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PRINCIPLES OF TURBOMACHINERY

SOLUTIONS MANUAL

by

Seppo A. Korpela
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
January 2012

Copyright 2011-2012,
c Seppo A. Korpela
Chapter 2
Exercise 2.1 Steam flows through a bank of nozzles shown in the figure below,
with wall thickness t2 = 2 mm, spacing s = 4 cm, blade height b = 2.5 cm, and
exit angle 2 = 68 . The exit velocity V2 = 400 m/s, pressure is p2 = 1.5 bar,
and temperature is T2 = 200 C. Find the mass flow rate.
Given:

b = 2.5 C s = 4 cm t2 = 0.2 cm 2 = 68 V2 = 400 m/s

T2 = 200 C = 473.15 K p1 = 1.50 bar = 150 kPa v2 = 1.4443 m3 /kg


Find: Mass flow rate.
Solution:

A2 = b(2 cos 2 t2 ) = 2.5(4 cos(68 ) 0.2) = 3.25 cm

A2 V2 3.25 400
m = = 4 = 0.09 kg/s
v2 10 1.4443
Note that the specific volume could also be approximated as

RT2 8.314 473.15


v2 = = = 1.457 m3 /kg
Mp2 18 150

V1
t1
s
1

t2

2 2
V2

2
Exercise 2.2 Air enters a compressor from atmosphere at pressure 102 kPa and
temperature 42 C. Assuming that its density remains constant determine the spe-
cific compression work required to raise its pressure to 140 kPa in a reversible
adiabatic process, if the exit velocity is 50 m/s.
Given: Since the air is stagnant in the atmosphere, its conditions are the stagnation
conditions. The flow is isentropic and
T2 = 42 C = 315.15 K p1 = 102 kPa p2 = 140 kPa V2 = 50 m/s
Find: Specific work done.
Solution: For isentropic flow T ds = dh vdp leads to dh = dp/. In addition
h0 = h + V 2 /2 is constant. The flow is assumed incompressible because the
pressure changes only slightly and the exit velocity is small.
p 2 p1 1 2
w= + V2
2
The density is
p1 102
= = = 1.128 kg/m2
RT1 0.287 315.156
so that
140 102 502
w= + = 43.95 kJ/kg
1.128 2 1000
Exercise 2.3 Steam flows through a turbine at the rate of m = 9000 kg/h. The
rate at which power is delivered by the turbine is W = 440 hp. The inlet total
pressure is p01 = 70 bar and total temperature is T01 = 420 C. For a reversible
and adiabatic process find the total pressure and temperature. leaving the turbine.
Given: The flow is isentropic and
T01 = 420 C p01 = 70 bar m = 9000 kg/h W = 440 hp
Find: T02 and p02 .
Solution:
W 440 0.7457 3600
w= = = 131.2 kJ/kg
m 9000
From steam tables h)1 = 3209.8 kJ/kg, s1 = 6.5270 kJ/kg K. At the exit
h02 = h01 w = 3209.8 131.2 = 3078.6 kJ/kg s2 = 6.5270 kJ/kg K
From the superheated steam tables, or using EES,
p02 = 43.58 bar T02 = 348.5 C

3
Exercise 2.4 Water enters a pump as saturated liquid at total pressure of p01 =
0.08 bar and leaves it at p02 = 30 bar. If the mass flow rate is m = 10, 000 kg/h
and the process can be assumed to take place reversibly and adiabatically, deter-
mine the power required.
Given: The flow is isentropic and

p01 = 0.08 bar p02 = 30 bar m = 10.000 kg/h

Find: W .
Solution: For isentropic flow

p02 p01 30 0.08) 105


w= = = 2.998 kJ/kg
998
Therefore
10, 000 2.998
W = mw = = 8.33 kW
3600
Exercise 2.5 Liquid water at 700 kPa and temperature 20 C flows at velocity
15 m/s. Find the stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure.
Given: The flow is isentropic and

p = 700 kPa T = 20 K V = 15 m/s

Find: T0 and p0 .
Solution: Since water is incompressible

V2 152
T0 = T + = 20 + = 20.027 = 20.027 C
2cp 2 4187

1 998 152
p0 = p + V 2 = 700 + = 700 + 122.75 = 812.3 kPa
2 2 1000
Exercise 2.6 Water at temperature T1 = 20 C flows through a turbine with inlet
velocity V1 = 3 m/s, static pressure p1 = 780 kPa and elevation z1 = 2 m. At
the exit the conditions are V2 = 6 m/s, p2 = 100 kPa and z2 = 1.2 m. Find the
specific work delivered by the turbine.
Given: Assuming that the process is isentropic and given that T1 = 20 C, and

p1 = 780 kPa z1 = 2 m V1 = 3 m/s

4
p2 = 100 kPa z1 = 1.2 m V1 = 6 m/s
Find: w
Solution: Since water is incompressible

p01 p02 V12 V22


w = h01 h02s = + + g(z1 z2 )
2

780 100) 103 32 62


w= + + 9.81 (2 2.12) = 681.36 13.50 + 7.85
998 2
w = 675.71 J/kg
Note the small contributions from potential and kinetic energy.

Exercise 2.7 Air at static pressure of 2 bar and static temperature of 300 K flows
with velocity 60 m/s. Find total temperature and pressure.
Given:
p1 = 2 bar T1 = 300 K V1 = 60 m/s
Find: T01 and p01
Solution: The total temperature is

V12 602
T01 = T1 + = 300 + = 301.8 K
2 cp 2 1004.5

and since the velocity is quite small, air may be taken to be incompressible with
density
p1 2 105
= = = 2.323 kg/m3
RT1 287 300
and the stagnation pressure is

1 2.323 602
p01 = p1 + V12 = 2 105 + = 204.2 kPa
2 2
Exercise 2.8 Air at static temperature of 300 K and static pressure of 140 kPa
flow with velocity 60 m/s. Evaluate the total temperature and total pressure of air.
Repeat the calculation if the air speed is 300 m/s.
Given:
p1 = 140 kPa T1 = 300 K V1 = 60 m/s

5
Find: T01 and p01
Solution:
V12 602
T01 = T1 + = 300 + = 301.8 K
2 cp 2 1004.5
and since the velocity is quite small, air may be taken to be incompressible with
density
p1 2 105
= = = 2.323 kg/m3
RT1 287 300
and the stagnation pressure is
1 2.323 602
p01 = p1 + V12 = 140 103 + = 142.93 kPa
2 2
and if V1 = 300 m/s then
V12 3002
T01 = T1 + = 300 + = 344.8 K
2 cp 2 1004.5
and ( )/(1) ( )3/5
T01 344.8
p01 = p1 = 140 = 227.9 kPa
T1 300
Exercise 2.9 Air undergoes an increase of 1.75 kPa in total pressure through a
blower. The inlet total pressure is one atmosphere and the inlet total temperature
is 21 C. Evaluate the exit total temperature if the process is reversible adiabatic.
Evaluate the energy added to the air per unit mass flow.
Given:
p01 = 101.325 kPa T01 = 294.15 K p0 = 1.74 kPa
Find: T02
Solution: The stagnation density is
p01 101.325 103
01 = = = 1.200 kg/m3
RT01 287 294.15
Since the process is reversible and adiabatic and the pressure increase is quite
small, the work done by the blower may be calculated from
p02 p01 1.75
w= = = 1.458 kJ/kg
01 1.200

6
and the stagnation temperature leaving the blower is
w 1458
T02 = T01 + = 294.15 + = 295.6 K = 22.4 C
cp 1004.5

Exercise 2.10 Air enters a blower from the atmosphere where pressure is 101.3 kPa
and temperature is 27 C. Its velocity at the inlet is and with velocity 46 m/s. At
the exit the total temperature is 28 C and the velocity is 123 m/s. Assuming that
the flow is reversible and adiabatic, determine (a) the change in total pressure in
millimeters of water and (b) the change in static pressure, also in millimeters of
water.
Given: The inlet stagnation pressure is p01 = 101.3 kPa and stagnation tempera-
ture and velocity are

T01 = 300.15 K V1 = 46 m/s

At the exit
T02 = 301.15 K V2 = 123 m/s
Find: p0 in millimeters of water.
Solution: Work done by the blower is

w = cp (T02 T01 ) = 1004.5(28 27) = 1004.5 kJ/kg

The stagnation density at the inlet is


p01 101.3 103
01 = = = 1.176 kg/m3
RT01 287 300.15
The flow is isentropic and the pressure rise is small. Therefore
p0
ws = p0 = 01 w = 1.176 1.0045 = 1.181 kPa
01
In millimeters of water this is
p0 1182
H = = = 0.121 mm (a)
w g 998 9.81
To calculate the difference in the static pressure, first calculate
1 462
p1 = p01 01 V12 = 300.15 = 100.06 kPa
2 2 1004.5
7
The static temperatures are

V12 462
T1 = T01 = 300.15 = 299.10 K
2cp 2 1004.5

V22 1232
T2 = T02 = 301.15 = 293.62 K
2cp 2 1004.5
The exit stagnation pressure is p02 = 101.300 + 1.182 = 102.482 kPa. and the
static pressure is
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T2 293.62
p2 = p02 = 102.48 = 93.789 kPa
T02 301.15

and thus
p2 p1 93.789 100.06
Hs = = = 641 mm (b)
w g 998 9.81

Exercise 2.11 The total pressure, static pressure and the total temperature of air
at a certain point in a flow are 700 kPa, 350 kPa, and 450 K, respectively. Find the
velocity at that point.
Given: The properties are

T0 = 450 K p = 350 kPa p0 = 700 kPa

Find: The velocity


Solution:
( )(1)/ ( )1/3.5
p 350
T = T0 = 450 = 369.15 K
p0 700

and

V = 2cp (T0 T ) = 2 1004.5(450 369.15) = 403.0 m/s

Exercise 2.12 Air has a static pressure of 2 bar and static temperature 300 K
while it flows at speed 1000 m/s. (a) Assuming air obeys the ideal gas law with
constant specific heats, determine its stagnation temperature and stagnation pres-
sure. (b) Repeat part (a) using the air tables.

8
Given: The properties are

T1 = 300 K p1 = 2 bar V1 = 1000 m/s

Find: p01 and T01


Solution:
1 10002
T01 = T1 + 2c p = 300 + = 797.8 K (a)
V12 2 1004.5
( )/(1) ( )3/5
T01 797.8
p01 = p1 = 200 = 61.33 bar (a)
T1 300
Using air tables: At the inlet pr1 = 1.386
V12 10002
h01 =h+ = 300.19 + = 800.19 kJ/kg (b)
2 2cdot1000
Thus with the same entropy and this stagnation enthalpy pr0 = 43.38, and T01 =
780.15 K. Therefore
pr0 43.38
p01 = p1 =2 = 6.26 bar (b)
pr 1.386
Exercise 2.13 At a certain location the velocity of air flowing in a duct is 321.5 m/s.
At that location the stagnation pressure is 700 kPa and stagnation temperature is
450 K. What is the static density at this location.
Given: The properties are

T01 = 450 K p1 = 700 kPa V1 = 321.5 m/s

Find: 1 .
Solution:
V12 321.52
T1 = T01 = 450 = 398.55 kPa
2cp 2 1004.5
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T1 389.55
p1 = p01 = 700 = 457.66 kPa
T01 430
The density is then
p1 398550
1 = = = 4.00 kg/m3
RT1 287 457.66

9
Exercise 2.14 Air flows in a circular duct of diameter 4 cm at the rate of 0.5 kg/s.
The flow is adiabatic with stagnation temperature 288 K. At certain location the
static pressure is 110 kPa. Find the velocity at this location.
Given: The properties are

T0 = 288 K p = 110 kPa m = 0.5 kg/s D = 0.04 m

Find: The velocity


Solution: Solving m = AV = pAV /RT for temperature gives

pAV
T =
mR
Since T = T0 V 2 /2cp a quadratic equation for velocity if found

2cp pA
V2+ V 2cp T0 = 0
mR
the solution of which is
( )
cp pA 2T0 m2 R2
V = 1 1+
mR cp p2 A2

The terms are


2cp m2 R2 2 288 0.52 2872
= = 0.618
cp p2 A2 1004.5 1100002 ( 0.022 )2

cp RA 10004.5 110000 0.02


= = 967.61
mR 0.5 287
Therefore

V = 967.61(1 1 + 0.6180) = 263.2 m/s

Exercise 2.15 Saturated steam enters a nozzle at static pressure 14 bar at velocity
52 m/s. It expands isentropically to pressure 8.2 bar. Mass flow rate is m =
0.7 kg/s. Find the exit area if, (a) steam is assumed to behave as an ideal gas with
= 1.135, and cp = 2731 J/kg K; (b) the end state is calculated with properties
obtained from the steam tables.

10
Given: The properties are

T1 = 468.2 K p1 = 14 bar V1 = 52 m/s m = 0.7 kg/s = 1.135

Find: A2
Solution: From steam tables the value of enthalpy is h1 = 2789.4 kJ/kg and the
specific volume is V1 = 0.1408 m3 /kg. Then assuming ideal gas behavior with
constant specific heats, gives

V12 522
T01 = T1 + = 468.2 + = 468.7 K
2cp 2 2731
and the stagnation pressure is

1 522
p01 = p1 + 1 V12 = 14 105 + = 14.096 bar
2 2 0.1408
State 2 has p2 = 820 bar, so that
( )(1)/ ( )0.135
p2 820
T2 = T1 = 468.2 1.135 = 439.3 K
p1 1400
Since no work is done T02 = T01 and

V2 = 2cp (T02 T2 ) = 2 2731(468.7 439.3) = 400.5 m/s

The specific volume is


( )1/ ( )
p2 1400
v2 = v1 = 0.1408 1/1.315 = 0.2256 m3 /kg
p1 820
Hence
A = mv2 /V2 = 0.7 0.2256/400.5 = 3.944 cm2
Using steam tables
s2 sf 6.4684 2.0559
x2 = = = 0.9596
sg Sf 6.6546 2.0559

h2 = hf + x2 hf g = 725.6 + 0.9596(2770.0 725.36) = 2687.0 kJ/kg


v2 = vf + x2 vf g = 1.116 103 + 0.9596(0.2354 1.116 103) = 0.2259 m3 /kg

11
Therefore

V2 2(h02 h2 ) = 2(2791.0 2687.0 = 454.9 m2 /s

so that
A = mv2 /V2 = 0.7 0.2259/54509 = 0.3469 cm2

Exercise 2.16 A fluid enters a turbine with total temperature of 330 K and total
pressure of 700 kPa. The outlet total pressure is 100 kPa. If the expansion process
through the turbine is isentropic, evaluate (a) the work per unit mass flow if the
fluid is incompressible and having a density equal to 1000 kg/m3 , (b) the work
per unit mass flow if the fluid is air
Given: The properties are

T01 = 330 K p01 = 700 kPa p02 = 100 kPa

Find: w for water and air.


Solution: Since the process is isentropic, for water
p01 p02 700 100
ws = = = 0.6 kJ/kg
998
For air ( )(1)/ ( )1/3/5
p02 100
T02 = T01 = 330 = 189.3 K
p01 700
so that

ws = h01 h02 = cp (T01 T02 ) = 1.0045(330 189.3) = 141.4 kJ/kg

Note that the air temperature leaving the turbine is very low, and operation such as
this would be unusual. It might happen in an expander in cryogenic applications.

Exercise 2.17 Air flows through a turbine which has a total pressure ratio 5 to 1.
The total-to-total efficiency is 80% and the flow rate is 1.5 kg/s. The desired out-
put power is to be 250 hp(186.4 kW). Determine: (a) The inlet total temperature;
(b) The outlet total temperature; (c) the outlet static temperature if the exit velocity
is 90 m/s; (d) draw the process on a T S-diagram and determine the total-to-static
efficiency of the turbine.

12
Given: The properties of air are

p01 /p02 = 5 tt = 0.8 m = 1.5 kg/s V2 = 90 m/s W = 186.4 kW

Find: T01 , T02 , T2 , the TS-diagram and ts .


Solution:

W 186.4 w 124.27
w= = = 124.27 kJ/kg ws = = = 155.33 kJ/kg
m 1.5 tt 0.8

ws = cp (T01 T02s )
ws 155.33
T01 = = = 419.51 K
cp [1 (p02 /p01 )(1)/ ] 1.0045(1 51/3.5 )
w 124.27
T02 = T01 = 419.51 = 295.80 K
cp 1.0045
V22 902
T2 = T02 = 295.80 = 291.76 K
2cp 2 1.0045
w 155.33
T02s = T01 = 419.51 = 264.9 K
2cp 2 1.0045
Assuming that V2s = V2

V2s2 902
T2s = T02s = 264.9 = 260.8 K
2cp 2 1.0045

Thus
T01 T02 419.51 295.80
ts = = = 0.78
T01 T2s 419.51 260.8

Exercise 2.18 A blower has a change in total enthalpy of 6000 J/kg, an inlet
total temperature 288 K, and inlet total pressure 101.3 kPa. Find: (a) the exit
total temperature if the working fluid is air; (b) the total pressure ratio across the
machine if the total-to-total efficiency is 75%. Given: The properties of air are

h02 h01 = 6000 J/kg T01 = 288 K p01 = 101.3 kPa tt = 0.75

Find: T02 , p02 /p01 .

13
Solution:
h02 h01 6000
T02 = T01 + = 288 + = 294.0 K
cp 1004.5

Next
T02s T01
tt =
T02 T01
T02s = T01 + tt (T02 T01 ) = 288 + 0.75 6 = 292.5 K
so that ( )/(1) ( )3/5
p02 T02s 292.5
= = = 1.0555
p01 T01 288

Exercise 2.19 A multi-stage turbine has a total pressure ratio 2.5 across each of
four stages. The inlet total temperature is T01 = 1200 K and the total-to-total
efficiency of each stage is 0.87. Evaluate the overall total-to-total efficiency of the
turbine if steam is flowing through it. Steam can be assumed to behave as a perfect
gas with = 1.3. Why is the overall efficiency higher than the stage efficiency?
Given: The properties of air are
p02
= 2.5 T01 = 1200 K tt = 0.87
p01

Find: the total-to-total efficiency for the multistage turbine.


Solution:
p01 p01 p02 p03 p04
= = 2.54 = 39
p05 p02 p03 p04 p05
Also [ ( )/(1) ]
p02
T02 = T01 1 tt
p01
and since the efficiency of each stage is the same
[ ( )/(1) ]
p02
T03 = T02 1 tt
p01
[ ( )/(1) ]2
p02
T03 = T01 1 tt
p01

14
and so forth to [ ( )/(1) ]4
p02
T05 = T01 1 tt
p01
so that [ ( )]4
1
T05 = 1200 1 0.87 1 = 581.1 K
2.50.3/1.3
The overall efficiency is therefore

T01 T05 1 T05 /T01


0 = =
T01 T05s 1 (p05 /p01 )/(1)

1 581.1/1200
0 = = 0.904
1 (1/2.54 )0.3/1.3
The overall efficiency is larger than the stage efficiency because the internal en-
ergy at the exit of each stage is higher because of internal heating and this becomes
available during the next expansion process.

Exercise 2.20 Gases from a combustion chamber enter a gas turbine at total pres-
sure of 700 kPa and total temperature of 1100 K. The total pressure and total
temperature at the exit of the turbine are 140 kPa and 780 K. If = 4/3 is used
for the mixture of combustion gases, which has a molecular mass of 28.97, find
the total-to-total efficiency and the total-to-static efficiency of the turbine, if the
exit velocity is 210 m/s.
Given: The inlet and exit conditions are and V2 = 210 m/s.

p01 = 700 kPa p02 = 140 kPa T01 = 1100 K T02 = 780 K

Combustion gases with = 4/3 and R = 287 J/kg.


Find: the total-to-total efficiency.
Solution:
R
cp = = 4 287 = 1148 J/kg
1
( )(1)/ ( )1/4
p02 140
T02s = T01 = 1100 = 735.6 K
p01 700
T01 T02 1100 780
tt = = = 0.878
T01 T02s 1100 735.6

15
V2s2 2102
T2s = T02s = 735.6 = 716.4 K
2cp 2 1148
T01 T02 1100 780
ts = = = 0.834
T01 T2s 1100 716.4

Exercise 2.21 Air enters a compressor from atmosphere at 101.3 kPa, 288 K. It
is compressed to static pressure of 420 kPa and at the exit its velocity is 300 m/s.
The compressor total-to-total efficiency is 0.82. (a) Find the exit static temper-
ature, without making the assumption that V2s = V2 . (b) Find the exit static
temperature by assuming that V2s = V2 .
Given: The exit velocity of air is V2 = 300 m and the properties of air are

p01 = 101.3 kPa T01 = 288 K p2 = 420 kPa tt = 0.82

Find: T2 is two different ways.


Solution: Assume first that V2s = V2 , then
( )(1)/ ( )1/3.5
p2 420
T2s = T01 = 288 = 432.4 K
p01 1013.3

V22 3002
T02s = T2s + = 432.4 + = 477.1 K
2cp 2 1004.5
As a result
1 1
T02 = T01 + (T02s T01 ) = 432.4 + (477.1 288) = 518.7 K
tt 0.82
and
V22 3002
T2 = T02 = 518.7 = 473.9 K (a)
2cp 2 1004.5
If V2 = V2s , then
V2s2 V 2 T2s
T02s = T2s + = T2s + 2
2cp 2cp T2
and
1 1 V22 T2s V22
T2 = T01 + (T02s T01 ) = T01 + (T2s T01 + )
tt tt 2cp T2 2cp

16
from which
1 V22 V22 T2s
T22 [T01 + (T2s T01 ) ] T2 =0
tt 2cp 2tt cp

which when solved for T2 gives



419.2 419.22
T2 = + + 23620 = 469.5 K (b)
2 4
Exercise 2.22 Liquid water issues at velocity V1 = 20 m/s from a bank of five
oblique nozzles shown in Figure 1. The nozzles with wall thickness t = 0.2 cm
are spaced s = 4 cm apart. The nozzle angle is 1 = 70 deg. Using the mass and
momentum balance: (a) Find the downstream velocity V2 . (b) Find the pressure
increase in the flow. (c) Show how to deduce this result from the final equation in
the example on mixing from the text. (d). If the thickness of the wall is vanishingly
small, what is the change in pressure.
Given:

t = 0.2 cm s = 4 cm V1 = 20 m/s 1 = 70

Find: the pressure increase if p = p2 p1 , and also the pressure increase is


t = 0.
Solution: From the mass balance

V2 V1 (cos 1 t/s)

From the momentum balance

V2 (V2 V1 cos 1 ) = p1 p2

and after eliminating V2 between this and the mass balance lead to
( ) ( )
2t t 2 0.2 0.2
p2 p1 = V1 cos 1 = 99820 cos(70 ) = 5.84 kPa
s s 4 4

Since Va = V1 cos 1 ) from

Va A a t t
p2 p1 = V (Va V ) V = = V1 cos 1 (1 ) = V1 (cos 1 )
Aa + Ab s cos 1 s

17
V1 V2

Figure 1: Nozzles with an oblique discharge.

and
t
Va V = V1 cos 1 V1 cos 1 + V1
s
so that ( )
t t
p2 p1 = V12 cos 1
s s

Exercise 2.23 Consider the flow shown in Figure 1. Prove that the kinetic energy
lost in the flow as it moves to the downstream section is equal to that associated
with the transverse component of the velocity.
Given: The channel width s and angle 1 , and V .
Find: the expression for the loss in terms of the transverse component.
Solution: From continuity, after canceling s
V2 = V1 cos 1
From x-component of momentum equation, after canceling s
V2 (V2 V1 cos 1 ) = p1 p2
Substituting from continuity gives p1 = p2 . From energy equation
p1 V12 p2 V22 V2
+ = + + 1
2 2 2
Canceling the pressure terms and from continuity V2 = V1 cos 1 yields
V12 = V22 + V12 1 cos2 1 =
so that
V12 V 2 sin2 1 V2
= 1 = t
2 2 2

18
Chapter 3
Exercise 3.1 Conditions in an air reservoir are 680 kPa and 560 K. From there
the air flows isentropically though a convergent nozzle to a back pressure of
101.3 kPa. Find the velocity at the exit plane of the nozzle.
Given: The properties are

T01 = 560 K p01 = 630 kPa p2 = 101.3 kPa

Find: The velocity V2 .


Solution: Since
p2 101.3
= = 0.149
p01 630
the flow is choked and the velocity at the exit is the sonic velocity. To find it first
calculate
2T01 2 560
T = = = 466.7 K
+1 2.4
and then

V = RT = 1.4 287 466.7 = 433 m/s

Exercise 3.2 Air flows in a converging duct. At a certain location, where the area
is A1 = 6.5 cm2 , pressure is p1 = 140 kPa and Mach number is M1 = 0.6. The
mass flow rate is m = 0.25 kg/s. (a) Find the stagnation temperature. (b) If the
flow is choked find the size of the throat area. (c) Give the percent reduction in
area from station 1 to the throat. (d) Find the pressure at the throat.
Given: At the location A1 = 6.5 cm2 and the properties are

M1 = 0.6 p1 = 140 kPa m = 0.25 kg/m

Find: The velocity T01 , A , percent reduction in area, and p .


Solution: Solve the equation
p 1 A1
m = 1 A1 V1 = M1 RT1
RT1
for T1 . It yields
( )2 ( )2
p1 A1 M1 140000 0.00065 0.6 1.4
T1 = = = 232.7 K
m R 0.25 287

19
and then
( )
1 2
T01 = T1 1+ M1 = 232.7(1 + 0.2 0.62 ) = 249.4 K
2
( )(+1)/2(+1)
A 1 2 1 2
= + M
A1 M1 + 1 + 1 1
so that ( )(+1)/2(+1)
2 1 2
A = A1 M 1 + M
+1 +1 1
2 0.4
= 6.5 0.6( + 0.62 )3 = 5.47 cm2
2.4 2.4
Percent reduction is
A1 A 6.5 5.47
= = 0.1584 15.84 %
A1 6.5
To calculate the exit pressure, first
( )/(1)
1 2
p01 = p1 1 + M1 = 140(10.2 0.62 )3.5 = 178.6 kPa
2
and then
( )/(1) ( )3/5
2 2
p = p01 = 178.6 = 94.3 kPa
1 2.4
Exercise 3.3 Air flows in a convergent nozzle. At a certain location, where the
area is A1 = 5 cm2 , pressure is p1 = 240 kPa and temperature is T1 = 360 K.
Mach number at this location is M1 = 0.4. Find the mass flow rate.
Given: At the location A1 = 5 cm2 and the properties are
T1 = 360 K p1 = 140 kPa M1 = 0.4
Find: Find the mass flow rate.
Solution:

V1 = M1 RT1 = 0.4 1.4 287 360 = 152.1 m/s
p1 240000
1 = = = 2.323 kg/m3
RT1 287 360
so that
m = 1 A1 V1 = 2.323 5 104 152.1 = 0.177 kg/s

20
Exercise 3.4 The area of a throat in a circular nozzle is At = 1 cm2 . For a choked
flow find the diameter where M1 = 0.5. Determine the value of Mach number at a
location where the diameter is D2 = 1.941 cm. Assume the flow to be isentropic
and = 1.4.
Given: At the throat A = 1.0 cm2 and D2 = 1.941 cm.
Find: The D1 and M2
Solution: From
( )(+1)/2(+1) ( )3
A 1 2 1 2 1 2 0.4 2
= + M = + 0.5 ) = 1.34
A1 M1 + 1 + 1 1 0.5 2.4 2.4
so that

4A1
A1 = 1.34A = 1.34 1 = 1.34 cm2 D1 = = 1.31 cm

For D2 = 1.941 cm, the area is A2 = D22 /4 = 2.96 cm2 , then solve
( )(+1)/2(+1)
A2 2.96 1 2 1 2
= = 2.96 = + M
A 1 M2 + 1 + 1 2
for M2 . Carrying out the solution by iteration gives M2 = 0.2

Exercise 3.5 In a location in a circular nozzle where the area is A1 = 4 , Mach


number has the value M1 = 0.2. Find the diameter at a location where M = 0.6.
Given: At the location A1 = 4 cm2 and M1 = 0.2
Find: The area at which M2 = 0.6.
Solution: From
( )(+1)/2(+1) ( )3
A1 1 2 1 2 1 2 0.4 2
= + M = + 0.2 = 2.964
A M1 + 1 + 1 1 0.2 2.4 2.4

therefore A = 4/2.964 = 1.350 cm2 and then from


( )(+1)/2(+1) ( )3
A2 1 2 1 2 1 2 0.4 2
= + M = + 0.6 = 1.188
A M2 + 1 + 1 2 0.6 2.4 2.4

so that A2 = 1.188 1.350 = 1.604 cm2 and



D2 = 4A2 / = 4 1.604/ = 1.43 cm

21
Exercise 3.6 Air flows through a circular duct 15 cm in diameter with a flow rate
2.25 kg/s. The total temperature and static pressure at a certain location in the
duct are 30 C and 106 kPa, respectively. Evaluate (a) the flow velocity, (b) the
static temperature, (c) the total pressure, and (d) the density at this location.
Given: At the location where D1 = 15.0 cm2 and the flow rate is m = 2.25 kg/s,
the properties are
T01 = 303.15 K p1 = 106 kPa
Find: The velocity, the static temperature, the total pressure, the static density.
Solution:
D12
A1 = = 0.01767 m2
4
From the mass balance
( )1/2
p1 A 1 M 1 T01
m = 1 A1 V1 = RT1 = p1 A1 M1
RT1 RT01 T1
or ( )2
2 2 m RT01
M14 + M12 =0
1 1 p1 A1
Substituting the numerical values into this gives

M14 + 5M12 0.4483 = 0 M12 = 2.5 + 2.52 + 0.4483 M1 = 0.297

Therefore
( )1
1 2 303.15
T1 = T01 1+ M1 = = 297.9 K
2 1 + 0.2 0.2972
and
V1 = M 1 RT1 = 0.297 1.4 287 297.9 = 102.8 m/s
The stagnation pressure is
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T01 303.15
p01 = p1 = 106 = 112.7kPa
T1 297.9
and the static density is
p1 106
1 = = = 1.24 kg/m3
RT1 0.287 297.9

