouer, Buckley &Harvey (2007) debated that bullying at
workplace direct towards the loss of control in followers and employees and therefore hightens
stress. Eventually, the end results of such associations could cost them socially by not having the
potential of working for such extended time period. Interestingly it is noted that destructive
leadership outcomes were not studied fully under constructive situations and to the surprise
many of the negative outcomes in the best of our knowledge have not been subjugated to meta-
analysis up till now. At this point, new researches are required to make clear whether destructive
leadership effects are stronger than constructive leadership on negative outcomes. Destructive
leadership can appear as severe shared stressor leading to recognize that how counterproductive
behavior and negative emotions occurs as a result of destructive leadership (e.g., the stressor-
emotion model; Spector & Fox, 2005).
Studies indicated that higher job stress initiates negative behavior of employee.
Practically employees extreme behavior, absenteeism, turnover and interpersonal conflict
including reprisal or vengeance are spreading widely at the workplace (Shi et al., 2009),
damaging development and effectiveness of organization. Continual suicide cases of employees
have become the centre of attraction for academic and public interest. Is there exist causative
association between extreme behavior and stress of employees? Is stress is the one that is related
with employee behavior? What is the affect of leadership on work stress of employees and other
associated behaviors? Extensive amount of literature is available and published concerning the
organizational behavior and human resources management domain in the area of leadership and
work stress of employees. Even though the association of leadership and employee behavior
were remained under study persistently (Tims et al., 2011; Pieterse et al., 2010), impact of
leadership on the stress has been researched including the outcomes of work stress and employee
behavior are existing at the surface not in depth.
64
Stress can be stimulated by various factors like making demands on the individual and it
is not relevant (Sclye, 1956). Amongst many definitions, the one indicated in transactional model
by Lazarus is used commonly ad accepted generally. It is affirmed at stress occupies neither in
the environment nor in the individual, but relatively between the interface of the two (Lazarus &
Launier, 1978; Yu & Li, 2006).
Job stress is the consequence of the contract between environment and the person. If
there exists some situational dealings might lead towards stress, as a result people will
experience stressful and anxious. Concurrently exposure of negative emotions will employ in
deviant behaviors. Few empirical studies showed that job stress ensued from overload of tasks,
conflict, and ambiguity contributing towards deviant behaviors (Sackett & DeVore, 2001; Boyd
et al., 2009).
Some researches revealed that perception of stress in employees is associated with the
leadership style (Gill et al., 2006). Predominantly, low level employees or dependants giving
high attainment to consideration of supervisor have less stress (Oaklander & Fleishman, 1964).
The studies developed so far indicates that leadership is associated with job stress (Fleishman,
1964; Gills et al., 2006; Yang & Shi, 2006).
Support and backing up of supervisor at work; works as a buffer for job stress on
employees (Kirmeyer & Dougherty 1988). Rowney & Cahoon (1988) indicated that exercises of
leadership makes a huge difference in the hindrance or happening of burnout and stress. On the
other hand, if the leadership is tyrannical (harsh or destructive) or control oriented (a leader
giving instructions constantly to his subordinates like work quickly, work accurately, hurry up,
we havent much time left ), being pushing all the time can cause noticeable psychological
symptoms of stress amongst the staff (e.g high blood pressure, hypertension) (Misumi, 1985;
McCormick & Powell, 1988).
Stress influences leaders and employees, consequently the leaders who are destructive
can cause employees to experience stress within their work environment and their personal
environments (Ferdinand, 1988). As a result destructive leaders are affecting employees in
negative manner, referring to psychological stress which creates a decrease in employee
performance and organization productivity (Pelletier, 2000).

65
2.9.2 Emotional exhaustion, Job Stress and Work Outcomes
Beside job stress, burnout is defined as a state of physical, emotional, and mental
exhaustion that results from long-term involvement in work situations that drain the employees
emotionally (Golparvar, Nyeri & Mahdad, 2009). In the same layer, burnout can be conceived
as the response to the negative psychological experience of job stress (Maslach & Jackson,
1981). Hence concluded that burnout is not considered as a job stress symptom (Golparvar et al,
2009).
For that reason, if organizational and personal stress can be controlled, the occurrence of
burnout will be lower down. Model of burnout by Maslach & Jacksons (1981) has three
constituents and one of them is emotional exhaustion. Emotional exhaustion cites to feelings of
being drained by tasks and duties at workplaces. It can be accepted that employees who are
emotionally exhausted would be feeling tiredness, disburse effort at work and the notion of
reluctant to help other (Mulki, Jaramillo & Locander, 2006).
Environmental events-emotion-behavior model by Spector & Fox (2002) affirms that
emotions that are negative in nature i.e anger, may help to alleviate deviant behaviors, while
positive emotions having positive effect incline to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB).
On the foundation of this model, job stress causes negative emotion, and intensify the possibility
of deviant behaviors. High levels of somatic tension, job tension, burnout and fatigue are
associated to deviant behaviors (Cropanzano, Howes, Grandey & Toth, 1997).
In the light of the above literature and findings, some questions arises which have not
been studied before. The most stressing and imperative question is that, even though stress
effects at workplaces both on negative and positive behavioral outcomes, but what will be the
result for behavioral reactions of employees when they are lively or emotional exhausted with
increasing job stress? It is believed that on the foundation of replaceable variables approach and
theoretical relativism (Golparvar, Javadian & Barazandeh, 2011) and stress-non-equilibrium-
compensation approach (Golparvar et al, 2009; Golparvar & Vaseghi, 2011; Golparvar &
Hosseinzadeh, 2011), psychological and behavioral equilibrium of employees gets disturbed by
the job stress as a cause either positive or negative, also exhaustive and lively conditions of
employees, extensively interrupt and changes the equilibrium and responses of behavior to
circumstances. Destructive leadership and exhaustion both can appear as severe shared stressor
leading to recognize that how counterproductive behavior and negative emotions occurs as a
66
result of destructive leadership along with emotionally drained individuals (e.g., the stressor-
emotion model; Spector & Fox, 2005).
Stressor-emotion model is based on incorporating human anxiety and the job stress. Most
models and theories of human anxiety have been linked to anger, exhaustion and frustration (e.g.,
Anderson, Deuser, & DeNeve, 1995; Berkowitz, 1989; Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer, & Sears,
1939; Neuman & Baron, 1997). The model suggested that exhaustion would lead to anxiety and
stress. Also later work in the organizational arena shows a causal relationship between
exhaustion, frustration in and environmental conditions causing anxiety and more stressful
effects. A stressor is an environmental condition that induces a negative emotional reaction,
which acts as environmental stressor at workplace which is perceived as stressor by the people
(Spector & Fox 1998).
On the above mentioned theories, job stress is an interrupting factor of balance between
the negative-positive emotions that alters the outcomes of behavior concerning liveliness and
emotional exhaustion. Under favorable circumstances it is taken on that there is stability between
emotions of people (negative and positive). Consequently, it is balanced to suppose that job
stress has controlling impact with liveliness and emotional exhaustion with deviant behaviors.
Job stress is a conditional and individual variable which in the presence of contextual emotions
(i.e emotional exhaustion or liveliness) will have diverse functions (multiple functions approach
to job stress).

2.10 Identification of Knowledge Gap


The conception of leadership in call centers has been implemented and disseminated in
telecommunication call centers with sound empirical support. Extensive call centers literature
supports importance of leadership concerning leadership behaviors, styles, responsibilities and
their influence on subordinates in call centers. Several outcomes like commitment to
organization, employee retention, work effectiveness and performance; all outcomes help
employees to do their job properly and meeting their daily work load.
So far very rare literature is available call centers concerning emotions and leadership of
Pakistan call centers sector so this study is an initiative not only to bridge this research gap but to
provide solid and concrete suggestions regarding destructive leadership behaviors and the effects
of its behaviors on most evaluative work attitude and behavior outcomes i.e. turnover intention
67
and job satisfaction including emotional exhaustion as the emotional factor with its dark side
characteristics will be investigated. Findings of this study will give practical information
regarding employees consequences faced at the front-line level and dig up their difficulties. As
pointed out by previous studies theories of Toxic Triangle of destructive leadership by Padilla
,Hogan & Kaiser (2007), Stressor-emotion model by Spector & Fox (2005), Stress-non-
equilibrium compensation approach by Golparvar et al., (2011) are adapted in this study firstly
because of their conceptualization and relevance in fragmentation containing a part from each of
these theory to fit and justify the entire model and its interrelations. The theory of Toxic
Triangle (Padilla et al., 2007) consist of three main components namely destructive leaders,
susceptible followers and conducive environments suggesting that destructive leadership in
conducive environments may lead towards severe negative consequences in the form of
organizational and employee outcomes creating strong anxiety and stress, while Stressor
emotion model (Spector & Fox, 2005) is based on incorporating human anxiety and stress which
makes emotional exhaustion as a potential stressor that increases stress and causes negative
outcomes. Also indicating that both exhaustion and influence of leadership can appear as sever
shared stressor leading to recognize that how negative acts and emotional response is created in
facing stressful conditions in a hectic and nerve wrecking working environment of organizations.
Stress non-equilibrium- compensation approach (Golparvar et al., 2011) depicting job stress as
a factor which disturbs the psychological equilibrium of employees when employees are
exhausted and under severe influence of their top management that supported job stress as a
mediator for both the probable stressors i.e. destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion
causing to affect employee outcomes. Secondly of their wide usage in services sector like
telecommunication that helped in comparing our findings and supported by Cognitive theory of
Stress by Lazarus and Folkman (1984) later studies were provided by Bardes & Piccolo (2010)
suggesting that when a person is disclosed to a probable stress agent or stressor that particular
person enlists into cognitive assessments of stress agent or stressor and determines whether it
will induces damage or control, depending on the nature of relationships between the proposed
variables and provide strong base for our research study.

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2.11 Conceptual Model
Figure 1 show the theoretical framework presented after the extensive review of literature
and empirical evidences for present understudy. The model presents the direct effects of overall
destructive leadership on job satisfaction and turnover intention accompanied by direct effects of
emotional exhaustion on job satisfaction and turnover intention. It is worth mentioning that
mediating effects of job stress on job satisfaction and turnover intention will also be investigated
as proposed in research framework presented below.

Figure 1: Conceptual Model of Destructive Leadership, Emotional Exhaustion, Job Satisfaction


and Turnover Intention with mediating role Job Stress

2.12 Research Hypotheses

Destructive Leadership with Job Satisfaction


H1 Destructive Leadership will have significant negative impact on Job Satisfaction.

Destructive Leadership with Turnover Intention


H2 Destructive Leadership has significant positive impact on Turnover Intention.

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Emotional Exhaustion with Turnover Intention
H3 Emotional Exhaustion has significant positive impact on Turnover Intention.

Emotional Exhaustion with Job Satisfaction


H4 Emotional Exhaustion has significant negative impact on Job Satisfaction.

Job Stress Mediates between Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction


H5 Job Stress mediates the relationship between Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction.

Job Stress Mediates between Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention


H6 Job Stress mediates the relationship between Destructive Leadership and Turnover
Intention.

Job Stress Mediates between Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction


H7 Job Stress mediates the relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction.

Job Stress Mediates between Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction


H8 Job Stress mediates the relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover
Intention.

2.13 Hypothetic Framework

Figure 2 shows the hypothetical framework developed by the hypotheses of present study. The
model presents H1 and H2 as the direct effects of overall destructive leadership on job
satisfaction and turnover intention respectively accompanied by direct effects of emotional
exhaustion on turnover intention and job satisfaction as presented by H3 and H4. The mediating
effects of job stress on job satisfaction and turnover intention are presented by H5, H6, H7 and
H8 will also be investigated as proposed in Hypothetical framework presented below.

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Figure 2: Hypothetical Framework of Destructive Leadership, Emotional Exhaustion, Job Satisfaction
and Turnover Intention with mediating role Job Stress

2.14 Discussion

This chapter unfolded the formulation and concepts of destructive leadership and the
every possible aspect so far had been developed in the previous studies that comes under the
shadow of destructive leadership with the sole intention to cause harm and destruction as the
consequences. Along with emotional exhaustion which is considered as the core of burnout
dimensions causing fatigue, anxiety, depression, fear, psychological illness and finally
exhaustion. The dark side of leadership and emotions are explored through empirical evidences,

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previously generated and proved theories and hamper amount of fragmented literature available
in the context of telecommunication call centers.
As the literature is collected in the direction of consequences of dark side on the work
outcomes, job satisfaction and turnover intention were found most evaluated variable when it
comes to measure the impact as an end result. Thought the direction of these variables are not
confined to one sector only but our focus exerted towards call center employees working at the
non-managerial low level with the intrusion of Job stress in their daily routine work. In the
environment of call centers probable stressor agent acts as an antecedent for job satisfaction and
turnover intention. So in this respect it is adapted from the literature that destructive leadership
and emotional exhaustion work as stressors and in the presence of such stressors, stress level is
likely to increase and intervenes the between the link of stressors and resultant which in this
study are job satisfaction and turnover intention.
As the call center setup are almost similar in any organization, in Pakistan where studies
related in the direction of leadership and emotions are limited but enough to develop hypotheses
based on the concepts and empirical evidence provided in the local context. Consequently, the
hypothetical research framework was developed along with a discussion of each hypothesis. The
research framework revealed that destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion will affect
significantly negative in relation with job satisfaction and significantly positive with turnover
intention. Moreover, job stress as a mediator will affect the linkage between destructive
leadership and emotional exhaustion with job satisfaction and turnover intention outcomes. The
methodology for testing the hypotheses is presented in Chapter 3.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction
The literature review and the emergence of a conceptual model in previous chapters
represent the steps in the development of new concept and testing of dark side model research in
call centers. The present chapter seeks to explain the rationale for the research methodology and
the methods to be adopted.

