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Faculty of Chemical Engineering

UiTM Pulau Pinang


At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:

Describe the importance of process control


and significance of automatic control
Sketch the standard P&ID drawing
Develop P&ID for any given chemical
processes
Explain the various types of controllers
Design/construct/propose suitable control
strategies.
What if.

.you drive your car with


your eyes shut?
Objective :

To adjust the manipulated variable to maintain


the controlled variable at its set point in spite of
disturbances
1. Safety
2. Product quality
3. Environmental regulations
4. Operation Constraints
5. Economics
Safety
Pressure
Temperature
Product quality specifications and production
rate
Maintain product quality (composition, purity, color,
et.c) on a continuous basis
Maintain plant production rate at minimum cost
Environmental Regulations
Flow rates of effluents from plants must be within
allowable limits
Protect the environment by preventing emissions and
minimizing waste
Operational constraints
Tanks must not overflow
Distillation columns must not be flooded
Economics
Economical utilization of raw materials, energy,
capital, human labor
Why we need to control a process?
Because processes are dynamic changes always
occurred

What does a control system do?


Maintain certain variables within some limit
e.g temperature in a room
There are many applications where part or all
of a process has to be controlled. e.g.
temperature
pressure
flow
level
composition
others
Automatic Control
Maintaining the process variables (temperature,
pressures, flows, compositions) at some desired
operating value.

Systems that control the variables without requiring


intervention from the operator.
System
input
output
SYSTEM
VARIABLES

Controlled variables the variable that must be maintained at


the desired value (set point)

Manipulated variables the variable that need to be regulated


in order to maintain the controlled variable at the set point

Disturbances variables that tend to drive the controlled


variable away from the set point

c. Uncontrolled variables. Variables in the process that are not


controlled.
Control Objective (Setpoint):
Maintain the temperature in the room (27oC)

Controlled variable:
Temperature in the room

Manipulated variable:
Speed of the fan

Disturbance:
Weather
Exercise

Select one control objective from a simple process and


determine the controlled variable, manipulated variable and
disturbances of the process.
Steam in

Fluid in Fluid out


Heat Exchanger
Ti T desired

Steam out
Steam in
(Manipulated variables)
(Controlled variables)
Fluid in Fluid out
Heat Exchanger
Ti T desired
(Load disturbances )

Steam out

(Uncontrolled variables)
Measurement (M)
measure the variable to be controlled.
sensor-transmitter combination

Decision (D)
Controller decides what to do to maintain the variables
at its desired value
feedback controller

Action (A)
System must take an action based on controllers
decision
control valve (final control element)
Another important term

Set point (SP)-desired value of the control variable.

Open loop system - The behavior with no


controllers in the system

Closed loop system the controller is connected to


the process, comparing the set point to the
controlled variable and determining and taking
corrective action
Action
SP Decide
Steam in
TC

TT Measure
Fluid in Fluid out
Heat Exchanger
Ti T desired

Steam out

Measured = T desired (sensor transmitter)


Control = Steam in
Action = valve (final control element)
SP

Steam in
TC
(Manipulated variables)

TT
Fluid in Fluid out
Heat Exchanger
Ti T desired

(Load disturbances ) (Controlled variables)


Steam out
(Uncontrolled variables)
Question
- How to ensure that the level in the tank remains at
or near the set point?
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram

Process & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID)


Purpose
1. To indicate the instruments or control devices attached to the process.
2. To indicate the control system architecture associated with the process.

How it is done?
Standard symbols and notations representing instruments or control devices are placed to
the pipings and vessels.Standard symbols and notations are available from ISA-5.1(1984)
standard.

Methodology?

Process piping and sub-piping

A thick straight line represent main process piping

A thin straight line represent process sub-piping either


to instruments or by-pass process line. PG

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram

Symbols
Instruments / control devices:

A circle representing locally A circle with horizontal line A circle with horizontal line
mounted instrument representing control room inside a square representing
panel mounted instrument. its function in DCS.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


P&ID: Function Devices

Function devices

I
< P
Square root Integrator Low selector Current to Pneumatic
extractor Converter

Signals

Electrical signal (low current


or low voltage e.g. 4-20 mA).
Straight dashed line

Pneumatic signal e.g.


// // // // 3-15 psig or 0-60 psig.
Straight line with //

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram

Final control elements

Control
valves =

Manual = O
valve R Not darkened
Always open

Manual = O
valve
Darkened Always
R closed

Solenoid =
valve

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


P&ID: Notations

Naming rule
Instruments or devices are noted by 2 to 4 letters.