22
Exercise 3.7 Conditions in an air reservoir are 380 kPa and 460 K. From there
the air flows though a convergent nozzle to a back pressure of 101.3 kPa. The
polytropic efficiency of the nozzle is p = 0.98. Find: (a) Exit plane pressure, (b)
Exit plane temperature, (c) Velocity at the exit plane of the nozzle.
Given: The properties of air are.
T01 = 460 K p01 = 380 kPa pb = 101.3 kPa p = 0.98

Find: pe , Te , Ve .
Solution: Since pb /p01 = 101.3/380 = 0.266, the flow is choked. The polytropic
exponent is
1/4
n= = = 1.389
p + (1 p ) 0.98 + 1.4 0.02
Then
( )n/(n1) ( )
2 2
pe = p01 = 380 1/389/0.389 = 198.1 kPa
+1 2.4
and
2 2
Te =
T01 = 460 = 383.3 K
+1 2.4

and the Mach number is Me = (n 1)/( 1) = 0.389/0.4 = 0.986 so
that
Ve = Me RTe = 0.986 1.4 287 383.3 = 387.0 m/s
Exercise 3.8 Air issues from a reservoir at conditions 260 kPa and 540 K into a
converging nozzle. The nozzle efficiency is estimated to be N = 0.986. The
back pressure is pb = 101.3kPa. Find: (a) The exit Mach number, (b) Exit plane
temperature, (c) Exit plane pressure, (d) Exit velocity.
Given: The properties of air are.
T01 = 540 K p01 = 260 kPa pb = 101.3 kPa N = 0.986

Find: Me , pe , Te , Ve .
Solution: Since pb /p01 = 101.3/260 = 0.389, the flow is choked. The Mach
number can be calculated from
[ ]1/2
( 1)(3N 1) 2 + [( 1)(3N 1) 2]2 + 8N (1 N )( 1)2
Me =
2( 1)2 (1 N )

23
[ ]1/2
0.4 1.958 2.8 + (0.4 1.958 2.8)2 + 8 0.989 0.014 0.42
Me = = 0.9883
2 0.16 0.014
The exit temperature is
2T01 2 540
Te = = = 450 K
+1 2.4

The polytropic exponent is n = 1 + ( 1)Me2 = 1.3907 and the exit pressure is


( )n/(n1) ( )1.3907
2 2
pe = p01 = 260 0.3907 = 135.9 kPa
+1 2.4

and the velocity is



Ve = Me RTe = 0.9882 1.4 287 450 = 420.2 m/s

Exercise 3.9 At the inlet to a nozzle the conditions are M1 = 0.3, p01 = 320 kPa,
and T01 = 430 K. The flow is irreversible with polytropic exponent n = 1.396.
Show that ( )/(1) ( )(n1)/n
T02 p01 p1
=
T2 p1 p2
Find the Mach number at a location where p2 = 210 kPa.
Given: T01 = 430 K, p01 = 320 kPa, M1 = 0.3, and n = 1.396.
Find: Show that the expression in the statement of the exercise is correct. Also
find the Mach number at the location where p2 = 210 kPa.
Solution: From ( )(n1)/n
p1 T1 T1 T01
= =
p2 T2 T01 T2
Therefore ( )(n1)/n
T01 T01 p1
=
T2 T1 p2
and since T01 T02
( )(1)/ ( )(n1)/n
T02 p01 p1
=
T2 p1 p2

24
From
( )/(1)
p01 1 2
= 1+ M1 = (1 + 0.2 0.32 )3/5 = 1.0644
p1 2
so that
320
p1 = = 300.63 kPa
1.0644
and ( ) ( )n/(n1)
T02 T01 T1 1 2 p1
= = 1 M1
T2 T1 T2 2 p2
( )0.396
T02 300.62
= (1 + 0.2 0.32 ) 1.396 = 1.127
T2 210
and also
T02 1 2
=1+ M2
T2 2
so that
( )
2 T02 2
M2 = 1 = (1.127 1) = 0.797
1 T2 0.4

Exercise 3.10 Flow from a reservoir with p01 = 260 kPa and T01 = 530 K flows
through a nozzle. It is estimated that the static enthalpy loss coefficient is =
0.020. The exit pressure is p2 = 180 kPa. (a) Find the exit Mach number. (b)
Find the polytropic efficiency of the nozzle.
Given: The conditions are

T01 = 530 K p01 = 260 kPa p2 = 180 kPa = 0.020

Find: p .
Solution: The static temperature for an isentropic process is
( )(1)/ ( )1/3.5
p2 180
T2s = T01 = 530 = 4771 K
p01 260
The static temperature is obtained from
T2 T2s T02 + T 2s 0.02 530 + 477.1
= T2 = = = 478.2 K
T02 T2 1+ 1.002

25
From

T02 1 2 2 T02 2 530
= 1+ M2 M2 = ( 1) = ( 1) = 0.736
T2 2 1 T2 0.4 478.2

The polytropic exponent is obtained from


( )(n1)/n
T2 p2 1 1
= n= = = 1.3885
T01 p01 1 ln(T2 /T01 )
ln(p2 /p01 )
1 ln(478.2/530)
ln(180/260)

therefore
( )( )
n1 0.3885 1.4
N = = = 0.9793
n 1 1.3885 0.4

Exercise 3.11 A two dimensional nozzle has a shape


4 x(x 1)
y=
+
5 2(x + 2)

nozzle stretches from 0 < x/a < 2( 2 1). The throat is at xt /a =
The
2( 2 1). The scale factor a is chosen such that the half-width of the nozzle at
x = 0 is 4a/5. Assume that 4f = 0.02 and the inlet Mach number is M1 = 0.5.
Calculate and plot p/p1 as a function of x. Calculate the Mach number along the
nozzle and graph it on the same plot.
Given: The shape of the flow channel and the friction factor.
Find: Plot p/p1 and the Mach number.
Solution:

%Nozzle Calculation
%Nozzle Calculation
clear all; clf
k=1.4; f=0.02/4; w=1;
x=[0:0.005:2*(sqrt(2)-1)]; y=4/5+x.*(x-2)./(4+2*x);
n=length(x);
M(1)=0.5
mx(1)=M(1)^2;
d(1)=4*y(1)*w/(w+y(1));
A(1)=2*y(1)*w;

26
p0(1)=1;
p(1)=1;
for i=2:n
d(i)=4*y(i)*w/(w+y(i));
A(i)=2*y(i)*w;
mx(i)=mx(i-1)-2*mx(i-1)*(1+0.5*(k-1)* ...
mx(i-1))*(A(i)/A(i-1)-1)/(1-mx(i-1))+ ...
mx(i-1)*k*mx(i-1)*(1+0.5*(k-1)*mx(i-1))* ...
4*f*(x(i)-x(i-1))/(d(i)*(1-mx(i-1)));
M(i)=sqrt(mx(i));
p0(i)=p0(i-1)-p0(i-1)*k*mx(i-1)*2*f*(x(i)-x(i-1))/d(i);
r(i)=((2+(k-1)*mx(i))/(2+(k-1)*mx(1)))^(k/(k-1));
p(i)=p0(i)*p(1)/(p0(1)*r(i));
end
plot(x,p,x,M);grid;

Exercise 3.12 Steam enters a nozzle from a steam chest at saturated vapor state
at pressure p0 = 0.8 bar. It expands isentropically through a steam nozzle. Find
the degree of supersaturation when it crosses the Wilson line at x = 0.96.
Given: Saturated steam at p01 = 80 kPa.
Find: The degree of saturation if it isentropically expands to x2 = 0.96.
Solution: The temperature of saturated steam at this pressure is T01 = 366.6 K.
Assuming that the adiabatic index according to Zeuners formula is = 1.135,
then for an isentropic process
( )(1)/ ( )0.135/1.135
p2 36.6
T2 = T01 = 366.6 = 333.7 K
p01 80

The pressure of saturated steam at this temperature is pss = 20.43 kPa. Hence the
degree of supersaturation is
p2 36.6
S= = = 1.774
pss 20.43

Exercise 3.13 Consider a supersonic flow over a convex corner with angle 2 =
5 , when the inflow moves in the direction of 1 = 0 . The upstream Mach number
is M1 = 1.1, pressure is p1 = 130 kPa and T1 = 310 K. Find: (a) Mach number,
(b) temperature, and (c) pressure after the expansion is complete.

27
Given: The conditions at the inlet are

M1 = 1.1 p1 = 130 kPa T1 = 310 K

and the wall makes an angle 2 = 15 .


Find: M2 , T2 and p2 .
Solution: The Prandtl-Meyer function a the inlet is
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1 = tan = tan = 65.38
M12 1 1.12 1

then
( )
+1 1 1 1
1 = tan (M 1) tan
2
M12 1
1 +1 1
( )
2.4 0.4
1 = tan1 (1.12 1) tan1 1.12 1 = 1.336
0.4 2.4
so that
2 = 1 + 2 = 1.336 + 5 = 6.336
Since
( )
+1 1
2 = tan1 (M 1) tan
2 1
M22 1
1 +1 2

With = 1.4 and 1 = 6.336 , this equation can be solved by iterations for M2 .
It gives M2 = 1.306 (a)
Next
1 2
T0 = T1 (1 + M1 ) = 310(1 + 0.2 1.12 ) = 385.0 K
2
and
1 2 1
T2 = T0 (1 + M1 ) = 385(1 + 0.2 1.12 )1 = 287.1 K
2
and ( )/(1) ( )3/5
T2 287.1
p2 = p 1 = 130 = 99.36 kPa
T1 310

28
Exercise 3.14 Consider the steam flow from a low pressure nozzle at an angle
= 65 . At the inlet of the nozzle steam is saturated vapor at pressure p0 =
18 kPa. Steam exhausts into the inter-blade space, where pressure is 7 kPa. Find
the angle by which the flow turns on leaving the nozzle, the far downstream
velocity, and its direction.
Given: Steam, with = 1.135 and R = 8314/18 = 461.9 J/kg K at the inlet as
saturated steam at p0 = 18 kPa and leaves at the nozzle angle 1 = 65 . Its far
downstream pressure is p2 = 7 kPa.
Find: The turning angle , V2 and 2 .
Solution: The nozzle is choked because p2 /p0 = 0.389. The saturation tempera-
ture is T0 = 330.9 K. Then
( )(1)/ ( )0.135/1.135
p2 7
T2 = T0 = 330.9 = 295.7 K
p0 18
From
T0 1 2
=1+ M2
T2 2
( ) ( )
2 T0 2 330.9
M2 = 1 = 1 = 1.327
1 T2 0.135 295.37
so that

V2 = M2 RT2 = 1.327 1.135 461.9 295/7 = 522.6 m/s

Next
+1 1
= tan1 (M 2 1)
1 +1 2

3.135 1 0.135
= tan (1.3282 1) = 49.2
0.135 2.135
In addition
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
2 = tan = tan = 48.86
M22 1 1.3282 1

therefore

2 = + 2 = 49.36 90 + 4839 = 8.1
2

29
Exercise 3.15 Consider the steam flow from a low pressure nozzle at an angle
= 65 . At the inlet of the nozzle steam is saturated vapor at pressure p0 =
18 kPa. Steam exhausts into the inter-blade space, where pressure is 7 kPa. Using
the continuity equation, find the angle by which the flow turns on leaving the
nozzle, the far downstream velocity, and its direction.
Given: Steam, with = 1.135 and R = 8314/18 = 461.9 J/kg K at the inlet as
saturated steam at p0 = 18 kPa and leaves at the nozzle angle 1 = 65 . Its far
downstream pressure is p2 = 7 kPa
Find: The turning angle , V2 and 2 .
Solution: The flow is choked because p2 /p0 = 0.389. The specific volume of
saturated steam at p0 = 18 kPa is v0 = 8.46 m3 /kg and the temperature is T0 =
330.2 K. The specific volume at the throat is
( )1/0.135
+ 1 1/(1) 2.135
v1 = v0 = 8.46 = 13.7 m3 /kg
2 2
and the temperature is
2T 0 2 330.2
T1 = = = 309.3 K
+1 1.135
and the velocity is

V1 = RT1 = 1.135 461.9 309.3 = 403.1 m/s

The temperature far downstream is


( )(1)/ ( )0.135/1.135
p2 7
T2 = T0 = 330.9 = 295.7 K
p0 18
and the Mach number can be calculated from
T0 1 2
=1+ M2
T2 2
( ) ( )
2 T0 2 330.9
M2 = 1 = 1 = 1.327
1 T2 0.135 295.7
so that

V2 = M 2 RT2 = 1.327 1.135 461.9 295.7 = 522.6 m/s

30
The specific volume is
RT2 461.9 295.7
v2 = = = 19.5 m3 /kg
p2 7000
and by continuity the angle is
( )
1 V1 v2
2 = cos cos 1
V2 v1
( )
1 403.1 19.5
2 = cos cos(65 ) = 62.5


522.6 13.77
= 1 2 = 65 62.73 = 2.5

31
Chapter 4
Exercise 4.1 Steam enters a rotor of an axial turbine with an absolute velocity
V2 = 320 m/s at the angle 2 = 73 . The axial velocity remains constant. The
blade speed is U = 165 m/s. The rotor blades are equiangular so that 3 = 2
and the magnitude of the relative velocity remains constant across the rotor. Draw
the velocity triangles. Find, (a) the relative flow angle 2 , (b) the magnitude of
the velocity V3 after the flow leaves the rotor, and (c) the flow angle 3 which V3
makes with the axial direction.
Given: The rotor blades are equiangular with 3 = 2 and W3 = W2 . At the
inlet of the rotor

V2 320 m/s 2 = 73 U = 165 m/s

Find: 2 , V3 , 3 .
Solution: The axial and tangential components of the velocity are

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 320 cos(73 ) = 93.56 m/s

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 320 sin(73 ) = 306.0 m/s


The the tangential component of the relative velocity is

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 306.0 165.0 = 141.0 m/s

so that
2 2
W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 93.562 + 141.02 = 169.2 m/s
and

2 = tan1 (Wu2 /Wx2 ) = tan1 (141.0/93.56) = 56.44 3 = 56.44 (a)

Since W3 = W2
Wu3 = W u2 = 141.0m/s
and

Vu3 = Wu3 +U = 141.0+165.0 = 24.0 m/s V3 = 2
Vx3 2
+ Vu3 = 93.562 + 24.02 = 96.6 m/s

so that

3 = tan1 (Vu3 /Vx3 ) = tan1 (24.0/93.56) = 14.4 (c)

32
Exercise 4.2 Water with density 998 kg/m3 flows in centrifugal pump at the rate
of 22 liters per second. The impeller radius is r2 = 7.7 cm and the blade width
at the impeller exit is b2 = 0.8 cm. If the flow angles at the impeller exit are
2 = 67 and 2 = 40 , find the rotational speed of the shaft in rpm.
Given: The flow rate, the impeller radius and the height of its blade. The flow
angles are also known at the exit.
Find: The rotational speed of the shaft.
Solution: From
Q 0.022 104
Q = 2r2 b2 Vr2 Vr2 = = = 5/68 m/s
2r2 b2 2 7.7 0.8
Then
Vu2 = Vr2 tan 2 = 5.68 tan(67 ) = 13.39 m/s
Wu2 = Wr2 tan 2 = 5.68 tan(40 ) = 4.77 m/s
and
U = Vu2 Wu2 = 13.39 + 4.77 = 18.16 m/s
So that
U 18.16 100 30
= = = 2252 rpm
r2 7.7
Exercise 4.3 In a velocity diagram at the inlet of a turbine the angle of the ab-
solute velocity is 60 and the flow angle of the relative velocity is 51.7 . Draw
the velocity diagram and find the value of U/V and Vx /U . Given: The angles
= 60 and = 51.7 .
Find: U/V and Vx /U .
Solution: Let V = 1, then

Vx = V cos = cos(60 ) = 0.5 Vu = V sin = sin(60 ) = 0.866

and
Wu = Wx tan() = 0.5 tan(51.7 ) = 0.633
so that
U = Vu Wu = 0.866 + 0.633 = 1.5
and U/V = 1/5
The ratio Vx /U = 0.866/1.5 = 1/3

33
Exercise 4.4 A small axial-flow turbine has an output power of 37 kW when han-
dling one kg of air per second with an inlet total temperature of 335 K. The total-
to-total efficiency of the turbine is 80%. The rotor operates at 50, 000 rpm and
the mean blade diameter is 10 cm. Evaluate (a) the average driving force on the
turbine blades, (b) the change in the tangential component of the absolute velocity
across the rotor, and (c) the required total pressure ratio across the turbine.
Given: W = 37 kW, m = 1 kg/s, T01 = 335 K, tt = 0.8, and r2 = 0.05 m
= 55, 000 rpm.
Find: The force Fu , Vu2 Vu3 and p03 /p01 .
Solution: The blade speed is
0.05 50, 000
U = r2 = = 261.8 m/s
30
so that from W = Fu U , the force is Fu = W /U = 37, 000/261.8 = 141.3 N
The specific work is w = W /m = 37 kJ/kg and the change in tangential
velocity is from
w 37, 000
w = u(VU 2 Vu3 ) Vu2 Vu3 = = = 141.3 m/s
U 261.8
The isentropic work is
w 37 ws 46.25
ws = = = 46.25 kJ/kg rmso that T02s = T01 = 335 = 289 K
tt 0.8 cp 1.0045
and ( )/(1) ( )3.5
p01 T01 335
= = = 1.678
p03 T02s 289

Exercise 4.5 The exit flow angle of stator in an axial steam turbine is 68 . The
flow angle of the relative velocity leaving the rotor is 67 . Steam leaves the
stator at V2 = 120 m/s and the axial velocity is Vx2 = 0.41U . At the exit of
the rotor blades the axial steam velocity is Vx3 = 0.42U . The mass flow rate is
m = 2.2 kg/s. Find, (a) the flow angle entering the stator assuming it to be the
same as the absolute flow angle leaving the rotor, (b) the flow angle of the relative
velocity entering the rotor, (c) the reaction, and (d) the power delivered by the
stage.
Given: 2 = 68 , 3 = 67 , V2 = 120 m/s, Vx2 = 0.41U , Vx3 = 0.42U , and
m = 2.2 kg/s.

34
Find: 2 , 3 , and R.
Solution: From

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 120 cos(68 ) = 44.95 m/s Vu2 = V1 sin 2 = 120 sin(68 ) = 111.3 m/s

and U = Vx2 /0.41 = 44.95/0.41 = 109.64 m/s. Thus

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 111.26 109.64 = 1.62 m/s

and ( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 1.62
2 = tan = tan = 2.1 (b)
Wx2 44.95
Next
Vx3 = 0.42U = 0.42 109.64 = 46.05 m/s
Wu3 = Wx3 tan 3 = 46.05 tan(67 ) = 108.5 m/s
so that
Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 108.5 + 109.64 = 1.16 m/s
and ( ) ( )
1 Vu3 1 1.16
3 = tan = tan = 1.44 (a)
Vu2 46.05
Next
w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 109.64(112.26 1.16) = 12072 J/kg
and W = mw = 202 12072 = 26.6 kW (d).
The reaction is
W32 W22 108.52 + 46.042 1.622 44.952
R= = = 0.492 (c)
2e 2 12072
Exercise 4.6 The axial component of air flow leaving a stator in an axial flow
turbine is Vx2 = 175 m/s and its flow angle is 64 . The axial velocity is constant,
the reaction of the stage is R = 0.5, and the blade speed is U = 140 m/s. Since the
reaction is fifty percent the relationships between the flow angles are 2 = 3
and 2 = 3 . Find the flow angle of the velocity entering the stator.
Given: Vx2 , U , 2 , U and R.
Find: 2 .
Solution: The tangential velocity is

Vu2 = Vx2 = tan 2 = 175 tan(64 ) = 358.8 m/s

35
and
Wu2 = Vu2 U = 358.8 140 = 218.8 m/s
Therefore
( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 218.8
2 = tan = tan = 51.35 3 = 54.3
Wx2 175
Exercise 4.7 The air flow leaving the rotor of an axial flow turbine is Vx3 =
140 m/s and its flow angle is 0 . The axial velocity is constant and equal to the
blade speed. The inlet flow angle to the rotor is 2 = 60 . Find the reaction.
Given: Vx , U = Vx , 1 = 0 , and 2 = 60 .
Find: R
Solution: Since the flow at the inlet and exit of the stage is axial

W3 = Vx2 + U 2 = U 2 = 140 2 = 198 m/s

and
Vu2 = Vx2 tan 2 = 140 tan(60 ) = 242.5 m/s
so that
Wu2 = Vu2 U = 242.5 140 = 102.58 m/s
and
2
W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 1402 + 102.52 = 173.5 m/s
The specific work is

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U Vu2 = 140 242.5 = 33, 950 J/kg

so that
W32 W22 1982 173.52
R+ = 0.134
2w 2 33, 950
Exercise 4.8 A large centrifugal pump operates at 6000 rpm and produces a head
of 800 m while the flow rate is 30, 000 liters per minute. (a) Find the value of the
specific speed. (b) Estimate the efficiency of the pump.
Given: H, , Q.
Find: The specific speed and .
Solution: The flow rate is standard units is
30, 000
Q= = 0.5 m3 /s
1000 60
36
The specific speed is

Q 6000 0.5
s = = = 0.533 (a)
(gH)3/4 30 (9.81 800)3/4

From the figure for Q = 500 liters/s, the efficiency is 0.84 (b).

Exercise 4.9 A fan handles air at the rate of 500 liters per second when operat-
ing at 1800 rpm. (a) What is the flow rate if the same fan is operated at 3600
rpm? (b) What is the percentage increase in total pressure rise of the air assuming
incompressible flow? (c) What is the power input required at 3600 rpm relative
to that at 1800 rpm. Assume that the operating point of the fan in terms of the
dimensionless parameters is the same in both cases.
Given: Q1 , 1 , 2 , and D1 = D2 .
Find: Q2 , increase in total pressure, W2 .
Solution: From
Q1 Q2 2 3600
3
= 3
Q2 = Q1 = 500 = 1000 l/s (a)
1 D1 2 D2 1 1800
Next
W1 W2
3 5
=
1 D1 32 D25
so that
32
W2 = W1 = 8W1 (c)
31
Then
m
W = (p02 p01 )tt = Qp0 tt

and
(p0 )1 W1 Q2 tt 2 1
= = =
(p0 )2 Q1 tt W2 8 4
so that the percent increase is 300 % (b).

Exercise 4.10 An axial flow pump having a rotor diameter of 20 cm handles water
at the rate of 60 liters per second when operating at 3550 rpm. The corresponding
increase in total enthalpy of the water is 120 J/kg and the total-to-total efficiency
is 75%. Suppose a second pump in the same series is to be designed to handle

37
water having a rotor diameter of 30 cm and operating at 1750 rpm. For this second
pump what will be the predicted values for (a) the flow rate, (b) the change in the
total pressure of water, (c) the input power.
Given: Q1 , D1 , 1 , t t, (h0 )1 , D2 and 2 .
Find: Q2 , (p0 )2 , and W2 .
Solution: From
( ) ( )3 ( ) ( )3
Q1 Q2 2 D2 1750 30
3
= 3
Q2 = Q1 = 60 = 99.8 l/s (a)
1 D1 2 D2 1 D1 3550 20
Next
998 60 120
W1 = m1 (h0 )1 = Q1 (h0 )1 = = 7.18 kW
1000
then from
W1 W2
3 5
=
1 D1 32 D25
( )3 ( )5 ( )3 ( )5
1 D2 1750 30
W2 = W1 = 7.18 = 6.54 kW Lef tarrow (b)
2 D1 3550 20
Then
W2 6540
(h0 )2 = = = 65.6 J/kg
Q2 99.8
and
(p0 )2 = (h0 )2 = 998 65.6 = 49.1 kPa (c)
Exercise 4.11 A small centrifugal pump handles water at the rate of 6 liters per
second with input power of 5 hp and total-to-total efficiency of 70%. Suppose the
fluid being handled is changed to gasoline having specific gravity 0.70. What are
the predicted values for (a) flow rate, (b) input power, (c) total pressure rise of the
gasoline?
Given: Q1 , W1 , t t, 1 , Q2 = Q1 and the specific gravity of gasoline.
Find: W2 , (p0 )2 .
Solution: Since the diameter and the shaft speed are the same, then from
Q1 Q2
3
= Q2 = Q1 (a)
1 D1 2 D23
and from
W1 W2
3 5
=
1 1 D1 2 32 D25

38
2
W2 = W1 = 5 0.7 = 3.5 hp (b)
1
Next from
Q2 (p0 )2
W2 = m2 (h0 )2 =
tt
so that
tt W2 3/5 0.7457 1000
(p0 ) = = = 304.5 kPa (c)
Q2 6

Exercise 4.12 A blower handling air at the rate of 240 liters per second at the
inlet conditions of 103.1 kPa for total pressure and 288 K for total temperature. It
produces a pressure rise of air equal to 250 mm of water. If the blower is operated
at the same rotational speed, but with an inlet total pressure and total temperature
of 20 kPa and 253 K, find; (a) the predicted value for the mass flow rate, (b) the
total pressure rise.
Given: 2 = 1 , Q1 , p01 , T01 , (p0 )1 , p02 , and T02 .
Find: m2 , (p0 )2 .
Solution: From
Q1 Q2
3
= Q2 = Q1
1 D1 2 D23
The stagnation densities are
p01 101, 300
01 = = = 1.226 kg/m3
RT01 287 288
p02 20, 000
02 = = = 0.275 kg/m3
RT02 287 253
Density across the blower is assumed small so that

m2 = 02 Q2 = 0.275 0.24 = 0.066 kg/s (a)

Next
(p0 )1 (p0 )2
2 2
=
01 1 D1 02 22 D22
so that
02 0.275
(p0 )2 = (p0 )1 = 250 = 56.2 mm H2 O (b)
01 1.226

39
Exercise 4.13 Consider a fan with a flow rate of 1500 cfm, (cubic feet per minute)
and has a shaft speed 3600 rpm. If a similar fan one half its size is to have the same
tip speed, what will the flow rate be at a dynamically similar operating condition?
What is the ratio of power consumption of the second fan compared to the first
one?
Given: D2 = D1 /2, U2 = U1 , 1 , Q1 .
Find: Q2 , W2 /W1 .
Solution: Since U2 = U1 , then 2 D2 = 1 D1 and 2 = 21 . Next from
Q1 Q2 2 D23 1500 2
3
= 3
Q2 = Q1 3
= = 375 cfm (a)
1 D1 2 D2 1 D1 8
and since 1 D1 = 2 D2 , from
dotW1 dotW2 D22 1
3 5
= 3 5
W 2 = W 1 2
= W1 (b)
1 D1 2 D2 D1 4

Exercise 4.14 A fan operating at 1750 rpm at a volumetric flow of 4.25 m3 /s


develops a head of 153 mm of water. It is required to build a larger, geometrically
similar fan which will deliver the same head at the same efficiency as the existing
fan, but at the rotational speed of 1440 rpm. (a) Determine the volume flow rate of
the larger fan. (b) If the diameter of the original fan is 40 cm, what is the diameter
of the larger fan. (c) What are the specific speed of these fans.
Given: 1 , 2 , Q1 , D1 , and H2 = H1 .
Find: Q2 , D2 , and s .
Solution: From
H1 H2
2 2
= 2 2
1 D1 2 D2
since H2 = H1 , then D2 = D1 1 /2 . Next from
Q1 Q2
3
=
1 D1 2 D23

2 D23 21 17502
Q2 = Q1 = Q1 = 4.25 = 6.28 m3 /s (a)
1 D13 22 14402
Next convert the head to standard units.
H2 O gH1 998 9.81 0.153
(ws )1 == = = 1246 J/kg
1.20

40
and the density is the standard density at T = 293 K and p = 101.3215 kPa. Then

Q 1750 4.25
s = 3/4 = = 1.80 (b)
ws 30 12463/4

Exercise 4.15 The impeller of a centrifugal pump, with an outlet radius r2 =


8.75 cm and a blade width b2 = 0.7 cm, operates at 3550 rpm and produces a
pressure rise of 522 kPa at the flow rate of 1.5 liters per minute. Assume that
the inlet flow is axial and that the pump efficiency is 0.63. Find: (a) The specific
speed. (b). Show that the expression (??) for work reduces to w = (Vu2 2
+ U22
2
Wu2 )/2 and calculate the work two ways and confirm that they are equal.
Given: r2 , b2 , , p, Q, 1 and .
Find: s , and the work in terms of kinetic energies.
Solution: The radial velocity component at the exit is

Q 1/45 104
Vr2 = = = 6.28 m/s
2r2 b2 60 2 0.7
The head is
p0 522, 000
H= = = 53.37 m
g 998 9.81
and the specific speed is

Q 3550 1.45/60
s = = = 0.528 (a)
(gH)3/4 30(9.81 53.37)3/4

Next the blade speed is


8.75 3550
U2 = r2 = = 32.53 m/s
100 30
and the isentropic and actual work are
w2 523
ws = gH = 981 53.37 = 523 J/kg w= = = 830 J/kg
0.63
Next the kinetic energy terms are
w 830
Vu2 = = = 25.52 m/s
U2 32.53

41
and
Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 25.52 32.53 = 7.0 m/s
and
2 2
W2 = Wr2 + Wu2 = 6.282 + 7.02 = 9.41 m/s

V2 = Vr22 + Vu2
2
= 6.282 + 25.522 = 26.28 m/s
thus
1 1
w = (V22 + U22 W22 ) = (26.283 + 32.532 9.412 ) = 830 J/kg (b)
2 2

42
Chapter 5
Exercise 5.1 Steam leaves the nozzles of a de Laval turbine with the velocity
V2 = 1000 m/s. The flow angle from the nozzle is 2 = 70 . The blade velocity
is U = 360 m/s and the mass flow rate is 800 kg/h. Take the rotor velocity
coefficient to be cR = 0.8. The rotor blade is equiangular. Draw the velocity
diagrams and determine: (a) The flow angles of the relative velocity at the inlet
to the rotor, (b) the flow angle leaving the rotor, (c) the tangential force on the
blades, (d) the axial thrust on the blades, (e) the power developed, and (f) the rotor
efficiency.
Given: V2 , 2 , U , cR , and m.
Find: 2 , 3 , Fu , Fx , and R .
Solution: The components of the velocities are
Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 1000 sin(70 ) = 939.7 m/s
Wu2 = Vu2 U = 939.7 360 = 579.7 m/s
Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 1000 cos(70 ) = 342, m/s Wx2 = Vx2
and
2 2
W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 3422 + 579.72 = 673.1 m/s
The relative flow angle is
( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 579.7
2 = tan = tan = 59.46 (a)
Wx2 342.0
and
W2 = cR W2 = 0.8 673.1 = 538.5 m/s
so that
Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 583.5 sin(59.46 ) = 463.8 m/s
Vu3 = U + Wu3 = 360 463.8 = 103.8 m/s
The flow angle at the exit of the rotor is
( ) ( )
1 Vu3 1 103.8
3 = tan = tan = 20.77 (b)
Vx3 273.6
Next the force on the blades is obtained. First
w = U (Vu2 V u3) = 360(939.7 + 103.8) = 375.64 kJ/kg

43
so that
800 375.64
W = mw = = 83.476 kW (e)
3600
then
W 83, 476
Fu = = = 231.9 N (c)
U 360
The axial thrust is
800
Fx = m(Vx2 Vx3 ) = (342 273.6) = 15.2 N (d)
3600
The rotor efficiency is
w 2 375, 640
R = = = 0.751 (f )
V2 /2 10002
Exercise 5.2 The diameter of a wheel of a single stage impulse turbine is 1060 mm
and its shaft speed is 3000 rpm. The nozzle angle is 72 and the ratio of the blade
speed to the speed at which steam issues from the nozzles is 0.42. The ratio of
the relative velocity leaving the blades is 0.84 of that entering the blades. The
outlet flow angle of the relative velocity is 3 more than the inlet flow angle. The
mass flow rate of steam is 7.23 kg/s. Draw the velocity diagram for the blades
and determine: (a) The axial thrust on the blades. (b) The tangential force on the
blades. (c) Power developed by the blade row. (d) Rotor efficiency.
Given: D, 2 , , U/V2 , W3 /W2 , the difference between 2 and 3 , and m.
Find: Fx , Fu , W , and R .
Solution: The blade speed is
0.53 3000
U = r2 = = 166.5 m/s
30
and the nozzle velocity is V2 = U/0.42 = 166.5/0.42 = 396.4 m/s. Also W3 =
0.84W2 . Next the components of the velocities are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 396.4 sin(72 ) = 377.0 m/s

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 377.0 166.5 = 210.5 m/s


Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 396.4 cos(72 ) = 122.5, m/s Wx2 = Vx2
and
2 2
W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 122.52 + 210.52 = 243.6 m/s

44
The relative flow angle is
( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 210.5
2 = tan = tan = 59.81 3 = 59.81 3 = 62.81
Wx2 122.5
and
W3 = cR W2 = 0.8 243.6 = 204.6 m/s
so that
Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 204.6 sin(62.81 ) = 182.0 m/s
Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 204.6 cos(62.81 ) = 93.5 m/s
and

Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 182 + 166.5 = 15.5 m/s Vx3 = Wx3 = 93.5 m/s

The flow angle at the exit of the rotor is


( ) ( )
1 Vu3 1 15.5
3 = tan = tan = 9.41
Vx3 93.5
Next the force on the blades is obtained.

