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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

DARSHAN INSTITUTE
OF
ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
RAJKOT

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING
LAB MANUAL
DEGREE CIVIL ENGINEERING
SEMESTER V
Name of student

Roll No

Enrollment No

Class

A.Y. 2016-2017

Darshan Institute of Engineering & Technology-Rajkot


Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

Typical Cross section of Flexible pavement

Cross section of Flexible pavement

Typical Cross section of Rigid pavement

Rigid Pavement Flexible Pavement


Load distribution concept
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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

INDEX
Sr. Date of Page Marks
Name of Experiment Signature
No Experiment no
Section-I TEST ON AGGREGATES
1 Shape test
2 Aggregate Impact Test
3 Aggregate Crushing Test
Aggregate Los Angeles Abrasion
4
Test
Specific gravity and water
5
absorption test
Section-II TEST ON SOIL
6 California Bearing Ratio Test-CBR
Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Test-
7
DCP
Section-III TEST ON BITUMEN
8 Penetration test
9 Ductility test
10 Softening point test
Viscosity test- Absolute and
11
Kinematic Viscosity
12 Flash and Fire point test
% Bitumen content finding in Paving
13
mixture
Marshal Stability Test-
14 Determination of Optimum Bitumen
Content
Section-IV- A Study on Traffic parameters
15 Spot speed study
16 Traffic Volume Study
17 Accident Study
Section-V- Highway Geometric Design- Study Material
18 Highway Geometric Design(Study)
Section-VI- Hot Mix Plant - Visit Report
19 Hot Mix Plant (Study)
Section-VII- Ready Mix Concrete Plant (RMC Plant)- Visit Report
20 Ready Mix Concrete Plant (Study)

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

Laboratory Instructions
1. Study the experiment and read in detail aim, apparatus, and procedure of each
experiment before coming to the lab. The lab teachers are instructed to take a brief
written test of about 5-10 minutes before the commencement of the experiment.
2. After the test, the lab teacher will give instruction to start the experiment. Do the
experiment, and note the readings as a group.
3. After you complete the experiment, you have to do the calculations and discussion
of results by yourself before leaving the lab.
4. Ensure that lab teacher have checked your results and get the lab mark entered in
the report and get their signature.
5. Follow all the safety instructions given by the Lab staff. Kindly wear shoes inside
the laboratory
6. Absenting from the lab will be taken very seriously including fail grade as per
rules. No compensatory experiments will be allowed.
7. Tests shall be done in groups. However, observation table, calculation, Discussion
of the result, etc should be individual and should be completed on the same day.
8. Return the equipment after the test to the lab teacher and ensure that the lab teacher
gives the mark along with his signature.
9. L a b t e a c h e r shall supervise the experiment and marks will be awarded based
on the participation in the experiments, and the report.

Signature of the Student

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

SCOPE OF LABORATORY STUDY

FLEXIBLE RIGID
PAVEMENT PAVEMENT
DESIGN DESIGN

THICKNESS MIXTURE DESIGN THICKNESS MIXTURE


DESIGN DESIGN DESIGN
Data Required: DETERMINATION OF Data Required: (CONCRETE .MIX
Traffic census OPTIMUM BITUMEN Traffic census DESIGN)- Pavement
Subgrade CBR CONTENT Modulus of Sub grade/ Quality Concrete
Axle load spectrum CBR
Vehicle damage factor Axle load spectrum
As per -IRC-37-2012 As per ASHTO Manual AS per IRC-58-2011 As per IRC-44-2008
(MS-2) ( PQC)
SOFTWARE: IIT SOFTWARE:IITRIGID
PAVE
SOIL TEST [BITUMEN&AGG.TEST [AGG.&CEMENT
Atterbers limit, REQUIRED] TEST
CBR REQUIRED]
Soil Classification
UCS

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

HIGHWAY ENGINEERING

TESTING OF MATERIAL

SOIL (SUBGRADE/GSB) AGGREGATE BITUMEN CEMENT


(Geotech Lab/ Soil Engg
Lab)

Atterbergs limit( LL, PL, PI)


SPECIFIC SPECIFIC CONSISTENCY
GRAVITY GRAVITY INITIAL SETTING
Soil Classification WATER PENETRATION TIME
ABSORPSION VISCOSITY FINAL SETTING
CBR(California Bearing IMPACT VALUE DUCTILITY TIME
Ratio) ABRASION VALUE FLASH&FIRE SOUNDNESS
CRUSHING VALUE POINT COMPRESSIVE
UCS( 10% FINES VALUE SOFTENING STRENGTH
UnconfinedCompressive SHAPE TEST POINT FINENESS
Strength) FLAKINESS BITUMINIOUS CONCRETE MIX
INDEXELOGATION MIX DESIGN- DESIGN (PQC-
Sieve Analysis INDEX Marshal Method- Pavement Quality
As per AASHTO- Concrete)
OMC & MDD Manual MS-2. (As per IRC-44-2008)
(Optimum Moisture Content Test on Mix Test on Mix:
and Maximum Dry Density) - Bitumen - Flexural Strength.
content - Compressive
- Stripping strength.
value
- Resilient
Modulus

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AGGREGATE SPECIFICATION FOR VARIOUS TYPE OF ROAD CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES ( As per IS/ IRC/ MORT&H 5th Rev.)

Granular Sub-Bases, Base courses requirement as per MORT&H 5th Rev. Bituminous Base & Wearing Courses requirement as per MORT&H 5th Rev.
Cement Concrete Cement Concrete
Sr.
Property Name of Test IS Code BASE COURSE/ SURFACE COURSE/ Pavement (Other than Wearing
No Base Course,
Sub Base, Base Course, BINDER COURSE WEARING CORSE (Wearing surfaces) surfaces)
Base Course, WBM Crusher Run
GSB Crushed WMM
Macadam BM DBM SDBC BC
IS-2386
Deleterious Materials Organic Matter 1.00% Max 1.00% Max 1.00% Max 1.00% Max Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil Nil
(Part-2)
1 and Organic
Impurities IS-2386
Sodium Sulphate 0.20% Max 0.20% Max 0.20% Max 0.20% Max NIl NIl NIl NIl NIl NIl
(Part-2)
Max 5% Max 5%
IS-2386 Max 5% Passing Max 5% Passing
2 Cleanliness Grain size Analysis - - - - Passing Passing - -
Part - 1 75 sieve 75 sieve
75 sieve 75 sieve
IS-2386 Not Specified
Los Angeles Abrasion Max 40 % Max 40 % Max 40 % Max 40 % Max 35 % Max 35 % Max 30 % 30 % Max 16 % Max
Part - 4 in MORT&H
IS-2386
Crushing value Max 45% Max 45% Max 45% Max 45% Max 45% Max 45% Max 30 % Max 30 % 30 % Max 45 % Max
Part - 4
IS-2386- 4) or
Agg. Impact value Max 40 % Max 30 % Max 30 % 30 % Max Max. 30% Max. 27 % Max. 27% Max. 24 % 30 % Max 45 % Max
3 Strength IS-5640
IS-2386 Part -
10 % Fines Value IV or BS 812- 50 Kn. -Min. - - - - - - - - -
111
IS-2720
4 Days Soaked CBR Min 30% - - - - - - - - -
(Part-16)
Max 12% Max 12% Max 12% Max 12%
Aggregate Soundness - - - - - -
IS-2386 Part - ( NaSO) ( NaSO) ( NaSO) ( NaSO)
4 Durability test* *(If W.A. greater
V Max 18% Max 18% Max 18% Max 18%
than 2%) - - - - - -
( MgSO) ( MgSO) ( MgSO) ( MgSO)
IS-2386
Flakiness Index 35 % Max. 35 % Max. 35 % Max. 35 % Max. 30 % Max. 15% 15%
Part -I 35 % Max. (Combined 30 % Max. (Combined
(Combined FI + (Combined (Combined (Combined (Combined
IS-2386 Not Mentioned FI + EI) FI + EI)
5 Shape Elongation Index EI) FI + EI) FI + EI) FI + EI) FI + EI) 15% 15%
Part -I in MORT&H
IS-2386
Angularity Index 0 to 11 0 to 11 0 to 11 0 to 11 0 to 11 0 to 11 0 to 11 0 to 11 0 to 11
Part - 1

6 Liquid Limit 25% Max NA NA 25% Max - - - - -


Determination of Liquid
IS-2720
Limit and Plasticity
(Part-5)
Index
7 Plasticity Index 6% Max 6% Max 6% Max 6% Max Non Plastic Non Plastic Non Plastic Non Plastic - -

IS-2386 Part -
8 Water Absorption Water Absorption 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max. 2 % Max.
3

IS-2386
9 Specific Gravity Specific Gravity N.A. 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9 2.6 to 2.9
Part - 3

Min. retaind Min. retaind Min. retaind coating Min. retaind


10 Bitumen Adhesion Strippting Value IS-6241 NA NA NA NA - -
coating 95% coating 95% 95% coating 95%

Retained Tensile
11 Water Sensitivity AASHTO 283 - - - - Min. 80% Min. 80% Min. 80% Min 80% - -
Strength

BS :
12 Aggregate Softness Stone Polishing Value - - - - - - Min 55 Min 55 - -
812-114

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

SECTION-I
TEST ON AGGREGATES

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

EXPERIMENT NO-1 Date :

SHAPE TEST(IS: 2386 PART -1)

OBJECTIVE:To determine the value of Flakiness and Elongation Index of


Coarse aggregates.

INTRODUCTION:
The particle shape of aggregates is determined by the percentages of flaky and
elongated particles contained in it. In the case of gravel it is determined by its
angularity number. For base course and construction of bituminous and cement
concrete types, the presence of flaky and elongated particles are considered
undesirable as they may cause inherent weakness with possibilities of breaking down
under heavy loads. Rounded aggregates are preferred in cement concrete road
construction as the workability of concrete improves. Angular shape of particles are
desirable for granular base course due to increased stability derived from the better
interlocking. Thus evaluation of shape of the particles, particularly with reference to
flakiness, elongation of angularity is necessary.

FLAKINESS INDEX:

The flakiness index of aggregates is the percentage by weight of particles


whose least dimension (thickness) is less than three fifths (0.6) of their mean
dimension The test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3 mm.

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of a standard thickness gauge shown in fig. 1. IS sieves of sizes
63, 50, 40, 31.5, 25, 20, 16, 12.5, 10 and 6.3 mm and a balance to weigh the samples.

PROCEDURE:
The sample is sieved with the sieves mentioned in table 1 A Minimum of 200 pieces
of each fraction to be tested are taken and weighted = W, g. in order to separate flaky
materials, each fraction is then gauged for thickness on a thickness gauges shown in
fig.5.1 or in bulk on sieves having elongated slots. The width of the slot used should
be of the dimensions specified in column (3) of Table 1 for the appropriate size of
material. The amount of flaky material passing the gauge is weighted to an accuracy
of at least 0.1 percent of the test sample.

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CALCULATION AND RESULTS:


In order to calculate the flakiness index of the entire sample of aggregates first the
weight of each fraction of aggregate passing and retained on the specified set of sieves
is noted. As an example let 200 pieces of the aggregate passing 50 mm sieve and
retained on 40 mm sieve be = W, g. Each of the particle for this fraction of aggregate
is tried to be passed through the slot of the specified thickness, in this example, the 27
mm thickness gauge. Let the weight of the retained the specified sieves. W,, W2, W3
etc. are weighted and the total weight W1 + W2 + W3 +Wg is found. Then the flakiness
index is the total weight of the material passing the various thickness gauges, express
as a percentage of the total weight of the sample gauged.

Fig 1. Thickness gauge

IRC RECOMMENDATIONS:

Sr. Maximum limit


No. Type of Construction of Flakiness
Index i n %
1 Water bound macadam 15%
2 Bituminous surface dressing penetration macadam 25%
3 Bituminous bound macadam bituminous concrete 15%

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

Fig 2. Length Gauge

(B) ELONGATION INDEX:


The elongation index of an aggregate is the percentage by weight of particles
whose greatest dimension (length) is greater than one and fifth times (1.8 times) their
mean dimension. The elongation test is not applicable to sizes smaller than 6.3 mm

APPARATUS:

The apparatus consists of the length gauge shown in fig 5 2. sieve of the sizes
specified in table 1 and a balance.

PROCEDURE:

The sample is sieved through the IS sieve specified in Table 1. A minimum of


200 pieces of each fraction is taken and weighted In order to separate elongated
material, each fraction is then gauged individually for length in a length gauge (See
fig 5.2). The gauge lengths used should be those specified in column 4 of Table 1 for
the appropriate material. The pieces of aggregates from each fraction tested which
could not pass through the specified gauge length with its long side are collected
separately to find the total weight of aggregates retained on the gauge from each
fraction. The total amount of elongated material by the length gauge are to an accuracy
of at least 0 1 percent of the weight of the test sample.

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

CALCULATIONS AND RESULTS:

In order to calculate the elongation index of the entire sample of aggregates the weight
of aggregate which is retained on the specified gauge length from each fraction is noted
As an example let 200 pieces of the aggregate passing 40 mm sieve and retained 25
mm sieve weight W, g. Each piece of these are tried to be passed through the specified
gauge length of 58 5 mm with its longest size and which do not pass the gauge are
separated and the total weight determined W1 g. Similarly the weight of each fraction
of aggregate passing and retained on specify sieve sizes are found W l, W2, W3..........
and the total weight of sample determined = W1 + W2 + W3 .........= Wg Also the
weight of material form each fraction retained on the spec med gauge length are found
= X1, X2, X3.........and the total weight retained determined = X1 + X2 + X3.............=Xg
The elongation index is the total weight of the material retained on the various length
gauges, expressed as a percentages of the total weight of the sample gauged.

(X1 + X2 + X3 +)100
Elongation Index = _________________________ 100 %

W1 + W2 + W3+..

= 100 X %
W

APPLICATION O F SHAPE TEST:


In pavement construction flaky and elongated particles are to be avoided,
particularly in surface course. In flaky and elongated aggregate are present in
appreciable proportions, the strength of pavement layer would be adversely affected
due to possibility of breaking down under loads. In cement concrete the workability is
also reduced. However, the reduction is strength in cement concrete depends on the
cement content.