3.2 Rationale and Justification for Research Paradigm


The attempted study gathers the experiences of employees at work place, psychological
stress and perceptions of their being under the authority of destructive leadership and
emotionally exhausted on their work outcomes. The research setting for this study is
telecommunication call centers sector of Pakistan mainly located in city of Lahore.
Call centers act as a basic business necessity and entity for services, customer care and
support, feedback and marketing for many leading business giants in the business world. Call
centers human resource or work force are mentioned as customer service representatives (CSRs),
customer service officers (CSOs), or customer care representatives (CCRs) and they become the
employees having the most knowledge of customers and clients and the direct point of entry for
customers for many organizations. Consequently many organizations rely mostly on the CSRs
services that they provide. By means of joined telephone headset with the computer system,
CSRs are provided with the task to connect with their clients/customers. Wegge et al., (2006)
described that three types of challenges are faced by CSRs that as an end result the outcomes
appeared in the form of job stress and at the final stage draw them to quit the organization.
At first, the normal and daily routine work of call center in conformity with working
hours, issues and attitudes associated with computer, situations at work, high degree of
unpleasant sounds and different working shifts. Secondly, proper need of attention towards

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several customers demands that are connected with the CSRs job itself that CSR have to listen
at once and to speak to customers in order to handle the situation and solve their problem at
hand, putting data into computer systems and at the same time read the data from the screen. At
last stage, job at call centers is coupled with many forms of emotional exhaustion. The key role
is played by the CSRs in building relationships with clients or customers. Consequently, the
service transactions quality has a critical influence in a manner in which CSRs demonstrate their
feelings towards their customers.
For instance, CSR is obligated to reveal the positive emotions uninterruptedly while
interacting with customers like to demonstrate feelings of being happy while the client may
actually be angry or upset. The responsibility of CSRs is rather acute, spending most of their
time accountable for communicating with companys clients. As a result it is vital for
organizations to be attentive of psychological demands and emotional influence that working
conditions have on it employees in the call centers. Research and literature concerning the study
of job stress, job stressors, support of supervision in terms of leadership and their effect on job
satisfaction of employees and intentions to quit in call centers is very limited within context of
Pakistan (Malik et al., 2013).
Known the high levels of attribution in call centers of front line employees, draws
attention to comprehend what prospects at workplace that are under the control of management
persuade subordinate or employees intention to turnover. In this era where managerial functions
are provided through computing system, an argument can be made that another possible and
probable contributor to turnover in call centers could be the influence of destructive leadership
behaviors of leaders (Wallace & Eagleson, 2004).
The management of call centers also places pressures on employees as well as poor
response from customers or clients. As a consequence, employees reported to have greater
burden of work, time pressures on completion of tasks, harassment, and change of shifts. Work
patterns of employees in call centers of Pakistan also put too much pressure in their work life
balance. In short, due to these internal and external pressures, telecommunication call centers
sector of Pakistan is experiencing both being emotionally exhausted and the influence of
destructive leadership. This prolonged exposure of exhaustion and destructive behaviors of
leaders lead them towards the psychological stress experienced by the employees at low level
non-managerial employees further lead towards negative work outcomes.
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Moreover, service sector is victim of job burnout and emotional exhaustion being its an
important component. This might be due to requirement of frequent interaction of customers/
clients with the employees in call centers where employees are supposed to communicate
effectively with customers on calls all day and night and help them in resolving their queries and
enquiries. As customers response and feedback is very important for organizations call centers,
employees experiencing low level of job satisfaction and high level of turnover intention. So, top
and middle level management of call center employees needs to pay attention to improve the
work outcomes of employees.
More importantly, limited number of studies has been conducted in developing countries
on leadership and emotional exhaustion in telecommunication call centers concerning work
outcomes as compared to empirical studies in developed countries (Xie, 1996; Jamal, 1999;
Glazer & Beehr, 2005). Distinctively, relation of destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion
on job satisfaction and turnover intention of call centers employees and mediating effect of job
stress has remained unexplored.

3.3 Research Approach


Bryman and Bell (2007) described quantitative research as Entailing the collection of
numerical data and as exhibiting a view of the relationship between theory and research as
deductive, and as having an objectivist conception of social reality (Bryman & Bell, 2007). In
light of this definition, the researcher seeks to develop valid and reliable measures of the
theoretical constructs based on a synthesis of ideas from the literature and quantitative study.
This process followed Churchill (1979) approach of systematic scale development procedures.
Research approach is based on close understanding of the context and to explain the relationships
among the adapted variables, viability of the concepts so that the facts can be measured
quantitatively.
The primary objective of the current study is to examine the relationship between
destructive leadership, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and turnover intention and also
determine mediating role of job stress between destructive leadership, job satisfaction and
turnover intention, also between emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction and turnover intention a
quantitative approach is used to conduct the current study.

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In order to derive meaningful conclusions, this research technique employs collecting
numerical data and use statistical techniques (Punch, 2005). Another advantage of the
quantitative approach is presentation of data-based findings which found to be more acceptable
to the business and scientific community (Amram & Dryer, 2008). The hypotheses have been
tested by gathering and analysis of quantitative data obtained from the relevant respondents in
order to establish causal relationships among various variables and thus explaining the nature of
relationships among those variables. Therefore, this study is correlational in nature intends to
study the relationship among variables. A quantitative approach is suitable for this study in order
to reduce errors, control biases, unwanted influences and conduct analysis by objective
assessment and employ statistical techniques.

3.4 Research Design


Research design is a general plan of how the researcher intends to answer the research
questions set (Saunders et al., 2003). Research design entails defining the nature of the
methodology to be implemented, as well as the spatial location, industry and unit of analysis
selected. The research is undertaken for intellectual reasons; provides initial insight to new
situation, issue and phenomenon referred to an Explanatory study that seeks to assess or measure
the impact having a causal relationship between the proposed variables.
The study used cross sectional research design by keeping in mind the research purpose
which is concerned with the measures of dark side of leadership and emotions at work place with
psychological stress level of non-managerial employees at one point in order to minimize
respondents loss and saving time in this study which are importantly beneficial for cross
sectional research (Leedy & Ormrod, 2005). Another advantage is that the respondents may feel
more relaxed about replying to sensitive nature questions on personal matters, such as being
satisfied with their job and being emotionally exhausted, rather than in a face to face interview
(Rubin & Babbie, 2005).

3.5 Questionnaire of Pilot study


A researcher should conduct a pilot study of instruments used for data collection before
proceeding for main study (Blumberg, Cooper & Schindler, 2005). A pilot test aids in identifying

76
issues in research methodology and data gathering tools. A pilot study was conducted among
employees of target population to assess the understanding of contents of questionnaire and
soundness of measures employed. These participants helped in identifying minor problems such
as spelling and length of questionnaire. The main purpose of the pilot study was the empirical
evaluation of instruments, with an aim to investigate their psychometric properties in socio-
cultural context, for subsequent adoption and usage in the main study. The study was designed to
point out and evaluate t a preliminary stage, any difficulty in understandability and clarity to the
questionnaire.

3.5.1 Sample
The sample for the pilot study consisted of 105 customer service officers and customer
care representatives from a range of telecommunication Call centers in Pakistan particularly in
Lahore. The respondents were selected on a simple random sampling design after obtaining
complete listing of all the employees working on non-managerial bases. The employees were
asked to rate the destructive leadership behavior of the supervisor or leaders, self rating for
emotional exhaustion, stress and work outcomes. Fully completed questionnaires were returned
by 102 participants with 97.14% response rate. Of the respondents (42 females and 60 males),
61.8% aged under 25 and 73.5% of respondents were from Bachelor degree program and 22.5%
was from Masters. 68.6% were Single in their marital status and 75.5% were in a customer
service officer designation.

3.5.2 Instruments
The instruments for the following variables were used in the pre-testing phase of the
study:
Destructive Leadership
Emotional exhaustion
Job stress
Job satisfaction
Turnover intention

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a) Destructive Leadership
The study utilized the self-report questionnaire which consists of 20 items representing
all active forms of destructive leadership behaviors based on five factors i.e. (arrogant, unfair),
thrests, punishments, over demands), (ego-oriented, false). (Passive, cowardly), and (uncertain,
unclear or messy) assessing the frequency the participant displays the range of destructive
leadership behaviors on a 5-point scale ranging from (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree),
measured on the scale developed by Larsson, Brandebo and Nilsson (2011) called Destrudo-L.

b) Emotional Exhaustion
The level of Emotional Exhaustion (independent variable) was measured based on 5
items on a 5-point likert scale ranging from 1( strongly disagree) to 5 (Strongly agree), adapted
from Singh et al. (1994).

c) Job Stress
The scale of measuring Job stress on five-point likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5
(strongly agree) with 12 items adapted from Parker and DeCotiis (1983) two-dimension scale,
time pressure and anxiety.

d) Job satisfaction
A five-point likert scale 4 items scale adapted from Churchill et al. (1974) were used to
measure the job satisfaction level (dependent variable) ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 5
(strongly agree).

e) Turnover Intention
A five-point likert scale ranging from 1(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree) having 5
items scale adapted from Ganesan and Weitz (1996) were adapted to measure the level of
organization turnover intention (dependent variable) among the employees.

3.5.3 Procedure
The respondents were approached through the administration and incharge personnel of
concerned call centers; a permission letter issued by Management Sciences Department of
COMSATS Institute of Information Technology was presented to the concerned authorities,

78
explaining the purpose of the study. In addition necessary instructions and the purpose of the
study were explained on the first page of the questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed
self-reportedly and by personal reference. A total of 105 questionnaires were given and 102 were
collected back, completely filled in all respect, a response rate of 97%. During this phase of the
study attention was focused to monitor the understandability of statements and time taken to
administer and fill a questionnaire.

3.5.4 Analyses
Analyses of data were conducted for the pilot study using SPSS version 21 included:
Mean, standard deviation and skewness of all the variables
Inter-scale correlation
Cronbachs alpha reliability of all instruments

3.5.5 Results
The results of pilot study included mean, standard deviation and skewness of all
variables, inter-scale correlation and Chronbach Alpha coefficients of all variables.

Table 1
Mean, Standard Deviation and Skewness
Descriptive Statistics
N Min Max Mean S.D Skewness
Destructive 102 .35 3.60 1.7108 .56022 .591
Leadership
Emotional 102 .00 4.00 1.6887 .80256 .362
Exhaustion
Job Satisfaction 102 .00 4.00 1.6520 .88101 .178

Turnover 102 .00 4.00 1.8137 1.05051 -.016


Intention
Job Stress 102 .33 3.83 2.0948 .76196 .196

Table 1, showed the mean, standard deviation and skewness of all the pilot study
variables. Job stress showed maximum value for mean but not for standard deviation (M=2.0948,
SD= .76196). Whereas Turnover Intention showed the second highest value for mean but highest

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for standard deviation (M = 1.8137, SD = 1.05051). Job satisfaction showed the minimum value
for mean (M = 1.6520) but Destructive Leadership showed the minimum for standard deviation
(SD = .56022). Destructive Leadership showed the maximum skewness, however the values for
all the variables remained within acceptable range.

Table 2
Alpha Reliability coefficients
No. of Items Mean Alpha Coefficient ()
1 Destructive Leadership 12 1.7108 0.796
2 Emotional Exhaustion 5 1.6887 0.616
3 Job Satisfaction 4 1.6520 0.745
4 Turnover Intention 5 1.8137 0.747
5 Job Stress 12 2.0948 0.700

In the Table 2, illustrated the alpha coefficients of all the study variables are listed. The
values of reliabilities of all the scales are in an acceptable range expect for emotional exhaustion
with a minor difference but it is quite acceptable for the attempted sample size. The maximum
values of alpha coefficient are for destructive leadership (0.796).

Table 3
Correlation Matrix of all Variables
1 2 3 4 5
1 Destructive Leadership 1
2 Emotional Exhaustion .312** 1
3 Job Satisfaction -.078** -.200* 1
4 Turnover Intention .214* .242* -.126** 1
5 Job Stress .111** .498** -.208* .012* 1
*p<.05, **p<.01
The inter- scale correlation matrix in Table 3 shows that destructive leadership have a
highly positive significant relationship with emotional exhaustion (r=.312, p<.01), turnover
intention (r=.214, p<.05) and job stress (r=.111, p<.05), but significant negative correlation with
job satisfaction (r=-.078, p<.05).

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Emotional Exhaustion have shown negative significant correlation with job satisfaction
(r= -.200, p<.01) and significant positive correlation with turnover intention (r=.242, p<.01) and
job stress (r=.498, p<.05). Job satisfaction have shown significant negative correlation with
turnover intention (r=-.126, p<.05) and job stress (r=-.208, p<0.1). Job stress have shown
significant positive correlation with turnover intention (r=.012, p<.01).

3.5.6 Discussion
The purpose of the pilot study was to test and empirically evaluate the instruments, in
order to verify the appropriateness of their psychometric properties in local context. This
comprised of destructive leadership, emotional exhaustion, job stress, job satisfaction and
turnover intention for successive usage in the main study.
The pilot study was conducted on a small independent sample (n=105); the distribution
patterns depicted females (41.2%) and males (58.8%) with different age categories and level of
education. Descriptive statistics in Table 1 showed the mean, standard deviations and skewness
of all study variables and all were found to be within acceptable limits.
Concurrent validity and reliability of all scales were determined by inter-scale
correlations and Alpha coefficients. The correlation coefficients of all variables computed in
Table 2 showed the anticipated direction of correlation. Destructive leadership showed
significant positive results with emotional exhaustion consistent with Lazarus & Folkman
(1984), Einarsen et al. (2007), Kellerman (2004), Ashforth (1994), Lipman-Blumen (2005),
Padilla et al. (2007), Hogan and Hogan (2007), Job stress in line with (Bass, 1990; Maslach &
Jackson, 1981, Gill et al, 2008) and turnover intention consistent with (Mathiesen & Einarsen,
2004; Einarsen et al., 2003; Podsakof, LePine & LePine, 2007; Vartia; 2001, 2003) but showed
significant negative results with job satisfaction consistent with (Locke, 1976; Robbins, 2003;
Madlock, 2000a, 2000b; Specter, 1985; Galup et al., 2008; Rodriguez- Munoz et al., 2009).
Emotional exhaustion showed significant positive results with turnover intention in line with
Proost et al. (2012), Lee & Ashforth (1993), Job stress consistent with Poddar & Madupall
(2012) and showed significant negative results with jobs atisfaction consistent with Maslach &
Jackson (1981) and Golparvar et al. (2009). Job satisfaction showed significant negative results
with turnover intention and job stress consistent with Pathak (2012), Bass (1990), Cordes &
Dougherty (1993), Lee & Ashforth (1993).

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Results in Table 2 showed that Alpha coefficient values of all instruments were within
acceptable ranges. Most of the instruments in the present study have been used in a local context,
after establishing the reliabilities and validities including emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction,
turnover intention, and job stress (Malik & Waheed, 2010; Ahmad et al., 2010; Rafiq, Khan,
Ahmad & Umar, 2011; Malik, Bashir, Khan, & Malik, 2013), expect for destructive leadership
so far have not been taken but as the literature suggest that it is potential stressor agent (Lazarus
& Folkman, 1984). That particular stressor agent taken as an independent variable; makes it
authentic for local setting (Malik, Bashir, Khan & Malik, 2013).
From the foregoing results of the pilot study and discussion, it was concluded that the
instruments were reliable and valid enough to adapt and use in the main study.

3.6 Ethical Clearance to Proceed


3.6.1 Confidentiality and Ethics
An introductory statement was included to briefly explain the purpose of the research and
how it would be beneficial for services sector concerning telecommunications. Besides these,
respondents were assured of confidentiality of their information to encourage them for genuine
and precise responses and it was also made them clear that their contribution was voluntary.
Approximately 400 questionnaires were administered to on job employees. Out of these, 371
questionnaires were retrieved, yielding a response rate of 91%. After eliminating incomplete
questionnaires having missing responses and influential outliers, final 365 usable surveys were
available for analysis.

3.6.2 Procedure

The respondents of the concerned call centers of telecommunication sector were


approached through their team leaders and administration department. A permission letter issued
by the COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore was presented to the
administration, explaining the purpose of the current study. It was important to ensure the
confidentiality of responses for individuals and the organizations alike. Therefore, necessary
instruction and purpose of the study were explained on the first page of the questionnaire
(Appendix-I). Among the selected call centers, the employees were then selected randomly by

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approaching the team leaders personally from the respective call centers, CSRs were personally
contacted and questionnaires were distributed by simple random sampling technique. All
respondents in call centers were randomly invited to provide their perception and views by
participating in this research study. Their involvement was voluntary and anonymous. A total of
400 questionnaires were distributed. Total 365 questionnaires completed in all respects were
returned: a response rate of 91%.

3.7 Sampling and Sample Selection


The following section presents the population to be studied, sample size and sampling
techniques.

3.7.1 Unit of analysis

Collis and Hussey (2003) defined the unit of analysis as the kind of case to which the
variables or phenomena under study and the research problem refer, and about which data is
collected and analysed (Collis and Hussey, 2003).
The unit of analysis can be an individual, dyad, event, object, group, and organization or
even aggregated to a larger level (e.g., country) (Kervin, 1992). The choice of unit of analysis is
guided by the research focus (Sekeran, 2003). The present studys focus is the
telecommunication call centers with an emphasis on organizational constructs and their
hypothesized relationships in the conceptual framework. Thus, the analysis was carried out on
the low level non-managerial or frontline employees in the call centers. Hence the appropriate
unit of analysis in quantitative study of this research is the low level subordinates or employees
of the call centers. The unit of analysis of this research is the employees of the call centers, on
the low level non-managerial perspective.