Fx = m(Vx2 Vx3 ) = 7.23(93.5 122.5) = 209.7 N (a)

Fu = m(Vu2 Vu3 ) = 7.23(15.5 377.0) = 2838 N (b)


The specific work done is

w = U (Vu2 V u3) = 166.5(377.0 + 15.5) = 65.35 kJ/kg

so that
W = mw = 7.23 65.35 = 472.5 kW
then the rotor efficiency is
w 2 65, 350
R = = = 0.832 (c)
V2 /2 396.42

Exercise 5.3 The wheel diameter of a single stage impulse steam turbine is 40 cm
and the shaft speed is 3000 rpm. The steam issues from nozzles at velocity
275 m/s at the nozzle angle of 70 . The rotor blades are equiangular and fric-
tion reduces the relative velocity as the steam flows through the blades to 0.86

45
times the entering velocity. Find the power developed by the wheel when the
axial thrust is Fx = 120 N.
Given: D, 2 , , V2 , cR , and Fx .
Find: W .
Solution: The blade speed is
0.2 3000
U = r2 = = 62.83 m/s
30
Next the components of the velocities are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 275 sin(70 ) = 258.4 m/s

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 258.4 62.83 = 195.6 m/s


Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 275 cos(70 ) = 94.06, m/s Wx2 = Vx2
and
Wu3 = cR Wu2 = 0.86 195.6 = 168.2 m/s
and
Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 168.2 + 62.83 = 105.4 m/s
so that

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 62.83(258.54 + 105.4) = 22.86 kJ/kg

In addition V x3 = cN Vx2 = 0.86 94.06 = 80.89 m/s. From the expression for
the axial component of the blade force

Fx 12)
Fx = m(Vx2 Vx3 ) m = = = 9.11 kg/s
Vx2 Vx3 94.06 80.89
so that
W = mw = 9.11 22.86 = 208.3 kW

Exercise 5.4 Steam issues from the nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine with
velocity 400 m/s. The nozzle angle is at 74 . The absolute velocity at the exit is
94 m/s and its direction is 8.2 . If the blades are equiangular: (a) Find the power
developed by the blade row when the steam flow rate is 7.3 kg/s. (b) The the rate
of irreversible energy conversion per kg of steam flowing through the rotor.
Given: V2 , V3 , 2 , 3 , m, and that 3 = 2 .

46
Find: W , rate of loss of energy by irreversiblities.
Solution: The components of the velocities are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 400.0 sin(74 ) = 384.5 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 400.0 cos(74 ) = 110.3, m/s Wx2 = Vx2


Also
Vu3 = V3 sin 3 = 94.0 sin(8.2 ) = 13.4 m/s
Vx3 = V3 cos 2 = 94.0 cos(8.2 ) = 93.0, m/s Wx3 = Vx3
From

Wu2 = W2 sin 2 = Vu2 U Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = Vu3 U

so that
W2 sin 3 W3 sin 2 = Vu2 Vu3
from which
W2 (1 + cv ) sin 2 = Vu2 Vu3
Since the velocity coefficient is the same in the nozzles and the rotor, it can be
written as
W3 Wx3 Vx3 93.0
cv = = = = = 0.843
W2 Wx2 Vx2 110.3
From the previous equation
Vu2 Vu3
W2 sin 2 =
1 + cv
In addition
W2 cos 2 = Vx2
the ratio of these gives
Vu2 Vu3 384.5 + 13.4
tan 2 = = = 1.957
Vx2 (1 + cR ) 110.3(1 + 0.843)

Thus 2 = 62.93 and


Vx2 110.3
W2 = + = 242.4 m/s W3 = cv W2 = 0.843242.4 = 204.5 m/s
cos 2 cos(62.94

47
From these

Wu2 = W2 sin 2 = 242.4 sin(62.94 ) = 215.8 m/s

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 242.4 sin(62.94 ) = 182.1 m/s


and the blade speed is

U = Vu2 Wu2 = 384.5 215.8 = 168.7 m/s

The specific work is

w = U (Vu2 V u3) = U (Wu2 Wu3 ) = 168.7(215.8 + 182.8) = 67.13 kJ/kg

so that
W = mw = 7.3 67.13 = 490.0 kW
The loss is
1 1
KEloss = (W22 W32 ) = (242.42 204.62 ) = 8.454 kJ/kg
2 2
and the power loss is

Wloss = mKEloss = 7.3 8.454 = 61.7 kW

Exercise 5.5 Carry out the steps in the development of the expression for ratio of
the optimum blade speed to the steam velocity for a single stage impulse turbine
with equiangular blades. Note that this expression is independent of the velocity
coefficient. Carry out the algebra to obtain the expression for the rotor efficiency
at this condition. (a) Find numerical value for the velocity ratio when the nozzle
angle is 76 . (b) Find the rotor efficiency at this condition assuming that cR = 0.9.
(c) Find the flow angle of the relative velocity entering the blades at the optimum
condition.
Given: 2 , optimum conditions.
Find: R and 3 .
Solution: At optimum conditions
U 1 1
= sin 2 = sin(76 ) = 0.485 (a)
V2 2 2

48
then
sin2 2 1
R = (1 + cv C) = (1 + 0.9) sin(76 ) = 0.894 (b)
2 2
From
W2 sin 2 = V2 sin 2 U W2 cos 2 = V2 cos 2
by dividing gives

sin 2 U/V2 sin 2 12 sin 2 1


tan 2 = = = tan 2
cos 2 cos 2 2
so that ( )
1 1
2 = tan tan(76 ) = 63.50

(c)
2

Exercise 5.6 Steam flows from a set of nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine
at 2 = 78 with velocity V2 = 305 m/s and the blade speed is U = 146 m/s.
The outlet flow angle of the relative velocity is 3 greater than its inlet angle and
the velocity coefficient is cR = 0.84. The nozzle velocity coefficient is cN = 1.
The power delivered by the wheel is 1000 kW. Draw the velocity diagrams at the
inlet and outlet of the blades. Calculate the mass flow rate of steam.
Given: V2 , U , 2 , 3 = 2 3 , cR = 0.84, CN = 1.0 and W .
Find: m.
Solution: The components of the velocities are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 305 sin(78 ) = 290.1 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 305 cos(78 ) = 94.3, m/s Wx2 = Vx2


Wu2 = Vu2 U = 290.1 146 = 144.1 m/s
so that
W2 sin 3 W3 sin 2 = Vu2 Vu3

2 2
W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 94.32 + 144.12 = 172.7 m/s
and the flow angle of the relative velocity is
( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 144.1
2 = tan = tan = 56.80
Wx2 94.3

49
At the exit of the rotor

W3 = CR W2 = 0.84 172.2 = 144.6 m/s

and 3 = (56.8 + 3 ) = 59.8 . Then

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 144.6 sin(59.8 ) = 125.0 m/s

Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 144.6 cos(59.8 ) = 72.7 m/s


Then

Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 125.0 + 146 = 21.0 m/s Vx3 = 72.7 m/s

therefore ( ) ( )
1 Vu3 1 21.0
3 = tan = tan = 16.11
Vx3 72.7
The specific work is

w = U (Vu2 V u3) = 146(290.1 21.0) = 39.29 kJ/kg

so that
W 1000
m = = = 25.5 kg/s
w 39.29
Exercise 5.7 Steam flows from a set of nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine
at angle 2 = 70 . (a). Find the maximum total-to-static efficiency if the velocity
coefficients are cR = 0.83 and cN = 0.98. (b). If the rotor efficiency is 90 % of its
maximum value, find the possible outlet flow angles for the relative velocity.
Given: 2 , cR = 0.83, CN = 0.83 and speed ratio U/V2 = 0.9(U/V2 )opt .
Find: ts and m.
Solution: At optimal condition
U sin 2 sin(70 )
= = = 0.470
V2 2 2
and
1 1.83 2
Rmax = (1 + CR ) sin2 2 = sin (70 ) = 0.808
2 2
Also
1 0.982 (1 + 0.83) 2
ts = c2N (1 + cR ) sin2 2 = sin (70 ) = 0.776 (a)
2 2
50
The actual rotor efficiency is

R = f Rmax = 0.9 0.808 = 0.727

and therefore
f
R = 2(1 + cR )(sin 2 ) = (1 + cR ) sin2 2
2
which reduces to
1
2 sin 2 + f sin2 2 = 0
4
The solution of this is
1
sin 2 (1 (1 f ))
2
One root is
sin(70 ) U
a = (1 + (1 0.9) = 0.6184 =
2 V2
and the other root is
sin(70 ) U
a = (1 (1 0.9) = 0.3123 =
2 V2
The flow angles are
( )
1 sin 2 a
2a = tan = 43.21
cos 2
( )
1 sin 2 b
2b = tan = 61.06
cos 2

Exercise 5.8 The nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine have a wall thickness
t = 0.3 cm and height b = 15 cm. The mean diameter of the wheel is D = 116 cm
and the nozzle angle is 2 = 72 . The number of nozzles in a ring is 72. The
specific volume of steam at the exit of the nozzles is 15.3 m3 /kg and the velocity
there is V2 = 366m/s. (a) Find the mass flow rate of steam through the steam
nozzle ring. (b) Find the power developed by the blades for an impulse wheel of
equiangular blades, given that the velocity coefficient cR = 0.86 and cN = 1.0.
The shaft turns at 3000 rpm.
Given: t, b, D, 2 , Z, v1 , cR , cN , and V2 .
Find: m and W .

51
Solution:
Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 366 sin(72 ) = 348.1 m/s
Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 366 cos(72 ) = 113.1, m/s
The exit area is
A = (2r cos 2 Zt)b = (2 0.58 cos(72 ) 72 0.003)0.15 = 0.1365, m2
Mass flow rate is
V2 A 366 0.1365
m = = = 3.266 kg/s (a)
v2 15.3
Next
Wu2 = Vu2 U = 348.14 182.2 = 165.9 m/s Wx2 = 113.1 m/s
and the magnitude of the relative velocity leaving the nozzles is

2 2
W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 113.12 + 165.92 = 200.8 m/s

and its flow angle is


( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 165.9
2 = tan = tan = 55.71
Wx2 113.1
Therefore after the rotor
W3 = cR W2 = 0.86 200.8 = 172.7 m/s 3 = 55.71
Then
Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 172.7 sin(55.71 ) = 142.7 m/s
Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 172.7 cos(55.71 ) = 97.3, m/s
The tangential component of the absolute velocity at the exit of the rotor is
Vu3 = U + Wu3 = 182.2 142.7 = 39.5 m/s
and the specific work is
w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 182.2(348.1 39.5) = 56.23 kJ/kg
and the power is
W = mw = 3.266 56.23 = 183.6 kW (b)

52
Exercise 5.9 The isentropic static enthalpy change across a stage of a single stage
impulse turbine is hs = 22 kJ/kg. The nozzle exit angle is 2 = 74 . The mean
diameter of the wheel is 148 cm and the shaft turns as 1500 rpm. The blades are
equiangular with a velocity coefficient cR = 0.87. The nozzle velocity coefficient
is cN = 0.98. (a) Find the steam velocity at the exit from the nozzles. (b) Find the
flow angles of the relative velocity at the inlet and exit of the wheel. (c) Find the
overall efficiency of the stage.
Given: r2 , 2 , , cR , cN , and hs .
Find: V2 , 2 , 3 and tt .
Solution: The blade speed is
0.74 1500
U = r2 = = 116.2 m/s
30
For isentropic flow assuming that the exit velocity is the same as at the inlet to the
stage
ws = hs = 2U (V2s sin 2 U )
therefore
( ) ( )
hs 1 22, 000 1
V2s = +U = + 116.2 = 219.4 m/s
2U sin 2 2 116.2 sin(74 )

Then from
V2
CN = V2 = CN V2s = 0.98 219.4 = 215.0 m/s (a)
V2s
and
U 116.2
= = = 0.540
V2 215.0
To find the flow angles, first calculate

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 215 sin(74 ) = 206.7 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 215 cos(74 ) = 59.3, m/s


then

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 206.7 116.2 = 90.5 m/s Wx2 = 59.3 m/s

53
and the angle at which the relative velocity enters the rotor is
( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 90.5
2 = tan = tan = 56.76 (b)
Wx2 59.3
and the exit angle from the rotor is 3 = 56.76 .
The efficiency is

ts = 2Cn2 (1 + CR )(sin 2 )

= 2 0.540 0.982 (1 + 0.85)(sin(74 ) 0.534) = 0.808 (c)

Exercise 5.10 An impulse turbine has a nozzle angle 2 = 72 and steam velocity
V2 = 244 m/s. The velocity coefficient for the rotor blades is cR = 0.85 and the
nozzle efficiency is n = 0.92. The output power generated by the wheel is
W = 562 kW when the mass flow rate is m = 23 kg/s. Find the efficiency of the
turbine.
Given: 2 , V2 , cR , cN , m, and W .
Find: ts .
Solution: The specific work is

W 562
w= = = 24.43 kJ/kg
m 23
and from

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U (Wu2 Wu3 ) = U (1 + cR )WU 2

But
Wu2 = V2 sin 2 U
so that
w
(1 + cR )U 2 (1 + cR )V2 sin 2 U + =0
1 + cR
The solution of this is

1 1 2 2 w
U = V2 sin 2 V2 sin 2
2 4 1 + cR
and
244 sin(72 ) 2442 sin2 (72 ) 24, 430
U1 = + = 132 m/s
2 4 1.85

54
and the second root is

244 sin(72 ) 2442 sin2 (72 ) 24, 430
U2 = = 100.1 m/s
2 4 1.85
From these
U1 U2
1 = = 0.541 lambda2 = = 0.410
V2 V2
The efficiency using either root becomes

ts = 2c2N (1 + cR )(sin 2 )

ts = 2 0.541 0.922 (1 + 0.85)(sin(72 ) 0.541) = 0.755

Exercise 5.11 A two row velocity compounded impulse wheel is part of a steam
turbine with many other stages. The steam velocity from the nozzles is V2 =
580 m/s and the means speed of the blades is U = 116 m/s. The flow angle
leaving the nozzle is 2 = 74 and the flow angle of the relative velocity leaving
the first set of rotor blades is 3 = 72 . The absolute velocity of the flow as it
leaves the stator vanes between the two rotors is 4 = 68 and the outlet angle of
the relative velocity leaving the second rotor is 5 = 54 . The steam flow rate is
m = 2.4 kg/s. The velocity coefficient is cv = 0.84 for both the stator and rotor
rows. (a) Find the axial thrust from each wheel. (b) Find the tangential thrust from
each wheel. (c) Find the efficiency of the rotors defined as the work out divided
by the kinetic energy available from the nozzles.
Given: V2 , U , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , cN = CR , and m.
Find: Fx , Fu , R .
Solution: The velocity components are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 580 sin(74 ) = 557.5 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 580 cos(74 ) = 159.9 m/s


and

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 557.5 116 = 441.5 m/s Wx2 = 159.9 m/s

and the magnitude of the relative velocity leaving the nozzles is



W2 = Wx2 2
+ Wu2 2
= 469.6 m/s W3 = 0.84 469.6 = 394.4 m/s

55
Next
Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 394.4 sin(72 ) = 375.1 m/s
Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 394.4 cos(72 ) = 121.9 m/s
The components of the absolute velocity are

Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 375.1 + 116 = 259.1 m/s Vx3 = 121.9 m/s

and

2
V3 = Vx3 2
+ Vu3 = 286.3 m/s V4 = 0.84 286.3 = 240.5 m/s

Next
Vu4 = V4 sin 4 = 240.5 sin(68 ) = 223.0 m/s
Vx4 = V4 cos 4 = 240.5 cos(68 ) = 90.1 m/s
and the components of the relative velocity become

Wu4 = Vu4 U = 223.0 116 = 107.0 m/s Wx4 = V x4 = 90.1 m/s

and its magnitude is



W4 = Wx4 2 2
+ Wu4 = 139.9 m/s W5 = 0.84 139.9 = 117.5 m/s

The components after the second rotor become

Wu5 = W5 sin 5 = 117.5 sin(54 ) = 95.1 m/s

Wx5 = W5 cos 5 = 117.5 cos(54 ) = 69.1 m/s


and finally

Vu5 = Wu5 + U = 95.1 + 116 = 20.9 m/s Vx5 = Wx5 = 69.1 m/s

The force components are then

Fx1 = m(Vx2 Vx3 ) = 2.4(159.9 121.9) = 91.2 N

Fu1 = m(Vu2 Vu3 ) = 2.4(557.5 259.1) = 1960.0 N


For the second rotor

Fx2 = m(Vx4 Vx5 ) = 2.4(90.1 69.1) = 50.4 N

56
Fu2 = m(Vu4 Vu5 ) = 2.4(223 20.9) = 485.0 N
The power output is

W1 = Fu1 U = 1960 116 = 227.4 kW

W2 = Fu2 U = 485 116 = 52.26 kW


an the efficiency is
w1 + w2 2U
= 2
= 2 (Vu2 Vu3 + Vu4 Vu5 )
V2 /2 V2

with a numerical value


2 116
= (555705259.1 + 223 20.9) = 0.703
5802
Exercise 5.12 A velocity-compounded impulse wheel has two rows of moving
blades with a mean diameter of D = 72 cm. The shaft rotates at 3000 rpm. Steam
issues from the nozzles at an angle 2 = 74 with velocity V2 = 555 m/s. The
mass flow rate is m = 5.1 kg/s. The energy loss through each of the moving
blades is 24 percent of the kinetic energy entering the blades based on the relative
velocity. Steam leaves the first set of moving blades at 3 = 72 the guide vanes
between the rows at 4 = 68 and the second set of moving blades at 5 = 52 .
(a) Draw the velocity diagrams and find the flow angles at the blade inlets both
for absolute and relative velocities. (b) Find the power developed by each row of
blades. (c) Find the rotor efficiency as a whole.
Given: V2 , D, , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , cN = CR , and m.
Find: Fx , Fu , R .
Solution: The blade speed is
0.36 3000
U = r2 = = 113.1 m/s
30

and the velocity coefficients are cR = cN = 0.76 = 0.872.
The velocity components are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 555 sin(74 ) = 533.5 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 555 cos(74 ) = 153.0 m/s

57
and

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 533.5 113.1 = 420.4 m/s Wx2 = 153.0 m/s

and the magnitude of the relative velocity leaving the nozzles is



W2 = Wx2 2
+ Wu2 2
= 447.4 m/s W3 = 0.872 447.4 = 390.0 m/s

Next
Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 390.0 sin(72 ) = 370.9 m/s
Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 390.0 cos(72 ) = 120.5 m/s
The components of the absolute velocity are

Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 370.9 + 113.1 = 257.8 m/s Vx3 = 120.5 m/s

and

V3 = 2
Vx3 2
+ Vu3 = 284.6 m/s V4 = 0.872 284.6 = 248.1 m/s

Next
Vu4 = V4 sin 4 = 248.1 sin(68 ) = 230.0 m/s
Vx4 = V4 cos 4 = 248.1 cos(68 ) = 92.9 m/s
and the components of the relative velocity become

Wu4 = Vu4 U = 230.0 113.1 = 116.9 m/s Wx4 = V x4 = 92.9 m/s

and its magnitude is



W4 = Wx4 2 2
+ Wu4 = 149.3 m/s W5 = 0.872 149.3 = 130.2 m/s

The components after the second rotor become

Wu5 = W5 sin 5 = 130.2 sin(52 ) = 102.6 m/s

Wx5 = W5 cos 5 = 130.2 cos(52 ) = 80.2 m/s


and finally

Vu5 = Wu5 + U = 102.6 + 113.1 = 10.5 m/s Vx5 = Wx5 = 80.2 m/s

58
The work done is

w1 = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 113.1(533.5 + 257.8) = 89, 496 J/kg

w2 = U (Vu4 Vu5 ) = 113.1(230.0 10.5) = 24, 825 J/kg


and the power is

W1 = mw1 = 5.189.496 = 456.4 kW W2 = mw2 = 5.124.825 = 126.6 kW

so the efficiency is

w1 + w2 2(89496 + 24825)
= 2
= = 0.742 (c)
V2 /2 5552

The flow angles are


( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 420.4
2 = tan = tan = 70
Wx2 153.0
( ) ( )
1 Vu3 1 257.8
3 = tan = tan = 64.9
Vx3 120.5
( ) ( )
1 Wu4 1 116.9
4 = tan = tan = 51.5
Wx4 92.9

Exercise 5.13 Steam flows from the nozzles of a zero percent repeating stage at
an angle 2 = 69 and speed V2 = 450 m/s and enters the rotor with blade speed
moving at U = 200 m/s. (a) Find its efficiency when the loss coefficients are
calculated from Soderbergs correlation. (b) Find the work delivered by the stage.
Given: V2 , U , and 2 .
Find: , w.
Solution: The velocity components are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 450 sin(69 ) = 420.1 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 450 cos(69 ) = 161.3 m/s


so that

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 420.1 200 = 220.1 m/s Wx2 = Vx2 = 161.3 m/s

59

2 2
and W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 272.9 m/s. Next
( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 220.1
2 = tan = tan = 53.76 3 = 53.73
Wx2 161.3

The amount of turning is

= 68 = 107/5

The loss coefficients are


( )2
69
N = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.0686
100
( )2
107.5
R = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.1094
100
The velocity coefficients are
1 1
cN = = 0.9674 cR = = 0.9494
1 + N 1 + R
Now
W3 = CR W2 = 0/9494 272.9 = 259.1 m/s
and
Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 259.1 sin(53.76 ) = 209.0 m/s
Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 2559.1 cos (53.76 ) = 153.1 m/s
and the components of the absolute velocity after the rotor are

Vu3]=U +Wu3 =300209.0=9.0 m/s V[ x3 = 153.1 m/s

so that the flow angle is


( ) ( )
1 Vu3 1 9.0
3 = tan = tan = 3.35
Vx3 153.1

2 2
and V3 = Vx3 + Vu3 = 153.3 m/s. The value of the speed ratio is

U 200
= = = 0.444
V2 450

60
and the word delivered is

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 200(420.1 + 9.0) = 85.818 kJ/kg (b)

The efficiency is

4(sin 2 )
tt = = 0.888 (a)
(R 4)2 + (4 2R ) sin 2 + R + N

Exercise 5.14 Show that for a repeating stage the efficiency of a zero percent
reaction is
4(sin 2 )
tt =
(R 4) + (4 2R ) sin 2 + R + N
2

and this maximum is at the condition = U/V2 given by



R + S (R + N )(R + S R sin2 2 )
=
R sin 2

Given: A stage with zero reaction.


Find: tt , and for maximum efficiency.
Solution: Examination of the figure for a stage with zero reaction shows that
h01 h03
tt =
h01 h03ss
which can be written as
1 h01 h03ss h03 h03ss
1= 1=
tt h01 h03 w
which can be written as
1 h3 h3ss + 12 (V32 V3ss
2
)
1=
tt w
Since
T2 T3s
=
T2s T3ss
then
T3ss T3s
h3s h3ss = (h2 h2s ) = (h2 h2s )
T3s T2

61
and the expression for efficiency becomes

1 h3 h3s + T3s
(h2 h2s ) + (1 T3ss
)V32
1= T2 T3
tt w
or
1 R W32 + TT3s2 N V22 + (1 T3ss
)V33
1= T3
tt 2w
Neglecting the temperature factors leads to

1 R W32 + N V22
1=
tt 2w
Since W3 = W2 and

W22 = V22 2U V2 sin 2 + U 2 w = 2U W2 sin 2 = 2U (V2 sin 2 U )

Substituting these into the expression for efficiency and introducing the parameter
= U/V2 gives

1 R (2 2 sin 2 + 1) + N
1=
tt 4(sin 2 )

This can be now written as


4(sin 2 )
tt = (a)
(R 4)2 + (4 2R ) sin 2 + R + N

Differentiating this with respect to and setting the derivative to zero gives

r sin 2 2 2(R + N ) + (R + N ) sin 2 = 0

and the solution of this is



R + S (R + N )(R + S R sin2 2 )
= (b)
R sin 2

62
Chapter 6
Exercise 6.1 At inlet to the rotor in a single stage axial-flow turbine the magni-
tude of the absolute velocity of fluid is 610 m/s. Its direction is 61 as measured
from the cascade front in the direction of the blade motion. At exit of this rotor the
absolute velocity of the fluid is 305 m/s directed such that its tangential compo-
nent is negative. The axial velocity is constant, the blade speed is 305 m/s, and the
flow rate through the rotor is 5 kg/s. (a) Construct the rotor inlet and exit velocity
diagrams showing the axial and tangential components of the absolute velocities.
(b) Evaluate the change in total enthalpy across the rotor. (c) Evaluate the power
delivered by the rotor. (d) Evaluate the average driving force exerted on the blades.
(e) Evaluate the change in static and stagnation temperature of the fluid across the
rotor, assuming the fluid to be a perfect gas with cp = 1148 J/kg K. (f) Calculate
the flow coefficient and the blade loading coefficient. Are they reasonable?
Given: V2 , 2 , V1 , U , and m.
Find: T , T0 , , .
Solution: For a The axial and tangential velocity components at the inlet to the
rotor are
Vx = V2 cos 2 = 610 cos(61 ) = 295.7 m/s
Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 610 sin(61 ) = 533.5 m/s
At the exit of the rotor cos 1 = Vx /V3 so that
( )
1 295.7
3 = cos = 14.16
305
and
Vu3 = V3 sin 2 = 610 sin(14.16 ) = 74.6 m/s
To construct the velocity diagrams the relative flow angles are needed. First the
relative velocity components are

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 533.5 305 = 228.5 m/s Wx2 = Vx2

so that ( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 228.5
2 = tan = tan = 37.7
Wx2 295.7
The relative velocity component after the rotor are

Wu3 = Vu3 U = 74.5 305 = 379.5 m/s Wx3 = Vx3 =

63
so that
( ) ( )
1 Wu3 1 379.5
3 = tan = tan = 52.08 (a)
Wx3 295.7
The specific work delivered is

w = U (vu2 Vu3 ) = 305(533.5 + 74.6) = 185, 480 J/kg

which gives a drop in stagnation enthalpy of

h02 h03 = 185.480 kJ/kg (b)

The power delivered is

W = m = w = 5 185.48 = 92.7 MW (c)

and the force on the blades is


W 185, 480
Fu = = = 3040 N (d)
U 305
The drop in the stagnation temperature of
w 185, 4801
T02 T03 = = = 161.6 K (e)
cp 1148
and the drop in static temperature is

1 6102 3052
T2 T3 = T02 T03 (V22 V32 ) = 161.6 + = 40.0 K (e)
2cp 2 1148
The flow coefficient and the blade loading coefficients are (reasonable)
Vx 295.7
= = = 0.969 = 2.00 (f )
U 305
Exercise 6.2 A small axial-flow turbine must have an output power of 37 kW
when handling one half of a kilogram of combustion gases per second with an
inlet total temperature of 410 K. The value of the gas constant is 287 J/kg K and
= 4/3. The total-to-total efficiency of the turbine is 80%. The rotor operates
at 50, 000 rpm and the mean blade diameter is 10 cm. Evaluate (a) the average
driving force on the turbine blades, (b) the change in the tangential component

64
of the absolute velocity across the rotor, and (c) the required total pressure ratio
across the turbine.
Given: W , T01 , , D, tt and m.
Find: Fu , Vu2 Vu3 , p01 /p03 .
Solution: The blade speed is
0.05 50, 000
U = r = = 261.8 m/s
30
and the average blade force is

W 37, 000
Fu = = = 141.3 N (a)
U 261.8
The specific work is

W 37, 000
w= = = 74 kJ/kg
m 0.5
and therefore the change in the tangential velocity components is
w 74000
Vu2 Vu3 = = = 282.7 m/s (b)
U 261.8
The isentropic work is
w 74
ws = = = 92.5 kJ/kg
tt 0.8
so that the exit stagnation temperature for an isentropic expansion is
ws 925, 000
T03s = T01 = 410 = 329.4 K
cp 1148

and the pressure ratio is


( )/(1) ( )4
p01 T01 410
= = = 2.4 (c)
p03 T03s 329.4

Exercise 6.3 A turbine stage of a multi-stage axial turbine is shown in Figure ??.
The value of the gas constant is 287 J/kg K and = 4/3. The inlet gas angle
to the stator is 1 = 36.8 and the outlet angle from the stator is 2 = 60.3 .