Indian Roads Congress has been recommended the maximum allowable limits of
flakiness index values for various types of construction, as given below :

Sr. Type of Construction Maximum limit of


No. Elongation Index
in%
1 Water bound macadam 15%
2 Bituminous surface dressing penetration macadam 25%
3 Bituminous bound macadam bituminous concrete 15%

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The angularity number measures the percent voids in excess of 33 5 which is for
the most rounded gravel The angularity number range from 0 for highly rounded gravel
to about 11 for freshly crushed angular aggregates. Thus, higher the angularity number,
more and angular and less workable is the aggregate mix. I n cement concrete mixes,
rounded aggregates may be preferred because of the lesser specified surface and higher
strength for particular cement content But in Bituminous and water bound macadam
construction, angular aggregate with high angularity number is preferred because of
higher stability due t o better inter locking and friction

PERMISSIBLE LIMITS

Property Granular Sub-Bases,

Cement concrete Pavement (Wearing


Base courses Bituminous Base&Wearing Courses

Cement Concrete (Other than


Requirement as per requirement as per MORT&H
MORT&H

Wearing surfaces)
BASE

surfaces)
Base Course, Crushed

Base Course, Crusher

COURSE/ SURFACE COURSE/


Run Macadam
Sub BaseGSB

BINDER WEARING COURSE


Base Course

WMM
WBM

COURSE

BM DBM SDBC BC
35% Max. (Combined FI+EI)

35% Max. (Combined FI+EI)

35% Max. (Combined FI+EI)

35% Max. (Combined FI+EI)

30% Max. (Combined FI+EI)

30% Max. (Combined FI+EI)


35% Max. (Combined FI+EI)
Not Mentioned in MORT&H

SHAPE
TEST
15% 15%

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

OBSERVATION TABLE :

Weight of the Aggregate taken for the test (W) = _______________gms

FLEKINENESS INDEX ELONGATION INDEX


Passing Retained on Weight of Weight of Weight of Weight of
through IS IS sieve Aggregate aggregate in Non- Flaky the aggregate
Sr. sieve (mm) taken in each each fraction Aggregate in each
No. (mm) fraction (gms) passing the taken each fraction not
thickness fraction (gms) passing the
Gauge (gms) length Gauge
(gms)
1 50 40
2 40 25
3 25 20
4 20 16
5 16 12.5
6 12.5 10
7 10 6.3
W= w= W1 = w1 =
(w/W)x100 = (w1/ W1)x100 =
Combined Index:
Flakiness Index:

CALCULATION :

RESULT:

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date :

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

EXPERIMENT NO : 2 DATE:

DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE IMPACT VALUE


(IS: 2386 PART -4)

OBJECTIVE:
To determine the impact value of given sample using Aggregate Impact Testing Machine.

INTRODUCTION:
Toughness is the property of a material to resist impact. Due to traffic loads the road
stone are subjected to the pounding action of impact and there is possibility of breaking
into smaller pieces. The road stone should therefore be tough enough to resists fracture
under impact. A test designed to evaluate the toughness of stones i.e. the resistance of the
stones to fracture under repeated impacts may be called an impact test for road stones.
The aggregate impact value indicates a relative measure of the resistance of an
aggregate to a sudden shock or an impact, which differs from its resistance to a slow
gradually increasing compressive load. The method of test covers the procedure for
determining the aggregate impact value of course aggregate.
APPARATUS:
The apparatus consists of an impact testing machine, a cylindrical measure, tamping
rods, IS sieves, balance and oven.
Impact Testing Machine :
The machine consists of a metal base with a plan lower surface, supported well on
firm floor, without rocking. A detachable cylindrical steel cup of internal diameter 10.2 cm
and depth 5 cm is rigidly fastened centrally to the base plate A metal hammer cylindrical
m shape, 10 cm in diameter and 5 cm long, with 2 mm chamber at the lower edge is capable
of sliding freely between vertical guides, and fall concentric over the cup. There is an
arrangement for raising the hammer and allowing is to fall freely between vertical guides
from a height of 38 cm on the test sample in the cup, the height of fall being adjustable upto
0.5. A key is provided for supporting the hammer while fastening or removing the cup.
Refer Figure.
Measure:
A cylindrical metal measure having internal diameter 7.5 cm and depth 5 cm for
measuring aggregate.
Tamping Rod :
A straight metal temping rod of circular cross section 1 cm diameter and 25 cm
long, rounded at one end.

Sieve:

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

IS sieve of sizes 12.5 mm, 10 mm, and 2.36 mm for sieving the aggregates
Oven:
A thermostatically controlled drying oven capable of maintaining constant
temperature between 100 C and 110 C.
Balance:
A balance of capacity not less than 500 gm to weight accurate to 0.1 gm

Fig 1. Aggregate Impact Testing Machine

SAMPLE QUANTITY:
The test sample shall consist of aggregate passing through 12.5 mm IS sieve
and retained on a 10 mm IS sieve.
The metal measure shall be filled about one third full with the aggregate and
tamped with 23 stocks of the rounded and of the tamping rod A further similar
quantity of aggregate shall be added and procedure repeated. The measure shall
finally be filled to overflowing capacity and after tamping surface material is
struck off using temping rod weight of aggregate in the measure is determined and
same weight is taken for duplicate test.
PROCEDURE:

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

The test sample consists of aggregates passing 12.5 mm sieve and retained on 10
mm sieve and dried in an oven for four hours at a temperature 100 C to 110 C, and
cooled. Test aggregates are filled up to about one third full in the cylindrical measure and
tamped 25 times with rounded end of the tamping rod. Further, quantity of aggregates m
then added upto about two third full m the cylinder and 25 stroked of the tamping rod are
given. The measure is now filled with the aggregates to over flow, tamped 25 times.
The surplus aggregates are struck off using the tamping rod as straight edge. The
net weight of the aggregates in the measure is determined to the nearest gram and this
weight off the aggregates is used for earning out duplicate test on the same material.

The Impact machine is placed with its bottom plate flat on the floor so that the
hammer guides columns are vertical. The cup is fixed firmly in position of the base of the
machine and the whole of the test sample from the cylindrical measure is transferred to
the cup and compacted by tamping rod with 25 strokes.

The hammer is raised until its lower face is 38 cm above the upper surface of the
aggregates in the cup, and allowed to fall freely on the aggregates. The test sample is
subjected to a total of 15 such blows, each being delivered at an interval of not less than
one second. The crushed aggregates are than removed from the cup and the whole of its
sieved on the 2.36 mm sieve until on further significant amount passes. The fraction
passing the sieve is weighted accurate to 0.1 g. The fraction weight of the fractions passing
and retained on the sieve is added is should not be less than the original weight of the
specimen by more than one gram, if the total weight is less than original by over one gram
the result should be discarded and a fresh test made.

The above test is repeated on fresh aggregate sample.


OBSERVATIONS:
TABLE NO :1 Aggregate observation Table
Sr. Description Sample - I Sample II
No.
1. Original weight of the aggregate passing through
12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve
i.e. weight ->W1
2. Weight of the aggregate passing through 2.36 mm
IS sieve after the test
i.e. weight -> W2
3. Weight of the aggregate retained on 2.36 mm IS
sieve after the test
i.e. weight ->W3 = W1 - W2
4. W2 + W3
5. Impact Value = W2 100 %
W1
Aggregate Impact Value = _______ % =

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

SPECIFICATIONS:
Table no :2(Aggregate Impact Values)
Sr. Aggregate Impact Value Type of aggregate
No.
1. Up to 10 % Exceptionally strong (Too
2. 10% to 20% Strong
strong)
3. 20% to 30% Satisfactory for road surface
4 > 35 % Weak for road surface

Table No :2 Max. Permissible Aggregates Values for the different types


of pavements

Sr. Types of Pavements Avg. Aggregate


No. Impact Value
(IRC
Recommendations)
1. Bituminous surface dressing, Penetration 30%
macadam, concrete and cement concrete wearing
course
2. Bituminous bound macadam 35%
3. Cement - Concrete base course 45 %

For deciding the suitability of soft aggregates in base course construction, this test
has been commonly used. Amodified impact test is also often carried out in the case of soft
aggregates to findthe wet impact value after soaking the rest samples Based on work
reported by different agencies,the following recommendations have been made assess the
suitability soft aggregates for road construction.

CALCULATIONS:
The aggregate impact value is expressed as the percentage of the fines
formed in terms of the weight of sample.
Let the original weight of the oven dry sample be = W1, g and the weight
of fraction passing 2.36 mm IS sieve be W2 g.
Aggregate impact value = W2 100 %
W1
IRC RECOMMENDATIONS:

The mean of the two or more results is reported as the aggregate impact
value of the specimen to the nearest whole number.
Aggregate impact value is used to classify the respect of their
toughness property- as indicated below:

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

DISCUSSION:
Chief advantages of aggregate impact test are that it determined the
resistance to impact of stones simulating field condition. The test can be
performed in a short time oven at construction site or at stone quarry, as the
apparatus is sample and portable.
Well shaped cubical stones provided higher resistance to impact when
compared with flaky and elongated stones.

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date :

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

EXPERIMENT NO:3 DATE:

DETERMINATION OF AGGREGATE CRUSHING VALUE


(IS: 2386 PART -4)

OBJECTIVE:To determine the crushing value of the given sample of aggregate with the
help of compression testing machine.

INTRODUCTION:
The principal mechanical properties required in road stones are :
Satisfactory resistance to crushing under the roller during construction and
Adequate resistance to surface abrasion under traffic. Also surface under rigid type of
heavily loaded drawn vehicles are high enough to consider the crushing
strength of road aggregates as an essential requirement in India

Crushing strength of road stone may be determine either on aggregates or on


cylindrical specimen cut out of rocks. The two tests are quite different in not only the
approach but also in the expression of the results.Aggregate used in road construction,
should be strong enoughtoresist crushing under
traffic wheel loads. If the aggregates are weak the stability of the pavement structure is
likely to be adversely affected. The strength of coarse aggregates is assessed by aggregate
crushing test. The aggregate crushing value provides. a relative measure of resistance to
crushing under a gradually applied compressive load. To achieve a high quality of
pavement, aggregates possessing low aggregate crushing value should be preferred.

APPARATUS:

Steel Cylinder with open ends, and internal diameter 15.2 cm, circular base plate,
plunger having a piston of diameter 15 cm with a hole provided across the stem of
the plunger so that a rod could be inserted for lifting or placing the plunger in the
cylinder.
Cylindrical measure having internal diameter of 11.5 cm and height 18 cm
Steel tamping rod with one rounded end, having a diameter of 1 6 cm and length 45 to
60cm
Balance of capacity 3 kg with accuracy up to 1 g.
Compression testing machine capable of applying load of 40 tones, at a uniform rate of
loading of 4 tones per minute.

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

Fig 1. Aggregate Crushing Value Test Setup

Fig 2. Aggregate Crushing Test Machine

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

SAMPLE QUANTITY:

The aggregate comprising the test sample shall be dried in an oven at a temperature
100C - 110C for four hours and cooled. The aggregates should pass the 12.5 mm IS sieve
and retained on the 10 mm IS test sieve. The measure shall be filled about one third full of
aggregate and temped with 2 strokes of the temping rod. A further similar quantity of
aggregate shall be taken and a further temping of 25 strokes is given, the measure shall
finally be filled to overflowing, temped 25 times and the surplus aggregate stuck off. The
net weight of the aggregate in the measure shall be determined and this weight of sample
shall be used for duplicate on the same material.

PROCEDURE:

The aggregate passing 12.5 mm IS sieve and retained on 10 mm IS sieve is selected


for standard test. The aggregate should be in surface dry condition before testing. The
aggregate may be dried by hearing at a temperature 100 to 110 for a period of 4 hours
and is tested after being cooled to room temperature.

The cylindrical measure is filled by the test sample of aggregate in three layers of
approximately equal depth, each layer being tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the
tamping rod. After the third layer is tamped, the aggregates at the top of the cylindrical
measure are leveled off by using the tamping rod as a straight edge. About 6.5 kg of
aggregate is required for preparing two test samples. The test sample thus taken is then
weighted. The same weight of the sample is taken in the repeat test.

The cylinder of the test apparatus is placed in position on the base, one third of the
test sample is placed in this cylinder and tamped 25 times by the tamping rod Similarly,
two parts of the test specimen is added, each layer being subjected to 25 blows. The total
depth of the material in the cylinder after tamping shall however be 10 cm The surface of
the aggregates is leveled and the plunger inserted so that it rests on this surface in level
position The cylinder with the test sample and plunger in position is placed on compression
machine. Load is then applied though the plunger at a uniform rate of 4 tone per minute
until the total loads is 40 tone. Aggregates including the crushed portion are removed from
the cylinder and sieved on a 2.36 mm IS sieve. The material which passes this sieve is
collected.

The above crushing test is repeated on second sample of the same weight in
accordance with above test procedure. Thus two tests are made for the same specimen for
taking an average value

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IRC RECOMMENDATIONS:

TABLE NO: 1

Sr. No. Crushing value Classification

1. < 10 % Exceptionally strong

2 > 35 % Weak for road surface

Table No: 2 Recommended Aggregate crushing value.

Sr. No. Description Maximum crushing value

1. Aggregate used for pavement as surface


30%
as a wearing course
2. Aggregate used for other than wearing
45%
course

OBSERVATION TABLE

Sr. Description Test -1 Test-2


No.

1. Weight of oven drying aggregate passing


12.5 mm IS sieve and retain on 10 mm IS
sieve. W1

2. Weight of sample passes 2.36 mm IS


sieve after test W2

3. Weight sample retain 2.36 mm IS sieve


after test W3

4. Aggregate crushing value = W2x 100 %

W1

5. W1=W2+ W3

6. Avg. aggregate crushing value

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Total weight of dry sample taken = W1 g

Weight of the portion of crushed material passing 2.36 mm IS sieve = W2 gr.

The aggregate crushing value is defined as a ratio of the weight of fines passing the
specified IS sieve to the total weight of the sample. Expressed as a percentage The value is
usually recorded up to the first decimal place.

Aggregate crushing value = 100 W2

W1

SAMPLE CALCULATION:

RESULTS:

The mean of the crushing value obtained in the two tests is reported as the aggregate
crushing value.