3.7.2 Target Population

Bryman and Bell (2007) defined population as: The full set of cases from which a
sample is taken (Saunders et al., 2003). The population of this study is telecommunication call
centers employees. As call centers exists at the low level of the organization where employees
experience a great level of stress as compared to top and middle level management of
organizations (Vermeulen & Mustard, 2000), less control over their work, low level of variety,
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significance, autonomy, feedback, identity of employees, create stress and decrease satisfaction
and involvement in job (Robbins, 2003). The population size of 2600 employees working in the
telecommunication call centers of Lahore region are registered and regulated under PSEB
(Pakistan Software Export Board), a registration body that work in line with government rules
and regulations.

3.7.3 Sample Size


Sekeran (2003) defined sample as a subset of population; comprising some members
selected from it. In simple words some but not all of the elements of the population would form
a sample. A sample is thus a subgroup or subset of the population and most importantly it should
be a representative of the target population. By studying the sample, the researchers should be
able to draw conclusions that would be generalizable to the population of interest. The sample
selected for the present study is the employees at selected call centers in the Lahore region. The
sample size for target population of 2600 employees is 336 by using the sample size calculator
providing with target population, level of significance, Confidence Interval (C.I), also provided
with table mentioning sample size for a given population size (Sekeran, 2003).

3.7.4 Sampling Technique


In this study, Multistage random sampling technique is used. The reason for using
such technique as the study required the perception of employees from the
telecommunication call centers in terms of consequences faced under stress, emotional
exhausted and influence of destructive leadership behaviors on their work outcomes.
At first stage, simple random sample of call centers from the list of registered
telecommunication call centers was selected from PSEB (Pakistan Software Exchange
Board).
At second stage, Lahore based registered 8 call centers were randomly selected
from PSEB list.
At third stage, sample of 400 employees at non-managerial low level were
selected from the 2600 registered employees.

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3.8 Measuring Instruments for Constructs

3.8.1 Questionnaire

Data was collected through self-administered questionnaires. A survey research method


is the best possible choice of research instrument when intends to gather meaningful data on
large populations which are difficult to observe directly, and it may be used for descriptive,
explanatory and exploratory objectives (Babbie, 1998). Furthermore, Questionnaires are a simple
and most effective way of collecting data. They minimize distortions in data due to interviewer
biases during the process of interview (Zikmund, 2003). Since the study aimed to determine the
personal experiences and deeply held values and beliefs might be sensitive in nature, the
anonymous nature of the questionnaire lets the respondents free to express them.

3.8.2 Mode of Questionnaire Development

In order to determine the context of the study, close ended questions were included in the
questionnaire by asking about age, gender, marital status, education level and designation or
position at work. All main study variables were employed with Likert scales having the range of
options Strongly Disagree to Strongly Agree so respondents could indicate the intensity of
their attitude and experiences about variables of interest. This facilitates the respondents to make
fine distinctions among attitudes. The questionnaire was structured in a way to get general
information first before moving to questions that deeply probed about experiences of destructive
leadership, feelings of being emotionally exhausted and importantly psychological stress level.

3.8.3 Structure of the Questionnaire


The questionnaire consists of two parts: First part contained information about
demographic variables and second part contained five instruments to measure main study
variables. A detailed explanation and a copy of the questionnaire is available in Appendix.

Part (A) Demographic Information


This part sought respondents demographic details: age, gender, marital status,
educational qualification, and designation/position.

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Part (B) Instruments
This part sought responses about interest variables of study.
(1) Destructive Leadership (Destrudo-L) Scale (Larsson, Brandebo & Nilsson, 2011)
(2) Emotional Exhaustion (Singh, Goolsby & Rhoads, 1994)
(3) Job Stress (Parker & DeCotiis, 1983)
(4) Job Satisfaction (Churchill et al., 1974)
(5) Turnover Intention (Ganesan & Weitz, 1996)

3.8.4 Instrumentation & Operational Definitions


i) Destructive Leadership scale

The huge lions share of leadership research have centered on the positive prospects for
many years after years like in what ways leadership may lead to the effectiveness of
organization, job satisfaction of employees etc. Conversely, there also exists an enormous
literature on the destructive leadership aspects or diverse negative prospects. The very
foundation of inspiration for this dark side contained in the research review by Baumeister et al.,
(2001) Bad is stronger than Good, depicts compellingly that positive events have positive
effects are not stronger than negative events in social relations have negative effects. Maybe
Schilling (2009) and Tepper (2007) have performed literature reviews on destructive leadership
most extensively. A composite scale developed to represent more active forms of destructive
leadership behaviors based on five factors i.e. Arrogant or unfair, threats or punishments or over
demands, ego-oriented or false, passive or cowardly, uncertain or messy designed for context-
specific taking into four types of major destructive behaviors (tyrannical, derailed, supportive-
disloyal and abusive supervision). The word phrasing of the 20 items were inspired by human
regressions classical psychoanalytic writing and the later questionnaire was given the
Destrudo-L (L stands for Leadership) (Larsson, Brandebo & Nilsson, 2012). The study will
utilize the self-report questionnaire which consists of 20 items assessing the frequency the
participant displays the range of destructive leadership behaviors on a 5-point scale ranging
from 1(strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Till now this scale has never been used in
telecommunication sector of Pakistan.

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ii) Emotional Exhaustion Scale

As a much known reality that human services are having a problem of burn out in
employees Maslach burn out inventory is most widely used measure of burn out in services
sector (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001). This inventory consists of three dimensions which are
exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy but burn out start with emotional exhaustion and this
subscale is reliable tool to measure burnout (Shaufeli, Bakker, Hoogduin, Schapp & Kladler,
2001; Schaufeli, Enzmann &Girault, 1993). This dimension actually gauges the one level of
being bushed (Maslach & Jackson, 1981). This scale have been employed many researchers in
various call centers of different developed countries. The level of Emotional Exhaustion
(independent variable) will be measured based on 5 items will be adapted from Singh et al.,
(1994) on a 5- point scale ranging from 1(strongly agree) to 5(strongly disagree).

iii) Job Stress Scale

Parker & De Cottiis (1983) reliable formulation of stress, it analyses stress as two
dimensional concept that comprise of anxiety and time pressure. Perception of employees in
accomplishing the job demands in an insufficient time relates to Time pressure. At the other side,
anxiety serves as a repulsive and obnoxious state of emotions that has adaptative or
dysfunctional consequences. Therefore anxiety associates with pressures or tensions that are
experienced by the employees brought upon then by their job demands at work. Anxiety is
circumstantial related and mostly distinguished from the trait anxiety, which acts towards anxiety
apart from context or situation that occurs. Exploring stress as multi-dimensional construct is
vital because at one place time pressure is required to be related positively to job involvement as
eustress. It is expected that there exist negative relationship between job involvement and
anxiety (i.e. distress) (Addae & Wang, 2006). The scale of measuring Job stress on five-point
likert scale with 12 items adapted from Parker and DeCotiis (1983) two-dimension scale, time
pressure and anxiety, ranging from 1(strongly agree) to 5(strongly disagree).

iv) Job satisfaction scale

Factors such as excessive work load, managerial support and salary have been considered
as important determinants of job satisfaction researchers agree on a point that increase in job
satisfaction will lead toward preservation of staff. Job satisfaction was measured through

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Churchill et al. (1974) general satisfaction scale by likert scale ranging from 1 to 5 consisting on
strongly to strongly disagree statements. This scale tends to describe overall satisfaction level of
respondents. Overall satisfaction can be checked by averaging all four items.

v) Turnover Intention scale

CSRs in call centers face high level of turnover. de Ruyter et al., (2001) studied that
turnover can be as high as 40% for employees in call centers. At this level of high rate of CSR
turnover cannot be dealt with in a simple manner by admission of new employees because it cuts
down budget and cost them to train and recruit new CSRs. Service quality can be deteriorated as
these skilled and well experienced CSRs tend to have high turnover causes them serious
problems. Intense level of job burnout especially concerning emotional exhaustion among CSR
has been considered the main cause of high turnover intentions of CSRs (Choi et al., 2012).
Mitchell et al., (2001) affirmed that leaving organization creates problems for other employees at
work and also for organization itself. A five-point 5 items scale adapted from Ganesan and Weitz
(1996) to measure the level of turnover intention (dependent variable) ranging from 1(strongly
agree) to 5(strongly disagree).

3.9 Analytical Methodology

3.9.1 Statistical Measures


Pictorial depiction of a system can be called as a model (Cooper & Schindler, 2008).
Therefore, the model is based on leadership and emotions designed according to empirical
evidence and theories and presented through a diagram. Prior to statistical analysis, normality
test was applied in order to check whether the data collected is normal in terms of having normal
distribution of data, reliability and validity test of the scales were applied to ensure the firmness
of measures.

Reliability and validity both holds a very important position in research, reliability deals
with internal consistency of the measure and ensures that result of the construct will be same in
different situations where as validity ensure either a construct is measuring the concept which it
needs to. In easier words trough validity it is ensured that a construct really works in manner as
the theory proposes.
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Reliability analysis is actually a test see either the item hang together or not reliability of
scale is attained if every item is seen in similar manner as the whole concept (Sekaran, 2003).An
instrument to be called a highly reliable instrument if it produces similar result in alike situations
(Creswell, 2009). The most widely used measure of reliability is cronbach alpha which was
determined for our study. Mention .70 to .80 as good but many researchers are agree on the point
that cronbach alpha value of reliability greater than .60 is adequate and sufficient however the
more alpha value will be near to one the more reliable will be the instrument will Nunnally,
1967). Moreover standard deviation, kurtosis, skewness, minimum and maximum values were
calculated for descriptive analysis (Onwuegbuzie & Leech, 2006) mentioned 2 as acceptable
range for skewness and +2 to -2 for kurtosis (Garson, 2009).
Moreover, validity ensures that construct works in the manner of theory proposes.
Construct validity is comprised of two validities one in convergent validity and the other is
divergent validity. Convergent validity makes sure that items or concepts correlate with other in
the same manner as proposed by theory. Sekaran (2003) mentioned factor analysis as a technique
which ensures construct validity through factor loadings for every dimension. Whereas divergent
validity investigate either two constructs which theoretically are not related are actually distinct.
Empirical evidence discloses researchers such as (Escring-Tena & Bou-Llusar, 2005)
who adopted the factor analysis for ensuring construct validity of each variable. Implementing
methodology suggested by these authors and Sekaran (2003).Construct validity was ensured
through factor analysis which was applied on each dimension. So data reduction was done by
principle component analysis and Varimax rotation and construct validity was established. This
study has used criteria set by Dimovski (1994) to select factors according to his set criteria
factors must be have Eigen-values equivalent to one and scree test point out the place where the
curve start flatten out . Harrington (2009) mentioned loading criteria and proposed loadings
above .71, .63, .50, .45, .32 as outstanding, extraordinary, good, fair and poor respectively. The
adopted criterion for our study was .50 which is considered as on higher side (Leech, Barrett, &
Morgan, 2005). Assumptions of Bartletts Test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test of
sampling adequacy were computed. According to set criteria value of KMO should be either
above .70 or in range of .70 and .50. The KMO value will be inadequate if it falls below .50 and
the Bartlett test value must be significant <.05 (Leech, Barrett & Morgan, 2005). Discriminant

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validity ensures that two variables or dimension which are supposed to be unrelated are actually
so (Escring-Tena & Bou-Llusar, 2005).
This validity is ensured through pair wise correlation (Venkatraman, 1989; Dimovski,
1994). The set criteria for divergent validity says that the correlation between dimension should
be less the .85 and above that point is considered a poor divergent validity (Harrington, 2009).
Different authors mentioned cut off values as <.60 and <.55 at significance level of <.05
(Garson, 2009; Dimovski, 1994). Reliability analysis is actually a test see either the item hang
together or not reliability of scale is attained if every item is seen in similar manner as the whole
concept (Sekaran, 2003).
An instrument to be called a highly reliable instrument if it produces similar result in
alike situations (Creswell, 2009). Linear regression analysis approach is used to understand the
direct relations between the independent variables (destructive leadership and emotional
exhaustion) and dependent variables (job satisfaction and turnover intention).

Baron and Kennys approach was used for testifying mediating mechanism(Baron &
Kenny, 1986). Baron and Kenny mentions that mediating mechanism is use full in understanding
how and why the relationship occur between dependent and the independent variables. Baron
and Kenny proposed some conditions that are necessary to meet in mediation process. (a) The
independent variable must hold a significant relationship with the mediator. (b) There must be
significant relationship between dependent and mediator. (c) Independent variable must
significantly predict dependent variable. Similar to Baron and Kenny approach three series of
regression were performed to check the proposed relationship among variables. In third equation
total score of independent and mediator are entered in equation together decide full or partial
mediating mechanism. If the effects of independent variable on dependent variable become
insignificant then there will be full mediation or in case of independent variables effect on
dependent variable reduced then there will be partial mediation.
More recent methodologic work by Sobel (1990) has provided statistical techniques that
build on the Baron and Kenny (1986) model, but provide a more precise picture of the mediation.
Sobel (1990) test was applied for the confirmation whether the mediating variable significantly
influence and affect the independent variables to dependent variables to make statistical analysis
more accurate and definite by applying these two techniques.

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3.9.2 Data Analysis

Prior to data analyses, incomplete questionnaires from employees were removed from the
data set. Data screening was performed before analyzing the data in order to check for random
missing values and multivariate outliers. After screening of 371 questionnaires, the final usable
sample was 365 for analysis. First of all, descriptive statistics and correlation analysis was
performed in order to get a broader picture of perception of respondents about each construct and
strength of relationship among main interest variables.
Following the descriptive analysis, reliability and validity of measurement scales were
assessed. For reliability, Cronbachs alpha was used which indicated the degree to which
responses were consistent across items of the scale. Once reliability and validity were
established, regression analysis was employed for testing direct effects hypothesis and for testing
mediated effects hypothesis, Baron and Kenny (1986) and Sobel (1990) test was employed.
Further details and results have been presented in Chapter 4.

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CHAPTER 4

RESULTS

The present sought to examine the impact of destructive leadership and emotional
exhaustion on work outcomes i.e. job satisfaction and turnover intention. The study also
investigated the mediating impact of job stress on these relationships, in addition with
demographic variables including gender, age, marital status, education and designation at work
place.
Descriptive statistics including frequency distribution, means, percentage, standard
deviation and alpha reliability coefficients of all scales were calculated.

4.1 Overview of Data Analysis


This section of the study provides an overview of data analysis process and techniques
used. After collecting and structuring the data, to test its normality, descriptive statistics of
skewness and kurtosis were used. Once normality was established, descriptive analysis was
performed including frequency distribution, means, percentage and standard deviation. The
items of instruments were tested for reliability by calculating cronbach alpha values and validity
by inter-item correlation and factor analysis. Multiple regression analysis was used to measure
the direct impact of destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion on dependent variables.
Mediation of Job stress between destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion and work
outcomes i.e. job satisfaction and turnover intention were tested through a four steps technique
used by Baron and Kenny (1986) and Sobel (1990) test.