65
The flow angle of the relative velocity at the inlet to the rotor is 2 = 36.8 and
the flow leaves at 3 = 60.3 . (a) If the blade speed is U = 220 m/s, find the
axial velocity, which is assumed constant throughout the turbine. (b) Find the
work done by the fluid on the rotor blades for one stage. (c) The inlet stagnation
temperature to the turbine is 950 K and the mass flow rate is m = 400 kg/s. If
this turbine produces a power output of 145 MW, find the number of stages. (d)
Find the overall stagnation pressure ratio if its isentropic adiabatic efficiency is
t = 0.85. (e) Why does the static pressure fall across the stator and the rotor?
Given: 1 , 2 , 2 , 3 , tt , U , W , m, and T01 .
Find: Vx , w, number of stages, p01 /p0e .
Solution: From Vu2 = Wu2 + U follows
Vx tan 2 = Vx tan 2 + U
so that
U 220
Vx = = = 218.9 m/s (a)
tan 2 tan 2 tan(60.3 ) tan(36.8 )
Work delivered by a repeating stage is
w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U Vx (tan 2 tan 1 )
w = 220 218.9(tan(60.3 ) tan(36.8 )) = 120.5 kJ/kg (b)
To work done by all the stages is
W 145 106
wt = = = 362.5 kJ/kg
m 400
Hence the number of stages is N = wt /w = 362.5/120.5 = 3.00 (c).
The temperature drop per stage is
w 120, 500
T01 T03 = = = 104.9 K
cp 1148
and the pressure drop across the entire machine is
T01] T0e = 3 104.9 = 314.7 K
and the exit temperature for an isentropic process is
T01 T0e 314.7
T03s = T01 = 950 = 579.7 K
tt 0.85

66
and the pressure ratio is
( )/(1) ( )4
p01 T01 950
= = = 7.21 (d)
p0e T0es 579.7
The static pressure drops because velocity increases. Static pressure drops across
the rotor because the relative stagnation enthalpy remains constant and the relative
velocity increases across the rotor.

Exercise 6.4 A single stage axial turbine has a total pressure ratio of 1.5 to 1, with
an inlet total pressure 300 kPa and temperature of 600 K. The absolute velocity
at the inlet to the stator row is in the axial direction. The adiabatic total-to-total
efficiency is 80%. The relative velocity is at an angle of 30 at the inlet of the rotor
and it exits at 35 . If the flow coefficient is = 0.9, find the blade velocity.
Use compressible flow analysis with cp = 1148 J/kg K, = 4/3, and R =
287 J/kg K.
Given: p01 /p03 , p01 , T01 , 1 , 2 , 3 , tt , ,
Find: U .
Solution: From
w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U (Wu2 Wu3 ) = U Vx (tan 2 tan 3 )
Dividing by U 2 gives
= (tan 2 tan 3 ) = 0.9(tan(30 ) tan(35 )) = 1.15
Then from ( )/(1)
T01 p01
= = 1.50.25 = 1.1067
T03s p03
so that T03s = 600/1.1067 = 542.2 K, and
T03 = T01 tt (T01 T03s ) = 600 0.8(600 542.2) = 553.7 K
The work is now
w = cp (T01 T03 ) = 1148(600 553.7) = 53.15 kJ/kg
From w = U 2 the blade speed is

w 53150
U= = = 215 m/s
1.15

67
Exercise 6.5 An axial turbine has a total pressure ratio of 4 to 1, with an inlet
total pressure 650 kPa and total temperature of 800 K. The combustion gases that
pass through the turbine have = 4/3, and R = 287 J/kg K. (a) Justify the
choice of two stages for this turbine? Each stage is normal stage and they are
designed the same way, with the blade loading coefficient equal to 1.1 and the
flow coefficient equal to 0.6. The absolute velocity at the inlet to the stator row
is at angle 5 from the axial direction. The overall total-to-total efficiency of the
turbine is 91.0%. Find: (b) The angle at which the the absolute velocity leaves the
stator,(c) the angle of the relative velocity at the inlet of the rotor, (d) the angle at
which the relative velocity leaves the rotor. (e) Draw the velocity diagrams at the
inlet and outlet of the rotor. (f) What are the blade speed and the axial velocity?
(g) A consequence of the design is that each stage has the same work output and
efficiency. Find (g) the stage efficiency, and (h) the pressure ratio for each stage.
Given: p01 /p0e , p01 , T01 , psi, , and tt .
Find: Justify that two stages is appropriate, 2 , 2 , 3 , U , Vx , s , p01 /p03 .
Solution: The stagnation temperature at the exit of the turbine is
( )(1)/
p0e
T0es = T01 = 800 0.250.25 = 565.7 K
p01

and the specific work delivered is

w = tt cp (T01 T0es ) = 0.91 1148(800 565.7) = 244.8 kJ/kg

The temperature drop is


w 244, 800
T02 T0e = = = 213.2 K (a)
cp 1148

A typical temperature drop across a stage is about 120 K. Hence two stages are
justified and ws = w/2 = 122.39 kJ/kg. Each stage has the same flow angles.
Hence their efficiency is the same.
Solving from
1 R /2
tan 1 =

for the reaction R gives

R=1 tan 1 = 1 0.555 0.6 tan(5 ) = 0.3975
2
68
and
R + /2 0.3975 + 0.55
tan 1 = = = 1.5792 1 = 57.65 (c)
0.6
1 R + /2 1 0.3975 + 0.55
tan 2 = = = 1.9208 2 = 62.50
0.6
R /2 0.3975 0.55
tan 2 = = = 02542 2 = 14.26 (b)
0.6
The blade speed is

w 122, 390
U= = = 333.6 m/s (e)
1.1

and the axial velocity is

Vx = U = 0.6 333.6 = 200.1 m/s (d)

The stage efficiency is obtained as follows. For each stage


T01 T02 1 T02 /T 01
s = =
T01 T02s 1 (p02 /p01 )/(1 )

T02 T0e 1 T0e /T 02


s = =
T02 T0es 1 (p0e /p02 )/(1 )
so that [ ( )]/(1)
p02 1 T02
= 1 1
p01 s T01
[ ( )]/(1)
p0e 1 T0e
= 1 1
p02 s T02
and
[ ( )]/(1) [ ( )]/(1)
p0e p02 p0e 1 T02 1 T0e
= = 1 1 1 1
p01 p01 p02 s T01 s T02
Hence
( )( ) ( ) ( )(1)/
T02 T0e 1 T02 T0e 1 p0e
1 1 1 +1 +1
T01 T02 s T01 T02 s p01

69
Which when solved for the stage efficiency 1/s gives
1 2 T02 /T01 T0e /T02
= +
s 2(1 T02 /T01 )(1 T0e /T02 )

(2 T02 /T01 T0e /T02 )2 4(1 T02 /T01 )(1 T0e /T02 )(1 p0e /p01 )(1)/
2(1 T02 /T01 )(1 T0e /T02 )
and
T02 693.4 T0e 586.8
= = 0.827 = = 0.846
T01 800 T02 693.4
and
1 0.287 0.0824 4 0.133 0.154 0.293
= = 1.108
s 2 0.133 0.154
so that
s = 0.9024
and
1 T02 /T01
s =
1 (p02 /p01 )(1)/
so that
[ ( )]/(1) ( )4
p02 1 T02 0.133
= 1 1 = 1 = 0.528
p01 s T01 0.9024
and p02 = 0.528 0.528 = 343 kPa. Similarly
1 T0e /T02
s =
1 (p0e /p02 )(1)/
[ ( )]/(1) ( )4
p0e 1 T02 0.154
= 1 1 = 1 = 0.474
p02 s T01 0.9024
or
p01 p02
= 1.895 = 2.111 (h)
p02 p0e
Exercise 6.6 For a steam turbine rotor the blade speed at the casing is U =
300 m/s and at the hub its speed is 240 m/s. The absolute velocity at the cas-
ing section at the inlet to the rotor is V2c = 540 m/s and at the hub section it is
V2h = 667 m/s. The angle of the absolute and relative velocities at the inlet and
exit of the casing and hub sections are c2 = 65 , c3 = 60 , h2 = 70 , and

70
h3 = 50 . The exit relative velocity at the casing is Wc3 = 456 m/s and at the
hub it is Wh3 = 355 m/s. Evaluate for the tip section: (a) The axial velocity at
the inlet and exit; (b) the change in total enthalpy of the steam across the rotor; (c)
the outlet total and static temperatures at the hub and casing sections, if the inlet
static temperature is 540 C and inlet total pressure is 7 MPa and they are the same
at all radii. Assume that the process is adiabatic and steam can be considered a
perfect gas with = 1.3. The static pressure at the exit of the rotor is the same
for all radii and is equal to the static pressure at inlet of the hub section. Repeat
the calculations for the hub section. (d) Find the stagnation pressure at the outlet
at the casing and the hub.
Given: Uc , Uh , V2c , V2h , 2c , 2h , 3c , 3h , W3c , W3h , T2 , p02 .
Find: Vx3c , Vx2c , h0 , T03 , T3 , and similarly for the hub.
Solution: The axial velocities are

Vx2c = V2c cos 2c = 540 cos(65 ) = 228.2 m/s (a)



Vx2h = V2h cos 2h = 667 cos(70 ) = 228.1 m/s (a)

Vx3c = V3c cos 3c = 456 cos(60 ) = 228.0 m/s (a)
Vx3h = V3h cos 3h = 355 cos(50 ) = 228.2 m/s (a)

and the flow coefficients are


Vx 228.1 Vx 228.0
c = = = 0.76 h = = = 0.95
Uc 300 Uh 240
The tangential components of the velocities are

Vu2c = V2c sin 2c = 540 sin(65 ) = 489.4 m/s

Vu2h = V2h sin 2h = 667 sin(70 ) = 626.8 m/s


and

Vu3c = Wu1c + Uc = W3c sin 3c + Uc = 456 sin(60 ) + 300 = 94.6 m/s

Vu3h = Wu1h + Uh = W3h sin 3h + Uh = 667 sin(50 ) + 240 = 31.9 m/s


The stagnation enthalpy change is therefore

h0c = wc = Uc (Vu2c Vu3c ) = 300(489.34 + 94.9) = 175, 290 J/kg (b)

h0h = wh = Uh (Vu2h Vu3h ) = 240(626.8 + 31.9) = 158, 088 J/kg (b)

71
Note that if rVu = C then w is independent of the radius. Here
rc Vu2c 489.4
= 1.25 = 0.976
rh Vu2h 626.8
so that the condition for a free vortex distribution does not quite hold. Take
1 1
w = (wc + wh ) = (175, 290 + 158, 088) = 166, 690 J/kg
2 2
The blade loading coefficients are
wc 175, 290 wh 158, 088
c = = = 1.947 h = 2
= = 2.744
Uc2 3002 Uh 2402
Using the average value U = 0.5(Uc + Uh ) = 270 m/s, the average value for the
blade loading coefficient is = w/U 2 = 166, 690/2702 = 2.286. The average
force on the blades is therefore

Fu = U = 2.286 270 = 617.2 N

The reactions at the casing and the hub are



Rc = c tan 3c = 0.76 tan(60 )0.51.947 = 0.343 Rh = h tan 3h = 0.95 tan
2 2
The negative reaction at the hub is undesirable.
The static temperature at the in let to the rotor is uniform T2 = 813.15 K. and
the gas constant is R = R/M = 8314/18 = 461.9 J/kg K. The specific heat is
cp = R/( 1) = 1.3416.9/0.3
= 2001.2001.5 J/kg K, and the speed of sound
is c2 = sqrtRT2 = 1.3 461.9 813.15 = 698.8 m/s. So the Mach number is
V2c 540
M2c = = = 0.773
c2 689.8
and the stagnation temperature at the casing is
1 2
T2c = T2 (1 + M2c ) = 813.15(1 + 0.15 0.7732 ) = 886.0 K
2
From the work done on the casing end of the blade the exit stagnation temperature
is
wc 175, 290
wc = cp (T02c T03c ) T03c = T02c = 886.0 = 798.4 K
cp 2001.6

72
and the absolute velocity is

2 2
V3c = Vx3c + Vu3c = 228.22 + 94.62 = 247.0 m/s

so that
V3c2 2472
T3c = T03c = 798.4 = 783.2 K
2cp 2 2001.6
At the hub
V2h 667
M2h = = = 0.995
c2 689.8
and the stagnation temperature at the hub is
1 2
T2h = T2 (1 + M2h ) = 813.15(1 + 0.15 0.9952 ) = 924.3 K
2
The exit stagnation temperature is
wh 158, 088
T03h = T02h = 924.3 = 845.3 K
cp 2001.6
and the absolute velocity is

2 2
V3h = Vx3h + Vu3h = 228.22 + 31.92 = 230.4 m/s

so that
2
V3h 230.4
T3h = T03h = 845.3 = 832.0 K
2cp 2 2001.6
The stagnation pressure is a uniform p02 = 7 MPa at the inlet to the rotor. so that
the static pressure at the casing is
( )(1)/
1
p2c = p02 1 + = 7000(1 + 0.15 0.7732 )1.3/0.3 = 4826 kPa
2
and a similar calculation at the hub give
( )(1)/
1
p2h = p02 1 + = 7000(1 + 0.15 0.9952 )1.3/0.3 = 4018 kPa
2
At the exit p3 = 4016 kPa and it is uniform. The mach number at the casing is
V3c V3c 247
M3c = = = = 0.360
c3c RT3c 1.3 2001.6 783.2

73
and
( )/(1)
1 2
p03c = p3c 1+ M3c = (1 + 0.15 0.3602 )1.3/0.3 = 4368 kPa
2

At the hub
V3h V3h 230.2
M3h = = = = 0.326
c3h RT3h 1.3 2001.6 832.0
and
( )/(1)
1 2
p03h = p3h 1+ M3h = (1 + 0.15 0.3262 )1.3/0.3 = 4303 kPa
2

Exercise 6.7 Combustion gases, with = 4/3 and R = 287 kJ/kg K, flow thor-
ough a turbine stage. The inlet flow angle for a normal stage is 1 = 0 . The
flow coefficient is = 0.52 and the blade loading coefficient is = 1.4. (a)
Draw the velocity diagrams for the stage. (b) Determine the angle at which rel-
ative velocity leaves the rotor. (c) Find the flow angle at the exit of the stator.
(d) A two-stage turbine has an inlet stagnation temperature of T01 = 1250 K and
blade speed U = 320 m/s. If the adiabatic efficiency of the turbine is t = 0.89,
find the stagnation temperature of the gas at the exit of the turbine and the stagna-
tion pressure ratio for the turbine. (e) Assuming that the density ratio across the
turbine based on static temperature and pressure ratios is the same as that based
on the stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure ratios, find the ratio of the
cross-sectional areas across the two-stage turbine.
Given: , , 1 , T01 , U , tt and two stages.
Find: 3 , 2 , T03 , Ae /A1 .
Solution: With the flow coefficient and blade loading coefficient known, as well
as the inlet flow angle 1 = 0, the reaction can be calculated from

1 R /2 1.4
tan 1 = R=1 =1 = 0.3
2 2
and the flow angles are
( )
1 R + /2 1 1 0.3 + 0.7
tan 2 = 2 = tan = 69.62 (c)
0.52

74
) (
R + /2 0.3 + 0.7
1
tan 1 = 1 = tan = 62.53 (b)
0.52
( )
R /2 1 0.3 0.7
tan 2 = 2 = tan = 37.59 (b)
0.53
With the flow angles fixed and axial velocity equal for both stages, the work is the
same. Hence

w = U 2 1.4 3202 = 143, 360 J/kg wt = 2w = 286, 720 K/kg

therefore
wt 286, 720
wts = = = 322.2 kJ/kg
tt 0.89
and
wt 286, 720
T0e = T01 = 1250 = 1000.0 K
cp 1148
wts 322, 200
T0es = T01 = 1250 = 969.4 K
cp 1148
Therefore
( )/(1) ( )4
p01 T01 1250
= = = 2.76 (d)
p0e T0es 969.4

With p1 = 1 RT1 ] p e = e T Te ,

1 p1 p01 T05 1000


= |f racTe T1 = 2.76 = 2.208
e pe p0e T01 1250

From 1 Vx1 A1 = e Ve Ae the area ratio is Ae /A1 = 2.208


The detailed calculations show that

Vx = U = 0.52 320 = 166.4 m/s

and
Ve5 166.42
Te = T0e = 1000 = 988.2 K
2cp 2 1148
so that ( )/(1) ( )4
pe Te 988.2
= = = 0.9526
p0e T0e 1000

75
and
V15 166.42
T1 = T01 = 1450 = 1237.9 K
2cp 2 1148
so that ( )/(1) ( )4
p1 T1 1237.9
= = = 0.962
p01 T01 1250
Therefore
p5 p5 p05 p01 0.9526
= = = 0.3582
p1 p05 p01 p1 2.76 0.962
so that
1 p1 Te 988.2
= = = 2.229 (e)
e pe T1 0.362 1250
and the approximation is reasonably good.
Exercise 6.8 Steam enters a 10-stage fifty percent reaction turbine at pressure
0.8 MPa and 200 C and leaves at pressure 5 kPa and with quality equal to 0.86.
(a) If the steam flow rate is 7 kg/s, find the power output and the overall efficiency
of the turbine. (b) The steam enters each stator stage axially with velocity of
75 m/s. The mean rotor diameter for all stages is 1.4 m and the axial velocity is
constant through the machine. Find the rotational speed of the shaft. (c) Find the
inlet and exit flow angles at the mean blade height assuming equal enthalpy drops
for each stage.
Given: R, p01 , T01 , 1 , p0e , x = 0.86, Vx , D, m and the number of stages is 10
and equal stagnation enthalpy drops across each stage.
Find: W , tt , 2 , and 1 .
Solution: From the steam tables with p01 = 80, 00 kPa and T01 , enthalpy is h01 =
2839.3 kJ/kg and entropy is s1 = 6.8158 kJ/kg K. For an isentropic process to
exit pressure of p0e = 5 kPa, entropy is ses = s1 , the quality is
ses sf 6.1858 0.4764
xe = = = 0.808
sg sf 7.9187
and
h0es = hf + xes hf g = 137.82 + 0.808 2424.4 = 2077.3 kJ/kg
h0e = hf + xe hf g = 137.82 + 0.86 2424.4 = 2222.8 kJ/kg
Therefore
h01 h0e 2839.3 2222.8
tt = = 2839.3 2077.3 = 0.811 (a)
h01 h0es |

76
Since equal work is done by each stage
2839.3 2222.8
w= = 61.74 kJ/kg
10
Since the inlet and exit are axial and the reaction is 50 percent, the velocity trian-
gles are symmetric and 2 = 0 so that Vu2 = u. Then the expression for work can
be solved for the blade speed

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U Vu2 = U 2 U = sqrtw = 61740 = 248.5 m/s
Therefore
U 248.5 30
= = = 3390 rpm (b)
r 0.7
The flow angle to the rotor is
( ) ( )
1 U 1 248.5
2 = 1 = tan = tan = 73.2 (c)
Vx 75
Exercise 6.9 Combustion gases enter axially into a normal stage at stagnation
temperature T01 = 1200 K and stagnation pressure p01 = 1500 kPa. The flow
coefficient is = 0.8 and the reaction is R = 0.4 and the inlet Mach number to
the stator is M1 = 0.4. Find; (a) the blade speed, (b) the Mach number leaving
the stator and the relative Mach number leaving the rotor. (c) Using the Soderberg
loss coefficients find the efficiency of the stage. (d) Repeat the calculations with
inlet Mach number M1 = 0.52.
Given: , 1 , R, T01 and p01 .
Find: 2 , 1 , R, and plot results for 1 = 10 to 30 .
Solution: With 1 = 0 and R = 0.4, then = 2(1 R) = 1.2. As a consequence
1 R + /2 0.6 + 0.6
tan 2 = = = 1.5 2 = 56.31
0.8
(R + /2) 0.4 + 0.6
tan 1 = = = 1.25 1 = 51.34
0.8
(R /2) 0.4 0.6
tan 2 = = = 0.25 2 = 14.04
0.8
With M1 = 0.4 and the inlet flow axial
( )1
1 2 0.42
T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 1200(1 + ) = 1168.8 K
2 6

77
and

V1 = Vx = M1 RT1 = 0.4 1.333 287 1168.8 = 267.5 m/s

Then U = Vx / = 267.5/0.8 = 334.4 m/s and the work done is

w = U Vx (tan 2 tan 3 ) = 334.4 267.5 tan(56.31 ) = 134.2 kJ/kg

The velocity after the stator is


Vx 267.5
V2 = = = 482.2 m/s
cos 2 cos(56.31 )

The static temperature is

V22 482.22
T2 = T02 = 1200 = 1098.7 K
2cp 2 1.148

and
V2 482.2
M2 = = = 0.744 (a)
RT2 1.333 287 1098.7
The stagnation temperature after the rotor is
w 134.2
T03 = T02 = 1200 = 1083.1 K
cp 1.148

Next the relative velocity is


Wx 267.5
W3 = = = 428.3 m/s
cos 3 cos(51.34 )

and
V32 267.52
T3 = T03 = 1083.1 = 1051.9 K
2cp 2 1148
and
W3 428.3
M3R = = = 0.675 (b)
RT3 1.333 287 1051.9
The deflections are
= 2 1 = 56.31
= 2 3 = 14.0451.34 = 65.38

78
so that
( )2 ( )2
56.31
S = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.0590
100 100
( )2 ( )2
65.38
R = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.0656
100 100
so that ( )
1 2 R S
1= +
tt 2 cos2 3 cos2 2
( )
0.82 0.0656 2 0.0590
= (51.34 ) + = 0.09596
2 1.2 cos cos2 (56.312 )
and the total-to-total efficiency is tt = 0.9124 (c).
If the inlet Mach number is increased to M1 = 0.52, then M2 = 0.9889 and
M3R = 0.9131. The efficiency remains the same.

Exercise 6.10 For a normal turbine stage fluid enters the stator at the angle 10 .
The relative velocity has an angle 40 as it leaves the rotor. The blade loading
factor is 1.6. (a) Determine the exit angle of the flow leaving the stator and the an-
gle of the relative velocity as it enters the rotor. Determine the degree of reaction.
(b) For the conditions of part (a) calculate the flow exit angle and the angle of the
relative velocity entering the rotor, as well as the degree of reaction and plot them
as functions of 1 , from 1 = 10 to 30 .
Given: , 1 , 3 .
Find: 2 , 1 , R, and plot results for 1 = 10 to 30 .
Solution:
1
= tan 1 tan 1 = tan(10 ) tan(40 ) = 1.015 = 0.985

Reaction is

R=1 tan 1 = 1 0.8 0.985 tan(10 ) = 0.026 (b)
2
2 = tan1 (/ + tan 1 ) = tan1 (1.6/0985 + tan(10 )) = 60.96 (a)
From

2 = tan1 (tan 2 1/) = tan1 (tan(60.96 ) 1.015) = 38.15 (a)

79
%Hw 6.10
alpha3deg=10; alpha3=alpha3deg*pi/180;
beta3deg=-40; beta3=beta3deg*pi/180;
phi=1/(tan(alpha3)-tan(beta3)); psi=1.6
alpha2=atan(psi/phi+tan(alpha3));
alpha2deg=alpha2*180/pi;
R=1-0.5*phi*(tan(alpha2)+tan(alpha3))
% Computer part
alpha3adeg=linspace(-20,10);
alpha3a=alpha3adeg*pi/180;
n=length(alpha3a);
for i=1:n
phia(i)=1/(tan(alpha3a(i))-tan(beta3));
alpha2a(i)=atan(psi/phia(i)+tan(alpha3a(i)));
beta2a(i)=atan(tan(alpha2a(i)-1/phia(i)));
Ra(i)=1-0.5*phia(i)*(tan(alpha2a(i))+tan(alpha3a(i)));
end
plot(alpha3adeg,Ra); grid;

Exercise 6.11 For Example 6.6 plot the variation of the reaction from the hub to
the casing.

%HW=6.11
clear all
Rgas=287; cp=1148; k=4/3; T01=1100; p01=420000;
rho01=p01/(Rgas*T01); c01=sqrt(k*Rgas*T01);
rm=0.17; kappa2=0.7; rc2=2*rm/(1+kappa2); rh2=kappa2*rc2;
kappa3=0.65; rc3=2*rm/(1+kappa3); rh3=kappa3*rc3 ;
alpha2mdeg=60.08; alpha2m=alpha2mdeg*pi/180;
alpha3mdeg=-21.20; alpha3m=alpha3mdeg*pi/180;
beta2mdeg=25.98; beta2m=beta2mdeg*pi/180;
beta3mdeg=-58.59; beta3m=beta3mdeg*pi/180;
Rinv=1-(tan(alpha2m)+tan(alpha3m))/(tan(beta2m)+tan(beta3m));
Rm=1/Rinv; phi1=-2*Rm/(tan(beta2m)+tan(beta3m))
phi=0.8; psim=phi*(tan(beta2m)-tan(beta3m));
Rm=-0.5*phi*(tan(beta3m)+tan(beta2m));
psi=2*(1-Rm-phi*tan(alpha3m)); kp=k/(k-1);
Vx=231; U=Vx/phi; Vum2=Vx*tan(alpha2m); Vum3=Vx*tan(alpha3m);

80
n=100;
for i=1:n+1;
zeta(i)=(i-1)*0.01;
r2(i)=2*((1-kappa2)/(1+kappa2))*zeta(i)+2*kappa2/(1+kappa2);
r3(i)=2*((1-kappa3)/(1+kappa3))*zeta(i)+2*kappa3/(1+kappa3);
alpha2(i)=atan(tan(alpha2m)/r2(i));
alpha3(i)=atan(tan(alpha3m)/r3(i));
beta2(i)=atan(tan(alpha2m)/r2(i)-r2(i)/phi);
beta3(i)=atan(tan(alpha3m)/r3(i)-r3(i)/phi);
R(i)=1-(1-Rm)/r2(i)^2;
end
alpha2deg=alpha2*180/pi; alpha3deg=alpha3*180/pi;
beta2deg=beta2*180/pi; beta3deg=beta3*180/pi;
plot(zeta,alpha2deg,zeta,alpha3deg,zeta,beta2deg,zeta,beta3deg)
figure(2); plot(zeta,R)
m=100;
%Numerical check
a=(2*pi*Vx*rho01);
sum=0; dr=(rc2-rh2)/m;
Vxr=Vx^2/(2*cp*T01);
Vur=Vum2^2/(2*cp*T01);
rhom=rho01*(1-Vxr-Vur)^(1/(k-1));
b=(2*pi*Vx*rhom);
for i=1:m+1
r(i)=rh2+(i-1)*dr;
rho(i)=(1-Vxr-Vur*rm^2/r(i)^2)^(1/(k-1));
f(i)=r(i)*rho(i);
end
mdota=0.5*a*(rc2^2-rh2^2)
mdotb=0.5*b*(rc2^2-rh2^2)
mdot=a*trapz(r,f)

Rh = 0.204 Rc = 0.610

81
Exercise 6.12 For a normal turbine stage the exit blade angle of the stator at 70
and relative velocity has an angle 60 as it leaves the rotor. For a range of
flow coefficients = 0.2 0.8 calculate and plot the gas exit angle from the
rotor, the angle the relative velocity makes as it leaves the stator, the blade loading
coefficient and the degree of reaction. Comment on what is a good operating range
and what are the deleterious effects in the flow over the blades if the mass flow
rate is reduced too much or if it is increased far beyond this range.
Given: , 1 , 3 .
Find: 2 , 1 , R, and plot results for 1 = 10 to 30 .
Solution:

%HW6.12
clear all
phi=0.2:0.05:0.8;
alpha2d=70; alpha2=alpha2d*pi/180;
beta1d=-60; beta1=beta1d*pi/180;
psi=-1+phi.*(tan(alpha2)-tan(beta1));
alpha1=atan(tan(alpha2)-psi./phi);
alpha1d=alpha1*180/pi;
R=1-0.5.*phi.*(tan(alpha2)+tan(alpha1));
beta2=atan(tan(alpha2)-1./phi);
beta2d=beta2*180/pi;
subplot(2,2,1); plot(phi,alpha1d); grid;
xlabel(Flow Coefficient \phi);
ylabel(Air rotor outlet angle \alpha_1);
subplot(2,2,2); plot(phi,beta2d); grid;
xlabel(Flow Coefficient, \phi);
ylabel(Flow angle, \beta_2);
subplot(2,2,3); plot(phi, psi); grid;
xlabel(Flow Coefficient \phi);
ylabel(Blade Loading Factor, \psi);
subplot(2,2,4); plot(phi,R); grid;
xlabel(Flow Coefficient \phi);
ylabel(Degree of Reaction, R);

Exercise 6.13 Given: T01 , p01 , 1 , 3 , , and V2 .


Find: 2 , 2 , R, and DpLS .