DISCUSSION:

In general, larger size of aggregates used in the test results in higher aggregate crushing
value. The relationship between the aggregate sizes and the crushing values will however
vary with the type of specimens tested. When non-standard sizes of aggregates are used for
the crushing test, (i.e. aggregate larger than 12.5 mm or smaller than 10 mm) the size of the
cylinder, quantity of material for preparation of specimen, size of IS sieve for separating
fines and the amount and rate of compaction shall be adopted as given in table 1.

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date :

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EXPERIMENT NO 4 DATE:

ABRASION VALUE OF ROAD AGGREGATE


(IS: 2386 PART -5)

OBJECTIVE :

To determine the hardness of the sample aggregate by testing for abrasion value
usingLos Angles Testing Machine.

INTRODUCTION :
Due to the move meat of traffic, the road stones and used in the surfacing course
are subjected to wearing action at the top Resistance to wear or hardness is hence an
essential property of road aggregate, especially when used in wearing course. Thus road
stones should be hard enough to resist the abrasion due the traffic. When fast moving traffic
fitted with pneumatic tyres move on the road, the sod particles present between the wheel
and road surface causes abrasion on the road stone. Steel tyres of the animal drawn vehicles
which rub against the stones can cause considerable abrasion of the stones on the road
surface Hence in order to tests are carried out in the laboratory.

LOS ANGELES ABRASION TEST :

The principle of Los Angeles Abrasion Test is to find the percentage wear due to
the relative rubbing action between the aggregate and steel balls used as abrasive charge,
pounding action of these balls also exist while conducting the lest. Some investigators
believe this test to be more dependable as rubbing and pounding action simulate the field
conditions where both abrasion and impact occur. Los Angeles Abrasion Test has been
standardized by the ASTM, AASHO and also by the ISI Standard specifications of Los
Angeles Abrasion Values are also available for various types of pavement constructions.

APPARATUS:
(i). Los Angeles Machine should have essential characteristics as under: The
machine has hollow steel cylinder 700 mm in dia, and 500 mm in side length. A
steel self 88 x 25 x 500 mm is projecting radially. It can be mounted on inside of
the cover plate.
(ii). Sieve 1.70 mm and as given in Table 1. for different grades of aggregates
(iii). Abrasive charge: It consists of cast iron spheres or steel sphere app 48 mm in dia
and weighing 390 to 446 gm No of spheres are chosen from Table - 2 as per the
grade of aggregates.
(iv). Oven and accurate balance.

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Fig 1. Loss Angeles Abrasion Testing Machine

SAMPLE QUANTITY:

Sieve the sample of aggregate and refer to the "Grades of Test sample" to decide
the gradeand the weight of the aggregate to be taken. Take little than the required
quantity and pH it in the oven at 105 C to 110 C for 24 hours for drying. Allow it to cool
to room temperature. From this sample, weigh the required quantity for the test

PROCEDURE:

Clean aggregate dried in oven at 105 to 110 C to constant weight, confirming


to any one of the grading A, to G, as per Table 1 is used for the test. The grading or grading
used in the test should be nearest to the grading to be used in construction Aggregates
weighing 5 kg for grading , , or D and 10 kg for grading E, F or G may be taken as
test specimen and placed in the cylinder. The abrasive charge is also chosen in accordance
with Table 1 depending on the grading of the aggregate and is placed m the cylinder of the
machine. The cover is then fixed dust sight. The machine is rotated at a speed of 30 to 33
revolutions per minute. The machine is rotated for 500 revolutions for grading , , and
D. For grading E, F and G, it shall be rotated for 1000 revolutions. The machine should be
balanced and driven in such a way as to maintain uniform peripheral speed.

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After the desired number of revolutions, the machine is stopped and the material is
discharged from the machine taking care to take out entire stone dust. Using a sieve coarser
than 1 70 mm IS sieve, the material is first separate into two parts and the finer portion is
taken out and sieved further on a 1.7 mm IS sieve. The portion of material coarser than 1.70
mm size is washed and dried in an oven at 105 C to 110 C to constant weight and correct
to one gram

OBSERVATION TABLE :

Sr.
Description Sample -1 Sample - II
No.
Original weight of aggregate
1.
W1gms.
Weight of material retain on 1.70
2.
mm IS-sieve after test W2
Weight of passing (W1 - W2)
3.
gms.
Abrasion Value in % =
4. W1 - W2x 100
W1
5 Avg. Abrasion value in %

APPLICATIONS OF LOS ANGELES ABRASION TEST :

Los Angeles Abrasion test is very widely accepted as suitable test to asses the
hardness of aggregate used in pavement construction. Many agencies have specified the
desirable limits of the test, for different methods of pavement construction. The maximum
allowable Los Angeles Abrasion values of aggregates as specified by Indian Roads
Congress for different methods of construction are given below:
Sr. Type of surface Max. Los Angeles
No. Abrasion Value %
1. Water Bound Macadam and surface treated 40
WBM (Wear at 500 revolutions)
2. Bituminous surface dressing - BM 40
3. Bituminous dam macadam 35
4. DBM,SDBC 35
5. Bituminous concrete 30
6. Cement Concrete 16

The difference between the original and final weights of the sample expressed as a
percentage of the original weight of the sample is reported as the percentage wears.

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TABLE : 1 (Specification for Los Angeles Test)

Grad Weight in grams of each lest sample in the size range mm No. of Weight of
-ing (passing and retained on square holes) spheres charge
gms.
80-63 63-50 50-40, 25-20 20- 12.5- 10- 6.3- 4.75-
40-25 12.5 10 6.3 4.75 2.36
A - - - 1250 1250 1250 1250 - - - 12 500025
- - - - - 2500 2500 - - - 11 458425
- - - - - - - 2500 2500 - 8 333020
D - - - - - - - - - 5000 6 2500+15
E 2500' 2500 5000 - - - - - - - 12 5000+25

F - - 5000 5000 - - - - - 12 500025
" *
G - - - 5000 5000 - 1- - - 12 5000+25
*
Tolerance of 2 percent is permitted
Let the original weight of aggregate = W1gm
Weight of aggregate retained on 1.70 mm IS sieve after the test = W2 gm
Loss in weight due to wear = (Wl- W2) gm
Percentage wear = (Wl W2) x 100
Wl
CALCULATION:

DISCUSSION:

It may seldom happen that the aggregates desired for a certain construction project
has the same grading as any one of the specified grading In all cases the standard grading
or gradings nearest to the gradation of the selected aggregates may be chosen

Different specification limits may be required for grading E, F and G when


compared with , and D. Further investigations are necessary before any such
specifications could be made.

Los Angeles Abrasion Test is very commonly used to evaluate the quality of road
aggregates, especially to decide the hardness of stones. However, this test may be
considered as one in which resistance to both abrasion and impact of aggregate may be
obtained simultaneously, due to the presence of abrasive charge. Also the test condition is

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considered more representative of field conditions The result obtained on stone aggregates
are highly reproducible.

OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATIONS:

1 Original Wt Of aggregate, W1= _________gms

2 Weight of material retained


1.7 mm IS Sieve after test, W2 = _________gms.

3. Weight of passing, W1 -W2 = _________gms.

4 Abrasion value in % = W1-W2 x 100 = %


W1

RESULT:
Average Abrasion value in % =

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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EXPERIMENT NO 5 DATE:

SPECIFIC GRAVITY AND WATER ABSORPTION TEST


(IS: 2386 PART -3)

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the specific gravity and water absorption of aggregates by perforated


basket.

INTRODUCTION:

The specific gravity of an aggregate is considered to be a measure of strength or


quality of the material. The specific gravity test helps in the identification of stone. Water
absorption gives an idea of strength of aggregate. Aggregates having more water
absorption are more porous in nature and are generally considered unsuitable unless they
are found to be acceptable based on strength, impact and hardness tests.

1) Specific gravity = (dry weight of the aggregate / Weight of equal volume of water)

2) Apparent specific gravity = (dry weight of the aggregate / Weight of equal volume of
water excluding air voids in aggregate)

APPARATUS:

A wire basket of not more than 6.3mm mesh or a perforated container of convenient
size with thin wire hangers for suspending it from the balance.
A thermostatically controlled oven to maintain temperature of 100 to 110C.
A container for filling water and suspending the basket.
An airtight container of capacity similar to that of the basket.
A balance of capacity about 5 kg. to weigh accurate to 0.5 g. and of such a type
and shape as to permit weighing of the sample container when suspended in water.
A shallow tray and two dry absorbent clothes, each not less than 750 X 450 mm.

PROCEDURE:

(i) About 2 kg of aggregate sample is washed thoroughly to remove fines, drained and
placed in wire basket and immersed in distilled water at a temperature between 22- 32 C
and a cover of at least 5cm of water above the top of basket.

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(ii) Immediately after immersion the entrapped air is removed from the sample by lifting
the basket containing it 25 mm above the base of the tank and allowing it to drop at the rate
of about one drop per second. The basket and aggregate should remain completely
immersed in water for a period of 24 hour afterwards.

(iii) The basket and the sample are weighed while suspended in water at a temperature of
22 32C. The weight while suspended in water is noted =W1g.

(iv) The basket and aggregates are removed from water and allowed to drain for a few
minutes, after which the aggregates are transferred to the dry absorbent clothes. The empty
basket is then returned to the tank of water jolted 25 times and weighed in water= W2g.

(v) The aggregates placed on the absorbent clothes are surface dried till no further moisture
could be removed by this cloth. Then the aggregates are transferred to the second dry cloth
spread in single layer and allowed to dry for at least 10 minutes until the aggregates are
completely surface dry. The surface dried aggregate is then weighed =W3 g

(vi)The aggregate is placed in a shallow tray and kept in an oven maintained at a


temperature of 110 C for 24 hrs. It is then removed from the oven, cooled in an air tight
container and weighted=W4 g.

OBSERVATIONS:

1) Empty weight of pycnometer = W1gm


2) Weight of pycnometer + Dry aggregate= W2gm
3) Weight of pycnometer + Dry aggregate + Water = W3gm
4) Weight of pycnometer + Water = W4gm

CALCULATION:

1) Specific gravity = W2 W1 ______


(W2 W1) --(W3 W4)

FOR WATER ABSORPTION:

1) Dry weight of aggregate = W1 =


2) Weight of aggregate immersed in water = W2 =
3) Water absorption = W2 W1 X 100 =
W1

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RECOMMENDED VALUE:

The size of the aggregate and whether it has been artificially heated should be indicated.
ISI speci-fies three methods of testing for the determination of the specific gravity of
aggregates, according to the size of the aggregates. The three size ranges used are
aggregates larger than 10 mm, 40 mm and smaller than 10 mm. The specific gravity of
aggregates normally used in road construction ranges from about 2.5 to 3.0 with an average
of about 2.68. Though high specific gravity is considered as an indication of high strength,
it is not possible to judge the suitability of a sample road aggregate without finding the
mechanical properties such as aggregate crushing, impact and abrasion values. Water
absorption shall not be more than 0.6 per unit by weight.

DISCUSSION

In case in Water absorption is higher than 2% than soundness test is required.

RESULT:

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)

Date:

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SECTION-II
TEST ON SOIL

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EXPERIMENT NO:6 DATE :

CALIFORNIA BEARING RATIO TEST (CBR TEST)

OBJECTIVE
To determine the California bearing ratio by conducting a load penetration test in the
laboratory.

NEED AND SCOPE


The California bearing ratio test is penetration test meant for the evaluation of subgrade
strength of roads and pavements. The results obtained by these tests are used with the
empirical curves to determine the thickness of pavement and its component layers. This
is the most widely used method for the design of flexible pavement.
This instruction sheet covers the laboratory method for the determination of C.B.R. of
undisturbed and remoulded /compacted soil specimens, both in soaked as well as
unsoaked state.

EQUIPMENTS AND TOOLS REQUIRED

1. Cylindrical mould with inside dia 150 mm and height 175 mm, provided with a
detachable extension collar 50 mm height and a detachable perforated base plate 10 mm
thick.

2. Spacer disc 148 mm in dia and 47.7 mm in height along with handle.

3.Metal rammers:- Weight 2.6 kg with a drop of 310 mm (or) weight 4.89 kg a drop 450
mm.

4. Weights:- One annular metal weight and several slotted weights weighing 2.5 kg each,
147 mm in dia, with a central hole 53 mm in diameter.

5.Loading machine:- With a capacity of atleast 5000 kg and equipped with a movable head
or base that travels at an uniform rate of 1.25 mm/min. Complete with load indicating
device.

6. Metal penetration piston 50 mm dia and minimum of 100 mm in length.

7. Two dial gauges reading to 0.01 mm.

8. Sieves. 4.75 mm and 20 mm I.S. Sieves.

9. Miscellaneous apparatus, such as a mixing bowl, straight edge, scales soaking tank or
pan, drying oven, filter paper and containers.

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DEFINITION OF CBR
It is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with standard
circular piston at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. to that required for the corresponding
penetration of a standard material.
C.B.R. = [Test load/Standard load]*100
The following table gives the standard loads adopted for different penetrations for the
standard material with a C.B.R. value of 100%

Penetration of plunger
Standard load (kg)
(mm)
2.5 1370
5.0 2055
7.5 2630
10.0 3180
12.5 3600
The test may be performed on undisturbed specimens and on remoulded specimens
which may be compacted either statically or dynamically.

PREPARATION OF TEST SPECIMEN


1. Undisturbed specimen
Attach the cutting edge to the mould and push it gently into the ground. Remove the
soil from the outside of the mould which is pushed in . When the mould is full of soil,
remove it from weighing the soil with the mould or by any field method near the spot.

DETERMINE THE DENSITY


2. Remoulded Specimen
Prepare the remoulded specimen at Proctors maximum dry density or any other density
at which C.B.R. is required. Maintain the specimen at optimum moisture content or the
field moisture as required. The material used should pass 20 mm I.S. sieve but it should
be retained on 4.75 mm I.S. sieve. Prepare the specimen either by dynamic compaction
or by static compaction.

(a) Dynamic Compaction


Take about 4.5 to 5.5 kg of soil and mix thoroughly with the required water.