4.2 Data Normality


Normality is the first condition for regression analysis but it is often commonly assumed
and taken for granted while conducting statistical analysis. Violation of this assumption always
results in misleading interpretations. As discussed, the researcher used skewness and kurtosis to
establish the normality of variables. Kurtosis refers to how "flat" a distribution is and is a
measure of the extent to which observations cluster around a central point. Skewness refers to the
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"lean" of a distribution. Positive kurtosis indicates that the observations cluster more to the left
and have a longer tail to the right than to the left. Negative kurtosis indicates the observations
cluster less to the left and have longer tail to the left than to the right.

Table 4
Data Normality Distribution
Descriptive Statistics
N Skewness Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Std. Statistic Std.
Error Error
q1 365 .708 .128 -.556 .255
q2 365 .742 .128 -.111 .255
q3 365 .237 .128 -.889 .255
q4 365 .300 .128 -.860 .255
q5 365 .220 .128 -.758 .255
q6 365 .263 .128 -.789 .255
q7 365 .267 .128 -.511 .255
q8 365 .284 .128 -.479 .255
q9 365 -.030 .128 -.792 .255
q10 365 .136 .128 -.919 .255
q11 365 .160 .128 -.792 .255
q12 365 .259 .128 -.652 .255
q13 365 .064 .128 -.772 .255
q14 365 .249 .128 -.713 .255
q15 365 .289 .128 -.823 .255
q16 365 .176 .128 -.951 .255
q17 365 .208 .128 -.959 .255
q18 365 .135 .128 -.962 .255
q19 365 .118 .128 -1.014 .255
q20 365 .277 .128 -.967 .255
q21 365 -.171 .128 -.881 .255
q22 365 .218 .128 -.785 .255
q23 365 .225 .128 -.759 .255
q24 365 -.191 .128 -.770 .255
q25 365 -.153 .128 -.866 .255
q26 365 .015 .128 -.852 .255
q27 365 .031 .128 -.901 .255
q28 365 .076 .128 -.871 .255
q29 365 .021 .128 -.892 .255
q30 365 -.119 .128 -.997 .255
q31 365 .183 .128 -1.075 .255
q32 365 -.023 .128 -1.043 .255
q33 365 -.058 .128 -1.029 .255
q34 365 -.185 .128 -.704 .255
q35 365 .075 .128 -.931 .255
q36 365 .064 .128 -.861 .255
q37 365 .129 .128 -.690 .255
q38 365 .010 .128 -.690 .255
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q39 365 -.055 .128 -.756 .255
q40 365 -.032 .128 -.743 .255
q41 365 -.126 .128 -.511 .255
q42 365 -.243 .128 -.560 .255
q43 365 -.211 .128 -.832 .255
q44 365 -.086 .128 -.913 .255
q45 365 -.208 .128 -.860 .255
q46 365 -.326 .128 -.835 .255
Valid N 365

Table 4 presents the required statistics to examine the kurtosis and skewness of the data.
Ingeneral, if kurtosis is not between -2 and +2, the data is too far away from a normal
distribution and needs to be corrected before applying tests that have assumptions of normality.
The values of -2 and +2 are just common rules of thumb; some statisticians prefer stricter or
looser restrictions ranging (SPSS Handbook, 2010). As a rough guide, a skewness value more
than twice its standard error is taken to indicate a departure from symmetry. All the kurtosis
values range from -.1.097 to -.138, which are below -2 as shown in Table 4. The skewness value
is not more than twice of its standard error as clearly shown in Table 4. It means that the data
was normally distributed.

Table 5
Normal Distribution
Descriptive Statistics
N Skewness Kurtosis
Statistic Statistic Std. Statistic Std.
Error Error
DL 365 .088 .128 .241 .255
EE 365 .114 .128 .024 .255
JS 365 .066 .128 -.636 .255
TI 365 -.079 .128 -.719 .255
JST 365 .051 .128 .109 .255
Valid N 365

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Table 5 shows the variables with their values of skewness for all variables of this study
was within the acceptable range that can be observed. Furthermore, Histogram with normality
curve with the bell-shaped, neither too flat nor lean, both sides of the curve normal shows that
data is normality distributed in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Histogram with Normality curve

Moreover, the normal p-plot shows the linearity in the graph as all the variables lay in a
linear trend showing the normality of the data in Figure 4.

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Figure 4: Normal Distribution P- Plot

4.3 Demographic Analysis

Demographic analysis addresses the information collected from the survey covering
demographic information like Gender, Age, Education level, Marital status and the
Designation/position at workplace. The frequency and percentage distribution are shown in
Tables 6 to 10.

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Table 6
Gender distribution of the respondents (N= 365)
Gender Frequency Percentage Cumulative
percentage
Male 180 49.3 49.3
Female 185 50.7 100.0

Table 6 Shows the distribution of the participants, with almost 180 males (50%) and 185 females
(50%).

Table 7
Age Distribution of the Respondents (N= 365)
Age Frequency Percentage Cumulative
percentage
Up to 25 186 51.0 51.0
26 45 131 35.6 86.8
46 55 33 9.0 95.9
56+ 15 4.1 100.0

Table 7 shows the distribution of respondents with respect to age including 51% aged up
to 25, 36% aged 26-45, 9% aged 46- 55 and 4% aged above 56 respectively. The largest
percentage of respondents lies in the range of 26 - 45 years and lowest in the above 56 years
category.

Table 8
Distribution of Respondents with respect to Education Level (N=365)
Education Frequency Percentage Cumulative
percentage
Matriculation 50 13.7 13.7
Intermediate 55 15.1 28.8
Baccalaureate degree 164 44.9 73.7
Master degree 96 26.3 100.0

Table 8 shows the distribution of respondents with respect to education level including
14% of matriculation level, 15% of intermediate level, 45 % of baccalaureate degree level and

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26% of master degree level respectively. The largest percentage of respondents is Baccalaureate
degree level and least is matriculation level of education.

Table 9
Distribution of Respondents with respect to Marital Status (N=365)
Marital Status Frequency Percentage Cumulative
percentage
Single 239 65.5 65.5
Married 74 20.3 85.8
Divorced 36 9.9 95.6
Widowed 16 4.4 100.0

Table 9 shows the distribution of respondents with respect to marital status including
66% single, 20% married, 10% divorced and 5% widowed respectively. The largest percentage
of respondents is single and least is widowed of marital status.

Table 10
Distribution of respondents with respect to Designation (N=365)
Designation Frequency Percentage Cumulative
percentage
Customer Service 87 23.8 23.8
Officer
Customer Service 40 11.0 34.8
Representative
Customer Care 238 65.2 100.0
Representative

Table 10 shows the distribution of respondents with respect to designation in the


workplace. Although, all the respondents work at the same level but having different set of
designation names as displayed in the table above. 66% of the respondents are generally working
as a Customer Care Representative (CCR) in most of the call centers.

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4.4 Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics including minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviations and


skewness of the variables are shown in Tables 11.

Table 11
Descriptive Statistics of All Variables (N=365)
Variables Min Max Mean S.D Skewness
Destructive Leadership 1.05 4.60 2.7005 .62055 0.088
Emotional Exhaustion 1.00 5.00 2.9830 .75421 .114
Job Stress 1.25 4.83 3.1075 .61979 .051
Job Satisfaction 1.00 5.00 2.9301 .95138 .066
Turnover Intention 1.00 5.00 2.9359 .85572 -.079

Table 11 shows the mean, standard deviations and minimum and maximum values of all
the study variables with an acceptable range of skewness.

4.5 Reliability Analysis

The researcher used instruments that have been developed and validated with samples
other than Settings of Pakistan. The researcher, therefore, checked the consistency of the
instruments by Cronbach's alpha. Cronbach's alpha is not a statistical test. It is known as
coefficient of reliability. It is used to measure how well a single one-dimensional latent construct
is measured through set of items. It ranges from 0 to 1. Values close to 1 reflect greater
consistency of the items. This creates evidence that all of the items and variables are measuring
the same construct. Table 12 presents alphas of the key variables of the study.

Literature provides rule of thumb that if values of alpha are .9 and above then it means
excellent. If values are .8 and above but below than .9 than it means good. Values 0.7 and above,
but lower than 0 .8 are only acceptable. Values 0.6 and above but lower than 0.7 are
questionable. Values .5 and above but lower than .6 are poor and below than .5 are simply not
acceptable. The reliability of the instruments were assessed by computing the alpha reliability
coefficients of all the variables in the table below.
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Table 12
Reliability Coefficients of All Scales (N=365)
Variables No. of Items Alpha Coefficient ()
Destructive leadership 20 0.875
Emotional exhaustion 5 0.768
Job stress 12 0.824
Job satisfaction 4 0.749
Turnover intentions 5 0.764

The reliability statistics for the instruments included in this study indicate that the scales
are highly reliable, with alpha values ranging from 0.749 to 0.875. Overall Reliability for all
items 0.869.

4.6 Validity Analysis

The validity of a scale measurement is said to be the level to which the quantification
procedure is systematic and randomly the error free. In disparity to the reliability case none of
the statistical methods provided a general index to validate the scale (Daniel & Fernando, 2006).
All study variables were entered in a principal factor analysis, using vari-max rotation to
determine the number of factors that account for the majority of variances.

The three basic types of validity were discussed below:

4.6.1 Content Validity

The degree to which the items in the scale imitated the universal contents by which the
instrument and the scale could be generalized (Boudreau et al., 2001). The content validity
indicated that the procedure for developing the measuring instrument was adequate. It was
difficult to verify the content validity statistically because of their being no objective
criterion duly developed for the measurement of the content validity. The prominent method
researchers used to verify the content validity of the survey instrument was the verification of
the process of constructions of the scale fit, the criteria recommended by the theory both in
the methodology and the techniques made use of. The content validity was verified by the
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Judgmental perceptions in accordance with the early researchers studies as suggested by
various authors (Daniel & Juan, 2006; Leo et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2007; Daniel &
Fernando, 2006).

4.6.2 Convergent Validity

Convergent was established by applying factor analysis. Factor analysis was performed
by using principle component analysis with varimax rotation. Each of the dimensions was
analyzed by performing factor analysis.
In the beginning complete instrument was consisted on total 46 items. Instrument was
consisting of 2 independent variables, 1 mediating variable and 2 dependent variables. After
applying factor analysis no items were dropped and the number of items were remained the
same. Criteria for factor loading were .50 and items below that set criteria were not included
for statistical analysis. More over all assumption of factor analysis was fulfilled. The
assumptions imply that KMO value must be above .60 and Bartletts test must be significant
so overall set criteria were fulfilled.

Table 13
Kaiser-Meyer and Bartletts test of sampling
KMO and Bartlett's Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. .773

Bartlett's Test of Sphericity Approx. Chi-Square 8544.891


Df 1035
Sig. .000

The Table 13 provides sample adequacy to test whether the factor analysis will be
useful. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy measures how minute the partial
correlations are relative to zero-order correlations. As a KMO value is greater than .5 it
means that factor analysis is useful for all the understudy variables. Bartletts test is used to
test if n samples have equal variance as it is highly significant it shows that variance is
equal across the sample.

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Table 14
Summary of KMO Bartletts assumptions
KMO Approx df Sig
Destructive Leadership .807 3583.957 190 .000**
Emotional Exhaustion .752 505.671 10 .000**
Job Satisfaction .728 584.573 6 .000**
Turnover Intention .716 620.542 10 .000**
Job Stress .676 1491.163 66 .000**

Table 14 shows the assumptions summary for Bartletts test as all the variables being
significant at p<0.05.

Table 15
Total Variance Explanation
Initial Eigenvalues Extraction Sums of Squared Rotation Sums of Squared
Component

Loadings Loadings
Total % of Cumulative Total % of Cumulative Total % of Cumulative
Variance % Variance % Variance %
1 8.901 19.349 19.349 8.901 19.349 19.349 3.961 8.612 8.612
2 3.477 7.560 26.909 3.477 7.560 26.909 3.119 6.781 15.392
3 2.696 5.861 32.770 2.696 5.861 32.770 2.773 6.029 21.421
4 2.558 5.560 38.330 2.558 5.560 38.330 2.723 5.921 27.342
5 2.333 5.071 43.401 2.333 5.071 43.401 2.690 5.848 33.190
6 2.030 4.413 47.814 2.030 4.413 47.814 2.604 5.661 38.851
7 1.882 4.092 51.906 1.882 4.092 51.906 2.554 5.552 44.402
8 1.804 3.922 55.828 1.804 3.922 55.828 2.449 5.323 49.725
9 1.553 3.376 59.204 1.553 3.376 59.204 2.221 4.827 54.553
10 1.417 3.081 62.285 1.417 3.081 62.285 2.210 4.803 59.356
11 1.298 2.821 65.106 1.298 2.821 65.106 1.824 3.965 63.321
12 1.212 2.635 67.741 1.212 2.635 67.741 1.690 3.675 66.996
13 1.085 2.359 70.100 1.085 2.359 70.100 1.428 3.104 70.100
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

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Table 15 represents the factor loadings at vari-max rotation. The results showed that thirteen
components with an Eigen value greater than 1, accounting for 70.10% of the variance. The first
component is not accounted for the majority of variance, nor there do a factor that accounted for
the majority of the covariance in these variables as results show that variance method is of no
great concern.

Table 16
Rotated Component Matrix
Component
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
q18 .823
q19 .775
q17 .757
q20 .748
q16 .666 .423
q15 .597 .373
q2 .808
q3 .803
q1 .731
q4 .718
q5 .590
q12 .803
q13 .735
q11 .692
q14 .345 .543
q32 .842
q30 .824
q33 .725
q34 .638 .338
q22 .708
q23 .704
q24 .700

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q21 .662
q25 .535 .318
q27 .841
q26 .804
q28 .761
q43 .758
q44 .757
q45 .705
q46 .655 .395
q35 .843
q36 .813
q37 .642 .495
q6 .767
q7 .736
q8 .562 .326
q38 .767
q39 .696
q40 .564 .389
q10 .305 .781
q9 .743
q41 .760
q42 .364 .701
q30 .755
q29 .522 .539
Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.
Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.
a. Rotation converged in 11 iterations.

Table 16 represents the factor loadings with rotated component with thirteen components that
showed Eigen values greater than 1, have loaded values for all the variables in the understudy.
As the table results shows all the variables have attained values greater than 0.5 in all the thirteen
component factors. The result suggested the validity of the inter-scale items. Therefore, none of
the items have been dropped.

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4.6.3 Divergent Validity

The constructs which are not supposed to be related should not be related and must be
independent with a distinct identity. To maintain construct validity, divergent validity must
be ensured and pair wise correlation method was adopted in this study to measure divergent
validity.

Table 17
Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

Destructive Emotional Job Turnover Job


Leadership Exhaustion Satisfaction Intention Stress
Destructive 1 .373** -.333** .326** .388**
Leadership .000 .000 .000 .000
** **
Emotional 1 -.201 .167 .417**
Exhaustion . .000 .001 .000
Job 1 -.148** -.133*
Satisfaction .005 .011
Turnover 1 .307**
Intention .000
Job Stress 1
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

Results showed in Table 17 that all constructs are significantly correlated well below
proposed criteria by (Venkatraman, 1989; Dimovski, 1994; Garson, 2009; Leech et al., 2005)
that significant value at r <0.5 ensures divergent validity. These results show that constructs
differ from each other and holds independent reality moreover the direction of the relationship
was as same as proposed by theoretical and empirical evidence.

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4.7 Correlation Analysis
On the basis of literature review and design of hypothesis, the regression analysis is
pursued after the correlation analysis of the all the constructs used in conceptual framework.
Table 4.6 shows the correlation analysis of data that depicts the positive relationship between all
the variables.