82
Solution: The flow coefficient is
1 1
= = = 0.985
tan 1 tan 1 tan(10 ) tan(40 )

The flow angles after the stator are

2 = tan1 (/ + tan 1 ) = tan1 (1.6/0.985 + tan(10 )) = 60.96 (a)

2 = tan1 (tan 2 1/) = tan1 (tan(60.96 ) 1/0.985) = 38.15 (b)


The reaction is
1 1
R = 1 (tan 2 + tan 1 ) = 1 (tan(60.96 ) + tan(10 )) = 0.026
2 2
The Ainley-Mathieson correlations give
[ ( )2 ( ) ]( )
2 2 s 2
Ypa = 0.627 + 0.821 0.129
100 100 c
[ ( )2 ( ) ]( )
2 2 s
+ 1.489 1.676 + 0.242
100 100 c
( )2 ( )
2 2
0.356 + 0.399 + 0.007 = 0.0268
100 100

[ ( )2 ]( )
2 2 s 2
Ype = 1.56 + 1.554 0.0639
100 100 c
[ ( )2 ]( )
2 2 s
+ 3.73 3.435 + 0.289
100 100 c
( )2
2 2
+ 0.82 + 0.7806 + 0.078 = 0.1058
100 100
and then
[ ( )2 ] ( )|1 /2 |
1 t/c
Yp = Ypa + (Ype Ypa ) = 0.029
2 0.2

The static temperature after the stator is

V2 4202
T2 = T02 = 700 = 699.8 K
2cp 2 1148

83
so that the Mach number is
V2 420
M2 = = = 0.8116
RT2 1.333 287 699.38

and the ratio of the stagnation pressure to the static pressure is


( )/(1)
p02 1 2 0.792 4
= 1+ M2 = (1 + ) = 1.517
p2 2 6

and from the definition of the stagnation pressure loss coefficient


( )
p01 p2
= 1 + Yp 1 = 1.010
p02 p02

Therefore
p02 380
p02 = p01 = = 376.3 kPa
p01 1.01
and
p2 376.3
p2 = p02 = = 248.0 kPa
p02 1.517
and the loss of stagnation pressure is

dp0LS = p01 p02 = 380.0 376.2 = 3.8 kPa

The static enthalpy loss coefficient is obtained as follows. First


( )(1)/ ( )0.25
p2 248.0
T2s = T02 = 700 = 630.8 K
p02 376.3

The stagnation density is


p02
02 = = 1.873 kg/m3
RT02
and therefore
2dp0LS /02
N = ( ) = 0.0205
1 + 1
2
M22 V22

84
Chapter 7
Exercise 7.1 The inlet and exit total pressures of a air flowing through a com-
pressor are 100 kPa and 1000 kPa. The inlet total temperature is 281 K. What is
the work of compression if the adiabatic total-to-total efficiency is 0.75
Given: Inlet p01 and T01 , and exit p0e as well as tt .
Find: Work to compress the air.
Solution: From
ws h02s h01
tt = =
w h02 h01
the work done is
[( )(1)/ ]
1 cp T01 p02
w= (h02s h01 ) = 1
tt tt p01

so that [( )1/3.5 ]
1004.5 281 1000
w= 1 = 350 kJ/kg
0.75 100

Exercise 7.2 Air flows through an axial fan rotor at mean radius of 15 cm. The
tangential component of the absolute velocity is increased by 15 m/s through the
rotor. (a) Evaluate the torque exerted on the air by the rotor, if the flow rate is
0.472 m3 s and the pressure and temperature of the air are 100 kPa and 300 K. (b)
What is the rate of energy transfer to the air, if the rotational speed is 3000 rpm.
Given: Inlet p1 , T1 , and the change in the swirl velocity; the flow rate Q, rotational
speed , and r.
Find: Torque and power.
Solution: Density at the inlet is
p1 100
1 = = = 1.61 kg/m3
RT1 0.287 300
Mass flow rate is

m = 1 Q = 1.161 0.472 = 0.5575 kg/s

85
The blade speed is
0.15 3000
U = r = = 47.12 kg/s
30
The power needed to compress the air is

W = mU (Vu2 vu1 ) = 0.5575 47.12 15 = 394 W (b)

and the torque is

W 394 30
T = = = 1.23 N m (a)
3000
Exercise 7.3 The blade speed of a compressor rotor is U = 280 m/s and the
total enthalpy change across a normal stage is 31.6 kJ/kg. If the flow coefficient
= 0.5 and the inlet to the rotor is axial, find the gas angle leaving the rotor.
Given: and w, and U .
Find: Find the value of the flow angle at the exit of the rotor.
Solution: Since the flow at the inlet is axial, the equation for work reduces to

w = U (Vu2 Vu1 ) = U Vu2 = U Vx tan 2

or
= tan 2
With
w 31600
=
= = 0.403
U2 2802
then ( ) ( )
1 1 0.403
2 = tan = tan = 38.9
0.5
Also
Vx = U = 0.5 280 = 140 m/s
and

Wu2 = Vu2 U = Vx tan 2 U = 140 tan(38.9 ) 280 = 167.1 m/s

and ( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 167.1
2 = tan = tan 50.05
Vx 140

86
Exercise 7.4 Air flows through an axial flow fan, with an axial velocity of 40 m/s.
The absolute velocities at the inlet and the outlet of the stator are at angles of 60
and 30 , respectively. The relative velocity at the outlet of the rotor is at an angle
25 . Assume reversible adiabatic flow and a normal stage. (a) Draw the velocity
diagrams at the inlet and outlet of the rotor. (b) Determine the flow coefficient. (c)
Determine the blade loading coefficient. (d) Determine at what angle the relative
velocity enters the rotor. (e) Determine the static pressure increase across the
rotor in Pascals. The inlet total temperature is 300 K and the inlet total pressure is
101.3 kPa. (f) Determine the degree of reaction.
Given: Inlet p01 , T01 , Vx , 1 , 2 , 2 . Reversible adiabatic flow.
Find: , , R and p2 p1 .
Solution: The blade speed

U = Vu2 Wu2 = Vx (tan 2 tan 2 ) = 40(tan(60 )tan(15 )) = 87.93 m/s

and the flow coefficient is


Vx 40
= = = 0.455 (b)
U 87.93
The work done is

w = U Vx (tan 2 tan 1 ) = 87.63 40(tan(60 ) tan(30 )) = 4061.5 J/kg

so that
w 4061.5
= = = 0.525 (c)
U2 87.932
Writing the equation for work as

w = U (Wu2 Wu1 ) = Vx (tan 1 tan 2 ) = (tan 1 tan 2 )

so that
( ) ( )
1 1 0.525
1 = tan tan 2 = tan tan(25 ) = 58.3 (d)
0.455

The reaction is
1 0.455
R = 1 (tan 2 +tan 1 ) = 1 [tan(60 ) + tan(30 )] = 0.475 (f )
2 2

87
Since the velocities are low, the flow may be assumed incompressible and since it
is reversible and adiabatic
p0
w=

The density is
p01 101.3
01 = = = 1.1765 kg/m3
RT01 0.287 300
and it may be assumed that 1 = 01 . Thus

p02 = p01 + w = 101.3 + 1.1765 4.0615 = 106.1 kPa

The velocities are


Vx 40
V1 = = = 46.19 m/s
cos 1 cos(30 )

Vx 40
V2 = = = 80.00 m/s
cos 2 cos(60 )
The static pressure at the inlet is

1 1.1765 46.192
p1 = p01 V12 = 101.3 = 100.05kPa
2 2 1000
1 1.1765 80.02
p2 = p02 V22 = 106.1 = 102.31kPa
2 2 1000
so that p2 p1 = 102.31 100.05 = 2.26 kPa (e)

Exercise 7.5 Air flows through an axial flow compressor. The axial velocity is
60 percent of the blade speed at the mean radius. The reaction ratio is 0.4. The
absolute velocity enters the stator at an angle of 55 deg from the axial direction.
Assume a normal stage. (a) Draw the velocity diagrams at the inlet and outlet
of the rotor. (b) Determine the flow coefficient. (c) Determine the blade loading
coefficient. (d) Determine at what angle the relative velocity enters the rotor. (e)
Determine at what angle the relative velocity leaves the rotor. (f) Determine at
what angle the absolute velocity leaves the stator.
Given: Vx = 0.U , R = 04, and 2 = 55 .
Find: 1 , 1 , 2 and .

88
Solution: Since Vx = 0.6U , the flow coefficient is = 0.6. The flow angle 1
can be obtained from
( ) ( )
1 2(1 R) 1 2 0.6
1 = tan tan 2 = tan tan(55 ) = 29.76
0.6

Then the blade loading coefficient is

= 2(1 R tan 1 ) = 2(1 0.4 0.6 tan(29.76 )) = 0.514

and then
( )
R + /2 1 0.5 + 0.514/2
tan 1 = 1 = tan = 47.59 (e)
0.6
( )
R /2 1 0.5 0.514/2
tan 2 = 2 = tan = 13.42 (e)
0.6

Exercise 7.6 The angle at which the absolute velocity enters the rotor of single
stage axial compressor is 1 = 40 and the relative velocity at the inlet of the rotor
is 1 = 60 . These angles at the inlet of the stator are 2 = 60 and 2 = 40 .
The mean radius of the rotor is 30 cm and the hub to tip radius is 0.8. The axial
velocity is constant and has a value Vx = 125 m/s. The inlet air is atmospheric
at pressure 101.325 kPa and temperature 293 K. (a) Find the mass flow rate. (b)
What is the rotational speed of the shaft under these conditions? (c) What is the
power requirement of the compressor?
Given: 1 , 2 , 1 , r, rh /rt and Vx . The inlet conditions are p01 and T01 .
Find: m, , W .
Solution: To calculate the mass flow rate from

m = 1 AVx

the area and density need to be determined. The area can be written as

A = (rc2 rh2 ) = rc2 (1 2 )

in which = rh /rc = 0.8 and from


1 rc
rm = (rh + rc ) (1 + )
2 2
89
thus
2rm 2 0.3 1
rc = = = m
1+ 1 + 0.8 3
and

A= (1 0.64) = 0.1257 m2
9
The velocity at the inlet is
Vx 125
V1 = = = 163.18 m/s
cos 1 cos(40 )
The stagnation Mach number is
V1 163.18
M01 = = = 0.4756
RT01 (1.4 287 293
and the Mach number is
M01 0.4756
M1 = = = 0.4876
1 1 M 2 1 0.2 0.27562
2 01

Then
T01 293
T1 = = = 279.75 K
1+ 1
2
M12 1 0.2 0.48762
and ( )/(1) ( )3.5
T1 279.75
p1 = p01 = 101.325 = 86.17 kPa
T01 293
and the density is
p1 81.17
1 = = = 1.073 kg/m3
RT1 0.287 279.75
The mass flow rate is

m = rho1 AVX = 1.073 0.1257 125 = 16.86 kg/s (a)

From

U = Vu1 Wu1 = Vx (tan 1 tan 1 ) = 125 [tan(40 ) tan(60 )] = 321.4 m/s

so that
U 321.4 30
= = = 10230 rpm (b)
rm 0.3

90
The work done is

w = U Vx (tan 2 tan 1 ) = 321.4 125 [tan(60 ) tan(40 )] = 35.87 kJ/kg

and the power is

W = mw = 16.86 35.87 = 604.8 kW (c)

Exercise 7.7 The angle at which the absolute velocity enters the rotor a compres-
sor stage is 1 = 35 and the relative velocity makes an angle 1 = 60 . The
corresponding angles at the inlet to the stator are 2 = 60 and 2 = 35 . The
stage is normal and the axial velocity is constant through the compressor. (a) Why
does the static pressure rise across both the rotor and the stator. (b) Draw the ve-
locity triangles. (c) If the blade speed is U = 290ms, find the axial velocity. (d)
Find the work done per unit mass flow for a stage and the increase in stagnation
temperature across it. (e) The stagnation temperature at the inlet is 300 K. The
overall adiabatic efficiency of the compressor is c = 0.9 and the overall stagna-
tion pressure ratio is 17.5. Determine the number of stages in the compressor. (f)
How many axial turbine stages will it take to power this compressor?
Given: Inlet T01 , U , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 and p0e /p01 as well as c .
Find: Vx , w and T0 across as stage, the number of stages in the compressor and
suggest how many turbine stages are needed to power the compressor.
Solution: The first part asks why pressure increases across the stator and the ro-
tor. Because the flow is turned toward the axis in the stator and the axil velocity
remains constant, its kinetic energy decreases. This means that the static enthalpy
increases, since the stagnation remains constant. With an increase in static en-
thalpy pressure increases, as seen from

T ds = dh vdp

for isentropic flow and there is no qualitative change as irreversibilities are in-
troduced. The same arguments hold for the rotor, but now the relative velocity is
turned toward the axis and since the relative stagnation enthalpy remains constant,
the static enthalpy and thus also the pressure increased across the rotor. Part (b)
asks for the velocity diagrams. Since the angles are given, and the velocity U is
also given, they can be drawn. From
1
= tan 1 tan 1 = tan(35 ) tan(60 ) = 2.4323

91
so that phi = 0.411 and

Vx = U = 0.411290 = 119.2ms (c)

Next

R=1 (tan 2 + tan 1 ) = 0.5
2
as was expected as the velocity diagrams are symmetric. Then

= 2(1 R tan 1 ) = 1 2 0.411 tan(35 ) = 0.424

and
w
w = U 2 = 0.424 2902 = 35, 678 K/kg DT0 = = 35.5 K (d)
cp
With the pressure ratio known, the exit temperature can be determined from
( )(1)/
1 p0e 1
f racT0e T01 = 1 + =1+ (17.51/3.5 ) = 2.401
c p01 0.9
so that T0e = 2.401300 = 721.8 K. The number of stages can now be determined
from
T0e T01 421.8
N= = = 11.88 N = 12 (e)
T03 T01 35.5
Typically one turbine stage is needed to power 5 or 6 compressor stages, so 2
turbine stages are needed. This is the answer to part (f).

Exercise 7.8 The blade speed of a rotor of an axial air compressor is U = 150 m/s.
The axial velocity is constant and equal to Vx = 75 m/s. The tangential compo-
nent of the relative velocity leaving the rotor is Wu2 = 30 m/s, the tangential
component of the absolute velocity entering the rotor is Vu1 = 55m/s. The stagna-
tion temperature and pressure at the inlet to the rotor are 340 K and 185 kPa. The
stage efficiency is 0.9 and one-half of the loss in stagnation pressure takes place
through the rotor. (a) Draw the velocity diagrams at the inlet and exit of the rotor.
(b) Find the work done per unit mass flow through the compressor. (c) Draw the
states in an hs-diagram. (d) The stagnation and static temperatures between the
rotor and the stator. (e) The stagnation pressure between the rotor and the stator.
Given: Inlet p01 and T01 , Vu1 , Vx , Wu2 and tt .
Find: Work to compress the air, T02 and T2 , p02 .

92
Solution: The remaining velocity components are
Vu2 = U + Wu2 = 150 30 = 20mm/s
Wu1 = Vu1 U = 65 150 = 95 m/s
and the work done is
w = U (Vu2 Vu1 ) = 150(120 55) = 9750 J/kg (b)
and
w 9750
T02 = T01 + = 340 + = 349.7 K (d)
cp 1004.5
The isentropic work is
ws = tt w = 0.9 9750 = 8775 J/kg
and
8775
T03s = T01 + = 348.7 K
1004.5
so that
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T03s 349.7
p03 = p01 = 185 + = 202.18 kPa
T01 340
The ideal pressure reached after the rotor is there were no losses and the same
amount of work is done as in the actual case is
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T02 349.7
p02i = p01 = 185 = 204.15 kPa
T01 340
and the stagnation pressure loss is
Dp0L = p02i p03 = 204.15 202.18 = 1.97 kPa
The stagnation pressure after the rotor is
p02 = p03 + 0.5Dp0L = 202.18 + 0.985 = 203.17 kPa (e)
The velocity after the rotor is

2
V2 = Vx2 + Vu2 = 752 + 1202 = 141.51 m/s
and the static temperature is
V22 141.512
T2 = T02 = 349.7 = 339.7 K (d)
2cp 2 1004.5

93
Exercise 7.9 Air from ambient at 101.325 kPa and temperature 20 C enters the
first stage of multistage axial flow compressor with velocity 61 m/s. The blade tip
radius is 60 cm and the hub radius is is 42 cm. The shaft speed is 1800 rpm. The
air enters a stage axially and leaves it axially at the same speed. The rotor turns the
relative velocity 18.7 toward the direction of the blade movement. The total-to-
total stage efficiency is 0.87. (a) Draw the inlet and exit velocity diagrams for the
rotor. (b) Draw the blade shapes. (c) Determine the flow coefficient and the blade
loading factor. (d) Determine the mass flow rate. (e) What is the work required
per unit mass. (f) What is the total pressure ratio for the stage? (g) Determine the
degree of reaction.

Given: p01 , T01 , Vx , D, rc , rh , , and tt .


Find: , , R, m, w and p0e /p01 .
Solution: Since the inlet velocity is axial and it is quite small the density at the
inlet is the same as the stagnation density
p01 101.325
01 = = = 1.205 kg/m3
RT01 287 293
and the mass flow rate is

m = AVx = (rc2 rh2 )Vx = 1.205 (0.62 0.422 ) = 42.40 kg/s (d)

The mean radius and the blade speed are


1 0.6 + 0.42 0.51 1800
r = (rc + rh ) = 0.51 m U = rm = = 96.13 m/s
2 2 30
Now the flow angles can be determined. The relative velocity is at the angle 1
entering the rotor. It is
( ) ( )
1 U 1 96.13
1 = tan = tan = 57.6
Vx 61

and
2 = 1 + 18.7 = 57.6 + 18.7 = 38.9
The tangential component of the velocity entering the stator is

Vu2 = Wu2 + U = Vx tan 2 + U = 62 tan(38.9 ) + 96.13 = 46.91 m/s

94
and ( ) ( )
1 Vu2 1 46.91
2 = tan = tan = 37.56
Vx 61
The specific work done is

w = U (Vu2 Vu1 ) = 96.1(46.91 0) = 4509 J/kg (e)

and
ws = tt w = 0.87 4509 = 3922.8 J/kg
so that
w 4509 Vx 61
= 2
= 2
= 0.488 = = = 0.635 (c)
U 96.13 U 96.13
The stagnation temperature after the rotor is
w 4509
T02 = T01 + = 293 + = 297.5 K
cp 1004.5

and
ws 3922.8
T02s = T01 + = 293 + = 296.9 K
cp 1004.5
The pressure ratio is therefore
( )/(1) ( )3.5
p02 T02s 296.9
= = = 1.047
p01 T01 293

The reaction is
0.635
R=1 (2 + tan 1 ) = 1 (tan(37.56 ) 0) = 0.756 (g)
2 2
Exercise 7.10 Air from ambient at 101.325 kPa and temperature 300 K enters an
axial flow compressor stage axially with velocity 122 m/s. The blade tip radius
is 35 cm and the hub radius is 30 cm. The shaft speed is 6000 rpm. At the exit
relative velocity is at an angle 45 . The total-to-total stage efficiency is 0.86. (a)
Draw the inlet and exit velocity diagrams for the rotor. (b) Draw the blade shapes.
(c) Determine the flow coefficient and the blade loading factor. (d) Determine the
mass flow rate. (e) What is the total pressure ratio for the stage? (f) Determine the
degree of reaction.

95
Given: Inlet p01 , T01 , Vx , rc , rh , 1 and tt .
Find: , , R, and p03 /p01 .
Solution: The mean radius and the blade speed are
1 0.35 + 0.30 0.325 6000
r = (rc +rh ) = 0.325 m U = rm = = 204.2 m/s
2 2 30
Now the flow angles can be determined. The relative velocity is at the angle 1
entering the rotor. It is
( ) ( )
1 U 1 204.2
1 = tan = tan = 59.1
Vx 122

From the expressoion for the tangential component of the velocity

Vx tan 2 = U + Vx tan 2

which gives
( ) ( )
1 U 1 204.2
2 = tan + tan 2 = tan + tan(45 ) = 34.0

Vx 122

The specific work done is

w = U (Vu2 Vu1 ) = 204.2(82.3 0) = 16, 806 J/kg

and
ws = tt w = 0.86 16806 = 14, 453 J/kg
so that
w 16806 Vx 122
= 2
= 2
= 0.40 = = = 0.60 (c)
U 204.2 U 204.2
The stagnation temperature after the rotor is
w 16, 806
T02 = T01 + = 300 + = 316.7 K
cp 1004.5

and
ws 14, 453
T02s = T01 + = 300 + = 314.4 K
cp 1004.5

96
The pressure ratio is therefore
( )/(1) ( )3.5
p02 T02s 314.4
= = = 1.178 (e)
p01 T01 300
The reaction is
0.60
R=1 (2 + tan 1 ) = 1 (tan(34.0 ) 0) = 0.80 (f )
2 2
The stagnation density at the inlet is
p01 101.325
01 = = = 1.205 kg/m3
RT01 287 300
The static temperature at the inlet is
V12 1222
T1 = T01 = 300 = 292.6 K
2cp 2 1004.5
and the static pressure is
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T1 292.6
p1 = p01 = 101.325 = 92.83 kPa
T01 300
and the static density is
p1 92.83
1 = = = 1.1055 kg/m3
RT1 287 292.6
and the mass flow rate is

m = AVx = (rc2 rh2 )Vx = 1.1055 (0.352 0.302 ) = 13.77 kg/s (d)

Exercise 7.11 Carry out design calculations for a compressor stage with blade
loading factor in the range = 0.25 to = 0.55, flow coefficient = 0.7 and
reaction R = 0.6. Keep the diffusion factor equal to 0.45. Calculate and plot 1,
solidity, and the static pressure rise 1 V22 /V12 for the rotor and stator (including
the de Haller criterion). What are the stagnation losses across the stator and rotor?
Given: The range of blade loading factors and R = 0.6
Find: Solidity, diffusion factor, loss, diffusion.
Solution:

97
% Compressor calculations
clear all; clf;
% Specified conditions
R=0.4; phi=0.6; DF=0.45;
% Blade angles
alpha1=atan((1-R-0.5*psi)./phi);
alpha2=atan((1-R+0.5*psi)./phi);
beta1=-atan((R+0.5*psi)./phi);
beta2=-atan((R-0.5*psi)./phi);
% Solidities using Liebleins diffusion factor
sigmar=0.5*sin(beta2-beta1)./(cos(beta1)-(1-DF).*cos(beta2));
sigmas=0.5*sin(alpha2-alpha1)./(cos(alpha2)-(1-DF).*cos(alpha1));
% Loss coefficients
omegar=0.014*sigmar./cos(beta2);
omegas=0.014*sigmas./cos(alpha1);
% Pressure rise and de Haller Conditions
w1sq=phi.^2+(0.5*psi+R).^2;
w2sq=phi.^2.*(1+tan(beta2).^2);
v2sq=phi.^2+(0.5*psi+1-R).^2;
v1sq=phi^2.*(1+tan(alpha1).^2);
hallerr=1-w2sq./w1sq; hallers=1-v1sq./v2sq;
% Stagantion pressure loss and efficiency
Dp0LR=(0.5*phi^2./psi).*omegar./cos(beta1).^2;
Dp0LS=(0.5*phi^2./psi).*omegas./cos(alpha2).^2;
Dp0L=Dp0LR+Dp0LS;
% Plots
n=length(hallers);
dehaller=0.44*ones(1,n);
subplot(2,2,1), plot(psi,hallerr,.-,psi,hallers,psi,dehaller);
grid on; axis([0.25 0.52 0.2 0.7]);
xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)
ylabel(1-V_2^2/V_1^2,Fontsize,12)
text(0.26, 0.47,de Haller)
legend(Rotor,Stator)
set(gca,Fontsize,12); hold on;
subplot(2,2,2), plot(psi,Dp0LR,.-,psi,Dp0LS,psi,Dp0L);
grid on; axis([0.25 0.52 0.00 0.08]);
xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)

98
ylabel(Loss, 1-\eta,Fontsize,12)
legend(Rotor,Stator,Total)
subplot(2,2,3), plot(psi,sigmar,.-,psi,sigmas);
grid on; axis([0.25 0.52 0.0 3.0]);
xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)
ylabel(Solidity,Fontsize,12)
legend(Rotor,Stator)
s=[1.0 1.4 2.0];
subplot(2,2,4);
for i=1:3
ddf(i,:)=1-cos(beta1)./cos(beta2) + ...
0.5*cos(beta1).*(tan(beta2)-tan(beta1))./s(i);
plot(psi,ddf(i,:)); hold on;
end
axis([0.25 0.52 0.2 0.6]); grid;
xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)
ylabel(Diffusion Factor,Fontsize,12)
text(0.405,0.55,\sigma=1.0), text(0.405,0.35,\sigma=2.0)
text(0.405,0.482,\sigma=1.4);
% End of script

Exercise 7.12 A compressor stage with reaction ratio R = 0.54, and stator outlet
metal angle 3 = 14.5 . The camber angle is = 32 , pitch chord ratio is
s/c = 0.82, and the position of maximum camber a/c = 0.45. The ratio of the
blade height to the chord is b/c = 1.7. (a) Find the deviation of the flow leaving
the stator. (b) Find the deflection. (c) Find the flow coefficient and blade loading
coefficient if the inflow is at zero incidence.
Given: R, 2 , , s/c, a/c, b/c.
Find: Deviation, deflection, , .
Solution: The flow angle at the exit of the stator is
( a )2 s

s
3 = 3 + = 3 + 0.902 + 3

c c 500 c
and solving this for 3 gives

3 + 0.92(a/c)2 s/c
3 = = 21.12
1 500 s/c

99
and the deviation at the exit is

= 3 3 = 21.12 14.5 = 6.62 (a)

From the tangent difference formula


( )
1 1.55
2 = tan tan 3 +
1 + 1.5s/c
( )
1 1.55
= tan tan(21.12 ) + = 47.24
1 + 1.5 0.82
and the deflection is

= 2 3 = 47.24 21.12 = 26.12 (b)

The flow coefficient is


1
= tan 3 + tan 2 = tan(21.12 ) + tan(47.24 ) = 1.429 = 0.7 (c)

and

= (tan 2 tan 3 ) = 0.7[tan(47.24 ) tan(21.12 )] = 0.474 (c)

Exercise 7.13 The circular arc blades of a compressor cascade have camber =
30 and the maximum thickness at a/c = 0.5. The spacing to chord ratio is
s/c = 1.0. The nominal outflow angle is = 25 . (a) Determine the nominal
incidence. (b) Determine that lift coefficient at the nominal incidence if the drag
coefficient is CD = 0.016.
Given: , s/c, a/c, 2 , and CD .
Find: The nominal incidence and the lift coefficient.
Solution: From the tangent difference formula
( )
1 1.55
2 = tan tan 3 +
1 + 1.5s/c
( )
1 1.55
2 = tan tan(25 ) + = 47.37
2.5

100
The deviation is obtained from

s
= m
c
in which ( a )2 3 25
m = 0.92 + = 0.92 0.25 + = 0.28
c 500 500
so that
= 0.28 30 1 = 8.4 (a)
The metal angle at the exit is

2 = 3 + = 16.6 + 30 = 46.6

and the incidence at the inlet is

i = 2 = 47.37 46.6 = 0.77

The lift coefficient is


(s)
CL = 2 cos m (tan 2 tan3 ) CD tan m
c
the mean flow direction is
( ) [ ]
1 1 1 1
m = tan (tan 2 + tan 3 ) = tan (tan(47.37 ) + tan(35 )3 ) = 37.83

2 2

so that

CL = 21cos(37.82 )(tan(47.37 )tan(25 ))0.018 tan(37.82 ) = 0.966 (b)

Exercise 7.14 Air with density 1.21 kg/m3 flows into a compressor stator with
velocity V2 = 120 m/s and leaves at the angle 3 = 30 . If the Leibleins diffusion
factor is to be held at 0.5 and the the stagnation pressure loss across a compressor
stator is 0.165 kPa, find the static pressure increase across the stage assuming that
the flow is incompressible.
Given: 1 , V2 , Dp0 LS, and DF .
Find: p3 p2 .

101
Solution: The definition of the diffusion factor
V2 V3 Vu2 Vu3 s
DF = +
V2 2V2 c
can be written as
cos 2 Vx s
DF = 1 + (tan 2 tan 3 )
cos 3 2V2 c
or
cos 2 cos 2 s
DF = 1 + (tan 2 tan 3 )
cos 3 2 c
Letting x = cos2 then inserting the numerical values gives
( )
1 2 4x 1 x2 1
=1 x+
2 3 10 x 3
which reduces to
9
13x2 5 3x + =0
16
and the solution of this is

5 3 + 75 13 9/4
x= x = 0.593236 2 = 53.61
26
Assuming incompressible flow the difference is the stagnation pressures is
1
p02 p03 = p2 p3 + (V22 V32 )
2
and [ ]
1 2 cos2 2
p3 p2 = V2 1 p0
2 cos2 3
( )
1.21 cos2 (53.61 )
= 120 1
2
125, 000 = 4.46 kPa
2 cos2 (30 )

Exercise 7.15 Air at temperature 288 K and at pressure 101.325 kPa flows into
a compressor with 10 stages. The efficiency of the first stage is 0.920 and the
second stage 0.916. For the rest of the stages the stage efficiency drops by 0.004
successively so that the last stage has an efficiency 0.884. The axial velocity is
constant and the flow angles are the same at the inlet and exit of each of the stages.
Hence the work done by each stage is the same. (a) Find the overall efficiency of

102
the compressor. (b) Find the overall efficiency by using the theory for a polytropic
compression with small stage efficiency p = 0.902.
Given: Inlet p01 and T01 , and the stage efficiencies of ten stages.
Find: Find the overall efficiency.
Solution: The following Matlab script gives the overall effieciency.

%HW 7.15
clear all
p0(1)=101325; T0(1)=288; T0s(1)=T0(1);
n=10; r=4.3;
k=1.4; kp=k/(k-1);
etapg=0.902;
etag=(r^(1/kp)-1)/(r^(1/(kp*etapg))-1);
T0eg=T0(1)*r^(1/kp)
T0e=T0(1)+(T0eg-T0(1))/etag;
dT0a=(T0e-T0(1))/n
dT0=16.8323
etap=[0.92, 0.916, 0.912, 0.908, 0.904, ...
0.900, 0.896, 0.892, 0.888, 0.884]
for i=2:n+1
T0s(i)=T0(i-1)+etap(i-1)*dT0;
T0(i)=T0(i-1)+dT0
p0(i)=p0(i-1)*(T0s(i)/T0(i-1))^kp
end
rt=p0(n+1)/p0(1)
T0ss=T0(1)*r^(1/kp)
eta=(T0ss-T0(1))/(T0(n+1)-T0(1))
etaa=(r^(1/kp)-1)/(r^(1/(etapg*kp))-1)

The exact value for the overall efficiency is c = 0.8846 and the approximate
value is c = 0.8804. Hence the use of the average small stage efficiency does not
change the overall efficiency by much.