Fix the extension collar and the base plate to the mould. Insert the spacer disc over the base
(See Fig.38). Place the filter paper on the top of the spacer disc.
Compact the mix soil in the mould using either light compaction or heavy
compaction. For light compaction, compact the soil in 3 equal layers, each layer
being given 55 blows by the 2.6 kg rammer. For heavy compaction compact the soil
in 5 layers, 56 blows to each layer by the 4.89 kg rammer.
Remove the collar and trim off soil.

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Turn the mould upside down and remove the base plate and the displacer disc.
Weigh the mould with compacted soil and determine the bulk density and dry
density.
Put filter paper on the top of the compacted soil (collar side) and clamp the
perforated base plate on to it.

(b) Static Compaction


Calculate the weight of the wet soil at the required water content to give the desired density
when occupying the standard specimen volume in the mould from the expression.

W = desired dry density * (1+w) V


Where W = Weight of the wet soil

w = desired water content

V = volume of the specimen in the mould = 2250 cm3 (as per the mould available in
laboratory)

Take the weight W (calculated as above) of the mix soil and place it in the mould.
Place a filter paper and the displacer disc on the top of soil.
Keep the mould assembly in static loading frame and compact by pressing the displacer
disc till the level of disc reaches the top of the mould.
Keep the load for some time and then release the load. Remove the displacer disc.
The test may be conducted for both soaked as well as unsoaked conditions.
If the sample is to be soaked, in both cases of compaction, put a filter paper on the top of
the soil and place the adjustable stem and perforated plate on the top of filter paper.
Put annular weights to produce a surcharge equal to weight of base material and pavement
expected in actual construction. Each 2.5 kg weight is equivalent to 7 cm construction. A
minimum of two weights should be put.
Immerse the mould assembly and weights in a tank of water and soak it for 96 hours.
Remove the mould from tank. Note the consolidation of the specimen.
Procedure for Penetration Test
Place the mould assembly with the surcharge weights on the penetration test
machine. Fig. 1.

Seat the penetration piston at the center of the specimen with the smallest possible
load, but in no case in excess of 4 kg so that full contact of the piston on the sample
is established.

Set the stress and strain dial gauge to read zero. Apply the load on the piston so that
the penetration rate is about 1.25 mm/min.

Record the load readings at penetrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.5,
10 and 12.5 mm. Note the maximum load and corresponding penetration if it occurs
for a penetration less than 12.5 mm.

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Detach the mould from the loading equipment. Take about 20 to 50 g of soil from
the top 3 cm layer and determine the moisture content.

Fig 1 CBR test setup

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Figure -2 Correlation load penetration curves

Observation and Recording

For Dynamic Compaction


Optimum water content (%) :
Weight of mould + compacted specimen g :
Weight of empty mould g :
Weight of compacted specimen g :
Volume of specimen cm3:
Bulk density g/cc :
Dry density g/cc :

For Static Compaction


Dry density g/cc
Moulding water content %
Wet weight of the compacted soil, (W)g
Period of soaking 96 hrs. (4days).

For Penetration Test


Calibration factor of the proving ring:
Surcharge weight used (kg) : 2.0 kg per 6 cm construction
Water content after penetration test %:
Least count of penetration dial : 1 Div. = 0.01 mm

If the initial portion of the curve is concave upwards, apply correction by drawing a tangent
to the curve at the point of greatest slope and shift the origin (Fig. 40). Find and record the
correct load reading corresponding to each penetration.

C.B.R. = PT/PS *100

Where

PT = Corrected test load corresponding to the chosen penetration from the load penetration
curve.

PS = Standard load for the same penetration taken from the table .

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Observation Table :
Readings on
Penetration in- proving ring*
Load in kN Load (kg) Corrected load
mm ( Ring
division)
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
7.5
10.0
12.5
* Proving ring capacity: __________kN.

Interpretation and recording

C.B.R. of specimen at 2.5 mm penetration =


C.B.R. of specimen at 5.0 mm penetration =

The C.B.R. values are usually calculated for penetration of 2.5 mm and 5 mm. Generally
the C.B.R. value at 2.5 mm will be greater that at 5 mm and in such a case/the former shall
be taken as C.B.R. for design purpose. If C.B.R. for 5 mm exceeds that for 2.5 mm, the test
should be repeated. If identical results follow, the C.B.R. corresponding to 5 mm
penetration should be taken for design.

Calculation:

Conclusion:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

EXPERIMENT NO: 7 DATE :

DYNAMIC CONE PENETROMETER (DCP) TEST

INTRODUCTION

The Dynamic Cone Penetrometer is a simple device developed in UK for rapid in situ
strength evaluation of subgrade and other unbound pavement layers. Essentially, a
DCP measures the penetration of a standard cone when driven by a standard force, the
reported DCP value being in terms of the penetration of a standard cone, in mm per
blow of the standard hammer.

Basically, the penetration (in mm) per blow is inversely proportional to the strength
the material. Thus, higher the CBR value of a material being tested, lower will be the
DCP value in mm/blow.

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate strength of subgrade and other unbound pavement layers on site.

APPARATUS

DCP test apparatus consists of steel cone with an angle of 60o having diameter of 20
mm, standard 8 kg drop hammer slides over a 16 mm diameter steel rod with a fall
height of 575 mm.

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NEED AND SCOPE

This test is needed to measure the subgrade strength, also to determine the boundaries
between pavement layers with different strengths and their thicknesses. The
measurements can be taken up to 1.2m depth with an extension rod.

PROCEDURE

One person holds the DCP instrument in a vertical position, another person carefully
drops the weight and third takes the readings of penetration.
The penetration of the cone can be measured on a graduated scale. The readings are
taken with each blow of the weight.

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The field data is reduced in terms of penetration versus corresponding number of blows.
The number of blows and depth readings are recorded on the DCP test form.
The cone is case-hardened but requires replacing. When used on subgrade materials the
cone can be expected to last 30 to 40 tests before replacement.

The DCP test is especially useful for bituminous pavement rehabilitation design and is
being used extensively in several countries.

The following charts shows the relationship between DCP (mm/blow) and CBR.

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OBSERVATIONS:

CALCULATIONS:

RESULTS:

CONCLUSION:

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SECTION-III
TEST ON BITUMEN

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About bitumen

Bitumen is a thermoplastic material and its stiffness is dependent on temperature. The


temperature-vs-stiffness relationship of bitumen is dependent on the source of crude oil and
the method of refining.

The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) introduced paving grade bitumen specifications
(IS: 73-1950) for the first time in the year 1950 and classified it on penetration. The
specifications were revised in the years 1962 and 1992. To improve the quality of Bitumen,
BIS revised IS-73-1992specifications based on Viscosity (Viscosity at 60oC) in July 2006.
As per these specifications, there are four grades VG-10, VG-20, VG-30 & VG-40. A few
qualification tests like specific gravity, water content, ductility, loss on heating & Farass
breaking point were removed from IS:73-1992 specifications as these tests do not have any
relationship either with the quality or performance of the product.

Indian Oil commenced marketing of Bitumen as per Viscosity Grade specifications


conforming to IS: 73-1992 from all its refineries from Aug 2009. Therefore, the Penetration
grades have been replaced by Viscosity grade Bitumen. According to viscosity (degree of
fluidity) grading, higher the grade, stiffer the Bitumen. Tests are conducted at 600 C and
135o C, which represent the temperature of road surface during summer (hot climate,
similar to northern parts of India) and mixing temperature respectively. The penetration at
25o C, which is annual average pavement temperature, is also retained.

Different Grades of Bitumen marketed by Indian Oil :

VG-10 BITUMEN: VG-10 is widely used in spraying applications such as surface-


dressing and paving in very cold climate in lieu of old 80/100 Penetration grade. It
is also used to manufacture Bitumen Emulsion and Modified Bitumen products.

VG-20 BITUMEN: VG-20 is used for paving in cold climate & high altitude regions

VG-30 BITUMEN: VG-30 is primarily used to construct extra heavy duty Bitumen
pavements that need to endure substantial traffic loads. It can be used in lieu of
60/70 Penetration grade.

VG-40 BITUMEN: VG-40 is used in highly stressed areas such as intersections,


near toll booth sand truck parking lots in lieu of old 30/40 Penetration grade. Due
to its higher viscosity, stiffer Bitumen mixes can be produced to improve resistance
to shoving and other problems associated with higher temperature and heavy
traffic loads.

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VISCOSITY GRADE (VG) BITUMEN SPECIFICATION AS PER IS 73:2006


Characteristics VG-10 VG-20 VG-30 VG-40

Paving Grades Method


Sr.
Characteristics VG10 VG20 VG30 VG40 of Test,
no. Ref to
i) Penetration at 25C, 100 80 60 45 35 IS 1203
g, 5 s, 0.1 mm, Min
ii) Absolute viscosity at 60C, 800-1200 1600-2400 2400-3600 3200-4800 IS 1206
Poises (Part-2)
iii) Kinematic viscosity at 250 300 350 400 IS 1206
135C, cSt, Min (Part-3)
iv) Flash point (Cleveland 220 220 220 220 IS 1448
open cup), C, Min [P : 69]
v) Solubility in 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 IS 1216
trichloroethylene, percent,
Min
vi) Softening point (R&B), C, 40 45 47 50 IS 1205
Min
vii) Tests on residue from
rolling thin film oven test:
a) Viscosity ratio at 60C, 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.0 IS 1206
Max (Part 2)
b) Ductility at 25C, cm, 75 50 40 25 IS 1208
Min

VISCOSITY GRADED (VG) BITUMENS AND THEIR GENERAL


APPLICATIONS

Viscosity General Applications


Grade (VG)
Use in highly stressed areas such as those in intersection, near toll
VG 40
booths, and truck parking lots in lieu of old 30/40 penetration grade
VG 30 Use for paving in most of India in lieu of old 60/70 penetration grade
VG 20 Use for paving in cold climatic, high altitude regions of North India
Use in spraying applications such as surface dressing and for paving in
VG - 10
very cold climate in lieu of old 80/100 penetration grade

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SELECTION CRITERIA BFOR VISCOSITY-GRADED(VG) PAVING BITUMENS


BASED ON CLIMATIC CONDITIONS

Highest daily mean air temperature, C


Lowest daily Less than 20 C 20 to 30 C More than 30 C
mean air
temperature, C
More than -10 C VG-10 VG-20 VG-30
-10 C or lower VG-10 VG-10 VG-20

GRADES
Bitumen shall be classified into four grades based onthe viscosity, and
suitability recommended formaximum air temperature as given below:

Grade Suitable for 7 day Average


Maximum Air Temperature
C
VG10 < 30
VG20 30-38
VG30 38-45
VG40 > 45

NOTE this is the 7 day average maximum air temperature for a period not less
than 5 years from the start of the design period.

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Working Temperature( C )with bitumen


and Bituminous pavement

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EXPERIMENT NO. 8 DATE :

PENETRATION TEST
(IS: 1203-1978)

OBJECTIVE:To determine the penetration value of given bitumen sample.

INTRODUCTION:
Bituminous materials are available in variety of types and grades. The penetration
test determines the hardness of these materials by measuring the depth in tenth of a
millimeter to which a standard needle will penetrate vertically under specified conditions
of standard load, time and temperature The sample is maintained at the standard
temperature of 25 C. The total load on needle is l00 gm. The penetration test set-up is
illustrated in fig. 9.1. The softer the bitumen, the greater will be its number of penetration
unit. Indian Standards Institution has standardized the equipment and test procedure vide
IS 1203-1958 Penetration test is widely used world ever for classifying the bituminous
materials into different grades Even though it is recognized recently that the empirical tests
like penetration, softening point etc are incompetent to qualify the paving binder for its
temperature susceptibility characteristics, its quickness and simplicity of operations cannot
be ignored. Correlations are also established between penetration test and absolute viscosity
test values.
APPARATUS:
It consists of items like container, needle, water bath, penetrometer, stopwatch etc.
Following are standard specifications as per 1SI for the above apparatus

a) Container: A flat bottomed cylindrical metallic container 55 mm in diameter and


35 mm or 57 mm in height

b) Needle: A straight, highly polished cylindrical hard steel needle with conical end,
having the shape and dimensions as shown in fig. Needle is provided with a shank
appropriately 3 mm in diameter into which it is immovably fixed.

c) Water Bath: A water bath is maintained at 25 + 1 C containing not less than 10


liters of water, the sample is immersed to depth not less than 100 mm from the top
and supported on a perforated shelf not less than 50 mm from the bottom of the
bath.

d) Penetrometer: It is an apparatus which allows the needle to penetrate without


appreciable friction. It is accurately calibrated to yield results in hundreds of
centimeters "These days automatic Penetrometers (electrically operated) are also
available. Typical sketch of Penetrometer is shown in figure.

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e) Transfer Tray: A small tray which can keep the container fully immersed in water
during the test

Fig 1.Bitumen Penetrometer

Penetration Measurements

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PROCEDURE:

The bitumen is softened to a pouring consistency between 75 C and 100 C above


the approximated temperature at which bitumen softens The sample material is thoroughly
stirred to make it homogenous and free from air bubbles and water The sample material is
then poured into the container to a depth at least 15 mm more than the expected penetration
The sample containers are cooled in atmosphere of temperature not lower than 18C for
one hour. Then they are placed in temperature controlled water bath at a temperature of 25
C for a period of one hour.

The sample container is placed in the transfer tray with water from the water bath
and is placed under the needle of the penetrometer. The weight of needle, shaft and
additional weight are checked. The total weight of this assembly should be 100 gm. The
needle is now arranged to make contact with the sample surface. This is done by placing a
lamp to the rear of the apparatus in such a way that the image of the needle can be checked
to make surface contact. Zero reading of the penetrometer dial is taken before-releasing the
needle. The needle is released-for- 5 seconds and-the final reading is taken on the dial. At
least three measurements are made on this sample by testing at distance not less than 10
mm apart. After each test, the needle is disengaged and wiped with benzene and carefully
dried. The sample container is also transferred in the water bath before next testing is done
so as to maintain a constant temperature of 25 C. The test is repeated with sample in the
other containers.