1st 2nd 3rd 4th


Measurement Control device Device/ Condition Condition
Common Common control Common condition: Common condition:
measurement: devices: H = High H = High
P = Pressure I = Indicator L = Low L = Low
T = Temperature C = Controller
L = Level R = Recorder
F = Flow T = Transmitter
A = Alarm
S = Switch
G = Gauge

Examples
See Smith & Corripio (2006) as in Appendix A, Table A-1

LT LT LC
120 120 120

Level transmitter no. 120 Level transmitter no. 120 Level controller no. 120
installed to vessel panel mounted, control room. in DCS, control room.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram

Naming rule
1 2 3 4
Measurement Device Device / Condition Condition
P Pressure C Controller C Controller H High
T Temperature T Transmitter T Transmitter L Low
L Level R Recorder R Recorder
F Flow I Indicator H High
A Analysis A Alarm L Low
S Switch / V Valve
G Safety
Gauge
Complete guide on P&ID symbols & notations are available from ISA 5.1 (R1984)
Examples

PC Pressure Controller PCC


PIC Pressure Indicating Controller PTC
LG Level Gauge PTR
No such
FR Flow Recorder PIR
devices yet.
TAL Temperature Alarm Low TRR
TALL Temperature Alarm Low Low TRA
TAHL Temperature Alarm High Low TAV

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


1.3 Construction P&ID of
Chemical Process
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram

Examples
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram

Examples Instrument piping - thin line

LT
120
Unit 1: Process & Instrumentation Diagram

Examples Instrument piping + field instrument thin line + circle

LT
120
P&ID

Examples

thin process line

LT
120

thick process line

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


3 principle type of signals in process industries

Signal Range Symbol

Pneumatic 3 15 psig

Electrical 4 20 mA
1 to 5 V

Digital/discrete

Usually signal is in percent

Example 0-100% = 3-15 psig


Signal are used by devices transmitters,
controllers, final control element to
communicate.
A transmitter converts the sensor output to a signal level
appropriate for input to a controller (usually a computer)
This signal tends to be a current, in the range 4 to 20 mA
Transmitters tend to be direct acting: the output signal
increases as the measured variable increases
Commercial transmitters have adjustable input range (span)
and zero
Change type of signal using transducer /
converter

Example of transducer
Current to pneumatic (I/P)
Digital-to-analog (D to A)
Pneumatic to current (P/I)
Steam in
I/P TC
(Manipulated variables)

TT
Fluid in Fluid out
Heat Exchanger
Ti T desired

(Load disturbances ) (Controlled variables)


Steam out
(Uncontrolled variables)
A
SP

TT TC
B

FO

Identify the following variables.


i. Manipulated variables
ii. Disturbance variables
iii. Controlled variables
Identify the following variables.
i. Manipulated variables
ii. Disturbance variables
iii. Controlled variables
P&ID: Process Control Loop

Process control loop

Process Transmitter Controller Transducer Control Valve

T C I/P

Flow control loop

Flow
Unit 1: Process Control Loop

Process control loop

Pressure
Flow
Level
Process Temperature
pH

dP cell
Capacitance I/P
Sensor Radar, Sonic
Magnetic
Resistance
IR/Laser

Transmitter 4-20 mA
1-5 Vdc

Controller PID
Fuzzy logic

Transducer 4-20 mA
3-15 psig

Linear
Control valve Equal percentage

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


For process that the controlled variable
deviates from set point because of
disturbance regulatory control

For process that the most important


disturbance is the set point itself servo
control
Unit 1: Terminology

Terminology I/P TC


Manipulated variable Heat exchanger TT

(saturated steam)
100C 80C

30C
100 L/min controlled variable
(temperature of
Load variable sterilised saline)
(Flow, temperature 95C
Uncontrolled variable
of saline solution)
(Saturated steam)


Controlled Manipulated variable Load variable Set point
variable
Sym: m, CO, MV Sym: Sym: r, SP, SV
Sym: c, PV
A process being All other The desired
The parameters adjusted (controlled) affecting operating
that indicate by a final control variable, other condition.
product quality or element (such as than the one
the operating control valve, being
condition of the damper, motor manipulated.
process. (L.M. speed). (L.M. Gordon)
Gordon)
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Unit 1: Control strategies

Feedback control I/P TC

Heat exchanger TT
Manipulated variable
(saturated steam) 100C 80C
30C controlled variable
Load variable
100 L/min (temperature of
(Flow of saline solution)
sterilised saline)

What is feedback control? 95C


Manipulated variable
A method of control that the action taken is (Saturated steam)
based on past result.