Exercise 7.16 Air flows in a axial flow fan of free vortex design, with hub radius
rh = 7.5 cm and casing radius 17 cm. The fan operates at 2400 rpm. The volu-
metric flow rate Q = 1.1 m3 /s and the stagnation pressure rise is 3 cm H2 O. The
fan efficiency is tt = 0.86. (a) Find the axial velocity. (b) Find the work done on

103
the fluid. (c) Find the absolute and relative flow angles at the inlet and exit of the
rotor when the inlet is axial.
Given: rh and rc , , Q, p, tt .
Find: w 1 , 2, 1 , 2 .
Solution: Free vortex design. Then mean radius is
1 1
rm = (rh + rc ) = (7.5 + 17.0) = 12.25 cm
2 2
and the blade speed at the mean radius is
0.1225 2400
Um = rm = = 30.79 m/s
30
The blade speed at the hub and the casing are
rh rc
Uh = Um Uc = Um
rm rm
The density is
p01 101325
01 = = = 1.20 kgm2
RT01 287 293
and the flow area is

A = (rc2 rh2 ) = (172 7.52 ) = 731.2 cm2

and the axial velocity is


Q 1.1
Vx = = = 15.0m/s
A 0.07312
The ideal work is
p0 0.03 cdot9.81 998
ws = = = 243.8 J/kg
1.2
and the actual work is w = ws /eta = 243.8/0.86 = 283.4 J/kg. Thus since the
inlet is axial
w 243.8
Vu2 = = = 9.21 m/s
Um 30.79
Now
( ) ( )
1 Um 1 30.79
1m = tan = tan = 64 (a)
Vx 15

104
and
( ) ( )
1 Vu2m 1 9.217
2m = tan = tan = 31.6 (a)
Vx 15
From Vu2m = Um + Wu2m which is also Vx tan 2m = Um + Vx tan 2m from
which
( ) ( )
1 Um 1 30.79
2m = tan tan 2m = tan tan(31.6 ) = 55.2 (a)
Vx 15
Similarly at the hub and the casing

1h = 0 2h = 45 1h = 51.4 2h = 14.2

1c = 0 2c = 23.8 1c = 70.6 2c = 67.4

Exercise 7.17 Consider an axial flow compressor in which flow leaves the stator
with a tangential velocity distributed as a free vortex. The hub radius is 20 cm and
the static pressure at the hub is 94 kPa and the static temperature there is 292 K.
The radius of the casing is 30 cm and the static pressure at the casing is 97 kPa.
The total pressure at this location is 101.3 kPa. Find the exit flow angles at the
hub and the casing.
Given: pc , p01h , ph Th , rh , rc .
Find: c and h .
Solution: The density at the hub is
ph 94
h = = = 1.12 kg/m3
RTh 0.287 292
From
1
p0h = ph + h Vh2
2
the velocity at the hub is

2(p0h ph ) 2(101.3 94)1000
Vh = = = 114.1 m/s
h 1.122

so that
rc rc ( )
Vu dr K 2 1 1
pt p h = dr = K 2 = 2
2
rh r rh r3 2 rh rc

105
so that

2(pc ph ) 2(97000 94000)
K= = = 9.81 m2 /s
(1/rh2 1/rc2 ) 1.12(1/0.102 1/0.152 )

Also, assuming that the density is the same


1 1
pc + Vc2 = ph + Vh2
2 2
The velocity at the casing is

2(p0c pc ) 2(101300 97000)
Vc = = = 87.56 m/s
1.12

and
K 9.81 9.81
Vuc = = = 65.4 m/s Vuh = = 98.1 m/s
rc 0.15 0.1
and

Vx = Vc2 Vuc2 = Vh2 Vuh
2
= 87.552 65.42 = 58.21 m/s

and ( ) ) (
1 Vuc 65.4 1
c = tan = tan = 48.3
Vx 58.21
( ) ( )
1 Vuh 1 98.1
h = tan = tan = 59.3
Vx 58.21

106
Chapter 8
Exercise 8.1 An industrial air compressor has 29 backward swept blades with
blade angle 21 . The tip speed of the blades is 440 m/s and the radial compo-
nent of the velocity is 110 m/s. Air is inducted from atmospheric conditions at
101.3 kPa and 298 K with an axial velocity equal to 95 m/s. The hub to tip ratio
at the inlet is 0.4. The total-to-total efficiency of the compressor is 0.83, and the
mass flow rate is 2.4 kg/s. (a) Find the total pressure ratio using the Stodola slip
factor. (b) Find the tip radius of the impeller.
Given: p01 , T01 , V1 , r1h /r1s , m, Z , 2 , U2 , Vr2 .
Find: p03 /p01 and U2 .
Solution: The flow coefficient is
Vr2 110
= = = .35
U2 44)
The slip coefficient is
cos 2 cos(21 )
=1 =1 = 0.899
Z 29
and the tangential velocity is

Vu2 = U + Vr2 tan 2 = 0.899 440 + 110 tan(21 ) = 353.3 ms

The work done is

w = U Vu2 = 440 353.3 = 155.44 kJ/kg

and the isentropic work is

ws = w = 0.83 155.44 = 129.02 kJ/kg

The total temperature at the end of the isentropic process is


ws 129.02
T02s = T01 + = 298 + = 426.4 K
cp 1.0045
and the pressure ratio is
( )/(1) ( )3.5
p02 T02s 426.4
= = = 3.505 (a)
p01 T01 298

107
At the inlet
V12 952
T1 = T01 = 298 = 293.5 K
2cp 2 1004.5
V1 95
M1 = = = 0.277
RT1 1.4 287 293.5
The stagnation density is
p01 101300
01 = = = 1.184 kg/m3
RT01 287 298
and the static density is
( )1/(1) ( )2.5
T1 293/5
1 = 01 = 1.184 = 1.140 kg/m3
T01 298

From the mass flow rate


m 2.4
m = 1 A1 V1 A1 = = = 0.02216 m2
1 V1 1.1.4 95
and from the expression for the area

A1 = (rs2 rh2 ) = rs2 (1 2 )

the shroud radius is



A1 0.002216
rs = = = 0.0916 m (b)
(1 2 ) (1 0.16)

Exercise 8.2 A centrifugal compressor has 23 radial vanes and an exit area equal
to 0.12 m2 . The radial velocity is 27 m/s and the tip speed of the impeller is
350 m/s. The total-to-total efficiency is 0.83. (a) Find the mass flow rate of air, if
at the inlet the total pressure and temperature are 101.3 kPa and 298 K. (b) Find
the exit Mach number. (c) If the blade height at the exit is b = 3 cm and there is
no leakage flow, find the tip radius of the impeller. (d) Find the rotational speed of
the compressor wheel. (e) Find the required power neglecting mechanical losses.
Given: p01 , T01 , Z , 2 , U2 , Vr2 , and tt .
Find: m, M2 , r2 , and .

108
Solution: The slip factor is
cos 2
=1 =1 = 0.863
Z 23
The tangential velocity is

Vu2 = U = 0.863 350 = 302.2 ms

and the specific work is

w = U2 Vu2 = 302.2 350 = 105.8 kJ/kg

and the temperature at the exit is


w 105.8
T02 = T01 + = 298 + = 403.3 K
cp 1.0045

The isentropic process leads to T02s


[ ( )] [ ( )]
T02 403.3
T02s = T01 1 + tt 1 = 298 1 + 0.83 1 = 385.4 K
T01 298

The exit pressure is


( )/(1) ( )3.5
T02s 385.4
p02 = p01 = 101.3 1 = 249.2 kPa
T01 298

The velocity at the exit is



V2 = Vr22 + Vu2
2
= 272 + 302.22 = 303.3 m/s

and the static temperature at the exit is

V22 303.32
T2 = T02 = 403.3 = 357.5 K
2cp 2 1004.5

The Mach number at the exit is


( ) ( )
2 T02 2 403.3
M2 = 1 = 1 = 0.8
1 T2 0.4 357.5

109
The static pressure at the exit is
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T2 357.5
p2 = p02 = 249.2 = 163.4 kPa
T02 403.3

The static density is


p2 163.4
2 = = = 1.593 kg/m3
RT2 0.287 357.5
The mass flow rate is

m = 2 A2 Vr2 = 1.593 0.12 27 = 5.16 kg/s

The exit radius is therefore


A2 0.12
r2 = = = 0.637 m
2b2 2 0.03
and the shaft speed is

U 35) 30
= = = 5250 rpm
r2 0.637
The power to the compressor is

W = mw = 5.16 105.7 = 545.7 kW (e)

Exercise 8.3 A centrifugal compressor has an axial inlet and the outlet blades at
an angle such that the tangential component of the exit velocity has a value equal
to 0.9 times the blade speed. The outlet radius is 30 cm and the desired pressure
ratio is 3.5. The inlet stagnation temperature is T0 = 298 K. If the total-to-
total efficiency of the compressor is 0.8, at what angular speed does it need to be
operated.
Given: Axial inlet with T01 . At the exit Vu2 = 0.9U2 , r2 = 0.3 m, p03 /p01 = 3.5,
tt = 0.8.
Find: .
Solution: Work done is
w = Vu2 U2 = 0.9U22

110
so that the isentropic work is
[( )]
p03
ws = tt0.9U22 = cp (T02s T01 ) = cp T01 1
p01
Solving this for U2 gives

1004.5 298(3.51/3.5 1)
U2 = = 423.0m/s
0.8 0.9
and
U2 423.0 30
= = = 13, 464 rpm Lef tarrow
r2 0.3
Exercise 8.4 A small centrifugal compressor as a part of a turbocharger operates
at 55,000 rpm. It draws air from atmosphere at temperature 288 K and pressure
101.325 kPa. The inlet Mach number is M1 = 0.4 and the flow angle of the
relative velocity is 1s = 60 at the shroud. The radius ratio at the inlet is
= r1h /r1s = 0.43. Find, (a) the tip blade speed at the inlet, (b) the mass flow
rate and (c) the throat are if the inducer is choked.
Given: Axial inlet T01 , p01 , M1 , 1s , and r1s /r2 . The shaft speed is .
Find: U1s , m, At .
Solution: The inlet static temperature is
( )1
1 2
T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 288(1 + 0.2 0.42 )1 = 279.1 K
2
and the stagnation density is
p01 101325
01 = = = 1.226 kg/m3
RT01 287 288
The static density is therefore
( )1/(1) ( )1/(1)
T1 279.1
1 = 01 = 1.226 = 1.333 kg/m3
T01 288
The relative Mach number at the inlet shroud is
M1 0.4
M1Rs = = = 0.8
cos 1s cos(60 )

111
The sound speed and stagnation sound speed at the inlet are

c1 = RT1 = 1.4 287 279.1 = 334.9 m/s

c01 = RT01 = 1.4 287 288.0 = 340.2 m/s
and the blade speed at the shroud inlet is

U1s = W1s 2
V12 = c1s M1Rs 2
M12 = 334.9 0.82 0.42 = 232.0 m/s (a)

and the inlet radius of the shroud is


U1s 232.0 30
r1s = = = 0.0403 m
55, 000
The mean radius at the inlet is
1 r1s 0.0403
r1 = (r1h + r1s ) = (1 + ) = (1 + 0.62) = 0.0288 m
2 2 2
The inlet area is
2
A1 = (r1s r1h
2 2
) = pir1s (1 2 ) = 0.4032 (1 0.622 ) = 0.004155 m2

The inlet velocity is

V1 = M1 c1 = 0.4 334.9 = 133.96 m/s

and the mass flow rate is

m = 1 A1 V1 = 1.133 0.00415 133.9 = 0.6305 kg/s (b)

and the mass balance gives


( )(+1)/2(1) ( )(+1)/2(1)
1 2 1 2
A1 cos 1s M1Rs 1+ M1Rs = At Mt 1+ Mt
2 2

and when the throat is choked


M1RS
At = A1 cos1s ( )(+1)/2(1) = 0.0020 m
2
(c)
2
+1
+ 1
+1
2
M1Rs

112
Exercise 8.5 A centrifugal compressor in a turbocharger operates at 40,000 rpm
and inlet Mach number M1 = 0.35. It draws air from atmosphere at temperature
293 K and pressure 101.325 kPa. The radius ratio is r1s /r2 = 0.71 and the diffu-
sion ratio is W1s /W2 = 1.8. The inlet angle of the relative velocity at the shroud is
1s = 63 . The slip factor is = 0.85 and the flow angle at the exit is 2 = 69 .
Find, (a) the tip speed of the blade at the inlet, (b) the tip speed of the blade at the
outlet, (c) the loading coefficient, and (d) the metal angle at the exit.
Given: Axial inlet and T01 , p01 , M1 , 1s , r1s /r2 , W1s /W2 , and 2 .
Find: U1s , U2 , , 2 .
Solution: The inlet static temperature is
( )1
1 2
T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 293(1 + 0.2 0.352 )1 = 286.0 K
2
and the stagnation density is
p01 101325
01 = = = 1.205 kg/m3
RT01 287 293
The static density is therefore
( )1/(1) ( )1/(1)
T1 286.0
1 = 01 = 1.205 = 1.134 kg/m3
T01 293
The sound speed at the inlet is

c1 = RT1 = 1.4 287 286 = 339.0 m/s

and the velocity is

V1 = M1 c1 = 0.35 339 = 118.6 m/s

The relative Mach number at the inlet shroud is


M1 0.35
M1Rs = = = 0.771
cos 1s cos(63 )
and the blade speed at the shroud inlet is

U1s = W1s 2
V12 = c1s M1Rs 2
M12 = 339.0 0.7712 0.352 = 232.8 m/s (a)

113
The radius of the inlet shroud is
U1s 232.8 30
r1s = = = 0.0556 m
40, 000
and the exit radius is
r2 0.0556
r2 = r1s = = 0.0783 m (b)
r1s 0.71
and the blade speed there is
r2 0.0783
U2 = U1s = 232.8 = 328.0 m/s
r1s 0.0556
With
W1s r1s /r2
=
W2 sin 1s 1 2 + 2 / sin2 2
which can be written as
2
1 2 + =c
sin2 2
where ( )2
(r1s /r2 )2 0.71
c= = = 0.196
(W1s /W2 )2 sin2 1s 1.8 sin(65 )
Hence the loading factor can be found by solving

2 2 sin2 2 + (1 c) sin2 2 = 0

or
= sin 2 sin4 2 (1 c) sin2 2 = 0.629
2
(c)
The choice of the minus sign gives backward swept blades.
Then ( )

tan 2 = 1 tan 2

gives

2 = tan1 [tan(60 )(1 0.85/0.629)] = 42.48 (d)

114
Exercise 8.6 A small centrifugal compressor draws atmospheric air at 293 K and
101.325 kPa, At the inlet r1h = 3.2 cm and r1s = 5 cm. The total-to-total effi-
ciency of the compressor is 0.88. The relative Mach number at the inlet shroud
is 0.9 and the corresponding relative flow angle is 1s = 62 . At the outlet the
absolute velocity is at the angle 2 = 69 . The diffusion ratio is W1s /W2 = 1.8
and the radius ratio is r1s /r2 = 0.72. (a) Find the rotational speed of the shaft. (b).
Find the blade loading coefficient w/U22 . (c) Find the flow coefficient = Vr2 /U2
(d) Find the blade width at the exit.
Given: Axial inlet and T01 , p01 , , tt , M1Rs , 1s , r1s /r2 , W1s /W2 , and 2 .
Find: , = w/U22 , = Vr2 /U2 , b2 .
Solution: The inlet static temperature is
( )1
1 2
T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 293(1 + 0.2 0.52 )1 = 279.0 K
2
and the sound speed at the inlet is

c1 = RT1 = 1.4 287 279 = 334.8 m/s

and the velocity is

V1 = M1 c1 = 0.5 334.8 = 167.7 m/s

The blade speed at the shroud inlet is



U1s = W1s V1 = c1s M1Rs
2 2 2
M12 = 334.8 0.812 0.52 = 213.1 m/s

The shaft speed is


U1s 213.1 30
= = = 40, 700 rpm (a)
r1s 0.05
and the exit radius is
r2 0.05
r2 = r1s = = 0.0694 m
r1s 0.72
and the blade speed there is
r2 213.1
U2 = U1s = = 296.0 m/s
r1s 0.72

115
By squaring and adding the equations

V2 cos 2 = W2 cos 2 V2 sin 2 U2 = W2 sin 2

leads to
V22 2U2 V2 sin 2 + U22 W22 = 0
which when solved for V2 gives

V2 = U2 sin 2 U22 sin2 2 U22 + W22

= 296 cos(69 ) 2962 cos2 (69 ) 2962 + 150.672 = 169.35 m/s
and
Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 169.35 sin(69 ) = 158.1 m/s
The work done is

w = U2 Vu2 = 158.1 296 = 46.795 kJ/kg

and the blade loading factor is


w Vu2 158.1
= 2
= = = 0.534 (b)
U2 U2 296

The radial velocity is

Vr2 = V2 cos 2 = 169.35 cos(69 ) = 60.69 m/s

and the flow coefficient is


Vr2 60.69
= = = 0.205 (c)
U2 296
The stagnation temperature at the exit is
w 46, 795
T02 = T01 + = 293 + = 339.6 K
cp 1004.5

The isentropic work is

ws = tt w = 0.88 46, 795 = 41, 180 J/kg

116
and the stagnation temperature for an isentropic process is
w2 41, 180
T02s = T01 + = 293 + = 334.0 K
cp 1004.5
The stagnation pressure at the exit is
( )/(1) ( )3.5
T02s 334.0
p02 = p01 = 101325 = 160.24 kPa
T01 293
The flow function at the inlet is
( )(+1)/2(1)
1 2 1.4
F1 = M1 1 + M1 = 0.5(1+0.20.52 )3 = 0.957
1 2 0.4
The stagnation Mach number at the exit is
V2 169.35
M02 = = = 0.458
c02 1.4 287 339.6
and the Mach number is
M02 0.458
M2 = = = 0.468
1 1 2
M02 1 = 0.2 0.4582
2

The flow function is


( )(+1)/2(1)
1 2
F2 = M2 1 + M2
1 2
1.4
= 0.468(1 + 0.2 0.4682 )3 = 0.9115
0.4
From
A2 T02 p01 F1 339.6 101325 0.957
= = = 0.7149
A1 T01 p02 F2 293 160240 0.9115
With
2
A1 = (r1s r1h
2
) = (0.052 0.0322 ) = 0.004637 m2
then
A2 = 0.7149 0.004637 = 0.003315 m2
and the blade width is
A2 0.003315
b2 = = = 0.0076 m = 7.6 mm (d)
2r2 2]pi 0.0694

117
Exercise 8.7 Show that in the incompressible limit the angle of the relative ve-
locity at the inlet is optimum at 54.7 .
Given: The expression which yields the correct angle.
Find: 1s in the incompressible limit.
Solution: The general equation is
( )( )
2 2
3 + M1R 4M1R
cos2 1s = 2
1 1 2 2
2M1R (2 + M1R )

For M1R 1, the radical becomes



2
4M1R 4 1 2 2
1 2 2
= 1 M1R = 1 M1R
(2 + M1R ) 9 9

Therefore
( 2
) 2
3 + M1R 2 2 2(3 + M1R ) 1
2
cos 1s = (1 1 + M1R )= =
2
2M1R 9 29 3
So that cos 1s = 1
3
and thus 1s = 54.7 .

Exercise 8.8 Show that the expression for the dimensionless mass flow rate for a
compressor with pre-swirl at angle 1 is
3
M1R (tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos3 1s
f = ( )
1 2 cos2 1s
1+ M1R
2 sin2 1
Plot the results for 1 = 30 , with 1s on the abscissa and f on the ordinate, for
relative Mach numbers 0.6, 0.7, 0.8. For a given mass flow rate does the pre-swirl
increase or decrease the allowable relative Mach number and does the absolute
value of the relative flow angle increase or decrease with pre-swirl.
Solution: The mass balance can be written as
2
m = 1 A1 V1 = 1 A1 W1s cos 1s = 1 r1s (1 2 )W1s cos 1s

which in the non-dimensional form is


2 2
1 r1s W1s 1 U1s W1s
= 2
(1 2
) cos 1s = 2
(1 2 ) cos 1s
01 r2 c01 01 U2 c01

118
Since
U1s = Vu1 Wu1 Vx = W1s cos 1s
this can be written as
1 Vx2 c31 W1s c201
= (1 2 )(tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos 1s
01 c21 c301 c01 U22
or as ( )3 3
1 T1 M1R
= 3
(1 2 )(tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos3 1s
01 T01 M0u
With
2
M0u V12 Vx2 W1s2
cos2 1 s
f = M12 = = =
1 c21 c21 cos2 1 c21 cos2 1
so that
M 2 (tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos3 1s
f = ( 1R )(31)/(22)
2 cos2 1 s
1 + 1
2
M 1R cos2 1

Exercise 8.9 Water with density 998 kg/m3 flows through the inlet pipe of a cen-
trifugal pump at a velocity of 6 m/s. The inlet shroud radius is 6.5 cm and water
flow has an axial entry. The relative velocity at the exit of the impeller is 15 m/s
and is directed by backward curved impeller blades such that the exit angle of the
absolute velocity is 2 = 65 . The impeller rotates at 1800 rpm and has a tip ra-
dius of 15 cm. Assume that the adiabatic efficiency of the pump is 75 %. Evaluate
(a) the power into the pump, (b) the increase in total pressure pressure of the water
across the impeller, (c) the change in static pressure of the water between the inlet
and outlet of the impeller. (d) If the inlet mean inlet radius is 5.0 cm, what is the
ratio of the change in kinetic energy of the water across the impeller to the total
enthalpy of the water across the pump. (d) What is the ratio of the change in the
absolute kinetic energy, the change in the relative kinetic energy and the change
in the kinetic energy owing to the centrifugal effect as a fraction of work done.
(f) If the velocity at the exit of the volute is 6 m/s, what is the ratio of the change
in static pressure across the rotor to the change in static pressure across the entire
pump?
, Given: V1 , r1s , R1h , , W2 , 2 , r2 .
Find: W , p0 , p, KE/h0 , KEU /h0 , KEW /h0 , (p)R /(p)p .
Solution: The inlet area is
2
A1 = (r1s r1h
2
) = 0.00942 m2

119
and the mass flow rate is

m = 1 A1 V1 = 998 0.00942 6 = 56.4 kg/s

The blade speed is


0.15 1800
U2 = r2 = = 28.2 m/s
30
By squaring and adding the equations

V2 cos 2 = W2 cos 2 V2 sin 2 U2 = W2 sin 2

leads to
V22 2U2 V2 sin 2 + U22 W22 = 0
which when solved for V2 gives

V2 = U2 sin 2 U22 sin2 2 U22 + W22


= 28.27 cos(65 ) 28.272 sin2 (65 ) 28.272 + 15.02 = 16.56 m/s
in which the minus sign was chosen for backward swept blades.
Next
Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 16.56 sin(65 ) = 15.00 m/s
Vr2 = V2 cos 2 = 16.56 cos(65 ) = 7.00 m/s
so that

Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 15.00 28.27 = 13.29 m/s Wr2 = 7.00 m/s

and the flow angle of the relative velocity is


( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 13.27
2 = tan = tan = 62.19
Wr2 7.00
and the specific work is

w = Vu2 U2 = 15.0 28.27 = 318.2 J/kg

and the power is

W = mw = 56.4 318.2 = 23.95 kW (a)

120
The isentropic work is

ws = tt w = 0.75 424.3 = 318.2 J/kg

The stagnation pressure increase is therefore

p0 = ws = 998 317.6 = J/kg

and the static pressure increase is


998
p2 p1 = p02 p01 (v22 V12 ) = 317.6 (16.562 62 ) = 198.75 kPa
2 2
The kinetic energies are obtained from
1 1 1800
U1 = r1 = (r1h + r1s ) = (0.065 + 0.035) = 9.425 m/s
2 2 30
and
W1 = V12 + U12 = 62 + 9.4252 = 11.17 m/s
so that
1 1
KEV = (V22 V12 ) = (16.562 62 ) = 119.1 J/kg
2 2
1 1
KEU = (U22 U12 ) = (28.272 9.4252 ) = 355.3 J/kg
2 2
1 1
KEW = (W12 W22 ) = (11.172 192 ) = 50.17 J/kg
2 2
so that
KEV 119.1
= = 0.281
w 424.3
KEU 355.3
= = 0.827
w 424.3
KEW 50.1
= = 0.118
w 424.3
For the stator p0 = 0, so that
( 2 ) 988 ( )
p3 p2 = V2 V32 = 16.562 62 = 118.8 kPa
2 2
so that
pR 198.75
= = 0.626 (d)
pR + pV 198.75 + 118.8

121
Exercise 8.10 Centrifugal pump handling water operates with backward curving
blades. The angle between the relative velocity and the tip section is 45 . The
radial velocity at the tip section is 4.5 m/s, the flow at the inlet is axial, and the
impeller rotational speed is 1800 rpm. Assume that there is no leakage and that
the mechanical friction may be neglected, and the total-to-total efficiency is 70%.
(a) Construct the velocity diagram at the impeller exit. (b). Evaluate the required
tip radius for a water pressure rise of 600 kPa, (c) For the total pressure rise of
600 kPa, evaluate the difference between the total and static pressure of water at
the impeller tip section.
Given: Vr2 , Wu2 , 2 , p3 p1 .
Find: r2 , p03 p3 .
Solution: From
w = Vu2 U2 = U2 (U2 + Wu 2)
and
p0 = tt w = tt U2 (U2 + Wu2 )
and
p0 600, 000
= = 858.86
tt 998 0.7
so that
p0
U22 + Wu2 U2 =0
tt
the solution of which is

1 1 2 p0
U2 = Wu2 + Wu2 + = 2.25 + 2.252 + 858.86 = 31.64mm/s
2 4 tt
Hence
U2 31.64 30
r2 = = = 0.168 m (b)
1800
and
Vu2 = U2 + Wu2 = 31.64 4.5 = 27.145 m/s
and
V2 = sqrtVu2 + Vr2 = 4.52 + 27.142 = 27.51 m/s
so that the difference in the stagnation and static pressure is
1 998
p02 p2 = V22 = 27.512 = 377.6 kPa (c)
2 2

122
Exercise 8.11 A centrifugal water pump has an impeller diameter D2 = 27 cm
and when its shaft speed is 1750 rpm it produces a head H = 33 m. (a) Find the
volumetric flow rate. (b) Find the blade height at the exit of the impeller. (c) Find
the blade angle at the exit of the impeller if it has 11 blades.
Given: D2 , , H, Z.
Find: Q, b2 , 2 .
Solution: The blade tip speed is
0.135 1750
U2 = r2 = = 24.74 m/s
30
The blade loading coefficient is
gH 9.81 33
s = 2
= = 0.5289
U 24.742
From the expression
0.383
s = 1/3
s
the specific speed becomes
( )3 ( )3
0.383 0.383
s = = = 0.380
s 0.5289
Then from
Q
s =
(gh)3/4
( )2 ( )2
s (gh)3/4 0.380 30(9.81 33)3/4
Q= = = 0.0250 m3 /s (a)
1750
The flow coefficient is

= 0.1715 s = 0.1715 0.380 = 0.1057

so that the radial component of the velocity is

Vr2 = U2 = 0.1057 24.74 = 2.615 m/s

and the blade width is


0.1057
b2 = = = 0.0113 m (b)
2r2 Vr2 2 0.135 2.615

123
The hydraulic efficiency is
0.4 0.4
h = 1 1/4
= 1/4 = 0.821
Q 25
and the work done is
ws gH 9.81 33
w= = = = 394.3 J/kg
h h 0.821
The tangential component of velocity is
w 394.3
Vu2 = = = 15.94 m/s
U2 24.74
The flow angle is therefore
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 1 15.94
2 = tan = tan = 80.7
Vr2 2.615
and
Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 15.94 24.74 = 8.80 m/s
so that ( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 8.80
2 = tan = tan = 73.46
Wr2 2.615
The slip coefficient is
0.63 0.63
=1 =1 = 0.82
Z 11
so that the metal angle can be obtained by solving

Vu2 = U2 Vr2 tan 2

for 2 , which is
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 U2 1 15.94 0.82 24.74
2 = tan = tan = 59.0 (c)
Vr2 2.615

Exercise 8.12 A centrifugal water pump has an impeller diameter of D2 = 25 cm


and when its shaft speed is 1750 rpm, it delivers 20 liters per second of water. (a)
Find the head of water delivered by the pump. (b) Find the power to drive the

124
pump. (c) The impeller has 9 blades. Use the Stanitz slip factor to find the blade
angle at the exit of the impeller. (d) Use the Wiesner slip factor to find the blade
exit blade angle.
Given: D2 , , Q, Z.
Find: H, m, 2 .
Solution: The blade speed is
0.125 1750
U2 = r2 = = 22.91 m/s
30
The specific speed is
Q
s =
(gH)3/4
and the blade loading coefficient is
gH
s =
U22

In addition, the blade loading is related to the specific speed by the empirical
equation
0.383
s = 1/3
s
Equating these expressions for s and solving for gH gives
( )4/3 ( )4/3
0.383U22 0.383 22.912
gH = = = 277.1 J/kg
( Q)1/3 (1750 0.020/30)1/3

Then
gH 277.1
H= = = 28.24 m (a)
g 9.81
and the mass flow rate is

m = Q = 998 0.020 = 19.96 kg/m3

The hydraulic efficiency is


0.4 0.4
h = 1 = 1 = 0.811
Q1/4 201/4

125
and the actual work is
ws gH 277.1
w= = = = 341.7 J/kg
h h 0.811
and the power to the pump is

W = mw = 19.96 341.7 = 6.82 kW (b)

The specific speed is



Q 1750 0.02
s = = = 0.3816
(gh)3/4 30 277.13/4
and the flow coefficient is

= 0.1715 s = 0.1715 0.3816 = 0.1059

and the radial component of the exit velocity is

Vr2 = U2 = 0.1059 22.91 = 2.43 m/s

The tangential component is


w 341.7
Vu2 = = = 14.9 m/s
U2 22.91
and the flow angle at the exit is
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 1 14.9
2 = tan = tan = 80.76
Vr2 2.43
The tangential component of the relative velocity is

Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 14.9 22.91 = 7.99 m/s

so that ( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 7.99
2 = tan = tan = 73.1
Wr2 2.43
The first guess of the slip coefficient is obtained from the Stanitz formula
0.63 0.63
=1 =1 = 0.78
Z 9
126
and this is used to obtain the metal angle
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 U2 1 14.9 0.78 22.91
2 = tan = tan = 50.71
Vr2 2.43
Using this in the Wiesners formula

cos 2 cos(50.71 )
=1 = = 0.829
Z 0.7 90.7
Iterating gives
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 U2 1 14.9 0.829 22.91
2 = tan = tan = 59.3
W Vr2 2.43
and one more iteration leads to 2 = 62.4 (c)

Exercise 8.13 A centrifugal pump delivers water at 0.075 m3 /s with a head of


20 m while operating at 880 rpm. The hub to shroud radius ratio at the inlet
is 0.35 and the relative velocity makes an angle 52 at the inlet. (a) Find the
reversible work done by the pump. (b) What is the work done by the impeller. (c)
Find the radius of impeller and the inlet radius ratio of the shroud to the hub. (d)
Determine the blade width at the exit of the impeller. (e) Assume a reasonable
number of blades and calculate the blade angle at the exit. Use the Pfleiderer
equation to determine more accurately the number of blades and recalculate the
blade angle at the exit if needed. (f) What is the power to drive the pump?
Given: Q, , H, 1s , .
Find: ws , w, r2 , r1s /r2 , b2 , 2 .
Solution: The isentropic work is

ws = gH = 9.81 20 = 196.2 J/kg (a)

Since the inlet flow is axis, the flow rate can be written as
2
r1s (1 2 )U1s r3 (1 2 )U
Q = A1 V1 = = 1s
tan(1s ) tan(1s )
from which
( )1/3 ( )1/3
Q tan(1s ) 75 tan(52 )30
r1s = = = 0.0723 m (c)
(1 2 ) 1000(1 0.352 ) 880

127
and the tip speed of the blade at the inlet shroud is
0.0723 880
U1s = r1s = = 6.66 m/s
30
The hydraulic efficiency is
0.4 0.4
h = 1 1/4
= 1 1/4 = 0.864
Q 75
so that the specific work done by the rotor is
196.2
w = f racws h = = 227.1 J/kg (b)
0.864
The specific speed is

Q 880 0.075
s = = = 0.481
(gH)3/4 30196/23/4
1/3
(Note that s = 0.383/(s ) = 0.489, which is close).
The blade speed is

w 227.1
U2 = = = 21.56 m/s
s 0.481

The flow coefficient is



= 0.1715 s = 0.1715 0.481 = 0.119

Next the velocity components at the exit are


w 227.1
Vu2 = = = 10.53 m/s Vr2 = U2 = 0.119 21.56 = 2.565 m/s
U2 21.56
The volumetric efficiency is obtained by using the correlation in the text. It is
C 0.0988
v = 1 n
=1 = 0.977
Q 0.0750.3387
Thus
Q 0.075
QR = = = 0.0768 m3 /s
v 0.977

128
and the blade width is
QR 0.0768
b2 = = = 0.0204 m (d)
2r2 V r2 2 0.234 2.565
The overall efficiency can be obtained from the correlation in the text. It is

= 0.8393

The exit flow angle is


( ) ( )
1 Vu2 1 10.53
2 = tan = tan = 76.3
Vr2 2.565
The tangential component of the relative velocity is

Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 10.53 21.56 = 11.02 m/s

so that ( ) ( )
1 Wu2 1 11.02
2 = tan = tan = 76.9
Wr2 2.565
Assume that Z = 6 and assume that the metal angle is 2 = 70 , then

2 cos(70 )
= 1 0.7 = 1 = 0.833
Z 60.7
and this is used to obtain the metal angle
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 U2 1 10.53 0.833 21.56
2 = tan = tan = 70.94
Vr2 2.565
After one iteration the metal angle is 2 = 71.19 . Using the Pfleiders formula
gives ( ) ( )
1 + r1s /r2 1
Z = 6.5 cos (1s + 2 )
1 r1s /r2 2
( ) ( )
1 + 0.3091 1
= 6.5 cos (52.0 71.9 ) = 6.4 (e)
1 0.3091 2
Thus Z = 6 is an appropriate number. Finally the power to the pup is
ws 998 75 96.2
W = Q = = 17.5 kW (f )
h 1000 0.839

129
Exercise 8.14 A fan draws in atmospheric air at 0.4 m3 /s at pressure 101.32, kPa
and temperature 288 K. The total pressure rise across the fan, which has 30 radial
blades, is 2.8 cm of water. The inner radius is 14.8 cm and outer radius is 17.0 cm.
The rotational speed of the fan is 980 rpm. Use the Stanitz slip factor and a fan
efficiency of 78 %. (a) If the velocity into the fan is radially outward, find the
angle of the relative velocity at the inlet. (b) Determine the power to the fan if 4
% is lost to mechanical friction. (c) Find the angle blade angle at the exit.
Given: p01 , T01 , , Q, r1s , r2 , b2 , , m , total pressure rise in h of water.
Find: 1 , W , 2 .
Solution: The stagnation density at the inlet is
p01 101325
01 = = = 1.226 kg/m3
RT01 287 288
The pressure rise is small and this can be taken to be incompressible flow. The
stagnation pressure rise is

p0 = H2 O gh = 998 9.81 0.028 = 274.1 Pa

and the isentropic work is


p0 274.1
ws = = = 223.6 J/kg
1.226
and the actual work is
ws 223.6
w= = = 286.7 J/kg
h 0.78
The power to the fan is therefore
Qw 1.226 0.4 286.7
W = = = 146.4 W
m 0.96
The blade speed at the inlet is
0.148 980
U1 = r2 = = 15.19 m/s
30
and at the exit it is
r2 17
U2 = U1 = 15.19 = 17.45 m/s
r1 14.8

130
and the inlet radial velocity is
Q 0.4
Vr1 = = = 2.76 m/s
2r1 b 2 0.148 0.156
The tangential component of the relative velocity at the inlet is

wu1 = Vu1 U1 = 0 15.19 = 15.19 m/s

The flow angle is therefore


( ) ( )
1 Wu1 1 15.19
1 = tan = tan = 79.7
Wr11 2.76
At the exit
r1 14.8
Vr2 = Vr1 = 2.76 = 2.40 m/s
r2 17.0
and the tangential component of the velocity is
W 286.7
Vu2 = = = 16.43 m/s
U2 17.45
The slip factor is
0.63 0.63
=1 =1 = 0.934
Z 30
so that the metal angle is
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 U2 1 16.43 0.934 17.45
2 = tan = tan = 3.3
Vr2 2.4

Exercise 8.15 A pump draws water at the rate of 75 liters per second from a
large tank with the air pressure above the free surface at 98.00 kPa. The pump is
z = 2 m above the water level in the tank. The pipe diameter is 14.0 cm and the
suction pipe is 20 m in length. The entrance loss coefficient is Ki = 0.2 and the
loss coefficient of the elbow is Ke = 0.6 and the pipe roughness is 55 m. Find
the suction specific speed if the shaft speed is 1800 rpm. The viscosity of water is
1.08 103 kg/m s.
Given: Q, pa , z1 , Dp , Ki , Ke , , .
Find: ss .

131
Solution: From the Bernoulli equation
[ ( ) ] 2
pa 1 2 pt L Vp
+ V1 + gz1 = + f Ki + Ke
2 D + 2

The velocity in the pipe is


Q 4Q 4 0.075
Vp = = = = 4.87 m/s
Ap D 2 0.142

Reynolds number is
Vp Dp 998 4.87 0.14
Re = = = 630, 300
1080 106
The friction factor is obtained from the Colebrook formula in Chapter 3. For a
pipe with roughness = 55 m, it gives f = 0.01677. Thus the head loss is
[ ( ) ]
20 4.872
hl = 0.01677 + 0.2 + 0.6 = 3.867 m
0.14 2 9.81

The vapor pressure is pv = 37.8 kPa and the pressure at the free surface is pa =
98 kPa. Thus the NPSH is
pa pv 98000 3780
NPSH = z1 hl = 2 3.863 = 3.75 m
g g 998 9.81 998 9.81
The suction specific speed is therefore

Q 1800 0.075
ss = = = 3.455
(gNPSH)3/4 30 (9.81 3.75)3/4

So cavitation is likely to take place.

Exercise 8.16 Consider a volute consisting only a circular section. (a) If the tan-
gential velocity varies as Vu = K/r, show that the value of K in terms of the
volumetric flow rate Q, the radius of the section R and the radius to the center of
the section a is given by
Q
K=
2R( 2 1)

132
in which = a/R. (b) For R = 0.5 m, a = 2 m and Q = 1.5 m3 /s, find the
pressure difference p2 p1 at the centerline, between the outside and inside edge
of the section.
Given: R, a, Q.
Find: K and p2 p1 .
Solution: With the coordinate origin at the
center of the pipe its circumference is
given by x + y = a . From this y = a2 x2 for the upper half of the pipe.
2 2 2

Then flow rate is given by



K
Q= V dA = dA
A A r

but dA = 2y(x)dx and r = R + x, so that


a 2
K a x2
Q=2 dx
a R+x

Let z = x/a and = R/a, and then dx = adz and the equation becomes
1
1 z2
Q = 2aK dz
1 + z

Since R > a it follows that > 1. It remains to evaluate the integral, which is an
exercise in calculus. First write
1
1 z2
I= dz
1 + z

as ( )
1
1 z2 z 1
z
I= dz + dz
1 +z 1 z2 1 1 z2
This is
1
dz 1
z
I = (1 ) 2
+ dz
1 ( + z) 1 z 2 1 1 z2
or considering the two integrals separately
1
dz 1
z
I1 = (1 )
2
I2 = dz
1 ( + z) 1 z 1 z2
2
1

133
In evaluating I1 let z = tanh u so that dz = du/ cosh2 u and

du du
I1 = (1 )2
2 = (1 )
2
cosh u( + tanh u) cosh u + sinh u
But
( + u ) 1 ( u ) + 1 u 1 u
cosh u + sinh u = e e + e e = e + e
2 2 2 2
Thus

du eu du
I1 = 2(1 )2
+ 2(1 2 )
( + 1)e + ( 1)eu
u ( + 1)e2u + 1
Next let v = eu and dv = eu du, then

dv
I1 = 2(1 ) 2
( + 1)v 2 + 1

Now write + 1v = 1 tan , so thatdv = ( 1)/( + 1) tan d.
Hence
( )
d + 1
I1 = 2 2 1 = 2 2 1 tan1 eu
cos2 (tan2 + 1) 1

Now from z = tanh u = (eu eu )/(eu + eu ) it follows that ]



u 1+z
e =
1z
and
( )
+1 1+z ( )
I1 = 2 2 1 tan1 |11 = 2 2 1 0
1 1z 2

so that
I1 = 2 1
The second integral

1
z sin
I2 = dz = cos d
1 1 z2 cos

134
or

I2 = (sin )d = cos = z sin1 z|11 + 1 z 2 |11 = ( ) =
2 2
Hence
I = ( 2 1
and
Q
K=
2R( 2 1)

135
Chapter 9
Exercise 9.1 Combustion gases with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K, at T01 =
1050 K and p01 = 310 kPa enter a radial inflow turbine. At the exit of the stator
M2 = 0.9. As the flow leaves the turbine it is diffused to atmospheric pressure at
p4 = 101.325 kPa. The total-to-total efficiency of the turbine is tt = 0.89. Find
the stator exit angle.
Given: T01 , p01 , M2 , p4 , ts .
Find: 2
Solution: Since T02 = T01 , the temperature at the inlet the the rotor can be ob-
tained from
1 2 1 1050
T2 = T 02(1 + M2 ) = = 925.1 K
2 1 + 0.81/6
and the velocity is

V2 = M2 RT2 = 0.8 1.333 287 925.1 = 535.49 m/s
From
T01 T03
ts =
T01 T4s
The stagnation temperature at the exit is
[ ( ( )(1)/ )]
p4
T03 = T01 1 ts 1
p01
[ ( ( ))]
101.325
T03 = 1050 1 0.89 1 = 822.1 K
310
The word delivered is
w = cp (T01 T03 ) = 1148(1050 822.1) = 261.65 kJ/kg
Since w = U 2 , the blade speed is

U2 = w = 261, 640 = 511.5 m/s
and the flow angle is
( ) ( )
1 U2 1 511.5
2 = sin = sin = 72.8
V2 535.49

136
Exercise 9.2 During a test air runs through a radial inflow turbine at the rate of
m = 0.323 kg/s when the shaft speed is 55, 000 rpm. The inlet stagnation tem-
perature is T01 = 1000 K and the pressure ratio is p01 /p3 = 2.1. The blade radius
at the inlet is r2 = 6.35 cm. The relative velocity entering the blade is radial and
the flow leaves the blade without swirl. Find, (a) the spouting velocity, (b) the
total-to-static efficiency, and (c) the power delivered.
Given: T01 , p01 /p3 , m, , and r2 .
Find: V0 , ts and W .
Solution: The blase speed is
6.35 55, 000
U2 = r2 = = 365.73 m/s
100 30
and [ ( )(1)/ ]
p3 1
ws = cp (T01 T3ss ) = cp T01 1 = V02
p01 2
so that [ ( ( )(1)/ )]
p3
V0 = 2cp T01 1
p01

V0 = 2 1148 980 (1 (1/2.1)0 .35) = 617.20 m/s (a)
and the work and isentropic work delivered are

1 617.22
w = U22 = 365.752 = 133.7 kJ/kg ws = V02 = = 190.5 kJ/kg
2 2
so that
w 133.7
ts = = = 0.702 (b)
ws 90.5
and the power delivered is

W = mw = 0.35 133.7 = 46.8 kW (c)

Exercise 9.3 A radial turbine delivers W = 80 kW as its shaft turns at 44, 000
rpm. Combustion gases with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K enter the rotor with
relative velocity radially inward at radius r2 = 8.10 cm. At the exit the shroud
radius is r3s = 6.00 cm and at this location M3Rs = 0.59. The exit pressure is

137
p3 = 101.325 kPa and exit temperature is T3 = 650 K. Find the hub to shroud
ratio = r3h /r3s at the exit.
Given: T3 , p3 , W , , r2 , and r3s .
Find: b3
Solution: The blade speed is
0.081 44, 000
U2 = r2 = = 373.22 m/s
30
0.060 44, 000
U3s = r3s = = 276.46 m/s
30
and the relative velocity at the shroud is

W3s = M3s RT3 = 0.59 1.333 287 650 = 294.25 m, /s
The absolute velocity at the exit is

V3 = W3s 2
U3s
2
= 294.252 276.462 = 100.8 m/s
The specific work is
w = U22 = 373.222 = 139.3 kJ/kg
and the mass flow rate is therefore
W 80, 000
m = = = 0.574 kg/s
w 139.3
The static density at the exit is
p3 101325
3 = = = 0.543 kg/m3
RT3 287 650
and the exit area is
m 0.574
A3 = = = 0.01049 m2
3 V 3 0.543 100.8
so that
A3
r3h = 2
r3s = 0.0161 m

and the radius ratio is
r3h 0.0161
= = = 0.268
r3s 0.060

138
Exercise 9.4 A radial inflow turbine rotor, with rotor inlet radius r2 = 9.3 cm and
blade height b2 = 1.8 cm, turns at 42, 000 rpm. Its working fluid is a gas mixture
with cp = 1148 J/kg K and = 4/3. The exhaust pressure is p3 = 101.325 kPa
and the total-to-static efficiency is ts = 0.82. The nozzle (stator) angle is 2 =
67 and the velocity coefficient for the flow through the stator is cv = 0.96 and the
Mach number at the inlet to the rotor is M2 = 0.9. Find, (a) the inlet stagnation
pressure to the stator, and (b) the stagnation pressure loss across the stator.
Given: r2 , b2 , , p3 , 2 , and ts .
Find: T01 and p0LS .
Solution: The blade speed is
9.3 42, 000
U2 = r2 = = 409.03 m/s
100 30
and the absolute velocity is
U2 409.03
V2 = = = 444.36 m/s
sin 2 sin(67 )
The radial component is

Vr2 = Wr2 = V2 cos 2 = 444.36 cos(67 ) = 173.62 m/s

Since the M2 is known, the inlet static temperature is


V22 444.362
T2 = = = 637.0 K
RT M22 1.333 287 0.92
and the stagnation temperature T02 = T01 is
1 2 0.81
T02 = T2 (1 + M2 ) = 637(1 + ) = 723.0 K
2 6
The velocity for isentropic flow is
V2 444.36
V2s = = = 462.88 m/s
cv 0.96
and the static temperature for the isentropic process is
V2s2 462.882
T2s = T02 = 637 = 629.7 K
2cp 2 1148

139
The specific work is

w = U 2 = 409.032 = 167.31 kJ/kg

The exit stagnation temperature is therefore


w 167, 310
T03 = T02 = 723 = 577.3 K
cp 1148
From the total-to-static efficiency
T01 T03
ts =
T01 T3ss
the static temperature T3ss is
1 1
T3ss = T01 (T01 T03 ) = 723 (723 573.3)545.3 K
ts 0.822
The stagnation pressure at the inlet is therefore
( )/(1) ( )4
T01 723
p01 = p3 = 101.325 = 313.25 kPa (a)
T3ss 545.3
The stagnation pressure p02 is obtained from
( )/(1) ( )4
T2s 629.7
p02 = p01 = 313.2 = 299.1 kPa
T2 637
and the stagnation pressure loss is

p0LS = p01 p02 = 313.2 299.1 = 14.1 kPa (b)

Exercise 9.5 Gas with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 K/kg K flows in a radial inflow
turbine, in which the inlet stagnation temperature is T01 = 980 K and the inlet
stagnation pressure is p01 = 205.00 kPa. The exit pressure is p3 = 101.325 kPa
and the exit temperature is T3 = 831.5 K. The stagnation temperature at the exit
is T03 = 836.7 K. The pressure at the inlet to the rotor is T2 = 901.6 K and the
pressure is p2 = 142.340 kPa. The shaft speed is 160,000 rpm and the radius ratio
is r3 /r2 = 0.57. Assume that the relative velocity is radial at the inlet and that
there is no exit swirl. Find, (a) the total-to-static efficiency, (b) the flow angles 2
and 3 , and (c) S and R .

140
Given: T01 , p01 , p3 , T3 , p2 , T2 , , r3 /r2 .
Find: ts , 3 , N , and R .
Solution: The velocity at the inlet to the rotor is

V2 = 2cp (T02 T2 ) = 2 1148(980 901.6) = 424.3 m/s

and the Mach number is


V2 424.3
M2 = = = 0.722
RT2 1.333 287 901.6
The stagnation pressure at the inlet to the rotor is
( )/(1) ( )4
1 2 0./722
p02 = p2 1 + M2 = 142, 340 1 + = 198.69 kPa
2 6
The temperature T2s can be calculated from
( )(1)/ ( )0.25
p02 198.69
T2s = T2 = 901.6 = 894.6 K
p01 205.00
The static enthalpy loss coefficient for the stator is
2cp (T2 T2s ) 2 1148(901.6 894.6)
S = 2
= = 0.0895 (c)
V2 424.32
and the total-to-static efficiency is
1 T03 /T01 1 836.7/908
ts = = = 0.905 (a)
1 (p3 /p01 )(1)/ 1 (101.325/205.00)0.25
The specific work delivered is

w = cp (T01 T03 ) = 1148(980 836.7) = 164.51 kJ/kg

The blade speed is



U2 = w= 164, 510 = 405.6 m/s

The flow angle at the inlet to the rotor is


( ) ( )
1 U2 1 405.6
2 = sin = sin = 72.94 (b)
V2 421.90

141
The blade velocity at the exit at the mean radius is
r3
U3 = U2 = 405.6 0.57 = 231.2 m/s
r2
The velocity at the exit is

V3 = 2cp (T03 T3 ) = 2 1148(836.7 831.5) = 109.2 m/s

and the flow angle of the relative velocity is


( ) ( )
1 U3 1 231.2
3 = tan = tan = 64.7 (c)
V3 109.2
The calculation of the static enthalpy loss coefficient of the rotor flow is carried
out by [ ]
( )2
1 1 r3 S Tr 2 sin2 3
R = 1
ts 2 tan2 3 r2 2 sin2 2 (r3 /r2 )2
[ ]
1 0.572 0.0895 2 sin2 (64.72 )
= 1 = 0.0974
0.905 2 tan2 (64.72 ) 2 sin2 (73 ) 0.325
The temperature ratio Tr = T2s /T2 was taken to be unity in the previous forgoing
calculation. It can now determined to be
[( ) ]
2
T2s 1 2 2 r3 1 + S 1
=1= M2 sin 2 2 1 +1 = 0.919
T2 2 r2 sin 3 tan2 2

and when this is used for the value of Tr the static enthalpy loss coefficient for the
rotor can be recalculated. The result is

R = 0.117 (c)

Exercise 9.6 For an exit with no swirl show that



W3 (r) sin(2 2 ) r3 r2
= 2
+ cot2 3
W2 cos 2 r2 r3

in which r is the radius at an arbitrary location of the exit plane of the blade and
r3 and 3 are the mean values of the exit radius and angle. Show further that at
the mean radius
W3 sin(2 2 ) r3
=
W2 cos 2 sin 3 r2

142
and plot the angle 3 for the range 0.53 < r3 /r2 < 0.65 when W3 /W2 = 2 and
2 = 70 and 2 = 40 .
Given: A range of r3 /r2 , and W3 /W2 = 2 as well as 2 = 70c irc and 2 = 40 .
Find: 3
Solution: From the exit velocity diagram

W32 (r) = U32 (r) + V32

and U3 (r) = U3 r/r3 in which U3 is the blade speed at the mean radius r3 , this
expression can be written as

r2
W32 (r) = U32 + cot2 3 U32
r32
or ( ) ( )
r2 r2 r2
W32 (r) = U32 + cos2 3 = U22 32 + cos2 3
r32 r2 r32
The tangential component of the velocity give

U2 = V2 sin 2 W2 sin 2

and dividing by W2 leads to


U2 V2
= sin 2 sin 2
W2 W2
From the radial components

V2 cos 2 = W2 cos 2

the equation
cos 2
f racV2 W2 =
cos 2
is obtained. Thus
U2
= tan 2 cos 2 sin 2
W2
or
U2 sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2
=
W2 cos 2

143
which is also
U2 sin(2 2
=
W2 cos 2
Therefore
W3 (r) sin(2 2 ) r3 r2
= + cot2 3
W2 cos 2 r2 r32
At the shroud
W3s sin(2 2 ) r3 r2
= 2
+ cot2 3
W2 cos 2 r2 r3s
and at the hub
W3h sin(2 2 ) r3 r2
= 2
+ cot2 3
W2 cos 2 r2 r3h
so that
2
W3s r3s + r32 cos2 3
=
W3h 2
r3h + r32 cot2 3
at the mean radius
W3 sin(2 2 ) r3
= 1 + cot2 3
W2 cos 2 r2
or
W3 sin(2 2 ) r3
=
W2 cos 2 sin 3 r2
For 2 40 and 2 = 70 the relationship

r3 sin(110 )
sin 3 = = 1.373739
r2 2 cos(70 )

so that
r3
sin 3 = 1.373739
r2
and the results are shown in the table below.

r3 /r2 0.53 0.56 0.59 0.62 0.65


3 46.7 50.3 54.1 58.4 63.2

144
Exercise 9.7 An inexpensive radial inflow turbine has flat radial blades both at
the inlet and the exit of the rotor. The shaft speed is 20,000 rpm. The radius of
the inlet to the rotor is 10 cm and the mean radius at the exit is 6 cm. The ratio
of blade widths is b3 /b2 = 1.8. The inlet stagnation temperature is T01 = 420 K
and the exhaust flows into the atmospheric pressure 101.325 kPa. Assume that
the gases which flow through the turbine have = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K.
If the power delivered by the turbine is 10 kW, find (a) the mass flow rate, (b)
the static temperature at the exit of the stator, (c) the static temperature at the exit
of the turbine, (d) the blade height at the inlet and the exit of the turbine, (e) the
total-to-total efficiency, and the total-to-static efficiency.
Given: r3 , r2 , 2 , cN , R , T01 , , p3 , and b3 /b2 .
Find: m, T3 , p01 , b3 , b2 , tt and ts .
Solution: The blade speeds are
0.1 20, 000
U2 = r2 = = 209.4 m/s
30
and
r3 0.06
U3 = U2 = 209.4 = 125.7 m/s
r2 0.1
The specific work delivered is
w = U2 U3 = 209.42 125.72 = 28.07 kJ/kg
and the mass flow rate is therefore
W 10, 000
m = = = 0.356 kg/s (a)
w 28, 070
The inlet velocity to the rotor is
U2 209.4
V2 = = = 216.8 m/s
sin 2 sin(75 )
and the radial component of the velocity is
Vr2 = V2 cos 2 = 216.8 cos(75 ) = 56.12 m/s W2 = 56.12 m/s
The static temperature leaving the stator is
V22 216.82
T2 = T02 = 420 = 399.5 K (b)
2cp 2 1148

145
The isentropic velocity is
V2 216.8
V2s = = = 223.5 m/s
cN 0.97
and the isentropic static temperature is therefore

V2s2 223.52
T2s = T02 = 420 = 398.2 K
2cp 2 1148
The ratio of stagnation pressures at the inlet and exit of the stator are therefore
( )/(1) ( )4
p01 T2 399.5
= = = 1.013
p02 T2s 398.2
The stagnation temperature after the rotor is
w 28.07
T03 = T02 = 420 = 395.5 K
cp 1.148
Mass balance gives
2 r2 b2 W2 = 3 r3 b3 W3
This equation contains three unknowns 2 , 3 and W3 . One may proceed by trial
by assuming a trial value for the flow angle at the exit. As the first attempt the
value 3 = 50 is chosen. Then
U3 125.7
V3 = = = 164.0 m/s
sin 3 sin(50 )
and the axial velocity component at the exit is

Vx3 = V3 cos 3 = 164.0 cos(50 ) = 105.4 m/s W3 = 105.4 m/s

The static temperature is

V32 164.02
T3 = T03 = 395.5 = 383.3 K
2cp 2 1148
Next the temperature for an isentropic expansion is calculated from

W32 105.42
T3s = T3 R = 383.8 0.5 = 381.4 K
2cp 2 1148

146
The static pressure at the inlet can now be obtained from
( )/(1) ( )4
T2 399.5
p 2 = p3 = 101.325 = 122.0 kPa
T3s 381.4
The densities can now be calculated. They are
p2 122, 000
2 = = = 1.064 kg/m3
RT2 287 399.5
and
p3 101, 325
3 = = = 0.920 kg/m3
RT3 287 383.8
The value of density 3 may now be calculated from
r2 W2 b2 0.1 56.12
3 = 2 = 0.920 = 0.524 kg/m3
r3 W3 b3 0.06 105.4 1.8
This is in error by the amount r = 3 3 = 0.396 kg/m3 . By writing a Matlab
scrip to carry out the calculations, and changing the trial value of 3 , the error is
made nearly zero when 3 = 65.414 . The calculations with this value give
U3 125.7
V3 = = = 138.2 m/s
sin 3 sin(65.414 )
and the axial velocity component at the exit is

Vx3 = V3 cos 3 = 138.2 cos(65.414 ) = 57.5 m/s W3 = 57.5 m/s

The static temperature is


V32 138.22
T3 = T03 = 395.5 = 387.2 K (c)
2cp 2 1148
Next the temperature for an isentropic expansion is calculated from
W32 57.52
T3s = T3 R = 387.2 0.5 = 386.5 K
2cp 2 1148
The static pressure at the inlet can now be obtained from
( )/(1) ( )4
T2 399.5
p2 = p 3 = 101.325 ) = 115.68 kPa
T3s 386.5

147
The densities can now be calculated. They are
p2 115, 680
2 = = = 1.0088 kg/m3
RT2 287 399.5
and
p3 101, 325
3 = = = 0.9117, kg/m3
RT3 287 387.2
The value of density 3 may now be calculated from
r2 W2 b2 0.1 56.12
3 = 2 = 0.9117 = 0.9117 kg/m3
r3 W3 b3 0.06 57.50 1.8
and the error is now only e = 0.000014 kg/m3 .
The static temperature
( )(1)/ ( )0.25
p02 1
T3ss = T3s = 386.5 = 385.3 K
p01 1.013
and the stagnation pressure at the inlet to the stator is
( )/(1) ( )4
T01 420
p01 = p3 = 101.325 = 143.11 kPa
T3ss 385.26
The blade widths can be now determined. They are
m 0.3562
b2 = = = 0.010 m (d)
2r2 2 W2 2 0.10 1.0088 56.12
and
m 0.3562
b3 = = = 0.018 m (d)
2r3 3 W3 2 0.06 0.9117 57.50
The total-to-static efficiency is
T01 T03 420 395.5
ts = = = 0.704 (e)
T01 T3ss 420 385.3
To determine the total-to-total efficiency, the stagnation temperature T03ss is needed.
It is ( )(1)/ ( )0.25
p03 110.320
T03ss = T3ss = 385.3 = 393.5 K
p3 101.325
so that
T01 T03 420 395.5
tt = = = 0.924 (d)
T01 T03ss 420 393.5

148
Exercise 9.8 Combustion gases with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K enter a
stator of a radial flow turbine with T01 = 1150 K, p01 = 1300 kPa, and M1 = 0.5,
and with a flow rate of m = 5.2 kg/s. The radius of the inlet is r1 = 17.4 cm,
the exit from the stator is at r2 = 15.8 cm and the inlet to the rotor is at r2 =
15.2 cm. The chord of the stator is ct = 4.8 cm and the width of the channel
is b = 1.6 cm. The rotational speed of the rotor is 31, 000 rpm. The exit static
pressure is p3 = 320 kPa. The trailing edge thickness of the 17 stator vanes can
be ignored. Find, (a) the total-to-static efficiency of the turbine, (b) the stagnation
pressure loss across the stator, and (c) the stagnation pressure loss across the gap.
Given: T3 , p3 , W , , r2 , and r3s .
Find: b3
Solution:

: (a) 0.811, (b) 10.6 kPa, (c) 3.67 kPa.