I.R.C. RECOMMANDETIONS:

The depth of penetration is reported in hundreds of a centimeter. The mean value


of three consistent measurements is reported as the penetration value. It is further specified
by I SI that results of each measurements should not vary from the mean value reported
above by more than the following:
Penetration Grade Repeatability
0-80 4%
80- 225 5%
Above 225 7%

DISCUSSION:
It may be noted that the penetration value is largely influenced by an inaccuracy as
regards
i. Pouring Temperature
ii. Size of needles
iii. Weight placed on the needle
iv. Test Temperature

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It is obvious to obtain high values of penetration if the test temperature and/or weight
(placed over the needle) are/is increased. Higher pouring temperatures than the specified
may result into hardening of bitumen and may give lower penetration values. Higher test
temperatures have given considerably higher penetration values. It is also necessary to keep
the needle clean before testing in order to get consistent results. The penetration needle
should not be placed more than 10 mm from the side of the dish

OBSERVATIONS:
I Pouring Temp C =
II Bath material =
III. Period of air cooling at 30 C temp. =
IV Period of water bath at constant temp, of 25 C =
V Room Temp. =
VI Depth of Sample =

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Sr. Sample Penetration Value Mean Penetration


No. Initial Final Difference Value
1

CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 9 DATE:

DUCTILITY TEST
(IS: 1208-1978)

OBJECTIVE: To determine Ductility of given bitumen sample.

INTRODUCTION:

In the flexible pavement construction where bitumen binders are used, it is of


significant importance that the binders form ductile thin films around the aggregates. This
serves as a satisfactory' binder in improving the physical interlocking of the
aggregates. The binder material which does not possess sufficient ductility would crack
and thus provides pervious pavement surface. This in turn results in damaging effect to the
pavement structure. It has been stated by some agencies that the penetration and ductility
properties go together; but depending upon the chemical composition and the type of crude
source of the bitumen, sometimes it has been observed that the above statement is incorrect.
It may hence be mentioned that the bitumen may satisfy the penetration valve, but may fail
to satisfy the ductility requirements. Bitumen paving engineer would however want that
both test requirements are satisfied in the field jobs. Penetration or ductility is expressed as
the distance centimeters to which a standard briquette of bitumen can be stretched before
the thread breaks. See fig. 1. The test is conducted at 27 + 0.5 and at a rate of pull of 50
+ 2.5 mm per minute. The test has been standardized by the IS1.

APPARATUS:

It consists of items Uke sample (briquette) moulds, water bath, square-end trowel
or putty knife sharpened on end and ductility machine Following are standard specifications
as per ISI for the above items:

a) Briquette Mould:

Mould is made of brass metal with shape and dimensions as indicated in fig. 10 2.
Both ends called lips possess circular holes to grip the fixed and movable ends of
the testing machine, sidepieces when placed together form the briquette of the
following dimensions:
Length 75 mm
Distance between clips 30 mm
Width at mouth of clip 20 mm
Cross section at minimum width 10 mm x 10 mm

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b) Ductility Machine:

It is an equipment which functions as constant temperature water bath and a pulling


device at a pre calibrated rate. The central rod of the machine is threaded and
through gear system provides a movement to one end where the clip is fixed during
initial pavement. The other clip end is hooked at the fixed end of the machine. Two
clips are thus pulled apart horizontally at a uniform speed of 50 + 2.5 mm per
minute.

Fig 1. Ductility Testing Apparatus

PROCEDURE

The bitumen sample is melted to a temperature of 75 to 100C above the


approximate softening point until it is fluid It is strained through IS sieve 30, poured in the
mould assembly and placed on a brass plate, after a solution of glycerin and dextrin is
applied at all surfaces of the mould exposed to bitumen

Thirty to forty minutes after the sample is poured into the moulds, the plate
assembly along with the sample is placed m water bath maintained at 27C for 30 minutes.
The sample and mould assembly are removed from water bath and excess bitumen material
is cut off by leveling the surface using hot knife. After trimming the specimen, the mould
assembly containing sample is replaced in water bath maintained at 27C for 85 to 95
minutes. The sides of the mould are now removed and the clips are carefully hooked on the
machine without causing any initial strain. The pointer is set to read zero. The machine is
started and the two clips are thus pulled apart horizontally while the test is in operation, it
is checked whether the sample is immersed in water at depth of at least 10 mm. The distance
at which the bitumen thread breaks is recorded in cm to report as ductility value.

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Fig 2 Prepared Briquette with bitumen

Fig 3 Briquette assembly started pulling.

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Fig 3 Bitumen thread breaks

Fig:4 Ductility Measurements

I.R.C. RECOMMANDETIONS:

The distance traveled up to the point of breaking of thread measured in centimeters


is recorded as ductility value. It is recommended by ISI that results should not differ from
mean value by more than the following:

Repeatability Reproducibility
5 percent- 10 percent

DISCUSSION:

The ductility value gets seriously affected if any of the following factors are varied

i) Pouring temperature.
ii) Dimensions of briquette.
iii) Improper level of briquette placement.

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iv) Rate of pulling.


v) Test temperature

Increase m minimum cross section of 10mm would record increased ductility.

APPLICATIONS OF DUCTILITY TEST:

A certain minimum ductility is necessary for a bitumen binder. This is because of


the temperature changes in the bituminous mixes and the deformations that occur in flexible
pavement If the bitumen has low ductility, cracking may occur especially in cold weather.
The ductility values of bitumen vary from 5 to over 100. Several agencies have specified
the minimum ductility values for various types of bituminous pavement. Often a minimum
ductility value of 50cm is specified for bituminous construction.
OBSERVATIONS:
1.Grade of Bitumen =
2. Pouring temp =
3.Test temp. =
4.Period of air cooling =
5.Rate of cooling =

OBSERAVATION TABLE:

Test Property Briquette Mean Value


1 2
Ductility Value in cm to which standard briquette
mould having 10x10 cm2 cross-section in center can
stretch where thread just break
CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 10 DATE:

SOFTENING POINT TEST


(IS: 1205-1978)

OBJECTIVE:To determine the softening point of a given sample of bituminous material


with the help of Ring and Bali apparatus.

INTRODUCTION:
Bitumen does not suddenly change from solid to liquid state, but as the temperature
increases, it gradually becomes softer until it flows readily. All semi-solid state bitumen
grades need sufficient fluidity before they are used for application with the aggregate mix.
For this purpose, bitumen is sometimes cut back with solvent like kerosene. The common
procedure however is to liquefy the bitumen by heating.
The softening point is the temperature at which the substance attains
particular degree of softening under specified condition of test. For bitumen, it is
usually determined by Ring and Ball Test. A brass ring containing the test sample of
bitumen is suspended in liquid like water or glycerin at a given temperature. A steel ball is
placed upon the bitumen and liquid medium is then heated at a specified rate. The
temperature at which the soften bitumen touches the metal plate placed at a specified
distance below the ring is recorded as the softening point of a particular bitumen. The
apparatus and test procedure are standardized by ISI. It is obvious that harder grade bitumen
possess higher softening point than softer grade bitumen.

APPARATUS:
It consists of Ring and Ball apparatus.
a) Steel Balls: They are two in number. Each has a diameter 9.5 mm and weighs
2.5+0.5 gm
b) Brass Rings: There are two rings of the following dimension:
Depth : 6.4 mm
Inside diameter at bottom : 15.9mm
Inside diameter at top : 17.5 mm
Outside diameter : 20.6mm
Brass rings are also placed with ball guides as shown m fig. 8.2.
c) Support: The metallic support is used for placing pair of ring.
The upper surface of the rings is adjusted to be 50mm below the surface of water or
liquid contained in the bath. A distance of 25 mm between the bottom of the rings
and top surface of the bottom plate of support is provided It has a housing for
suitable thermometer.
d) Bath and Stirrer: A heat resistant glass container of 85 mm diameter and 120 mm
depth is used. Bath liquid is water for materials having softening point above 80 C,
and glycerin for materials having softening point above 80 C. Mechanical stirrer
is used for ensuring uniform heat distribution at all times throughout the bath.

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Fig 1. Ring and Ball Apparatus

PROCEDURE:

Sample material is heated to a temperature between 75 C TO 100 C above the


approximate softening point until it is completely fluid and is poured in heated rings placed
on metal plate. To avoid sticking of the bitumen to metal plate, coating is done to this with
a solution of glycerin and dextrin. After cooling the rings in air for 30 minutes, the excess
bitumen is trimmed and rings are placed in the support as discussed in item (c) above. At
this time, the temperature of distilled water is kept at 5 C. This temperature is maintained
for 15 minutes after which the balls are placed in position. The temperature of water is
raised at a uniform rate of 5 C per minute with a controlled bottom plate by sinking of
balls. At least two observations are made. For material whose softening point is above 80
C. Glycerin is used in heating medium and the starting temperature is 35 C instead of5C.

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I.R.C. RECOMMENDATIONS:

The temperature at the instant when each of the ball and sample touches the bottom
plate of support is recorded as softening point value. The mean of duplicate determinations
is noted. It is essential that the mean value of the softening point (temperature) does not
differ from individual observation by more than the following limits:

Softening Point Repeatability Reproducibility

Below 30 C 2 C 4 C
30 C to 80 C 1 C 2 C
Above 80 C 2 4 C

DISCUSSION:

As in the other physical tests on bitumen, it is essential that the specifications


discussed above are strictly observed. Particularly, any variation in the following points
would affect the result considerably:

i. Quality and type of liquid


ii. Weight of Balls
iii. Distance between bottom of Ring and bottom base plate
iv. Rate of heating

Impurity in water or glycerin lies been observed to affect the result considerably. It
is logical , lower will be the softening point, if the weight of balls is excessive. On the other
hand, increased distance between bottom of ring and bottom plate, increases the softening
point.

APPLICATION OF SOFTENNING POINT TEST:


Softening point is essentially the temperature at which the bituminous binders have
an equal viscosity. The softening point of a tar is therefore related to the equiviscous
temperature (e.v.t.). The softening point found by the ring and ball apparatus is
approximately 20C lower than the e.v.t.
Softening point, thus gives an idea if the temperature at which the bituminous
material attains a certain viscosity. Bitumen with higher softening point may be preferred
in warmer places. Softening point is also sometimes used to specify bitumen and pitches.

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OBSERVATIONS:

I. Grade of Bitumen
II. Approx. Softening point of Bitumen
III. Bath Liquid
IV. Period of Air Cooling
V. Period of cooling in water bath at 5C
VI. Rate of heating
VII. Room Temp.

OBSERVATION TABLE:

Sr. Test Property Test I Test II Mean Value


No.
1 Temp, at which Sample
touches bottom base
plate

CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

CONCLUSION

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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EXPERIMENTNO. 11 DATE:
VISCOSITY TEST
(IS: 1206-1978)

OBJECTIVE:To determine the Viscosity of given bitumen sample.

INTRODUCTION:

Viscosity is defined as inverse of fluidity. Viscosity thus defines the fluid


property of bituminous material. The degree of fluidity at the application temperature
greatly influences the strength characteristics of the resulting paving mixes. High or low
fluidity at mixing and compaction has been observed to result in lower stability values
There is an optimum value of fluidity or viscosity for mixing and compacting for each
aggregate gradation of the mix and bitumen grade. At high fluidity or low viscosity, the
bituminous binder simply "lubricates" the aggregate particles instead of providing a
uniform film thickness for binding action. Similarly low fluidity or high viscosity also
resists the compactive effort and the resulting mix is heterogeneous in character exhibiting
stability values. ISI specifies a test procedure for liquid binders like outback bitumen,
emulsion and liquid tar. One of the method by which viscosity is measured is by
determining the time taken by 50 CC of the material to flow from a cup through specified
orifice at a given temperature. This is illustrated in fig 1 Specification vide IS : 1206 -1958
describe the details of equipment and procedure. In the range of consistency of bituminous
materials when neither orifice viscometer test nor penetration test could be conducted, float
test may be carried out. Equipment like sliding plate micro viscometer and Brook field
viscometer are however in use for defining the viscous characteristics of the bitumen of all
grades irrespective of testing temperature.

APPARATUS:

Ten millimeter orifice viscometer is specified for road tar and is called tar
viscometer. Fig. shows the details of this apparatus. The apparatus consists of main parts
like cup, valve, water bath, sleeves, stirrer and thermometers etc.

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CAPILLARY VISCOMETER TUBE FOR


VISCOMETER FOR VG GRADE BITUMEN
PENETRATION GRADE OF
BITUMEN

Fig 1. Viscometer

PROCEDURE:

The tar cup is properly leveled and water in the bath is heated to the temperature
specified for the test and is maintained throughout the test. Stirring is also continued The
sample material! is heated at the temperature 20C above the specified test temperature and
the material is allowed to cool. During this, the material is continuously stirred, when
material reaches slightly above test temperature, the same is poured in the tar cup, until the
leveling peg on the valve rod is just immersed. In the graduated receiver (cylinder), 20ml
of mineral oil or one percent by weight solution of soft soap is poured This receiver is
placed under the orifice. When the sample material reaches the specified testing
temperature within + 0.1C and is maintained for 5 minutes, the valve is opened. The
stopwatch is started, when the cylinder records 25ml. The time is recorded for flow up to a
mark of 75ml. (i.e. 50ml of test sample to flow through the orifice).

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I.R.C RECOMMANDETIONS:

The time in seconds for 50ml of the sample material to flow through the orifice is
defined as the viscosity at a given test temperature The standard test temperatures have
been specified for the various grades of cutback and tar. The viscosity values of repeat test
on the same sample should not vary by more than 4 percent from the mean value.

DISCUSSION:

The working range of tar viscometer for 10 mm orifice is 10 to 140 seconds. For
cutback bitumen, the orifice size specified is 4mm for lower grades and 10mm for higher
grades with higher viscosity. Viscosity is the resistance to flow and the absolute unit of
viscosity is dyne sec./cm' or poise.