Table 18
Correlation Analysis
Destructive Emotional Job Turnover Job Stress
Leadership Exhaustion Satisfaction Intention
Destructive Pearson 1
Leadership Correlation

Sig.(2-tailed) .000

Emotional Pearson .373** 1


Exhaustion Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .000

Job Pearson -.333** -.201** 1


Satisfaction Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000

Turnover Pearson .326** .167** -.148** 1


Intentions Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .001 .005

Job Stress Pearson .388** .417** -.133* .307** 1


Correlation

Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .011 .000

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).


*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

The inter-item correlation matrix in Table 18 shows that destructive leadership has a
highly significant positive correlation with emotional exhaustion (r = .373, p<0.01), turnover
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intention (r= .326, p<0.01), and job stress (r= .388, p<0.01). Destructive Leadership shown
highly significant but negative correlation with job satisfaction (r= -.333, p<0.01).
The correlation matrix reveals that emotional exhaustion has highly significant positive
correlation with turnover intention (r= .167, p<0.01) and job stress (r= .417, p<0.01) but highly
significant negative correlation with job satisfaction (r= -.201, p<0.01).
Job stress also shows significant positive correlation with turnover intention (r= .307, p<0.01),
but significant negative correlation with job satisfaction (r= -.133, p<0.05).
Turnover Intention shows significant negative correlation with job satisfaction (r= -.148,
p<0.01).

4.8 Hypotheses Testing

4.8.1 Regression Analysis

Consistent with the recommendation of Cohen & Cohen (1983) and Stone & Hollenbeck
(1989), regression analysis were conducted to examine the hypothesized relationships among
variables. To investigate the direct effect of the destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion
on dependent variables including job satisfaction and turnover intention, multiple regression
analysis was applied. The value of R-square shows the proportion of variance in the dependent
variable accounted for by the set independent variables, whereas, the value of adjusted R-square
gives more accurate picture about the fitness of model. Therefore, the value of adjusted R-square
was used for interpretation of regression analysis results and explains the variance in dependent
variables accounted for by the independent variables.

4.8.1.1 Regression Analysis; Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction

Regression analysis employed between the relation of destructive leadership and job
satisfaction to examine the direct effect. Table 19 shows the significance level (p<0.05) for
Hypothesis 1. Adjusted R2 value shows the variability in independent variable i.e. destructive
leadership in sharing with dependent variable i.e. Job Satisfaction. Adjusted R2 suggested very
low variability (R2= .108) in predicted dependent variable, also indicates that 10.8% of the
variances predicting job satisfaction are explained by this model. Hence it proposes that model is
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not a good fit as it does not lie in acceptable range. Destructive leadership is significant and
negatively related to job satisfaction (B= -.510, p=0.00). For Hypothesis 1, the model shows
significance level (p<0.05), therefore accepted.

Table 19
Linear Regression Analysis for Destructive Leadership & Job Satisfaction
B Std. Error t Sig.
(Constant) 4.308 .210 20.491 .000
DL -.510 .076 -6.725 .000
R .333
R2 .111
R2 .108
F 45.219
Note: significance at the 0.05 levels

4.8.1.2 Regression Analysis; Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention

Regression analysis employed between the relation of Destructive Leadership and


Turnover Intention to examine the direct effect. Table 20 shows the significance level (p<0.05)
for Hypothesis 2. Adjusted R2 value shows the variability in independent variable i.e. destructive
leadership in sharing with dependent variable i.e. Turnover Intention. Adjusted R2 suggested very
low variability (R2= .104) in predicted dependent variable, also indicates that 10.4% of the
variances predicting Turnover Intention are explained by this model. Hence it proposes that
model is not a good fit as it does not lie in acceptable range. Destructive leadership is significant
and positively related to Turnover Intention (B= .450, p=0.00). For Hypothesis 2, the model
shows significance level (p<0.05), therefore accepted.

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Table 20
Linear Regression Analysis for Destructive Leadership & Turnover Intention
B Std. Error T Sig.
(Constant) 1.722 .190 9.082 .000
DL .450 .068 6.570 .000
R .326
R2 .106
R2 .104
F 43.166
Note: significance at the 0.05 levels

4.8.1.3 Regression Analysis; Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention

Regression analysis employed between the relation of Emotional Exhaustion and


Turnover Intention to examine the direct effect. Table 21 shows the significance level (p<0.05)
for Hypothesis 3. Adjusted R2 value shows the variability in independent variable i.e. Emotional
Exhaustion in sharing with dependent variable i.e. Turnover Intention. Adjusted R2 suggested
very low variability (R2= .025) in predicted dependent variable, also indicates that 2.5% of the
variances predicting Turnover Intention are explained by this model. Hence it proposes that
model is not a good fit as it does not lie in acceptable range. Emotional Exhaustion is significant
and positively related to Turnover Intention (B= .190, p=0.00). For Hypothesis 3, the model
shows significance level (p<0.05), therefore accepted.

Table 21
Linear Regression Analysis for Emotional Exhaustion & Turnover Intention
B Std. Error T Sig.
(Constant) 2.370 .181 13.120 .000
EE .190 .059 3.231 .000
R .167
R2 .028
R2 .025
F 10.442
Note: significance at the 0.05 levels

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4.8.1.4 Regression Analysis; Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction

Regression analysis employed between the relation of Emotional Exhaustion and Job
Satisfactio to examine the direct effect. Table 22 shows the significance level (p<0.05) for
Hypothesis 4. Adjusted R2 value shows the variability in independent variable i.e. Emotional
Exhaustion in sharing with dependent variable i.e. Job Satisfaction.
Adjusted R2 suggested very low variability (R2= .038) in predicted dependent variable,
also indicates that 3.8% of the variances predicting Job satisfaction are explained by this model.
Hence it proposes that model is not a good fit as it does not lie in acceptable range. Emotional
Exhaustion is significant and negatively related to Job Satisfaction (B= -.254, p=0.000). For
Hypothesis 4, the model shows significance level (p<0.05), therefore accepted.

Table 22
Linear Regression Analysis for Emotional Exhaustion & Job Satisfaction
Std. Error t Sig.
(Constant) 3.687 .200 18.478 .000
EE -.254 .065 -3.912 .000
R .201
R2 .040
R2 .038
F 15.304
Note: significance at the 0.05 levels

4. 9 Multiple Regression Analysis


For multiple regression analysis of Hypothesis H5, H6, H7 and H8 related to mediating
relationships was addressed through conducted Multiple regression analysis by taking into
account Baron & Kenny (1986) four steps. Sobel (1990) test was also conducted to test the
significant influence of mediating variable and its affect in the relation between independent and
dependent variable.

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4.9.1 Mediation Analysis

To test job stress as a mediator of the independent variables (destructive leadership and
emotional exhaustion) and dependent variable (job satisfaction and turnover intention)
relationships, Baron and Kennys (1986) procedure was utilized. Baron and Kenny define a
mediator as a variable that accounts for the relationship between an independent variable and a
dependent variable in Figure 5.
To test for mediation effects, four statistical criteria must be met through linear regression
tests; at step 1 path c must account for the relationship between the independent variable (X) and
the dependent variable (Y); at step 2 path a must account for the relationship between the
independent variable and the mediator (M); at step 3 path b must account for the relationship
between the mediator and the dependent variable when controlling for the effect of the
independent variable (indicated by c); at step 4 path c must be reduced from path c to indicate
partial mediation. Full mediation exists when c is reduced to zero. Partial mediation
demonstrates that the mediator is important, though it may not entirely explain the dependent
variable. In other words, when all the p-values of path a, b, c and c are significant at p<0.05, it
indicates Partial mediation. When the p-value of path c is insignificant at p>0.05, it indicated
Full mediation. Other than path c, if path a, b or c are insignificant or significant it indicates no
mediation of the variable.

M
a b

X Y
c, c
Figure 5: Baron & Kennys (1986) Mediation Model

Following are the 4 steps for measuring mediation:


a) The independent variable must hold a significant relationship with the mediator (Path a).
b) There must be significant relationship between dependent and mediator (Path b).
c) Independent variable must significantly predict dependent variable (Path c).
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d) Finally introduce the mediator in presence of independent and dependent variable into
equation and if the relation between independent and dependent variable becomes insignificant
then it will be called full as mediation and if there is reduction in the relationship of it will be
termed as partial mediation (Path c) (Baron & Kenny, 1986).

4.9.1.1 Mediation Analysis of Job Stress Between Destructive Leadership and Job
Satisfaction

In this phase of mediating regression analysis for Hypothesis 5 was carried out to explain
the mediating impact of job stress between destructive leadership and job satisfaction by Baron
& Kenny (1986) steps of mediation. Table 4.9.1.1 for Path Analysis shows no existence of
mediating effect for Job Stress between Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction.

Model 1

Figure 6: Model for Mediation Paths for Destructive Leadership, Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction

Figure 6 shows the Model 1 for pictorial description of the all the four concerning paths in
mediation analysis of destructive leadership, job satisfaction and job stress.

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Table 23
Path Analysis
Path Coefficients s.e. t Sig(two)
DL JST .3878 .0483 8.0274 .0000
JST JS -.0077 .0826 -0.0935 .9255
DL JS -.5103 .0759 -6.7245 .0000
DLJSTJS -.5073 .0825 -6.1522 .0000

Given in Table 23 all the four paths of Baron & Kenny (1986) were satisfied for no
mediation effect, as a result Hypothesis 5 is rejected due to the fact of having no mediating
relationship for Job Stress between Destructive Leadership and Job Satisfaction. As there exist
no mediation, Sobel test is not required for Hypothesis 5.

4.9.1.2 Mediation Analysis of Job Stress Between Destructive Leadership and


Turnover Intention

In this phase of mediating regression analysis on Hypothesis 6 was carried out to explain
the mediating impact of job stress between destructive leadership and turnover intention by
Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation. Table 24 for Path Analysis shows Partial existence of
mediating effect for Job Stress between Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention.

Model 2

Figure 7: Model for Mediation Paths for Destructive Leadership, Job Stress and
Turnover Intention

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Figure 7 shows the Model 2 for pictorial description of the all the four concerning paths
in mediation analysis of Destructive Leadership, Turnover Intention and Job Stress.

Table 24
Path Analysis
Path Coefficients s.e. t Sig(two)
DL JST .3878 .0483 8.0274 .0000
JST TI .2935 .0728 4.0295 .0001
DL TI .4495 .0684 6.5701 .0000
DL JSTTI .3357 .0727 4.6159 .0000

Given in Table 24 all the four paths of Baron and Kenny (1986) were satisfied for partial
mediation effect, having all the paths a, b, c and c being significant at p<0.05 as a result
Hypothesis 6 is accepted due to the fact of having partial mediating relationship for Job Stress
between Destructive Leadership and Turnover Intention.
Test for checking the significance of indirect affect of job stress on independent variable
i.e. destructive leadership to a dependent variable i.e. turnover intention, Sobel (1990) test is
conducted.

Table 25
Sobel Test
Test Statistic (Z) ab Std. Error p-value
3.5791 .1138 .0318 .0003

Table 25 depicts that there is a significant indirect mediation that Job Stress significantly
influence (p<0.05) and affect the Destructive Leadership (independent variable) and Turnover
Intention (dependent variable). The value shows the product of path a and path b coefficients
showing the variability through the mediating variable job stress i.e. 0.1138. This particular
analysis is carried through Sobel test for significance.

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4.9.1.3 Mediation Analysis of Job Stress Between Emotional Exhaustion and Job
Satisfaction

In this phase of mediating regression analysis for Hypothesis 7 was carried out to explain
the mediating impact of job stress between destructive leadership and turnover intention by
Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation. In this phase of mediating regression analysis for
Hypothesis 5 was carried out to explain the mediating impact of job stress between destructive
leadership and job satisfaction by Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation. Table 26 for Path
Analysis shows no existence of mediating effect for Job Stress between Emotional Exhaustion
and Job Satisfaction.

Model 3

Figure 8: Model for Mediation Paths for Emotional Exhaustion, Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction

Figure 8 shows the Model 3 for pictorial description of the all the four concerning paths
in mediation analysis of Emotional Exhaustion, Job Satisfaction and Job Stress.

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Table 26
Path Analysis
Path Coefficients s.e. t Sig(two)
EEJST .3427 .0392 8.7431 .0000
JSTJS -.0922 .0868 -1.0619 .2890
EE JS -.2537 .0649 -3.9121 .0001
EE JST JS -.2221 .0713 -3.1133 .0020

Given in Table 26 all the four paths of Baron and Kenny (1986) were satisfied for no
mediation effect, as a result Hypothesis 7 is rejected due to the fact of having no mediating
relationship for Job Stress between Emotional Exhaustion and Job Satisfaction. As there exist no
mediation, Sobel test is not required for Hypothesis 7.

4.9.1.4 Mediation Analysis of Job Stress Between Emotional Exhaustion and


Turnover Intention

In this phase of mediating regression analysis for Hypothesis 8 was carried out to explain
the mediating impact of job stress between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention by
Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation. Table 27 for Path Analysis shows Full existence of
mediating effect for Job Stress between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention.
Model 4

Figure 9: Model for Mediation Paths for Emotional Exhaustion, Job Stress and
Turnover Intention
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Figure 9 shows the Model 4 for pictorial description of the all the four concerning paths
in mediation analysis of Emotional Exhaustion, Turnover Intention and Job Stress.

Table 27
Path Analysis
Path Coefficients s.e. t Sig(two)
EE JST .3427 .0392 8.7431 .0000
JST TI .3967 .0759 5.2260 .0000
EE TI .1897 .0587 3.2314 .0013
EE JST TI .0538 .0624 0.8618 .3894

Given Table 27 all the four paths of Baron and Kenny (1986) were satisfied for Full
mediation effect, having the paths a, b, c being significant at p<0.05 and only path c being
insignificant at p>0.05 as a result Hypothesis 8 is accepted due to the fact of having full
mediating relationship for Job Stress between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention.

Test for checking the significance of indirect affect of job stress on independent variable
i.e. emotional exhaustion to a dependent variable i.e. turnover intention, Sobel (1990) test is
conducted.

Table 28
Sobel Test
Test Statistic (Z) ab Std. Error p-value
4.4643 .1360 .0305 .0000

Table 28 depicts that there is a significant indirect mediation that Job Stress significantly
influence (p<0.05) and affect the Emotional Exhaustion (independent variable) and Turnover
Intention (dependent variable). The value shows the product of path a and path b coefficients
showing the variability through the mediating variable job stress i.e. 0.1360. This particular
analysis is carried through Sobel test for significance.

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4.10 Results Summary
This chapter has outlined the results of the analysis undertaken to address the hypotheses
of this study. These analyses involved the impact of independent variables i.e. destructive
leadership and emotional exhaustion on the dependent variables i.e. job satisfaction and turnover
intention. Additional analysis involved exploring the mediating effect of job stress between the
independent and dependent variables. The analysis depicted the significant results among the
variables for hypotheses H1, H2, H3 and H4. For mediating variable job stress showed no
mediation with destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion with respect to dependent
variable job satisfaction. But it does showed mediating effect with destructive leadership and
emotional exhaustion with respect to turnover intention as dependent variable.

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CHAPTER 5

DISCUSSION

5.1 Introduction
The present under study concerning leadership and emotions has ascertained the
impact on job satisfaction and turnover intention. This undertaken study also analyzed the
mediating role of job stress between destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion with work
outcomes job satisfaction and turnover intention. The research study established significant
support for the entire hypotheses of the study. Most of the hypotheses were accepted and, one
was partially supported and the one was fully supported. The details of the results for the
hypotheses have been presented in Chapter 4. The following section present the discussion of the
findings of this study, investigating all the hypotheses made in the study.