Merit?
Simple design. Easy to tune (for linear, fast & The Process
short deadtime processes: flow, level & Saline solution at 30C is sterilized by
pressure). heating the solution in a heat-exchanger
system to 80C. The temperature of the
Demerits? sterilized saline solution is maintained by
Slow recovery for slow process such as regulating the control valve of steam input
temperature control upon load disturbance or to the heat-exchanger.
change in setpoint. A process with long deadtime
may exhibit oscillatory process response with
long settling time.
Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)
Unit 1: Control strategies
TSP
FSP
Cascade control I/P FC TC

FT Heat exchanger TT
Manipulated variable
(saturated steam) 100C 80C
30C controlled variable
Load variable
100 L/min (temperature of
(Flow of saline solution)
sterilised saline)

What is cascade control? 95C


Manipulated variable
A method of control of which the inner loop (Saturated steam)
controller obtains its setpoint from an outer loop
controller.
Characteristic of cacade control:
Merit? Two transmitters, two controllers and one
Faster recovery time as compared to single- control valve (2-level cascade).
input-single-output (SISO) feedback control.

Demerits? Application: Transform from SISO to


Controllability will be worst than SISO if both
cascade strategy if faster recovery time is
controllers were not properly tuned.
desired.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Unit 1: Control strategies

Feedforward control I/P FFC


Cp
Ws = W p (T2 T1 )
Hs

Manipulated variable
(saturated steam) Heat exchanger 80C
FT TT
30C controlled variable
Load variable
100 L/min (temperature of
(Flow of saline solution)
sterilised saline)

What is feedforward control? 95C


Manipulated variable
A method of control based on process model: (Saturated steam)
mass and energy balances.

Merit? Characteristic of feedforward control:


Faster recovery than cascade or (SISO). Measurements of load variables online and
Compensate for disturbances before they effect Utilization of computational blocks.
the controlled variable.

Demerits?
Cannot work if any of the sensors fail esp. load
variable.
Requires process model in order to design
feedforward system.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Unit 1: Control strategies

Feedforward/ +
I/P TC
Feedback control +
Cp
W p (T2 T1 )
FFC
Ws =
Hs TT
Manipulated variable
(saturated steam) Heat exchanger 80C
FT TT
Load variable 30C controlled variable
100 L/min (temperature of
(Flow of saline solution)
sterilised saline)

What is feedforward/feedback control? 95C


Manipulated variable
Feedback compensation added to feedforward (Saturated steam)
control

Merit?
Feedforward control compensates for major
disturbances, while feedback control compensates
for all other disturbances.

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Unit 1: Control strategies

Ratio control I/P FC


X
FT
Manipulated variable
(saturated steam) Heat exchanger 80C
FT
Wild flow 30C controlled variable
100 L/min (temperature of
(Flow of saline solution)
sterilised saline)

What is ratio control? 95C


Manipulated variable
Keeps a flowrate in proportion to another (Saturated steam)
flowrate.

Merit?
Keep two flow in proportion.

Demerits?
Inherits PID characteristics

Abdul Aziz Ishak, Universiti Teknologi MARA Malaysia (2009)


Ratio Control

Type of feedforward control


The objective is to maintain the ratio of two
variables at a specified value
One variable is manipulated to keep it as ratio
of another.
Implemented in two basic schemes.
multiplier

divider
Required to blend 2 liquid streams, A and
B in some ratio
R=FB/FA
The flow of stream B must vary, as the flow rate of stream A is varies

Multiplier : set the ratio


(Wild flow)
Measuring the flow in steam A
Multiplying it with the desired ratio to obtain
the required flow rate in stream B (set point to
the flow controller of stream B)
FBset = R x FA
If the flow of stream A varies, the set point of
the controller of stream B will vary.
Divider

Measuring both stream


Divide them in FY16 to obtain the actual ratio
flowing through the system
R=FB/FA
The calculated ratio is the sent to the controller
which manipulated the flow B to maintain set
point.
The set point to this controller is the required
ratio.
BLOCK DIAGRAM

Feedback control D
Y(s)
Y
Feedback Process
controller

Feedforward control
D
Y(s) Y
Feedforward Process
controller
Cascade control

Y(s)
Primary Secondary Y
Process II Process I
controller controller
Question
- How to ensure that the level in the tank remains at
or near the set point? Propose the following control
strategy:
- Feedback
- Feedforward
- Feedforward/feedback