APPLICATIONS OF VISCOSITY TEST:

Orifice viscosity test gives an indirect measure of viscosity of tars and cutbacks in
second. Higher the time, more viscous is the binder material. Float test also measures the
viscosity in tune units (seconds)

OBSERVATIONS:

1. Grade of Bitumen
2. Specified test temp
3. Test temp
4. Room Temp.
5. Size of Orifice
6. Repeatability

OBSERAVATION TABLE:

Test Property Tests Mean Value


Sample 1 Sample 2

Viscosity in terms of time (seconds)


taken by 50 ml of bitumen to flow
through 10 mm orifice at 70C

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CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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DETERMINATON OF ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY

INTRODUCTION:

Viscosity of a liquid is a measure of resistance to flow of the liquid.Higher the viscosity


slower the movement of rate of flow. Lower the viscosity Higher the movement of rate of
flow.

As the bitumen binders are mixed with aggregates for road work at different temperature ,
It is necessary to determine viscosity at different temperature before its' use.
Viscosity of bitumen can be measured by capillary tube viscometer.

DETERMINATON OF ABSOLUTE VISCOSITY:

A vacuum capillary tube viscometer is generally used to measure the absolute


viscosity of bitumen at 60C.
The viscometer is mounted in a digitally controlled constant temperature bath at
uniform test temperature of 60C.
At this temp. the paving grade bitumen is highly viscous and cannot flow freely
through the capillary tube and therefore vacuum is applied to measure the flow.
The time taken in second for the liquid bitumen to flow through a known distance
through the capillary tube is measured and expressed as the absolute viscosity.
Depending on the type of fluid, different diameter tubes are taken and hence
calibration factors are required to calculate viscosity.
Generally canon manning vacuum viscometer is used to find out absolute viscosity
of bitumen.

APPARATUS:

Following items are used to carry out the test:


1. Cannon manning Viscometer size no. 12 or 13 with calibration factor.
2. Thermometer to measure the test temperature of 60C 0.1C.
3. Constant temperature bath, digitally controlled..., having viewing glass panel and
illuminating light to maintain test temperature of 60 deg. C with an accuracy of
0.1C.
4. Hot Air Oven to operate at 135C.
5. Vacuum pump unit with regulator to maintain vacuum of 300 mm Hg 0.5 mm
Hg.
6. A stop Watch to measure timing accurate to 0.1 second.

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PROCEDURE:

The bitumen sample is heated to a pouring temperature not exceeding 90C.


About 20 ml. of sample is transferred to a glass beaker 50 ml. and is placed in the
oven maintained at 135 5 C. to allow entrapped air to escape.
The prepared sample is poured in to the filling tube of the viscometer until the
sample touches the fill line.
The charged viscometer is placed in the oven at 135C for 10 minutes to allow large
air bubbles to escape.
The viscometer is now transferred to digitally controlled constant temperature bath
maintained at 60 0.1C.
The temperature is maintained for 30 to 35 minutes.
Now the vacuum of 300 0.5 mm hg is applied and liquid bitumen is allowed to
flow through bulb B and Bulb C and time taken from start timing mark to end
timing mark is noted in both the bulbs separately.

RESULT:

The measured time in second is multiplied with calibration factor to obtain the value of
viscosity in poise for each bulb.

That is, Viscosity P = Calibration factor K x Measured time t

FOR EXAMPLE:

Calibration factor for bulb B=59.3615 and flow time T =49 seconds then
Viscosity for bulb B = 59.3615 x 49
= 2908.71 poise

Now Calibration factor for bulb C=19.7521 and flow time T =147 seconds then
Viscosity for bulb C = 19.7521 x 147
= 2903.55 poise

The final absolute viscosity of sample = 2908.71+2903.55/2


= 2906.13 poise

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OBSERVATION AND RESULT

Sr.No Flow Time B Flow Time C Remarks

Time in Sec

Calibration Factor

Viscosity in Poise
Average of B and (B+C)/2 =
C

NOTE:

While reporting the viscosity test temperature 60C and vacuum 300mm hg should
be mentioned.
After completion of test remove the viscometer from the bath and place it in an
inverted position in an oven maintained at 135 5C, until asphalt is drained off
thoroughly.
Clean the viscometer by rinsing with appropriate solution like acetone or benzene.
Dry the tube by passing a flow of filtered air through the capillary for 2 minutes.
Periodically tube can be cleaned by chromic acid to remove organic deposits.

The basic unit of viscosity is the


Pascal seconds (Pa s).
The absolute or dynamic
viscosity of bitumen measured
in Pascal seconds
It is the shear stress applied to a
sample of bitumen in Pascal
divided by the shear rate per
second;
1Pa s = 10 p (Poise).

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DETERMINATION OF KINEMATIC VISCOSITY OF BITUMEN:

Kinematic viscosity is the measure of resistance to flow of a bitumen under gravity.

In CGS unit kinematic viscosity is expressed as Cm/second and is called a STOKE.In SI


unit Kinematic Viscosity is expressed as mm/second and is called a centi-stoke, i.e..cSt.

If kinematic viscosity (In stoke) is multiplied by the specific gravity of bitumen , the
absolute viscosity (in poise) can be obtained.

Kinematic viscosity of bitumen is carried out in reverse flow viscometer at test temperature
of 135C.

APPARATUS:

Following items are used to carry out the test:


1. Reverse flow viscometer No. 6 with calibration factor.
2. Calibrated Thermometer to measure the temperature of 135C with least count of
0.1C.
3. Constant temperature bath, digitally controlled, having viewing glass panel and
illuminating light to maintain test temperature of 135C with an accuracy of 0.1C.
4. High temperature Silicon oil.
5. A stop Watch to measure timing accurate to 0.1 second.

PROCEDURE:

The bitumen sample is heated to a pouring temperature not exceeding 90C. The
sample is stirred thoroughly and about 20 ml sample is transferred in glass beaker.
The viscometer is placed in the oil bath and held in vertical position with the help
of viscometer holder.
Pour the sample through filling tube to a point just about filling mark.
Now arrest the flow of the sample by inserting the cork in tube.
Add more sample if necessary to bring the upper meniscus slightly above filling
mark.
Remove excess sample above filling mark G by inserting the special pipette.
Maintain the bath temperature of 135 deg. C 0.1 deg. C for 30 minutes.
Remove the cork from tube H and allow the sample to flow by gravity.
Observe the flow and start stop watch at start timing mark A and stop at Stop timing
mark B. Record the seconds nearest to 0.1 S. value

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CALCULATIONS:

Viscosity cSt = Calibration factor K(Centi-stoke per second) x flow time in seconds t

Always report test temperature along with the result.

As per BIS, The repeatability of Kinematic viscosity test result should not differ by 1.8%of
their mean value.
The reproducibility of Kinematic viscosity test result should not differ by more than 8.8%
of their mean value.

OBSERVATION AND RESULT

Flow Time From A to B Remarks


Data
Time in Sec

Calibration Factor
Viscosity in cSt
(Centi-stoke per second
)

Conclusion :

Faculty Advisor

Sign

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EXPERIMENT NO. 12 DATE:

FLASH AND FIRE POINT TEST

OBJECTIVE:To determine the Flash and Fire point of a given sample of bituminous
material with the help of Pensky-Martins apparatus.

INTRODUCTION:This test is done to determine the flash point and the fire point of
asphaltic bitumen and fluxed native asphalt, cutback bitumen and blown type bitumen as
per IS: 1209 1978. The principle behind this test is given below:

Flash Point The flash point of a material is the lowest temperature at which the
application of test flame causes the vapours from the material to momentarily catch fire in
the form of a flash under specified conditions of the test.

Fire Point The fire point is the lowest temperature at which the application of test flame
causes the material to ignite and burn at least for 5 seconds under specified conditions of
the test.

APPARATUS:
The apparatus required for this test
i) Pensky-Martens apparatus
ii) Thermometer-
Low Range: -7 to 110oC, Graduation 0.5C
High Range: 90 to 370C, Graduation 2

Fig 1.Pensky-Martens apparatus

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PROCEDURE:

FLASH POINT
i) Soften the bitumen between 75 and 100oC. Stir it thoroughly to remove air bubbles and
water.
ii) Fill the cup with the material to be tested up to the filling mark. Place it on the bath. Fix
the open clip. Insert the thermometer of high or low range as per requirement and also the
stirrer, to stir it.

iii) Light the test flame, adjust it. Supply heat at such a rate that the temperature increase,
recorded by the thermometer is neither less than 5oC nor more than 6oC per minute.

iv) Open flash point is taken as that temperature when a flash first appears at any point on
the surface of the material in the cup. Take care that the bluish halo that sometimes
surrounds the test flame is not confused with the true flash. Discontinue the stirring during
the application of the test flame.

v) Flash point should be taken as the temperature read on the thermometer at the time the
flash occurs.

FIRE POINT
i) After flash point, heating should be continued at such a rate that the increase in
temperature recorded by the thermometer is neither less than 5oC nor more than 6oC per
minute.
ii) The test flame should be lighted and adjusted so that it is of the size of a bead 4mm in
dia.

OBSERVATIONS
Sr.
Test Property Test I Test II Mean Value
No.
1 Flash point
2 Fire point

REPORTING OF RESULTS
i) The flash point should be taken as the temperature read on the thermometer at the time
of the flame application that causes a distinct flash in the interior of the cup.
ii) The fire point should be taken as the temperature read on the thermometer at which the
application of test flame causes the material to ignite and burn for at least 5 seconds

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DISCUSSION:

CONCLUSION

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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EXPERIMENT NO. 13 DATE:

TEST FOR BITUMEN CONTENT OF PAVING MIXURE BY


CENTRIFUGAL EXTRACTOR

OBJECTIVE:To determine the percentage of bitumen in paving mixture.

INTRODUCTION:
This method of test is intended for the determination, by cold solvent extraction, of
the percentage of bitumen (Not, in a paving mixture, the aggregate in which all passing
through 25 mm sieve. It is not intended for use in recovering the bitumen for further
testing). The mineral matter recovered from this test can be used for sieve analysis.

Note: Although "Bitumen" by definition is material soluble I carbon disulfide, benzene is


recommended for use in this method for safety reasons, and it normally produces the same
results within the precision of the method. Other solvents, such as carbon tetrachloride,
trichloroethylene, etc. may be substitute for benzene or carbon disulfide in this method and
similar results may be obtained, but the relationship of such results to these obtained with
benzene or carbon disulfide cannot be predicted or assumed.

If volatile distillates are desired, they may be obtained by the method of test for
Moisture or volatile distillates m Bituminous Paving Mixtures.

APPARATUS:
It consists of following:
a) Extraction Apparatus: consisting of a bowl approximating that shown m fig.1
and an apparatus in which the bowl may be revolved at controlled variable speeds
up to 3600 rpm The apparatus shall be provided with a shell for catching the
solvent thrown from the bowl and a drain for removing the solvent. The apparatus
preferably shall be provided with explosion proof features and installed under a
hood to provide ventilation
b) Filter Rings: to fit the nm of the bowl.
c) Oven: capable of being maintained at 240 F.
d) Steam Bath
e) Balance: of 5000 g capacity, sensitivity to 0.1 g
f) Analytical Balance
g) Graduate: 2000 ml capacity
h) Ignition Dish: 125 ml capacity
l) Maker Burner, Stands; Large Flat Pan, Beakers etc.

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Fig 1. Centrifugal Extractor

REAGENTS:

i. Benzene, confirming to the Standard specifications for Industrial Grade Benzene.

ii. Ammonium Carbonate Solution- Prepare a saturated solution of (NH4)2.

iii. Cresol, crystal-free, confirming to the standard specifications for Cresol for priming
coat with coal-tar pitch in damp proofing and water proofing

PREPARATION OF SAMPLE:

a. If the mixture is not sufficiently soft to separate with a spatula or towel, place 2000
to 5000 g in a large, fiat pan and warm in oven at 240F, only until it can be so
handled Separate the particles of the sample as uniformly as possible, using care not
to fracture the mineral particles, and weigh a representative 1000 g portion in to the
bowl, distributing it uniformly around the bowl. For routine testing, smaller samples
may be used when the maximum size aggregate therein is less than 6.3 mm. The
precision of the method becomes less as the aggregate size increases, due to
variations in samples. It may, however be used on mixtures containing aggregate
larger than 25 mm by using samples weighing at least 3000 g. They may be tested
by extracting 1000 g at a tune

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b. Cover the sample in the bowl with benzene and allow sufficient time for the solvent
to disintegrate the sample before testing (not over 1 hr.)

. At the time, weigh 500 g of the sample to a metal still confirming to section 3 (b)
of the test for water in Petroleum Products and other Bituminous Materials

PROCEDURE:

i. Place the bowl containing the sample and solvent in the machine. Dry and weight
the filter ring and fit it around the edge of the bowl. Clamp the cover over the bowl
tightly in place and place the beaker under the drain to collect the extract.

ii. Start the machine revolving slowly, gradually increasing speed to a maximum of
3600 rpm or until solvent ceases to flow from the drain. Allow the machine to stop,
add 200 ml of benzene, and repeat the above procedure. Use sufficient 200 ml
solvent and repeat the above procedure. Use sufficient 200 ml solvent additions (not
less than three) so that the extract is clear and not darker than and light straw color
when a portion is viewed in a separate container.

iii. Remove the filter ring from the bowl, dry in air and then to constant weight in oven
at 240F and weigh. The increase in weight of this ring during the extraction
procedure is mineral matter. Evaporate the contents of the bowl to dryness on the
steam bath and then heat in an oven at 240F to constant weight after cooling.

iv. Collect all extract in a 2000ml graduate and measure the total volume. Agitate the
contract thoroughly and measure 100 ml in to a previously weighed ignition dish.
Evaporate the extract in the dish to dryness on a steam bath and ash the residue at a
dull red heat. Ash the bituminous material at a dull red heat (500 to 600C) cool,
and add 5 ml or saturate ammonium carbonate (NH4CO3) solution per gram of ash.
Digest at room temp, for 1 nr. and then dry in an oven at 110C to constant weight,
cool in a desiccators, and weigh. Calculate the weight of ash in the entire volume
of extract.

v. Determine the water content of the sample in the metal still (section 4(c) in
accordance with method D95).