5.2 Hypothesis Testing


Regression analysis was performed to examine Hypothesis H1, H2, H3 and H4. A set
criterion at two tailed 0.05 level of significance was used to examine the derived hypothesis
(Munro, 2005). More over hypothesis H5, H6, H7 and H8 were testified through Baron and
Kenny (1986) steps that comes under the category of multiple regression analysis.

5.2.1 Destructive Leadership effects on Job Satisfaction


The first objective of the study is to determine the relationship between destructive
leadership and job satisfaction. This relationship was investigated through linear regression
analysis. The first hypothesis H1 was concluded through theoretical background that destructive
leadership is negatively related with job satisfaction among low level employees at call centers in
telecommunication sector. This relation was investigated through correlation analysis. After
conducting correlation analysis between destructive leadership and job satisfaction results
confirmed the significant negative relationship between these two variables (r= -.333, p<0.05).

119
Correspondingly, the relation between destructive leadership and job satisfaction was also
regressed by conducting regression analysis. The results for regression analysis indicated that
destructive leadership was a significant predictor of job satisfaction (B= -.510, p<0.05). Hence,
Hypothesis H1 was supported. So to the research question: has destructive leadership directly
affected job satisfaction according to the respondents in this study? The answer is yes. There was
direct relation and correlation found between destructive leadership and job satisfaction.
These findings were in lined with findings of (Locke, 1976; Spector, 1985; Galup, Klein
& Jiang, 2008; Cranny et al., 1992; Friday & Friday, 2003; Madlock, 2006b; Richmond &
McCroskey, 2000; Hilgerman, 1998; Madlock, 2006a; Richmond, McCroskey, Davis, & Koontz,
1980) who investigated the relationship between destructive leadership behaviors and styles with
job satisfaction and found significant negative relationship between these two variables. Previous
research depicts that if the employees with knowledge and skills reaches the nerve-wracking
state in their jobs, they will definitely be faced with lower level of job satisfaction. Leadership
styles and their behaviors and the leaders of the organizations are considered the main reasons
for any success of particular organization in achieving its goals and objectives. Leaders can
influence employee commitment, job satisfaction and productivity by taking on the suitable
styles of leadership. If the leadership styles and behaviors are destructive in nature the results
are found to opposite of constructive behaviors. Normally most successful organizations have
employees with high satisfaction level wile organizations with poor satisfaction of job may let it
go cripple (Galup, Klein & Jiang, 2008). It is stated that leadership style stage an imperative role
in determining job satisfaction of employees (Lashbrook, 1997). So our results are also in lined
with these empirical findings which support our hypothesized relationship.

5.2.2 Destructive Leadership effects on Turnover Intention


The second objective of the study is to determine the relationship between destructive
leadership and turnover intention. This relationship was investigated through simple or linear
regression analysis. The second hypothesis H2 was concluded through theoretical background
that destructive leadership is positively related with turnover intention among low level
employees at call centers in telecommunication sector. This relation was investigated through
correlation analysis. After conducting correlation analysis between destructive leadership and

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turnover intention results confirmed the significant positive relationship between these two
variables (r= .326, p<0.05).
Correspondingly, the relation between destructive leadership and turnover intention was
also regressed by conducting regression analysis. The results for regression analysis indicated
that destructive leadership was a significant predictor of turnover intention (B= .450, p<0.05).
Hence, Hypothesis H2 was supported. So to the research question: has destructive leadership
directly affected turnover intention according to the respondents in this study? The answer is yes.
There was direct relation and correlation found between destructive leadership and turnover
intention.
These findings were in lined with findings of (Mikkelsen & Einarsen, 2002, 2004, 2007;
Vartia, 2001; Keashly & Jagatic, 2003; Hoel & Cooper, 2000; Quine, 1999; McCormack,
Casimir, Djurkovic & Yang, 2009; Kivimaki, Elovainio, and Vahtera, 2000; Einarsen et al.,
2003; Constantino, Domingez & Galan, 2006; Podsakof, LePine & LePine, 2007; Ngo, Foley &
Loi, 2005; Waldman et al., 2004) who investigated the relationship between destructive
leadership and turnover intention and found significant positive relationship between these two
variables. Destructive leadership also causes widespread negative consequences as a whole on
the organization. As described by many researchers that victims of such negative acts exhibit
lower organizational citizenship and more counterproductive behavior (Einarsen et al., 2003;
Constantino, Domingez & Galan, 2006). Being a prolonged victim of such negative behavior at
workplace also cuts down the commitment and satisfaction towards organization, reduces
productivity, enhances absenteeism, absence due to sickness, and most importantly
predisposition and inclination to leave, quit and turnover (Vartia, 2001; Keashly & Jagatic, 2003;
Hoel & Cooper, 2000; Quine, 1999; McCormack, Casimir, Djurkovic & Yang, 2009; Kivimaki,
Elovainio, and Vahtera, 2000). Due to this imperative implications of turnover, a great extent of
research attention has been dedicated in identifying correlatives of employees intention to leave
the organization. The outcomes of these studies have indicated that intention to leave is
correlated positively with several job stressors (Podsakof, LePine, LePine, 2007; Ngo, Foley &
Loi, 2005). Workplace bullying is one of the concerned behaviors in Destructive leadership that
act as one of the job stressor in relation to intention to leave has been studied. Some researchers
have analyzed the central results of destructive leadership (or bullying) while others have
analyzed the interactional outcomes of differences of individual variables and being victim of
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negative acts on intention to leave (Nishii & Mayer, 2009; Djurkovic, McCormack & Casimir,
2008). Bullying at workplace that plays as negative act was found to be a predictor of turnover
intention significantly, which acquire considerable cost for organization (Waldman, Kelly, Arora
& Smith, 2004). So our results are also in lined with these empirical findings which support our
hypothesized relationship.

5.2.3 Emotional Exhaustion effects on Turnover Intention


The foundation of hypothesis H3 was that there will be positive relationship between
emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. The results revealed full support for this
hypothesis. This relationship was investigated through correlation and simple regression
analysis. After conducting correlation analysis between emotional exhaustion and turnover
intention results confirmed the significant positive relationship between these two variables
(r= .167, p<0.05).
The results for regression analysis between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention
indicated and confirmed the positive relationship between these variables (B= .190, p<0.05).
Hence, Hypothesis H3 was supported. So to the research question: has emotional exhaustion
directly affected turnover intention according to the respondents in this study? The answer is yes.
The result in present study are consistent with research of (Poddar & Madupall, 2012; Proost,
Van Ruysseveldt & Van Dijke, 2012; Ahmad et al., 2011) who also investigated the relationship
between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention and found significant positive relationship
between these variables as these findings are also supported by (Choi, Cheong & Feinberg, 2012;
Celik & Oz, 2011; Sawyerr, Sirinivas & Wang, 2009; Ducharme, Knudsen & Roman, 2008) who
conducted study to investigate relation between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention.
Emotional exhaustion being widely used subscale for burnout in predicting burnout,
(Singh et al., 1994) emotional exhaustion scale and Turnover intention scale (Ganesan & Weitz,
1996) were used for measurement purposes and results revealed higher level of emotional
exhaustion would lead higher level of turnover intention. In the context of job performance, job
burnout is related with malingering, incompetence, social disagreement, least productivity, job
dissatisfaction, lower commitment to organization and high turnover. The lack of both
forecasters amongst employees might hinder the growth of organization, capacity and
effectiveness will lead towards higher turnover of employees (Ahmad et al., 2011). The

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emotional conflict on turnover intentions related possibly is linked with reduction of
psychological resourcefulness of employees.
Employees suffering from such stress might remove from their own self and
organization. This stress may direct to feel separated from their place of work and may point
them for new job hunting. More the employees live in emotional conflict, turnover intentions
will be enhanced including the unreasoned absentees from work. Eventually leading toward
personal disintegration of may contribute in lowering the rates of turnover intentions (Celik &
Oz, 2011). In marketing research the main focus is on the turnover intentions and eventually
towards the association of emotional exhaustion levels (Voon et al., 2011). A meta-analysis was
conducted and showed that job satisfaction is quite strongly impacted by negative rather than
positive influence but here the interpreter of emotional exhaustion has negative impact (Judge,
Woolf & Hurst, 2009). So results of our study were as same as established by previous studies.

5.2.4 Emotional Exhaustion effects on Job Satisfaction


The foundation for hypothesis H4 of the study was that there will be negative relationship
between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. This relationship was investigated through
correlation and simple or linear regression analysis. The hypothesis H4 was concluded through
theoretical background that emotional exhaustion is negatively related with job satisfaction
among low level employees at call centers in telecommunication sector. This relation was
investigated through correlation analysis. After conducting correlation analysis between
emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction results confirmed the significant negative relationship
between these two variables (r= -.201, p<0.05).
Correspondingly, the relation between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction was also
regressed by conducting regression analysis. The results for regression analysis indicated that
emotional exhaustion was a significant predictor of job satisfaction (B= -.254, p<0.05). Hence,
Hypothesis H4 was supported. So to the research question: has emotional exhaustion directly
affected job satisfaction according to the respondents in this study? The answer is yes. There was
direct relation and correlation found between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction.
These findings were in lined with findings of (Sanecka, 2013; Weiss, 2002; Hellmean, 1997;
Poddar & Madupall, 2012; Maslach & Jackson, 1981) who investigated the relationship between
emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction and found significant negative relationship between
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these two variables. Nevertheless, the negative and positive tempers, also the sentiments and
consequences associated with the job are theoretically dissimilar from rating in relation to job.
As a matter of fact, applying the same procedures to evaluate knowledgeable opinions and
concerns, are easily misapprehended what actually are needed to be assessed while evaluating
job satisfaction (Weiss, 2002; Sanecka, 2013).
Likewise, the relationship within intention to quit the job and job satisfaction was found
significantly distinguished and time after time negative (Hellman, 1997). Burnout and mostly
emotional exhaustion is extensively considered as the final consequences when concerned with
customer service wrenching nature of job. Emotional exhaustion is normally recognized with
reduced performance of employees, frown state of job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is considered
a comparative evaluation for employees positions that explicate other variable like commitment
and turnover intentions towards organization. Emotional exhaustion found to be negatively
connected to job satisfaction (Poddar & Madupall, 2012). Emotionally exhausted employees
adversely affect organizational outcomes like decline in job satisfaction and performance, and
personal negative outcomes i.e. physical and mental illness, disturbance in daily and social lives
(Maslach et al., 2001; Cameron et al., 1994). The syndrome of emotional exhaustion is
customarily exists in the individuals who are involved in the people-work like hospitality
industry and call centers (Maslach and Jackson, 1981). So our results are also in lined with these
empirical findings which support our hypothesized relationship.

5.3 Mediating Effects of Job Stress

5.3.1 Mediating effects of Job stress between Destructive Leadership and Job
Satisfaction

The fifth objective of the study was to determine mediating role of job stress between
destructive leadership and work outcomes concerning job satisfaction. Mediating role of job
stress was investigated through (Baron & Kenny, 1986) approach.
This particular approach define mediator as a variable that explains the relationship
between independent variable and dependent variable. For this particular analysis, the research
have to meet the criteria by taking into account the four steps concerning through path analysis
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an indicated in Chapter 4. Baron & Kenny (1986) analysis is provided by Preacher and Hayes
(2008) macro for multiple mediation for assessing, measuring and comparing indirect effects in
simple and multiple mediator models (Behavior Research methods). The step 1 is also known as
Path a must account for the relationship between independent variable and mediator. Step 2 is
also known as path b must account for the relationship between mediator and dependent
variable . Step 3 also known as Path c must explain the relationship between independent and
dependent variable. Finally step 4 also known as Path c introducing the mediator between
independent and dependent variable. If this relationship of c becomes significant it will indicate
to be partial mediation and if the relationship becomes insignificant it will indicate full
mediation. Having all the p-values of path a, b, c and c significant indicates partial mediation.
When only the p-value of c is insignificant it indicates full mediation. If p-values of path a, b,
and c are significant or insignificant it other than path c it indicates no mediation of the variable
between the independent and dependent variable.
Destructive leadership was regressed on job satisfaction by using a proposed mediator
Job stress in multiple mediation analysis based on Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation
provided by Preacher and Hayes (2008). This analysis by Baron & Kenny (1986) is considered
most authentic for mediation analysis. The results showed the path analysis with their respective
coefficient values, standard error and the p-values of all the paths. Path a shows relationship of
independent variable and Mediating variable having significant relationship between destructive
leadership and job stress (B= .3878, p< 0.00). Path b shows the relationship of direct effects of
mediator on dependent variable having insignificant relationship between Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction (B= -.0077, p>.9255). Path c shows the relationship of Total effect of independent
variable on dependent variable having significant relation between destructive leadership and job
satisfaction (B= -.5103, p<0.00). Finally, path c shows the relationship of direct effect of
independent variable involving the mediating variable on dependent variable having significant
relationship between destructive leadership, job stress and job satisfaction (B= -.5073, p<0.00).
As the path a, c and c are significant but path b is insignificant therefore, there exist no
mediation of job stress between destructive leadership and job satisfaction. It can also be
confirmed from the beta coefficients of all the paths. The coefficients shows negative correlation
between the destructive leadership and job satisfaction at path c and the value of coefficient
decreases at path c showing that there exist no mediation of mediating variable in this
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relationship. Previous studies also authenticate the results of having a direct relation of
destructive leadership and job satisfaction. Literature shows that job stress dominates on
employees job satisfaction also performance in the work as a whole. Most organizations are
becoming demanding for improved job end results. In twenty first century it is normally called as
age of anxiety and stress. In such chaotic times stress is influenced by many stressors around
it. At some other place stress is said to a certain state that will enforce people to diverge from
their actual path because of interruption or changeling in the emotional state, they allow them to
depart from their actual cause. It is of great importance to people to distinguish the facing stress
in their daily routine of work. Many studies found the significance in the relationship of job
stress, turnover and job satisfaction as inversely related (Pathak, 2012). Folkman and Lazarus
(1984) cognitive theory of stress, proposes with the intention that at times when a person is
disclosed to probable stress agent, that particular person enlists into noesis (cognitive)
assessments of the stress agent (stressor) and determines whether it will induces damage or
handled or controlled.
As the result showed no mediation confirms from the cognitive theory of stress to the
point that there is actually no impact of stress factor when there exist destructive leadership
behaviors in the organization as the condition been controlled even in the presence of stress.
Therefore only one stressor agent is adequate enough. Hence the hypothesis H5 is not supported
or accepted. So to the research question: has job stress mediated the relationship between
destructive leadership and job satisfaction according to the respondents in this study? The answer
is no. As the relationship is tested in developing country like Pakistan, where culture differences
and work environment does matter than developed countries so does the top level management
leadership. The reason of insignificant relation between job stress and job satisfaction could be
destructive leadership itself as suggested by theory of toxic triangle by Padilla et al., (2007) that
in some situations or sometimes only destructive leadership is enough to take over, and as
working at low level of management in call centers there is no boundary of education in terms of
qualifications and mostly are not concerned with their satisfaction at work due to the fact that
they do not have any other choice of work but to cope with the stress at work.