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CALCULATIONS:

Calculate the percentage bitumen in the sample as follows :

Bitumen content of dry sample percent = (W1- W2)( W3+ W4 + W5) x 100 /(W1- W2)
Where
W1 weight of sample, in gm.
W2 weight of water in sample
W3 weight of extracted mineral matter
W4 weight of ash in extract, and
W5 Increase in the weight of the filter ring

OBSERVATIONS:

I. Solvent used:
II. Initial wt. Of sample in gms.= W1
III. Weight of aggregate after being centrifuged =

OBSERVATION :

Bitumen content =

CALCULATIONS:

RESULT:

CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)
Date:

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EXPERIMENT NO:14 DATE:

DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the Optimum Bitumen content of given sample using


Marshall Stability Test.

INTRODUCTION:

The Marshall Stability and flow test provides the performance prediction measure
for the Marshall Mix design method. The stability portion of the test measures the
maximum load supported by the test specimen at a loading rate of 50.8 mm/minute. Load
is applied to the specimen till failure, and the maximum load is designated as stability.
During the loading, an attached dial gauge measures the specimen's plastic flow
(deformation) due to the loading. The flow value is recorded in 0.25 mm (0.01 inch)
increments at the same time when the maximum load is recorded.

APPARATUS:
The apparatus consists of:
Marshall Stability testing machine
Cylindrical mould 10 cm. diameter and 7.5 cm. height
Rammer 4.5 kg. weight with free fall of 45.7 cm
Compacting Machine
IS Sieves

MATERIALS:
The materials consist of:
Coarse Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
Filler
Bitumen

SPECIFICATION AS PER MORTH FOR DBM & BC

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PHYSICAL REQUIREMENTS FOR COARSE AGGREGATE FOR BITUMINOUS


CONCRETE PAVEMENT LAYERS (BC)& DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS
MACADAM PAVEMENT LAYERS (DBM)
Property Test Specification Specification
(BC) (DBM)
Cleanliness (dust) Grain size analysis1 Max. 5% passing Max. 5% passing
0.075mm sieve 0.075mm sieve
Particle shape Flakiness and Elongation Index Max. 30% (combined)2 Max. 30% (combined)2
Strength* Los Angeles Abrasion value3 Max. 30% Max. 35%
Aggregate Impact value4 Max. 24% Max. 27%
Polishing Polished stone value5 Min. 55 -
Durability Soundness:6
Sodium sulphate Max. 12% Max. 12%
Magnesium sulphate Max. 18% Max. 18%
Water absorption Water absorption7 Max. 2% Max. 2%
Stripping Coating and stripping of Minimum retained Minimum retained
Bitumen aggregate mixtures9 Coating 95% Coating 95%
Water sensitivity** Retained tensile strength8 Min. 80% Min. 80%

COMPOSITION OF DENSE GRADED BITUMINOUS MACADAM PAVEMENT


LAYERS (DBM) & BITUMENOUS CONCRETE PAVEMENT LAYER (BC)
DBM BC
Grading 1 2 1 2
Nominal aggregate size 40mm 25mm 40mm 25mm
Layer Thickness 80-100mm 50-75mm 80-100mm 50-75mm
IS sieve1 (mm) Cumulative % by weight of total aggregate passing
45 100
37.5 95-100 100
26.5 63-93 90-100 100
19 - 71-95 79-100 100
13.2 55-75 56-80 59-79 79-100
9.5 - - 52-72 70-88
4.75 38-54 38-54 35-55 53-71
2.36 28-42 28-42 28-44 42-58
1.18 - - 20-34 34-48
0.6 - - 15-27 26-38
0.3 7-21 7-21 10-20 18-28
0.15 - - 5-13 12-20
0.075 2-8 2-8 2-8 4-10
Bitumen content % by mass of total mix2 Min 4.0 Min 4.5 5.0-6.0 5.0-7.0
Bitumen grade (pen) 65 or 90 65 or 90 65 65

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REQUIREMENT FOR BITUMENOUS PAVEMENT LAYERS (BC) & DENSE


GRADED BITUMINOUS MACADAM (DBM)

BC DBM
0
Minimum stability(kn at 60 C) 9.0 9.0
Minimum flow (mm) 2 2
Maximum flow (mm) 4 4
Compaction level 75 blows on each of the 75 blows on each of the
(Number of blows) two faces of the specimen two faces of the specimen
Percent air voids 3-6 3-6
Percent voids in mineral
See Table Below See Table Below
aggregate (VMA)
Percent voids filled with
65-75 65-75
bitumen (VFB)
Loss of stability on immersion
Min. 75 percent retained
in water at 600C (ASTM D -
strength
1075)

MINIMUM PERCENT VOIDS IN MINERAL AGGREGATE (VMA)


Nominal Minimum VMA, per cent related to design air voids, per
Maximum particle cent2
size1 (mm) 3.0 4.0 5.0
9.5 14 15 16
12.5 13 14 15
19.0 12 13 14
25.0 11 12 13
37.5 10 11 12

Fig 2. Phase diagram of a bituminous mix

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Density and voids analysis


Basic properties of compacted bituminous mix
The compacted specimen of bituminous mix consists of mineral aggregate (coarse and fine
aggregate and mineral filler), bituminous binder and some air voids. The volumetric
composition of compacted bituminous mix is shown diagrammatically in Fig. The volumes
are represented as given below:

PROPERTIES OF THE MIX:


The properties that are of interest include the theoretical specific gravity Gt, the
bulk specific gravity of the mix Gm, percent air voids Vv, percent volume of bitumen Vb,
percent void in mixed aggregate VMA and percent voids filled with bitumen VFB. These
calculations are discussed next.

Fig 1. Marshall Test Setup

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Theoretical specific gravity of the mix Gt

Theoretical specific gravity Gt is the specific gravity without considering air voids, and is
given by:

(1)

where, W1is the weight of coarse aggregate in the total mix, W2is the weight of fine
aggregate in the total mix, W3is the weight of filler in the total mix, Wbis the weight of
bitumen in the total mix, G1is the apparent specific gravity of coarse aggregate, G2is the
apparent specific gravity of fine aggregate, G3is the apparent specific gravity of filler and
Gbis the apparent specific gravity of bitumen,

Bulk specific gravity of mix Gm

The bulk specific gravity or the actual specific gravity of the mix Gmis the specific gravity
considering air voids and is found out by:

(2)

where, Wmis the weight of mix in air, Wwis the weight of mix in water, Note that Wm-Ww
gives the volume of the mix. Sometimes to get accurate bulk specific gravity, the specimen
is coated with thin film of paraffin wax, when weight is taken in the water. This, however
requires to consider the weight and volume of wax in the calculations.

Air voids percentVv


Air voids Vvis the percent of air voids by volume in the specimen and is given by:

(3)
in %

Where Gt is the theoretical specific gravity of the mix, given by equation 26.1. and Gmis the
bulk or actual specific gravity of the mix given by equation 26.2.
Percent volume of bitumen Vb
The volume of bitumen Vbis the percent of volume of bitumen to the total volume and given
by:

(4)
OR

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Vb = Gm * (Wb/Gb)

where, W1 is the weight of coarse aggregate in the total mix,W2 is the weight of fine
aggregate in the total mix,W3is the weight of filler in the total mix, Wb is the weight of
bitumen in the total mix, Gb is the apparent specific gravity of bitumen, and Gmis the bulk
specific gravity of mix given by equation 26.2.

Voids in mineral aggregate VMA

Voids in mineral aggregate VMA is the volume of voids in the aggregates, and is the sum
of air voids and volume of bitumen, and is calculated from

(5)
in %

where, Vv is the percent air voids in the mix, given by equation 26.3. and Vb is percent
bitumen content in the mix, given by equation 26.4. (4).

Voids filled with bitumen VFB

Voids filled with bitumen VFB is the voids in the mineral aggregate frame work filled with
the bitumen, and is calculated as:

(6)

where, Vb is percent bitumen content in the mix, given by equation 26.4. and VMA is the
percent voids in the mineral aggregate, given by equation 26.5.

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PROCEDURE:

Specimen preparation
Approximately 1200gm of aggregates and filler is heated to a temperature of 175-
190 C. Bitumen is heated to a temperature of 121-125oC with the first trial percentage of
o

bitumen (say 3.5 or 4% by weight of the mineral aggregates). The heated aggregates and
bitumen are thoroughly mixed at a temperature of 154-160oC. The mix is placed in a
preheated mould and compacted by a rammer with 50 blows on either side at temperature
of 138oC to 149oC. The weight of mixed aggregates taken for the preparation of the
specimen may be suitably altered to obtain a compacted thickness of 63.5+/-3 mm. Vary
the bitumen content in the next trial by +0:5% and repeat the above procedure. Numbers of
trials are predetermined. The prepared mould is loaded in the Marshall Test setup as shown
in the figure 1.

Determine Marshall stability and flow


Marshall Stability of a test specimen is the maximum load required to produce
failure when the specimen is preheated to a prescribed temperature placed in a special test
head and the load is applied at a constant strain (5 cm per minute). While the stability test
is in progress dial gauge is used to measure the vertical deformation of the specimen. The
deformation at the failure point expressed in units of 0.25 mm is called the Marshall flow
value of the specimen.
Apply stability correction
It is possible while making the specimen the thickness slightly vary from the
standard specification of 63.5 mm. Therefore, measured stability values need to be
corrected to those which would have been obtained if the specimens had been exactly 63.5
mm. This is done by multiplying each measured stability value by an appropriated
correlation factors as given in Table below:

Table 1. Correction factors for Marshall Stability values


Volume of specimen cm3 Thickness of specimen(mm) Correction factor
457 -470 57.1 1.19
471 -482 68.7 1.14
483 -495 60.3 1.09
496 -508 61.9 1.04
509 -522 63.5 1.00
523 -535 65.1 0.96
536 -546 66.7 0.93
547 -559 68.3 0.89
560 -573 69.9 0.86
OBSERVATIONS AND CALCULATION:

BLENDING OF AGGREGATES for DBM OR BC

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Seive size % Passing of aggregates for different size Required

% of Agg
45
37.5
26.5
19
13.2
9.5
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.6
0.3
0.15
0.075
Mix Proportion
Size of aggregate % of Aggregate

TRIAL 1

Bitumen % :________

Sr.
Parameter Specimen-1 Specimen-2 Specimen-3 Specimen-4
No.

1. Stability value
(kg.)
2. Flow value, 0.25
mm unit

PREPARE GRAPHICAL PLOTS:

The average value of the above properties is determined for each mix with different
bitumen content and the following graphical plots are prepared:

1. Binder content versus corrected Marshall Stability.

2. Binder content versus Marshall Flow.

3. Binder content versus percentage of void (Vv) in the total mix

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4. Binder content versus voids filled with bitumen (VFB)


5. Binder content versus unit weight or bulk specific gravity (Gm).

Fig 3. Marshall Graphical Plots

DETERMINE OPTIMUM BITUMEN CONTENT:

Determine the optimum binder content for the mix design by taking average value
of the following three bitumen contents found form the graphs obtained in the previous
step.

1. Binder content corresponding to maximum stability

2. Binder content corresponding to maximum bulk specific gravity (Gm)

3. Binder content corresponding to the median of designed limits of percent air voids (Vv)
in the total mix (i.e. 4%)

The stability value, flow value, and VFB are checked with Marshall mix design
specification chart given in Table below.

CALCULATIONS:

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CONCLUSION:

(Faculty Advisor)

Date :

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SECTION-IV
A STUDY ON TRAFFIC PARAMETERS

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Dimension
Weight STATIC
Max. Turning angle
Speed
Accleration
Braking System DYNAMIC

VEHICULAR
Lighting system
Civil Engineering

CHARACTRISTICS
Tyres
Vision
Hearing Permanent
Strength PHYSICAL
Fatigue CHARACTRISTICS
Alcohol Temporary
Illness

Knowledge
Skill MENTAL
Intelligence CHARACTRISTICS
Experience
Literacy
Attentiveness
Fear PSYCHOLOGICAL
TRAFFIC CHARACTRISTICS

CHARACTRISTICS

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Anger
Superstition
Depertment Highway Lab Manual

Traffic stream
ROAD USER CHARACTRISTICS

ENVIRONMENTAL
Facilities to traffic atmospheric
CHARACTRISTICS

TRAFFIC VOLUME
ORIGIN AND DESTINATION STUCDY
TRAFFIC FLOW CHARACTRISTICS

92
TRAFFIC CAPACITY STUDY
Spot speed study TRAFFIC
Speed and Delay study SPEED
On street parking STUDY
PARKING
TRAFFIC ENGINEERING -SCOPE OF STUDY

AND ANALYSYS

Off street parking


TRAFFIC STUDIES

STUDY
ACCIDENT STUDY
TRAFFIC OPERATION AND CONTROL DESIGN

PLANNING AND ANALYSYS

GEOMETRIC DESIGN*

ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT


Civil Engineering Depertment Highway Lab Manual

EXPERIMENT NO:15 DATE:

SPOT SPEED STUDY

Aim

Apparatus

Procedure

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Observations and calculations

Result

Discussion of the result

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SPOT SPEED STUDY


NAME OF ROAD : TYPE OF ROAD: DATE:

DIRECTION : REF. DISTANCE: m TIME:

TIME TAKEN TO COVER REF. DISTANCE


Sr
2W 3W 4W BUS LCV/HCV NMT BICYCLE
No.
Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

NAME OF ENUMERATOR: SIGNATURE:

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Darshan Institute of Engineering and Technology-Rajkot


CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

Highway Engineering
SPOT SPEED STUDY

NAME OF ROAD : TYPE OF ROAD: DATE:

DIRECTION : REF. DISTANCE: m TIME:

TIME TAKEN TO COVER REF. DISTANCE


Sr
2W 3W 4W BUS LCV/HCV NMT BICYCLE
No.
Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed Time Speed

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

NAME OF ENUMERATOR: SIGNATURE:

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EXPERIMENT NO:16 DATE:

TRAFFIC VOLUME STUDY

Aim

Apparatus

Procedure

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Observations and calculations

Result

Discussion of the result

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EXPERIMENT NO:17 DATE:

ACCIDENT STUDY

Aim

Apparatus

Procedure

COLLISION DIAGRAM

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CONDITION DIAGRAM

Observations and calculations

Result

Discussion of the result

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SECTION-V
HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN- STUDY MATERIAL

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HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN ELEMENTS

(FIVE ELEMENTS)

1 2 3 4 5

CROSS SECTION SIGHT HORIZONTAL VERTICAL INTERSECTION


ELEMENTS DISTANCE ALIGNMENT ALIGNMENT ELEMENTS
Pavement Stoppinng Horizontal Gradient Intersection at
surface sight curve grade
characterist distance
ic (SSD)
Friction PIEV Super Summit 1. Unchannelize
(Skid and theory elevation curve
Slip)
Pavement Overtaking Widening Valley 2. Channelize
unevenness sight of curve
distance pavement
(OSD)
Light Sight Horizontal 3. Rotary
reflecting distance at transition intersection
characteristi intersection curve
c
Camber / Set-back Grade
Cross slope distance on separated
horizontal intersection
curve
Carriage Curve
way resistance
Median
Kerb
Road
margin
ROW
Formation
width

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STUDY MATERIAL

HIGHWAY GEOMETRIC DESIGN(STUDY)


Highway Geometric Design
Elements Of HGD (GTU Dec. 2010)
1) Cross-section Elements
2) Sight Distance Consideration
3) Horizontal Alignment Details
4) Vertical Alignment Details

Factor Affecting HGD


1) Design Speed
2) Topography
3) Traffic Factors
4) Design Hourly Volume & Capacity
5) Environmental Factors
Topography Classification
Based on the cross slope of the country,the terrains are classified as under:
Terrain Classification Cross slope of the country (%)
PLAIN 0-10%
ROLLING 10-25%
MONTAINOUS 25-60%
STEEP >60%
Cross-section Elements Of Road
1) Carriage Way
2) Formation Width
3) Right Of Way
4) Road Shoulders
5) Side Slope
6) BERM
7) Boundary Stone
8) Side Drain
9) Building Line (B.L)
10) Control Line(C.L.)
11) Spoil Bank
12) Borrow Pits
13) Kerbs(Low, semi-barrier, barrier)
14) Pavement Surface Characteristics
(i) Friction (ii)Unevenness Of Pavement (iii)Light Reflecting Characteristics

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Cross-Section Of Roads As Per IRC: (JUNE 2011)


1) C/S Of NH Or SH In Rural Area In Embakement:

2) C/S Of MDR In Rural Area In Embakement:

3) C/S Of Divided Highway In Urban Area:

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Difference Of SKID & SLIP


SKID SLIP
It occurs when the wheels of the vehicle slide It occurs when a wheel revolves more than the
without revolving corresponding longitudinal distance along the
OR roads
When the wheels partially revolve

Distance travelled is greater than the Distance travelled is less than the
circumferential moment of the wheel circumferential movement of the vehicle

CAMBER
CAMBER is the slope provided to the road surface in the transverse direction to
drain off the rain water from the road surface
CAMBER can be provided in three ways:

(1) Parabolic Camber (2) Straight Camber

(3) Combination Of Straight & Parabolic


Camber

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CAMBER For Different Road Surface


Sr. No. Types Of Road surface Range of CAMER in Area
of Rainfall Range
HIGHto LOW
1 Cement Concrete/High type
bituminous surface 1 in 50 (2%) 1 in 60 ( 1.7%)
2 Thin Bituminous surface 1 in 40
1 in 50( 2 %)
(2.5%)
3 Water Bound Macadam
(WBM)/ Gravel pavement 1 in 33 (3%) 1 in 40( 2.5%)

4 Earth
1 in 25 (4%) 1 in 33 ( 3.0%)

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)


SSD = Lag Distance + Breaking Distance

Factors Affecting SSD

1) Speed Of Vehicle

2) Efficiency Of Break

3) Total Reaction Time Of Driver

4) Frictional Resistance betn The Road &Tyres

5) Gradient of The Road

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PIEV Theory : (GTU Dec. 2010)


According to PIEV theory the total reaction time of the driver is split into four
parts
I. Perception Time
II. Intellection Time
III. Emotion time
IV. Volition time

Stopping Sight Distance (SSD)


SSD = Lag Distance + Breaking Distance

v2
SSD = 0.278vt + ( In kmph)
254f
v2
SSD = vt + ( In msec)
2gf

Break Efficiency When Given:


v2
SSD = vt + (In msec)
2g(f Break efficiency in fraction)

v2
SSD = 0.278vt + (In kmph)
254(f Break efficiency in fraction)

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SSD:
1) When road is with ascending gradient

v2
SSD = vt + n
(In msec)
2g (f + 100)

2) When road is with descending gradient

v2
SSD = vt + n
(In msec)
2g (f )
100

1) For One Way Traffic:

SSD = SSD 2

2) For A Two Way Traffic On A Single Lane Road:

SSD = 2 SSD

3) For Two Way Traffic On A Two Lane Road:

SSD = 1 SSD

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Overtaking Sight Distance (OSD):


The minimum distance open to the vision of the driver of a vehicle intending to
overtake slow vehicle ahead with safety against the traffic of opposite direction is
known as the OSD.

OSD = d1+d2+d3

What is d1 , d2 & d3 we see ahead.

d1 = Vb t Where, b = Vb T
b = distance travelled by slow movingvehicle B.

S = 0.7Vb + 6

d2 = b + 2S S = Spacing of vehicle
4S
= Vb T + 2S T=
a
d3 = V. T (V > Vb )V = Speed Of Overtaking Vehicle
T = Overtaking time
t = Reaction time (sec)
a = Acceleration of overtaking vehicle

Vb= Speed of slow vehicle B (m/s)

OSD = d1 + d2 + d3

OSD = Vb . t + (Vb . T + 2S) + V. T

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As per IRC, minimum length of OSD = 3 OSD


As per IRC, desirable length of OSD = 5 OSD

Design Speed:

The maximum safe speed of vehicles used for highway geometric design is known
as DESIGN SPEED.

Factors affecting design speed are:


1) Class Of Road
2) Class Of Terrain
3) Curves On The Road
4) Type Of Road Surface
5) Intensity And Nature Of Traffic
6) Condition Of Road Surface

Types Design Speed in kmph for various terrains


Sr.No. Of PLAIN ROLLING MOUNTAINOUS STEEP
Roads Ruling Min. Ruling Min. Ruling Min. Ruling Min.
1 NH OR SH 100 80 80 65 50 40 40 30
2 MDR 80 65 65 50 40 30 30 20
3 ODR 65 50 50 40 30 25 25 20
4 VR 50 40 40 35 25 20 25 20

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SUPERELEVATION:

The amount by which the outer edge of the road surface is raised is known as
superelevation or cant or banking.

Rotating About Center Line Rotating About The Inner Edge

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FORMULA FOR SUPERELEVATION:


v2
e+f= Where, e = tan
gR
= Rate of super elevation
2
V
e+f= f
127R
= design lateral friction co efficient
= 0.15
If f = 0 then

v2
e= v = speed of vehicle msec
gR
R = Radius of horizontal curve (m)
When e=0

v2
f= V = speed of vehicle in kmph
gR
v = fgR g = 9.8 ms 2
As per IRC, e should not exceed 0.067 0.07 or 6.7%.
The value of f should not exceed 0.15.

ADVANTAGE OF SUPER ELEVATION:


Transportation made safely on the road.
Vehicle can traverse the horizontal curve with more speed.
Traffic volume is increased.
The maintenance of road on curved is decreased.
There is no need to construct drain at the outer edge of the road & water drain off
the road surface quickly.

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TRANSITION CURVE:
It is a curve which is provided betn straight and circular curve or between two
compound curves or between two reverse curves.
OBJECTIVES OF TRANSITION CURVE:

TRANSITION CURVE

Objectives Of TRANSITION
CURVE:
1. To enable gradual introduction of
the designed Super elevation.
2. To enable gradual introduction of
the extra winding of pavement.
3. To introduce gradually the
centrifugal force between the
tangent point & the begining of the
circular curve , avoiding a sudden
jerk on the vehicle.
4. To improve the asthetic appearance
of road.
5. To prevent the possibility of
overturning of vehicles on
horizontal curves.
6. There is no need to decrease the
speed of the vehicle entering the
curve.

7. To enable gradual introduction of the designed Super elevation.


8. To enable gradual introduction of the extra winding of pavement.
9. To introduce gradually the centrifugal force between the tangent point & the
begining of the circular curve , avoiding a sudden jerk on the vehicle.
10. To improve the asthetic appearance of road.
11. To prevent the possibility of overturning of vehicles on horizontal curves.
12. There is no need to decrease the speed of the vehicle entering the curve.

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Requirements Of TRANSITION CURVE:


1) The radius of transition curve should gradually decrease from infinite at the point
of tangency (T.P.) to the radius of curve (R) near the circular curve.
2) The rate of increase of curvature should be equal to the rate of increase of
superelevation.
3) The length of transition curve (Ls) should be such that full superelevation is
obtained where transition curve meet the circular curve.
4) The length of transition curve should be inversely proportion to the radius of the
curve
1
LS R LS . R = Constant

Length Of TRANSITION CURVE:


The length of the transition curve is designed to fulfill three condition :

1) The rate of change of centrifugal acceleration should be developed gradually:

0.0215v 3
Ls = Ls = LengthOfTransitionCurve(m)
CR
v = SpeedOFvehicle(kmph)

R = RadiusOfCircularCurve(m)

The min. & max. value of C are limited to 0.5 & 0.8 respectively.

80
C= msec 3
75 + V
2) The Rate of change of superelevation should gradual:

V2
e= e should be less than o. 7 E
225R
= e .B Where ,

E
= Rise Of Outer Edge Of Road

EN If Road Is Rotated
Ls = [ ] B = [
2 From The Center

If Road Is Rotated From


Ls = EN [ ] N = Rate of super elevation
The Inner Edge

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If 1 in N = 1 in 150

N = 150

3) Minimum length as per IRC:

2.7V2
I. For Plain & Rolling terrain:Ls = V in kmph
R
V2
II. For Mountainous terrain:Ls = R
LS 2
4) SHIFT OF CURVE:S =
24R

GRADIENT:
The Rate Of Rise Or Fall Along The Length Of The Road With Respect To The
Horizontal Is Called GRADIENT.

TYPES OF GRADIENT:
1) Average Gradient
2) Ruling Gradient
3) Limiting Gradient
4) Exception Gradient
5) Minimum Gradient
6) Floating Gradient
FACTORS AFFECTING GRADIENT:
1) Nature Of Traffic
2) Drainage Of Water
3) Appearance
4) Access To Adjoining Property
5) Obligatory Points like Bridge, Canal,Railway Crossing etc.

GRADE COMPENSATION :
The Reduction in gradient at the horizontal curve is called GREDE
30+R
COMPENSATION.GRADE COMPENSATION (%) = R
According to IRC the grade compensation is not necessary for gradient flatter than
4%.

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WIDENING OF CURVES:
Total widening
= Mechanical Widening(WM ) + Psychological Widening(WPS )
nl2 V
= + Where,
2R 9.5R
n = No. of lane

18n 0.1V
= + l
R R
= length of wheel base(m)
R
= Mean radius of curve(m)

V
= Design speed in kmph

EXTRA WIDENING AT HORIZONTAL CURVES (AS PER


IRC):
Radius of Up to 20 21 to 40 41 to 60 61 to 100 101 to 300 Above 300
curve (m)
Extra
widening(m)

Two-lane 1.5 1.5 1.2 0.9 0.6 Nil


Single lane 0.9 0.6 0.6 Nil Nil Nil

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VERTICAL CURVES
Summit Curves Valley Curve

Length of summit curve for SSD: Length of Transition curve (Ls) for
1) When L > comfort condition:
1
NS 2 LS = 0.19(NV 3 ) 2
L= 2 1
[2H + 2h] L = 2LS = 0.38(NV 3 ) 2
1
Put H = 1.2 m & = 0.15 Nv 3 2
L = 2LS = 2 [ ]
NS 2 C
L= Where, S = SSD
4.4 1
= 0.38( 3 ) 2
The minimum radius of the valley
2) When L < curve for the cubic parabola
2
[2H + 2h] LS L
L = 2s R= =
N N 2N
Put H = 1.2 m & = 0.15 Where, V = Speed in kmph
4.4 v = speed in msec
L = 2s C = allowable rate of
N change of centrifugal
Where, L acceleration
= length of summit curve C = 0.6 m sec 3
S = stopping sight R
distance(SSD) = Radius of valley curve

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N = deviation Angle LS = Length of transition


H = Height of eye level of Curve
driver above roadway
surface (m) Length of valley curve for head
h = height of object above light sight distance:
the pavement surface I. When L >
NS 2
Length of summit curve for a safe L=
[2h1 + 2S tan ]
OSD: Put h1 = 0.75 m &
= 1
I. When L > 2
NS
NS 2 L=
L= [1.5 + 0.035 S]
2
[2H + 2h]
Put H = h = 1.2 m Where, L = total length of valley
NS 2 curve(m)
L= Where, S S = SSD(m)
9.6
N = deviation Angle
= OSD N = (n1 + n2 )with slopes
n1 and + n2
II. When L < II. When L <
9.6 (2h1 + 2S tan )
L = 2s L = 2s
N N
Put h = 0.75m & = 1
1.5 + 0.035S
L = 2S ( )
N

STEPS FOR SUPER ELEVATION DESIGN :


1) The super elevation for 75% of design speed
(0.75 v)2 (0.75v)2
e= OR
gR 127R
v2
e=
225R

2) If e exceeds 0.07 than provide max. super elevation 0.07 & go through step (3) &
(4)
V2 V2 V2
3) f = gR e = gR 0.07 = 127R 0.07
If the value of f is < 0.15, the super elevation of 0.07 is safe for the design speed .
If not the go to step (4)
Vs 2 V 2
s
4) e + f = 0.07 + 0.15 = 0.22 = = 127R
gR

vs = 0.22gR = 2.156R msec OR vs = 27.94R kmph

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SUMMIT CURVES:

VALLEY CURVE:

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SECTION-VI
HOT MIX PLANT-VISIT REPORT

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EXPERIMENT NO:19 DATE:

HOT MIX PLANT VISIT REPORT

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SECTION-VII
READY MIX CONCRETE PLANT (RMC PLANT)- VISIT
REPORT

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EXPERIMENT NO:20 DATE:

READY MIX CONCRETE PLANT (STUDY)

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