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5.3.2 Mediating effects of Job stress between Destructive Leadership and Turnover
Intention

The sixth objective of the study was to determine mediating role of job stress between
destructive leadership and work outcomes concerning turnover intention. Mediating role of job
stress was investigated through (Baron & Kenny, 1986) approach.
This particular approach define mediator as a variable that explains the relationship
between independent variable and dependent variable. For this particular analysis, the research
study when analyzing has to meet the criteria by taking into account the four steps concerning
through path analysis an indicated in Chapter 4. Baron & Kenny (1986) analysis is provided by
Preacher and Hayes (2008) macro for multiple mediation for assessing, measuring and
comparing indirect effects in simple and multiple mediator models (Behavior Research
Methods). The step 1 is also known as Path a must account for the relationship between
independent variable and mediator. Step 2 is also known as path b must account for the
relationship between mediator and dependent variable. Step 3 also known as Path c must
explain the relationship between independent and dependent variable. Finally step 4 also known
as Path c introducing the mediator between independent and dependent variable. If this
relationship of c becomes significant it will indicate to be partial mediation and if the
relationship becomes insignificant it will indicate full mediation. Having all the p-values of path
a, b, c and c significant indicates partial mediation. When only the p-value of c is insignificant
it indicates full mediation. If p-values of path a, b, and c are significant or insignificant it other
than path c it indicates no mediation of the variable between the independent and dependent
variable.
Destructive leadership was regressed on turnover intention by using a proposed mediator
Job stress in multiple mediation analysis based on Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation
provided by Preacher and Hayes (2008). This analysis by Baron & Kenny (1986) is considered
most authentic and foundation for mediation analysis. The results showed the path analysis with
their respective coefficient values, standard error and the p-values of all the paths. Path a shows
relationship of independent variable and Mediating variable having positive significant
relationship between destructive leadership and job stress (B= 0.3878, p< 0.00). Path b shows
the relationship of direct effects of mediator on dependent variable having positive significant

127
relationship between Job Stress and Turnover Intention (B=0.2935, p<0.0001). Path c shows
the relationship of Total effect of independent variable on dependent variable having positive
significant relation between destructive leadership and turnover intention (B= 0.4495, p<0.00).
Finally, path c shows the relationship of direct effect of independent variable involving the
mediating variable on dependent variable having significant relationship between destructive
leadership, job stress and job satisfaction (B=0.3357, p<0.00). As the path a, b, c and c are
significant therefore, there exist Partial mediation of job stress between destructive leadership
and job satisfaction. It can also be confirmed from the beta coefficients of all the paths. The
coefficients shows positive correlation between the destructive leadership and turnover intention
at path c and the value of coefficient decreases at path c showing that there exist another
variable that causing an effect and decrease in the relationship of independent and dependent
variable and that variable happens to be the mediating variable Job stress. So from the path
analysis there exists Partial mediation of mediating variable Job Stress in this relationship. As
mediation exist in this relationship, further Sobel (1990) test was performed on this relationship
to confirm the indirect effect of mediating variable between independent variable and dependent
variable. Sobel test (1990) was provided by Preacher & Hayes (2004) SPSS macro for simple
mediation for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Sobel test was applied to
check the amount of influence left by destructive Leadership on turnover intention. Sobel test
also supported the findings concerning Partial mediation (z =3.5791, p=.0003). As the result
suggest in comparison of effect size of destructive leadership on turnover intention through job
stress that direct effect is more as compare with indirect effect. The value of indirect effect ab
is 0.1138 where as direct effect with controlling of mediator path c is 0.3357. Cohen (1988)
supported that effect size ab is smaller but direct effect is greater in the analysis, so direct effect
is stronger.
Previous studies also authenticate the results of having a direct relation of destructive
leadership and turnover intention also the result showed partial mediation confirms the point that
there is actual existence of stress factor that contributes in the role of destructive leadership that
lead towards high turnover intention in the call centers of telecommunication sector. The studies
contributed less attention to the destructive leadership behaviors and destructive behaviors
described by the mediating effect of stress. Also the study of negative outcomes investigated
under with destructive behavior can prove to less or more that lead towards negative outcomes
128
(like counterproductive behavior, abusive supervision, unethical behavior). Most investigated
outcomes when it comes to destructive leadership are stress and welfare probably, as it appears
that the relationship between them are opposite like destructive leadership having a positive
relation with stress and negative relation with welfare. Long and enduring elucidation to the
destructive leadership behavior from an individual that is likely to be in charge, causes stress and
escort towards the lower welfare and security are all examined in the sample studies of stress
(Chen & Kao, 2009; Tepper, 2000) and (Burris & colleagues, 2008; Hobman, Restubog, Bordia,
& Tang; 2009) for the welfare. Conversely, Ferris et al., (2007) debated that bullying at
workplace direct towards the loss of control in followers and employees and therefore heightens
stress that may lead to increase turnover. Hence the hypothesis H6 is fully supported or accepted.
So to the research question: has job stress mediated the relationship between destructive
leadership and turnover intention according to the respondents in this study? The answer is yes.
As the relationship is tested in developing country like Pakistan, where culture
differences and work environment does matter than developed countries so does the top level
management leadership. When job stress is involved in the relationship, it has played the role of
predictor or antecedent of turnover intention when stress level is high. The setup of call centers
are almost the same as any in any part of the world and organization, the difference is in the
perception of the employees and the leadership behaviors of the top level management or CEO.
Parker and DeCotiis (1983) identified anxiety and time stress as two dimensions of job stress.
Both dimensions are taken when stress is concerned in organizations dealing in services sector.

5.3.3 Mediating effects of Job stress between Emotional exhaustion and Job
Satisfaction

The seventh objective of the study was to determine mediating role of job stress between
emotional exhaustion and work outcomes concerning job satisfaction. Mediating role of job
stress was investigated through (Baron & Kenny, 1986) approach.

This particular approach define mediator as a variable that explains the relationship
between independent variable and dependent variable. For this particular analysis, the research
have to meet the criteria by taking into account the four steps concerning through path analysis

129
an indicated in Chapter 4. Baron & Kenny (1986) analysis is provided by Preacher and Hayes
(2008) for multiple mediation. The step 1 is also known as Path a must account for the
relationship between independent variable and mediator. Step 2 is also known as path b must
account for the relationship between mediator and dependent variable . Step 3 also known as
Path c must explain the relationship between independent and dependent variable. Finally step
4 also known as Path c introducing the mediator between independent and dependent variable.
If this relationship of c becomes significant it will indicate to be partial mediation and if the
relationship becomes insignificant it will indicate full mediation. Having all the p-values of path
a, b, c and c significant indicates partial mediation. When only the p-value of c is insignificant
it indicates full mediation. If p-values of path a, b, and c are significant or insignificant it other
than path c it indicates no mediation of the variable between the independent and dependent
variable.
Emotional Exhaustion was regressed on job satisfaction by using a proposed mediator
Job stress in multiple mediation analysis based on Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation
provided by Preacher and Hayes (2008). This analysis by Baron & Kenny (1986) is considered
most authentic for mediation analysis. The results showed the path analysis with their respective
coefficient values, standard error and the p-values of all the paths. Path a shows relationship of
independent variable and Mediating variable having significant relationship between emotional
exhaustion and job stress (B= .3427, p< .00). Path b shows the relationship of direct effects of
mediator on dependent variable having insignificant relationship between Job Stress and Job
Satisfaction (B= -.0922, p>.2890). Path c shows the relationship of Total effect of independent
variable on dependent variable having significant relation between emotional exhaustion and job
satisfaction (B= -.2537, p<.0001). Finally, path c shows the relationship of direct effect of
independent variable involving the mediating variable on dependent variable having significant
relationship between emotional exhaustion, job stress and job satisfaction (B= -.2221, p<.0020).
As the path a, c and c are significant but path b is insignificant therefore, there exist no
mediation of job stress between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. It can also be
confirmed from the beta coefficients of all the paths. The coefficients shows negative coefficient
between the emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction at path c and the value of coefficient
increases at path c showing that there exist no mediation of mediating variable in this
relationship. Previous studies also authenticate the results of having a direct relation of emotional
130
exhaustion and job satisfaction but as the result showed no mediation confirms the point that
there is actually no place for stress factor when there exist emotional exhaustion in the
organization.
Emotionally exhausted employees adversely affect organizational outcomes like decline
in job satisfaction. In many research studies it is stated that occupational stress is considered as
job stress in an organizational context. Two main dimensions of stress are dealt with:
psychological and physiological. Numerous studies results demonstrated that job stress has
negative effect on job satisfaction and negatively related to turnover intentions, means many
studies revealed that stress has been related with turnover intentions. Folkman and Lazarus
(1984) cognitive theory of stress, proposes with the intention that at times when a person is
disclosed to probable stress agent, that particular person enlists into noesis (cognitive)
assessments of the stress agent (stressor) and determines whether it will induces damage and or
handled or controlled.
As the result showed no mediation confirms from the cognitive theory of stress to the
point that there is actually no impact of stress factor when there already exist a negative stress
agent emotional exhaustion in the organization as the condition been controlled even in the
presence of stress. The results revealed that the presence of stress is not required but there exist
direct relation between the two.
Hence the hypothesis H7 is not supported or accepted. So to the research question: has
job stress mediated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction according
to the respondents in this study? The answer is no. As the relationship is tested in developing
country like Pakistan, where culture differences, perception and work behavior and environment
does matter other than developed countries so does the top level management leadership. The
reason of insignificant relation between job stress and job satisfaction in call centers context
depend on various factors like gender i.e. male employee handle stress conditions better than
females as there exist cultural and environmental pressure that affects females more than males
in the same working conditions or age factor i.e. young employees take stress as a challenge in
their everyday life and at work. They are more use to handling stress conditions than old age
employees as they are not been able to cope with stress like young ones so it becomes nullified
or career level of employee including early, middle and late career makes it insignificant as they
perceive stress differently on their abilities to cope with stress and anxiety. On the basis of their
131
designation i.e. for every call center the training mechanisms are different whether they are
customer or non-customer interface, for some it is nullifying and most importantly
environmental working climate and cultural settings plays as a base for overall perception of
employees in an organization.

5.3.4 Mediating effects of Job stress between Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover
Intention

The eighth objective of the study was to determine mediating role of job stress between
emotional exhaustion and work outcomes concerning turnover intention. Mediating role of job
stress was investigated through (Baron & Kenny, 1986) approach.
This particular approach define mediator as a variable that explains the relationship
between independent variable and dependent variable. For this particular analysis, the research
study when analyzing has to meet the criteria by taking into account the four steps concerning
through path analysis an indicated in Chapter 4. Baron & Kenny (1986) analysis is provided by
Preacher and Hayes (2008) macro for multiple mediation for assessing, measuring and
comparing indirect effects in simple and multiple mediator models (Behavior Research
Methods). The step 1 is also known as Path a must account for the relationship between
independent variable and mediator. Step 2 is also known as path b must account for the
relationship between mediator and dependent variable . Step 3 also known as Path c must
explain the relationship between independent and dependent variable. Finally step 4 also known
as Path c introducing the mediator between independent and dependent variable. If this
relationship of c becomes significant it will indicate to be partial mediation and if the
relationship becomes insignificant it will indicate full mediation. Having all the p-values of path
a, b, c and c significant indicates partial mediation. When only the p-value of c is insignificant
it indicates full mediation. If p-values of path a, b, and c are significant or insignificant it other
than path c it indicates no mediation of the variable between the independent and dependent
variable.
Emotional Exhaustion was regressed on turnover intention by using a proposed mediator
Job stress in multiple mediation analysis based on Baron & Kenny (1986) steps of mediation
provided by Preacher and Hayes (2008). This analysis by Baron & Kenny (1986) is considered
132
most authentic and foundation for mediation analysis. The results showed the path analysis with
their respective coefficient values, standard error and the p-values of all the paths. Path a shows
relationship of independent variable and Mediating variable having positive significant
relationship between emotional exhaustion and job stress (B= .3427, p< 0.00). Path b shows the
relationship of direct effects of mediator on dependent variable having positive significant
relationship between Job Stress and Turnover Intention (B=.3967, p<0.00). Path c shows the
relationship of Total effect of independent variable on dependent variable having positive
significant relation between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention (B= .1897, p<0.0002).
Finally, path c shows the relationship of direct effect of independent variable involving the
mediating variable on dependent variable having significant relationship between emotional
exhaustion, job stress and job satisfaction (B=.0538, p>0.3894). As the path a, b and c are
significant and path c insignificant therefore, there exist Full mediation of job stress between
emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction. It was also confirmed from the beta coefficients of all
the paths. The coefficients shows positive relation between the emotional exhaustion and
turnover intention at path c and the value of coefficient decreases twice as coefficient at path
c as compare to path c showing that there exist another variable that causing an effect and
decrease in the direct relationship of independent and dependent variable and that variable
happens to be the mediating variable Job stress. So from the path analysis there exists Full
mediation of mediating variable Job Stress in this relationship. As mediation exist in this
relationship, further Sobel (1990) test was performed on this relationship to confirm the indirect
effect of mediating variable between independent variable and dependent variable. Sobel test
was applied to check the amount of influence left by emotional exhaustion on turnover intention.
sobel test also supported the findings concerning Full mediation using indirect effect by normal
distribution (z =4.4643, p=.0000). As the result suggest in comparison of effect size of emotional
exhaustion on turnover intention through job stress that direct effect is small as compare to
indirect effect. The value of indirect effect ab is 0.1360 where as direct effect with controlling
of mediator path c is 0.0538. Cohen (1988) supported that effect size ab is stronger but direct
effect is smaller in the analysis, so indirect effect is stronger supporting the mechanism of full
mediation between emotional exhaustion, job stress and turnover intention.
Previous studies also authenticate the results of having a direct relation of emotional
exhaustion and turnover intention also the result showed full mediation confirms the point that
133
there is actual existence of stress factor that contributes in the role of emotional exhaustion that
lead towards high turnover intention in the call centers of telecommunication sector. . As an
element of burnout, emotional exhaustion repetitively been related with the stress associated end
results. Emotional exhaustion forecasts amplified ranks of sickness, weariness, and mistreat also
dejection, anxiousness and bad temperament (Der Aa, Bloemer & Henseler, 2012). In many
research studies it is stated that occupational stress is considered as job stress in an
organizational context. Two main dimensions of stress are dealt with: psychological and
physiological. Numerous studies results demonstrated that job stress has negative effect on job
satisfaction and positively related to turnover intentions, means many studies revealed that stress
has been related with turnover intentions. The intention to quit is lowered both indirectly and
directly by means of emotional exhaustion (Ducharme, Knudsen & Roman, 2008). Golparvar,
Nyeri & Mahdad (2009), Maslach & Jackson (1981), Bass (1990), Cordes & Dougherty (1993),
Lee & Ashforth (1993) contributed towards the relationship of emotional exhaustion and job
stress as being positively related, pointing emotional exhaustion the predictor of job stress and
further extending the relationship towards the consequences concerning job stress as the
predictor of turnover intention.
Hence the hypothesis H8 is fully supported or accepted. So to the research question: has
job stress mediated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and turnover intention
according to the respondents in this study? The answer is yes. As the relationship is tested in
developing country like Pakistan, where culture differences and work environment does matter
than developed countries so does the emotional level of employees when they are exposed to
prolonged exhaustion. When job stress is involved in the relationship, it has played the role of
predictor or antecedent of turnover intention when stress level is high. The setup of call centers
are almost the same as any in any part of the world and organization, the difference is in the
perception of the employees and the emotionally exhausted employees at low level of
organization. As the employees feel pressure of work and stress being exhausted their ultimate
intention is to quit their job after certain period of time as they are not interested in promotion
due to the fact of being at low level and heavy in strength, the chances of being promoted is very
thin even when an employee has served for 4 to 5 years or so. Parker and DeCotiis (1983)
identified anxiety and time stress as two dimensions of job stress. Both dimensions are taken
when stress is concerned in organizations dealing in services sector.
134
5.4 Summarized Results Table

The following Table summarizes the results of hypotheses testing.

Table 5.1
Summary of Hypotheses testing Results
Hypothesis Hypothesized Relationship Results
H1 Destructive Leadership Job Satisfaction Accepted
H2 Destructive Leadership Turnover Intention Accepted
H3 Emotional Exhaustion Turnover Intention Accepted
H4 Emotional Exhaustion Job Satisfaction Accepted
H5 Destructive Leadership Job Stress Job Satisfaction Not Accepted
H6 Destructive Leadership Job Stress Turnover Intention Accepted
H7 Emotional Exhaustion Job Stress Job Satisfaction Not Accepted
H8 Emotional Exhaustion Job Stress Turnover Intention Accepted

135
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND


RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter focuses on conclusions and recommendations based on the findings as


discussed previously in chapter 5. In discussion regarding findings and limitations faced during
research conclusions and what implications these findings will lead to in call centers of
telecommunication sector while in the end there are some recommendations for future research.

6.1 Conclusion
The present conducted study tested and analyzed the relationship between destructive
leadership, emotional exhaustion; job stress on work comes concerning job satisfaction and
turnover intention using different analysis techniques. This particular step of using different
techniques was taken into account to cross-examine the relationships and to enhance the
accuracy of the results. Both the direct, indirect or mediating relationships among the proposed
variables involved in the study were analyzed and studied.
The foremost raison d'tre (rationale) following this conducted study was to explore and
examine relationship between destructive leadership, emotional exhaustion, job stress, job
satisfaction and turnover intention in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan. The results of
this study are theoretically supported that derived hypotheses between the proposed independent
variables (destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion) and dependent variables (job
satisfaction and turnover intention) and a mediating variable; job stress. Destructive leadership
was found significant in relation to job satisfaction and turnover intention whereas destructive
leadership was also found to be the predictor of job stress in telecommunication call centers in
Pakistan. Job stress significantly mediated between destructive leadership and turnover intention
however when destructive leadership and job stress were processed to check the mediating
effects of job stress on job satisfaction both the variables remain insignificant predictors. These
findings showed that mediation of job stress did not take place between destructive leadership
and job satisfaction in call centers of telecommunication sector in Pakistan. However partial

136
mediation takes place between destructive leadership and turnover intention showing that job
stress does intervene no matter to some extent when it comes to turnover of employees in the
presence of destructive leadership in organization.
Emotional exhaustion was found significant in relation to job satisfaction and turnover
intention whereas emotional exhaustion was also found to be the predictor of job stress in
telecommunication call centers in Pakistan. Job stress significantly mediated between emotional
exhaustion and turnover intention however when emotional exhaustion and job stress were
processed to check the mediating effects of job stress on job satisfaction both the variables
remain insignificant predictors. These findings showed that mediation of job stress did not take
place between emotional exhaustion and job satisfaction in call centers of telecommunication
sector in Pakistan. However full mediation takes place between emotional exhaustion and
turnover intention showing that job stress does intervene to great extent when it comes to
turnover of employees in the presence of emotional exhaustion in organization. As job
satisfaction and turnover intention are the most evaluated variables when it comes to measure
work outcomes but so far study related destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion were
taken into account in the context of Pakistan especially at the low level non-managerial
employees where stress level is high due to continuous aiding and responding to customers or
clients calls and this study highlighted job satisfaction and turnover intention as major problems
in this services sector. The study also highlighted the contribution of leaders influence and
behavior especially negative acts, age and working hours of employees, time pressure and
anxiety that they face every day in the context of being satisfied with their job or might it lead
them towards thinking to turnover.
The results of the conducted study are coherent and uniform with studies of Locke,
(1976), Spector, (1985), Galup, Klein & Jiang, (2008), Cranny et al., (1992), Friday & Friday,
(2003), Madlock, (2006a, 2006b), Richmond & McCroskey, (2000), Hilgerman, (1998),
Richmond et al., (1980), Lashbrook, (1997).
Previous researches showed how emotional exhaustion and low level of job satisfaction
also to higher level of turnover intention are associated with different negative outcomes like
absenteeism, intent to quit, and several others which might put employees at high risk (Maslach
et al., 2001; Cameron et al., 1994).

137
Prior studies suggested that leadership style stage an imperative role in determining job
satisfaction of employees (Lashbrook, 1997). Destructive leadership also causes widespread
negative consequences as a whole on the organization. Being a prolonged victim of such
negative behavior at workplace also cuts down the commitment and satisfaction towards
organization, reduces productivity, enhances absenteeism, absence due to sickness, and most
importantly predisposition and inclination to leave, quit and turnover (Vartia, 2001; Keashly &
Jagatic, 2003; Hoel & Cooper, 2000; Quine, 1999; McCormack, Casimir, Djurkovic & Yang,
2009; Kivimaki, Elovainio, and Vahtera, 2000; Einarsen et al., 2003). Emotional exhaustion
being widely used subscale for burnout in predicting burnout, (Singh et al., 1994) emotional
exhaustion scale and Turnover intention scale (Ganesan and Weitz, 1996) were used for
measurement purposes and results revealed higher level of emotional exhaustion would lead
higher level of turnover intention.
Previous studies mentioned the importance of stress to people to distinguish the facing
stress in their daily routine of work. Many studies found the significance in the relationship of
job stress, turnover and job satisfaction as inversely related (Pathak, 2012).
From the evidence by Ferris et al., (2007) debated that bullying at workplace direct
towards the loss of control in followers and employees and therefore heightens stress that may
lead to increase turnover.
More importantly, indirect effects of job stress on job satisfaction and turnover intention
have not been examined in the context of research on dark side of leadership and emotions.
The conducted research also had quite a few methodological and theoretical strengths.
The research used huge and hefty literature base for its theoretical framework. More than
hundred and twenty articles from reputed academic journals in the fields of leadership, emotions
in organization, Psychology, marketing, management and organizational behavior, were used in
this study. Firstly, it was a field study that has been done in an actual industry setting. Secondly,
the sample size was large enough to draw desired results as expected. Thirdly, the size of the
research was comparatively to the point probably increased the number and accuracy of the
responses. Finally, the respondents selected were quite varied in terms of having duration of
work and experience in the job, in the industry they worked, and the diverse instructor under
whom they trained.

138
6.2 Implications of Study

The findings of the study have both theoretical and practical implications and proposition
from theoretical point of view of the study undertaken. The study supports suggestions and
extends and explores the previous work on leadership and emotions especially uncovering its
dark aspects with job stress, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Firstly, it examines the
conceptual similarities and differences of two different perspectives of dark side concerning
destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion. Secondly, it promotes a theoretical model
which integrates these perspectives with work outcomes like job satisfaction and turnover
intention. Thirdly, it examines and explores the dark side of leadership and emotions having
more favorable impact on job outcomes. Lastly it cross validates the model of Malik, Bashir &
Malik, (2013) in the local setting of Pakistan. From the literature and empirical evidence it is
proven that destructive leadership and emotional exhaustion act as a stressor and stress is
generated or increased by the presence of such potential stressor causing to effect job satisfaction
and turnover intention. Furthermore, the organizational researchers have identified and
highlighted job stress, job satisfaction and turnover intention as important work related factors
(Spector, 1997; Ganster & Schaubroeck, 1991). In terms of theoretical implications, there might
be some other mediating variables that intervene between the relationship of destructive
leadership and turnover intention. There might be many reasons behind the insignificant
relationship between job stress and job satisfaction apart from the demographics like gender, age,
career level, or education. These might be training procedures that organizations provide before
starting their jobs formally. Every organization have their own ways and procedure of getting the
job done. Apart from above mentioned demographics, salary package and incentives might be
the reason to stay on the job even so the stress is high and nerve wrecking. It might be the
relationship among the fellow members or colleagues at work that may support and comfort
them while feeling stressed out. Such aspects are need to be investigated in for future research.
In terms of practical recommendations the study propose by providing empirical evidence
to enhance the level of job satisfaction at work and lower down the intent to quit of the
employees working at the non-managerial low level of the organization. By reducing stress level
while on the job, decreasing demand and lowering the burden of extra work, reducing work
hours to avoid pressure and ultimately exhaustion of being emotionally compromise.

139
Furthermore, the influence of leader accounts a lot and this can be controlled if higher authority
gives a thought on this subject by bringing change in their behavior and communication with
other employees at middle and low level. Doing so will prevent organizations from facing
financial crisis when they come across high rates of turnover and huge sums of money was
invested on hiring, recruiting and training employees. Gradual adaptation of both practical
suggestions taking into account may lead the organization towards higher productivity in terms
of financial productivity and satisfied employees.

6.3 Limitations and Recommendations of the Study


This study cross sectional in nature and a survey research design to examine the
relationship of two aspects of dark side; concerning leadership and emotions with work
outcomes variables. This design of survey not allowed to analyze the cause and effect of
relationships; for future studies may adopt an experimental design to replicate the findings of this
conducted study. Particularly with respect to mediating effect destructive leadership and
emotional exhaustion in between job stress, job satisfaction and turnover intention will be
interesting to investigate. Dark side aspects of leadership must be investigated in varied
department level, managerial levels using bottom-up and top-down approach. More over the
sample of this study is only from Lahore sector which makes the issue of generalizability as
limitation related with this study. Time constraint is another limitation as employees had very
short time to think and appropriately fill the questionnaire as they were tilt towards their work in
attending calls and handling queries of clients. Another feature of this study is the use of self-
reported questionnaire. This method assumes that the respondents are rational, conscious of their
own feelings and behavioral tendency. An advantage of this method is its reliability and validity
can be objectively established. However, self-report measures do have a number of
shortcomings, like the confounding effect of response set, social desirability, and inadequate
memory. Furthermore, certain motives may lack conscious representations; and self-report
measures may fail to deal with the issues of self-deceptive process. To overcome these
shortcomings and also in line with the concept of triangulation, other measuring methods, e.g.,
interviewing, behavioral observation, or projective techniques may be adopted in future
researches of leadership and emotions. As the model was tested in the Lahore region, it will
prove to be very useful if this model to be field tested with other samples. Multiple samples from
140
different countries having diverse cultures would provide very useful insights on how other
cultures perceive these relationships. As the study is quantitative in nature, future research can be
done by conducting qualitative study to check the reliability of the results. Another variable
organizational commitment of employees can be tested in further research. The study presented
the perspectives and employees. But future research can be conducted on the perspectives
including customers and employees both to increase accord in findings. The employees at non-
managerial low level were taken into study. Future research can be based on managerial
employees or even managers at middle level. The study was conducted only on inbound call
centers. Future study can be focused on outbound and outsources call centers. The sample was
taken from Telecommunication industry companies. Other industry and services sector should be
included also face to face customer contact centers for future study. This particular topic should
be investigated in other departments of organizations such as, face to face interaction with
customer, Sales and Marketing department. The study conducted has provided the association
between destructive leadership, emotional exhaustion, job stress, job satisfaction and turnover
intention. In future, the extent of these relationships could be investigated.

141
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APPENDIX-I
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE

175
The following survey explores your perceptions regarding the leadership behaviors and
emotions concerning its impact on work outcomes involving employees satisfaction level and
their intention of turnover with an involvement of stress in their daily job routines.

SECTION A BACKGROUND INFORMATION

This section of the questionnaire refers to background or biographical information. Although we


are aware of the sensitivity of the questions in this section, the information will allow us to
compare groups of respondents. Once again, we assure you that your response will remain
anonymous. Your cooperation is appreciated.

Gender
Male 1
Female 2
Age
Up to 25 1
26 45 2
46-55 3
56+ 4
Educational Qualification
Matriculation 1
Intermediate 2
Baccalaureate Degree 3
Master Degree 4
Marital Status
Single 1
Married 2
Divorced 3
Widowed 4
Designation/Position (Please Specify)

_____________________________

176
SECTION B

To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements. Please indicate your answer
using the following 5-point scale where:
1. = Strongly disagree
2. = Disagree
3. = Neutral
4. = Agree
5. = Strongly Agree

Disagree

Disagree
Strongly

Strongly
Neutral

Agree

Agree
Destructive Leadership
1 My supervisor makes subordinates stupid 1 2 3 4 5
2 My supervisor behaves arrogant 1 2 3 4 5
3 My supervisor treats people differently or unfairly 1 2 3 4 5
4 My supervisor is unpleasant 1 2 3 4 5
5 My supervisor shows violent tendencies 1 2 3 4 5
My supervisor punishes subordinates who make
6 1 2 3 4 5
mistakes or do not reach set goals
7 My supervisor uses threats to get his/her way 1 2 3 4 5
8 My supervisor puts unreasonable demands 1 2 3 4 5
9 My supervisor takes the honor of subordinates work 1 2 3 4 5
10 My supervisor puts own needs ahead of the groups 1 2 3 4 5
11 My supervisor does not trust his/her subordinates 1 2 3 4 5
12 My supervisor does not keep promises 1 2 3 4 5
13 My supervisor does not dare to confront others 1 2 3 4 5
14 My supervisor does not show up among subordinates 1 2 3 4 5
15 My supervisor does not show an active interest 1 2 3 4 5
16 My supervisor does not take a grip on things 1 2 3 4 5
17 My supervisor shows insecurity in his/her role 1 2 3 4 5
18 My supervisor is bad at structuring an planning 1 2 3 4 5
19 My supervisor gives unclear instructions 1 2 3 4 5

177
20 My supervisor behaves confused or uncertain manner 1 2 3 4 5
Emotional Exhaustion
Working with customers directly puts too much stress
21 1 2 3 4 5
on me
I feel emotionally drained by the pressure my work puts
22 1 2 3 4 5
on me
I feel frustrated because of working directly with
23 1 2 3 4 5
customers
24 I feel I work too hard trying to satisfy customers 1 2 3 4 5
I feel burned out from trying to meet top managements
25 1 2 3 4 5
expectations
Job Satisfaction
26 My job gives me a sense of accomplishment 1 2 3 4 5
27 My job is exciting 1 2 3 4 5
28 My job is satisfying 1 2 3 4 5
29 I am really doing something worthwhile in my job 1 2 3 4 5

Turnover Intention
I do not think I will spend all my career with this
30 1 2 3 4 5
company
I intend to leave this company within a short period of
31 1 2 3 4 5
time
32 I have decided to quit this company 1 2 3 4 5
33 I am looking at some other jobs now, in the same field 1 2 3 4 5
If I do not get promoted soon, I will look for a job in a
34 1 2 3 4 5
different company
Job Stress
Working here makes it hard to spend enough time with
35 1 2 3 4 5
my family.
36 Working here leaves little time for other activities. 1 2 3 4 5
I spend so much time at work I cant even take a simple
37 1 2 3 4 5
walk to relax.

38 I feel like I never have a day off. 1 2 3 4 5

178
I frequently get the feeling I am married to the
39 1 2 3 4 5
institution.
I sometimes dread the telephone ringing at home
40 1 2 3 4 5
because the call might be job-related.
There are lots of times when my job drives me right up
41 1 2 3 4 5
a wall.
42 My job gets to me more than it should 1 2 3 4 5
Sometimes when I think about my job I get a tight
43 1 2 3 4 5
feeling in my chest.
44 I have felt fidgety or nervous as a result of my job. 1 2 3 4 5

45 I have too much work and too little time to do it 1 2 3 4 5


Too many people at my level in the company get
46 1 2 3 4 5
burned out by job demands.

Thank you for your co-operation in completing this questionnaire.

179
Sr. no List of Telecommunication Call centers in Lahore Total no.

1 Mobilink 3

2 Ufone 2

3 Telenor 1

4 Zong 1

5 Warid Telecom 1

180