Exercise 9.9 Combustion gases enter the stator of a radial inflow turbine at the
stagnation pressure p01 = 346 kPa and stagnation temperature T01 = 980 K. They
enter the rotor at the speed V2 = 481.4 m/s with the relative flow making an angle
2 = 35 and exhaust into the atmosphere at 101.3325 kPa. The total-to-static
efficiency of the turbine is ts = 0.83. Find, (a) the angle at which the flow enters
the rotor and (b) the relative Mach number at the inlet.
Given: T3 , p3 , W , , r2 , and r3s .
Find: b3
Solution:

: 2 = 61.41 ,(b) M2R = 0.67.

149
Chapter 10
Exercise 10.1 A Pelton wheel operates from an effective head of He = 300 m and
at a flow rate of 4.2 m3 /s. The wheel radius is r2 = 0.75 m and its rotational speed
is 450 rpm. The water which leaves the penstock is divided into 5 streams. The
nozzle coefficient is cN = 0.98 for each of the nozzles. Impulse blades turn the
flow into the direction 3 = 65 and as a result of friction the relative velocity
reduces by an amount which gives a velocity coefficient cv = 0.90. Find, (a) the
efficiency of the turbine, (b) the power specific speed, and (c) the nozzle diameter
and the number of buckets in the wheel.
Given: He , Q, , r2 , cN , cv , 3
Find: ts , sp , d, Z
Solution: The exit velocity from the nozzle is

V2 = cN 2gHe = 0.98 2 9.81 300 = 75.19 m/s

and the blade speed is


0.75 450
U = r2 = = 35.34 m/s
30
The relative velocity entering the wheel is

W2 = V2 U = 75.19 35.34 = 39.85 m/s

and the relative velocity at the exit is

W3 = cv W2 = 0.90 39.85 = 35.5, m/s

The tangential component of the relative velocity at the exit is

Vu3 = W3 sin 3 = 35.86 sin(65 ) = 32.50 m/s

The tangential component of the absolute velocity at the exit is

Vu3 = U + Wu3 = 35.34 32.50 = 2.83 m/s

and the specific work is

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 35.34(39.85 2.83) = 2556.8 J/kg

150
or
w = U (Vu2 U )(1 cv sin 3 ) = 2556.8J/kg
The power is therefore

W = Qw = 998 4.2 255.8 = 10.7 MW

and the efficiency is

W w
= = = 0.869 (a)
QgHe He
The specific speed is

Q 450 4.2
s = = = 0.24
(gHe )3/4 30(9.81 400)3/4
and the power specific speed is

sp = s = 0.869 0.24 = 0.22 (b)

The flow rate in each jet is


Q 4.2
Qj = = = 0.84 m3 /s
N 5
and the jet area is
Qj 0.84
Aj = = = 0.0111 m2
V2 75.19
so that the jet diameter is

4Aj 4 0.0111
d= = = 0.119 m

The ratio of the wheel diameter to the jet diameter is
D 2 0.75
= = 12.6 (c)
d 0.119
and the number of buckets is
D
Z= + 15 = 21.3 Z = 21 (c)
2d

151
Exercise 10.2 The flow rate through a small Francis turbine is 4.5 m3 /s, its head
is 150 m and the the rotational speed is 450 rpm. The inlet radius is r2 = 0.6 m and
the water leaves the guide vanes at the angle 2 = 72 and velocity V2 = 53.3 m/s.
It leaves the turbine without swirl. (a) Find the velocity coefficient of the stator
(inlet spiral and gates). (b) Find the inlet angle of the relative velocity, 2 . (c)
What is the output power? (d) What is the torque on the shaft? (d) Determine the
power specific speed and comment if the runner shape in the figure is appropriate.
Given: He , Q, V2 , r2 , 2 , cv , 3
Find: cN , 2 W , torque, s , sp .
Solution: The nozzle coefficient is
V2 53.7
cN = = = 0.9825 m/s (a)
2gHe 2 9.81 150
The tangential component of the velocity is

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 53.3 sin(72 ) = 50.69 m/s

and the radial component is

Wr2 = V2 cos 2 = 53.3 cos(72 ) = 16.44 m/s

The blade speed is


0.6 450
U2 = r2 = = 28.27 m/s
30
and the tangential component of the relative velocity is

Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 50.69 28.27 = 22.42 ms

The angle of the relative velocity is therefore


Wu2 22.42
2 = = = 54.6 (b)
Wr2 16.44
The specific work is

w = U2 Vu2 = 28.27 50.69 = 1433.2 J/kg

and the power is

W = Qw = 998 4.5 1433.3 = 6437 kW (c)

152
and the efficiency is
w 1433.3
= = = 0.974
gHe 9.81 150
The shaft torque is

W 6, 437, 000 30
T = = = 136.6 kN (d)
450
The specific speed and power specific speed are

Q 450 4.5
s = = = 0.421 (e)
(gHe )3/4 30(9.81 150)3/4
and

sp = s = 0.9740.421 = 0.415 (e)

Exercise 10.3 The pressure at the entrance of a Francis turbine runner is 189.5 kPa
and at the exit it is 22.6 kPa. The shaft turns at 210 rpm. At the exit the flow
leaves without swirl. The inlet radius is r2 = 910 mm, and the exit radius is
r3 = 760 mm. The relative velocity entering the runner is W2 = 10.2 m/s, and
the flow angle of the relative velocity leaving the runner is 3 = 72 . The blade
height at the inlet is b2 = 600 mm. (a) Compute the stagnation pressure loss in
the runner. (b) Find the power delivered by the turbine.
Given: p2 , p3 , , r2 , r3 , 3 , W2 .
Find: dp0LR and W .
Solution: The blade speed at the inlet is
0.91 210
U2 = r2 = = 20.0 m/s
30
and at the exit it is
r3 0.76
U3 = U2 = 20.0 = 16.7 m/s
r2 0.91
The radial velocity at the exit is
U3 16.7
Vr3 = = = 5.43 m/s
tan 3 tan(72 )

153
The mass balance gives
r3 0.76
Vr2 = Vr3 = 5.43 = 4.54 m/s
r2 0.91
and thus the relative flow angle into the rotor is
( ) ( )
1 Vr2 1 5.45
2 = cos = cos = 63.6
W2 10.2

and the tangential component of the velocity is

Vu2 = U2 + Vr2 tan 2 = 20.0 + 4.54 tan(63.6 ) = 29.15 m/s

The specific work is

w = U2 Vu2 = 20/0 29.15 = 583.31 J/kg

The isentropic work is ws = (p02 p03 )/. The stagnation pressure at the inlet is

V22 29.52
p02 = p2 + = 189, 600 + 998 = 623.8 kPa
2 2
and at the exit it is
V32 5.432
p03 = P3 + = 226, 000 + 998 = 37.2 kPa
2 2
and
p02 p03 623, 800 373, 000
ws = = = 587.68 J/kg
998
and the stagnation pressure loss is

dp0LR = (ws w) = 998(587.68 583.31) = 4.36 kPa (a)

The flow rate is

Q = 2r2 b2 Vr2 = 2 0.19 0.6 4.54 = 15.56 m3 /kg

and the power delivered is

W = mw = 998 15.56 583.3 = 9.06 MW (b)

154
Exercise 10.4 A Francis turbine has an inlet radius r2 = 1450 mm and outlet
radius r3 = 1220 mm. The blade width is constant b = 370 mm. The shaft speed
is 360 rpm and the volumetric flow rate is Q = 16.7 m3 /s. The flow enters the
runner at 2 = 78 . Water leaves the the turbine without swirl and the outlet
pressure p3 = 35 kPa. The loss through the runner is 0.20W23 /2g m. Find the
pressure p2 at the inlet and the head loss through the runner.
Given: r2 , r3 , b, Q, 2 , p3 and given the head loss across the runner as 0.02W32 /2g.
Find: p2 .
Solution: The blade speed is
1.45 360
U2 = r2 = = 54.66 m/s
30
The flow area at the inlet to the runner is

A2 = 2r2 b = 2 1.11 0.37 = 3.37 m2

The radial component of the velocity is


Q 16.7
Vr2 = = = 4.95 m/s
A2 3.37
and the tangential component is

Vu2 = Vr2 tan 2 = 4.95 tan(78 ) = 23.31 m/s

and the absolute velocity is



V2 = Vrw 2 +V2 =
u2 4.952 + 23.312 = 23.83 m/s

Hence the specific work is

w = U2 Vu2 = 54.66 23.31 = 1374 J/kg

The blade speed at the exit is


r3 1.22
U3 = U2 = 54.66 = 46.00 m/s
r2 1.45
The exit area is

A3 = 2rr b = 2 1.22 0.37 = 2.384 m2

155
and the relative velocity at the exit is

W3 = U32 + Vr32 = 46.002 + 5.892 = 46.37 m/s

Hence the head loss is


W32 0.2 46.372
HR = 0.2 = = 21.92 m
2g 2 9.81
The stagnation pressure at the exit is
V32 5.892
p03 = p3 + = 35000 + 998 = 52.30 kPa
2 2
The stagnation pressure loss is

p0LR = gHr = 998 9.81 21.92 = 214.6 kPa

so that the stagnation pressure at the inlet is


998 1274
p02 = p03 + p0LR + w = 52.3 + 214.6 + = 1538.3 kPa
1000
and the static pressure is
V22 998 23.832
p2 = p02 = 1, 538, 300 = 1255, kPa
2 2
Exercise 10.5 The relative velocities at the inlet and the exit of a Francis turbine
are W2 = 10.0 m/s and W3 = 33.7 m/s. The shaft speed is = 200 rpm. The
inlet radius of the runner is r2 = 1880 mm and its outlet radius is r3 = 1500 mm.
The runner blade width is constant b = 855 mm. Find, (a) the flow rate through
the turbine and (b) the torque assuming the flow leaves without exit swirl.
Given: W2 , W3 , , r2 , r3 , b.
Find: Q and torque.
Solution: The blade speeds are
1.88 200
U2 = r2 = = 39.37 m/s
30
and
r3 1.88
U3 = U2 = 39.37 = 31.42 m/s
r2 1.50

156
and the redial velocity at the exit is

Vr3 = W32 U32 = 33.72 31.422 = 12.20 m/s

The flow rate is

Q = 2r3 bV r3 = 2 1.50 0.855 12.20 = 98.3 m3 /s (a)

and the radial velocity at the inlet is


r3 1.50
Vr2 = Vr3 = 12.20 = 9.74 m/s
r2 1.88
The angle of the relative flow at the inlet is
( ) ( )
1 Vr2 1 9.734
2 = cos = cos = 13.3
V2 10.0
Now the tangential component of the relative velocity is

Wu2 = Wr2 tan 2 = 9.74 tan(1.3 ) = 2.31 m/s

and the tangential component of the absolute velocity is therefore

Vu2 = U2 + Wu2 = 39.37 + 2.31 = 41.68 m/s

and the specific work is

w = U2 Vu2 = 39.37 41.68 = 1641 J/kg

and the power delivered is

W = Qw = 998 98.3 1641 = 161 MW

The torque is therefore

W 161 106 30
T = = = 7, 685, 000 N m (b)
200
Exercise 10.6 A Francis runner is to be designed for effective head of He =
140 m and flow rate Q = 20 m3 /s. Assume that the efficiency is = 0.9 and
that there is no exit swirl. Use the formula of Lugaresi and Massa to calculate

157
the specific speed. Use other the formulas in the text to obtain br and U2 /V0 from
sp . Assume that the mechanical and volumetric losses are negligible. Find the
specific diameter on this basis. (a) Find the diameter at the inlet. (b) Find the blade
speed at the inlet. (c) Find the flow angles of the absolute and relative velocities
at the inlet.
Given: He , Q, .
Find: D2 , U2 , 2 and 2 .
Solution: The power delivered is

W = QgHe = 0.9 998 20 9.81 140 = 24, 672 kW

and the specific work is

W 24, 670, 000


w= = = 1236 J/kg
Q 998 20
The specific speed is
( )0.512 ( )0.512
Hr 100
s = 1.14 = 1.14 = 0.9596
He 140

and

sp = s = 0.90 0.9596 = 0.9104
The shaft speed can now be determined from

s (gHe )3/4 0.9596 30 (9.81 140)3/4


= = = 462 rpm
Q 20
The blade width to diameter ratio is

br = 0.05052sp + 0.26sp + 0.018 = 0.213

and the U2 /V0 ratio is


U2
= 0.740.238
sp = 0.724
V0
Thus
8U2 8 0.724
Ds = = = 2.13
s V0 0.9596

158
Hence
Ds Q 2.13 20
D2 = = = 1.567 m
(gHe )1/4 (9.81 140)1/4
and
b2 br D2 = 0.213 1.567 = 0.334 m
and
D2 1.567 462
U2 = = = 37.93 m/s
2 2 30
Now the radial velocity at the inlet is
Q 20
Vr2 = = = 12.12 m/s
2r2 b 20.7835 0.335
and the tangential velocity component can be obtained from
w 1236.1
Vu2 = = = 32.59 m/s
U2 37.93
so that
( ) ( )
1 Vr2 1 12.12
2 = tan = tan = 69.5 (a)
Vu2 32.59
and the tangential component of the relative flow is

Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 32.59 37.93 = 5.33 ms

and it makes the angle


( ) ( )
1 Wr2 1 12.12
2 = tan = tan = 23.6 (b)
Wu2 5.33

Exercise 10.7 Water enters the runner of a Francis turbine with a relative velocity
at angle 12 . The inlet radius is 2.29 m and the mean radius at the exit is 1.37 m.
The rotational speed is 200 rpm. The blade height at the inlet is b2 = 1.22 m and
at the exit the inclined width of the blade is b3 = 1.55 m. The radial velocity at the
runner inlet is 10.0 m/s and the flow leaves the runner without swirl. Evaluate (a)
the change in total enthalpy of the water across the runner, (b) the torque exerted
by the water on the runner normalized to a metric tonne per second, (c) the power
developed, (d) the flow rate of water, (e) the change in total pressure across the
runner if the total-to-total efficiency is 95%, and the volumetric and mechanical

159
losses can be neglected. (f) What is the change in static pressure across the runner,
and (h) the total-to-static efficiency.
Given: r2 , r3m , , 2 , b2 , , Vr2 , b3 .
Find: h02 h03 , T , W , Q, p02 p03 , p2 p3 , ts .
Solution: The blade speeds are
2.29 200
U2 = r2 = = 47.96 m/s
30
and the blade speed at the mean radius at the exit is
r3m 1.37
U3m = U2 = 47.96 = 28.69 m/s
r2 2.29
The flow areas are

A2 = 2r2 b2 = 2 2.29 1.22 = 17.55 m/s

A3 = 2r3m b3 = 2 1.37 1.55 = 13.34 m/s


and the flow rate is

Q = Vr2 A2 = 10 17.55 = 175.5 m3 /s (d)

and the mass flow rate is

m = Q = 998 175.5 = 175.2 tonne/s

The mean radial velocity leaving the runner is


Q 175.54
V3m = = = 13.16 m/s
A3 12.342
The angle of the relative flow at the exit is
( ) ( )
1 U3 1 28.69
3 = tan = tan = 65.4
Wm3 13.16

The tangential component of the relative velocity at the inlet is

Wu2 = Vr2 tan 2 = 10 tan(12 ) = 2.12 m/s

160
and the corresponding value of the absolute velocity is

Vu2 = U2 + Wu2 = 47.96 2.12 = 45.84 m/s

so that
V2 = Vr22 + Vu2
2
= 102 + 45.842 = 46.91 m/s
and the flow angle is
( ) ( )
1 Vu2 1 45.84
2 = tan = tan = 77.7
Vr2 10.0

The work done is

w = U2 Vu2 = 47.96 45.384 = 2198.4 J/kg

so this is also the total enthalpy difference across the rotor

h02 h03 = 2198.4 J/kg (a)

The power delivered is

W = Qw = 998 175.54 2198.4 = 385.1 MW (c)

and the torque is therefore

W 385, 100, 000 30


T = = = 18, 39, 000 N m
200 pi
Hence per ton of water flow it is
T 1, 839, 100
Ts = = = 105 kN m (b)
m 175.2
The isentropic work is
w 2198.4
He = = = 2314.1 J/kg
0.95
The total pressure loss is

p0LR = (gHe w) = 998(2314.1 2198.4) = 115.5 kPa

161
and the change in stagnation pressure is
998 2314.1
p02 p03 = gHe p0LR = 115.5 = 2194 kPa (e)
1000
The change in static pressure is
1 998
p2 p3 = p02 p03 (V22 V3m
2
) = 2, 194, 000 (46.912 13.162 ) = 1182 kPa (f )
2 2
:
Exercise 10.8 The Otari number 2 power plant in Japan delivers 89.5 MW of
power when the flow rate is 207 m3 /s and the head is 48.1 m. The diameter of
the Kaplan turbine is D2t = 5.1 m and hub-to-tip ratio = 0.56. The generator
has 36 poles and delivers power at line frequency is 50 Hz. (a) Find the efficiency
of the turbine. (b) Calculate and flow angles entering and leaving the rotor and
construct a graph to show their variation across the span.
Solution: (a) The efficiency is
W0 89.5 106
= = = 0.918
QgHe 998 207 9.81 48.1
(b) With a 50 Hz line frequency and 36 poles, the shaft speed is = 12050/36 =
166.67 rpm. The tip speed of the runner blade is
D2t 2.55 166.67
U2t = = = 44.5 m/s
2 30
The axial velocity is uniform and it is given by
4Q 4 207
Vx2 = = = 14.76 m/s
2
D2t (1 )
2 5.12 (1 0.562 )
Since each blade element delivers the same amount of work, the tangential veloc-
ity at the tip can be determined from
gHe 0.91 9.81 51
Vu2t = = = 9.73 m/s
U2t 39.9
The flow angles for the absolute and relative velocities can now be determined.
The calculations, at the mean radius r2m = 1.99 m the absolute velocity makes an
angle ( ) ( )
1 Vu2t rt 1 9.73 2.55
2m = tan = tan = 40.2
Vx2 rm 14.76 1.99

162
The tangential component of the relative velocity at this location is
rm 44.5 1.99
Wu2m = Vx2 tan 2m U2t = 14.76 tan(40.2 ) = 22.25 m/s
rt 2.55
and the flow angle is
( ) ( )
1 Wu2m 1 22.25
2m = tan = tan = 56.4
Wx2 14.76

The flow leaves the runner axially. Therefore the tangential component of the
relative velocity is Wu3m = U2t rm /rt and with the axial velocity constant, the
flow angle is
( ) ( )
1 Wu3m 1 44.5 1.99
3m = tan = tan = 67.0
Wx3 14.76 2.55

163
Chapter 11
Exercise 11.1 A fluid coupling operates with oil flowing in a closed circuit. The
device consists of two elements, the primary and secondary, each making up one-
half of a torus, as shown in the figure in the text. The input power is 100 hp and
input rotational speed is 1800 rpm. The output rotational speed is 1200 rpm. (a)
Evaluate the efficiency of and output power of this device. (b) At what rate must
energy as heat be transferred to the cooling system, to prevent a temperature rise
of the oil in the coupling?
Given: Wp , p , s .
Find: , Q = Wp Ws .
Solution: Since the torque in the primary and the secondary are the same

Wp = T p Wp = T p

and
s 1200
Ws = Wp = 100 = 66.7 HP
p 1800
The efficiency is
Ws 66.7
= = = 0.667
Wp 100
and the rate of heat transfer from the converter fluid to the hardware and the sur-
roundings is
Q = Wp Ws = 33.3 745.7 = 24.86 kW
After the hardware has reached its steady state temperature all the heat is trans-
ferred to the surroundings.

Exercise 11.2 (a) Carry out the algebraic details to show that the expression for
the flow rate through a fluid coupling is given by
( )( )
Dh 2s r12
Q = Ap r2 1 2 1 2 (1)
fL p r2

and if for a low values of slip the friction factor is related to the flow rate by an
expression
c cA
f= =
Re QD

164
express the flow rate in terms of the slip for small values of s. (b) Carry out the
algebraic details to show that the expression for the torque of a fluid coupling is
given by
( )( )( )
Dh 2s r12 r12 s
T = Ap r22 3
1 2 1 2 1 2 (2)
fL P r2 r2 p
(c) What is the appropriate form for this equation for low values of slip.
Given: The form of the equation for the flow rate and torque.
Find: Derive the equations.
Solution: The details are shown in the text. For small values of slip

2s s s
1 2
= (1 )(1 + ) = s(2 s)
p p p

and with
c cA D ReD
f= = so that =
Re QD fL cL
and the flow rate becomes


D2 Q
Q = Ap r2 s(2 s)(1 r12 /r22 )
cAL

Squaring and solving for Q gives


( )
r2 D2
Q= A2p r22 s(2 s) 1 12
r2 cL

which can be reduces to


( )
r12 D2
Q= 2A2p r22 s 1 2 (b)
r2 cL

or the flow rate is directly proportional to slip.


The expression for torque coefficient is obtained from
( )
r12 D2
T = Q(p r2 s r1 ) = Qp r2 s(2 s) 1 2
2 2 2 2
r2 cL

165
and
( )( )
T r12 r12 AD2 p
CT = = s(2 s) 1 2 1 (1 s) 2
2p r25 r2 r2 cLr2
and for a small s this becomes
( )2
r2 AD2 p
CT = 2s 1 12
r2 cLr2
and this is also linear in s for small values.
Exercise 11.3 A fluid coupling operates with an input power of 200 hp, 5% slip
and a circulatory flow rate of 1500 l/s. (a) What is the rate at which energy as
heat must be transferred from the coupling in order for its temperature remain
constant? (b) What would be the temperature rise of the coupling over a period of
one-half hour assuming that no heat is transferred form the device and that it has a
mass of 45 kg, consisting of 70% metal with a specific heat 840 J/kg K, and 30%
oil with a specific heat 2000 J/kg K.
Given: Wp , s and a time duration of 30 minutes.
Find: , Q = Wp Ws .
Solution: The output power is
S
Ws = Wp = (1 s)Wp = 0.95 200 = 190 hp
p
The rate at which heat is transferred out from the coupling oil is
Q = Wp Ws = 10 745.7 = 7457 W (a)
The change in internal energy is
U2 U1 = Qt = 7457 30 60 = 13, 422, 600 J
The change in internal energy is also
U2 U1 = ms cs (T2 T1 ) + mf cf (T2 T1 ) = (ms cs + mf cf )(T2 T1 )
which can be written as
U2 U1 = m(fs cs + ff cf )(T2 T1 )
so that
13, 422, 600
T2 T1 = = 251 C (b)
45(0.7 840 + 0.3 2000)

166
Exercise 11.4 In a fluid coupling the input and output shafts rotate at 2000 and
1800 rpm, respectively. The fluid is an oil having a specific gravity of 0.88 and
viscosity 0.25 kg/m s. The outer mean radius of the torus is r2 = 15 cm the inner
mean radius is r1 = 7.5 cm. The radial height is b = 2r2 /15. The axial flow
area around the torus is the same as the flow area at the outer clearance between
the primary and secondary rotors. Given that the relative roughness of the flow
conduit is 0.01, find the volumetric flow rate and the axial velocity.
Given: p , s , r2 , r1 , b, SG, ,
Find: Q
Solution: The cross sectional area of the flow is
[ ]
A = (r2 = b/2)2 (r2 b/2)2 = 2r2 b
and the circumference is
C = 2(r2 b/2) + 2(r1 + b/2) + 4r2
so that the hydraulic diameter is
4A 4 2r2 b
D= = = 2b
C 4r2
The flow rate is
( )( )
Dh 2 r2
Q = Ap r2 1 2s 1 12
fL p r2
or ( )( )
b 2 r2
Q= 2r22 bp 1 2s 1 12
2f p r2
With
2
r1 = 7.5 cm r2 = 15 cm b= R2 = 2 cm
15
and the flow area is
A = 2r2 b = 20.15 0.02 = 0.0118 m2
Assume that the flow is laminar and f = 64/Re. If Reynolds number is Re =
3200, then f = 64/3200 = 0.02 and
Q = 0.3256 m3 /s

167
so that the axial velocity is
Q 0.3256
Vx = = = 17.28 m/s
A 0.0118
and the Reynolds number is
Vx D 0.88 998 17.28 0.04
Re = = = 2428
0.25
And the friction factor is f = 64/Re = 0.0264. Iterating gives finally f = 0.0346
and the flow rate is
Q = 0.2476 m3 /s = 247.6 liters/s (a)
and the axial flow rate is
Q 0.02476
Vx = = = 13.l1 m/s (b)
A 2 0.15 0.02
Exercise 11.5 Show that the kinetic energy loss model at the inlet to the turbine
given by
1 2
r2 (p s )2
2
is based on the conversion of the change in the one half of the tangential compo-
nent of the velocity squared, irreversibly into internal energy. To show this, note
that the incidence of the relative velocity at the inlet to the turbine is 2 since
the blades are radial. This leads to a leading edge separation, after which the
flow reattaches to the blade. After this reattachement the radial component of the
relative velocity is the same as in the flow incident on the blade.
Given: The velocity triangles
Find: The loss
Solution: Inspection of the velocity diagrams shows that

Vus2 = Us2 + Wus2 Vus2 = Us2
and therefore the expression

Vus2 Vus2 = Wus2 = Up2 Us2 = r2 (p )
so that
1 1
(Vus2 Vus2 )2 = r22 (p s )2
2 2

168
Exercise 11.6 For a fluid coupling for which r1 /r2 = 0.7, find the value of the
slip at which the power is maximum.
Given: The expressions for power delivered by the secondary
Find: For what value of the ratio = s /p is the power maximum.
Solution: From ( )
Ws r12
= 1 1 2
2
Tm p r2
in which = S /p . Let w = Ws /Tm p , and k = r12 /r22 the following equation
is obtained
w = 1 2 (1 k)
Differentiating with respect to and setting the derivative to zero gives

1 2 (1 2k) ( k 2 ) = 0
1 2

which simplifies to
2k 3 2 2 2k + 1 = 0
With k = 0.72 = 0.49 the correct root of this cubic equation gives

= 0.6053

and the slip is


s = 1 = 1 0.6053 = 0.3947

Exercise 11.7 A torque converter operates with oil flowing in a closed circuit. It
consists of a torus is made of a pump, a turbine, and a stator. The input and output
rotational speeds are 4000 rpm and 1200 rpm, respectively. At this operating con-
dition the torque exerted on the stator is twice that exerted on the pump. Evaluate
(a) the output to input torque ratio and (b) the efficiency.
Given: p , s , and Tf = 2Tp .
Find: Ts /Tp , Ws /Wp .
Solution: From
Tp = m(r1 Vu2 r1 Vu1 )
Ts = m(r2 Vu2 r3 Vu3 )
Tf = m(r1 Vu1 r3 Vu3 )

169
it is seen that Ts = Tp + Tf . Therefore

Ts
Ts = Tp + 2Tp = 2Tp or =3 (a)
Tp

and
Ws Ts s 3 1200
= = = 0.9 (b)
Wp Tp p 4000

Exercise 11.8 A torque converter multiplies the torque by is designed to have to


provide a torque multiplication ratio of 3.3 to 1. The circulating oil flow rate is
500 kg/s. The oil enters the fixed vanes in the axial direction at 10 m/s, and leaves
at an angle 60 deg in the direction of the blade motion. The axial flow area is
constant. Find the torque which the primary exerts on the fluid and the torque by
the fluid on the blades of the secondary. The inlet and outlet radii of fixed vanes
are 15 cm.
Given: r2 , 1 = 0, 2 = 60c irc, Vx1 = Vx2 = 10 m/s, Ts = 3.3Tp , and m =
500 kg/s
Find: Tf , Tp , Ts .
Solution: The tangential component of the velocity leaving the fixed member is

Vu2 = Vx2 tan 2 = 10 tan(60 ) = 17.32 m/s

and V u1 = 0. Thus
Tf = mr2 Vu2
Tp = m(r3 Vu3 r2 Vu2 )
Tf = mr3 Vu3
From
Tp + Tf = Ts Ts = 3.3Tp Tf = 2.3Tp
and
Tf = 500 0.15 17.32 = 1299 N m
and thus Tp = 565 N m and Ts = 1864 N m.

170
Exercise 11.9 Develop the equations for the torque ratio and efficiency for a
torque converter given in the text. (a) At what ratio of the rotational speeds is
the efficiency maximum. From this and the experimental curves shown in the text
estimate (b) the ratio r2 /r3 , and the value of Qr1 tan 1 /Ar32 p .
Given: The graphs in the text.
Find: r2 /r3 , and Qr1 tan 1 /Ar32 p
Solution: From
Ts = Q(r22 p r32 s )
and
Tp = Q(r22 p r1 Vu1 )
Defining the ratios
Ts s r2 r1Vu1
T = = R= a=
Tp p r3 r32 p
the ratio of the first two equations can be written as
R2
T =
R2 a
The efficiency is
Ts s (R2 )
= =
Tp p R2 a
The graph shown that efficiency and torque ratio are zero when = R2 = 0.85.
The maximum efficiency is obtained by differentiating
d R2 2
= 2 =0
d R a
so that max = R2 /2 = 0.425 (a). At this value the graph shows that
T = 1.6. Then from the equation for the torque ratio may be written as

(R2 a)T = R2

and solving this for a gives


R2 0.85 0.425
a = R2 = 0.85 = 0.584 (b)
T 1.6

171
Chapter 12
Exercise 12.1 Reconsider the ducted windmill but now let the duct be a cylindri-
cal control volume Ae in cross sectional area. Show that the axial force on the
blades is
Fd = Ab Vb (V Vb )
which is in agreement with the equation for wind turbine drag.
Given: The flow variables and the control volume.
Find: The drag force.
Solution: From a cylindrical control volume

Ae V = me + (Ae Ab ) + Ab Vb

in which Ae is the cross sectional area of the duct, Ab is the cross sectional area
of the slipstream where the velocity is Vb and me is the rate at which mass leaves
the control volume across its lateral boundary. Solving this for me gives

me = Ab (V Vb )

The x-momentum balance gives

Ab Vb2 + (Ae Ab )V 2 + mV Ae V 2 = Fd

which reduces to
Ab (V Vb )[V (V + Vb )] = Fd
so that
Fd = Ab Vb (V Vb )

Exercise 12.2 The non-dimensional pressure difference can be expressed as


p + pa
1
2
V 2
in which the pressure difference is between is that just before the disc and the free
stream. (a) Use the momentum theory for a wind turbine to express this in terms
of the interference factor a. For which value of a is this maximum? Interpret this
physically. (b) Develop the expression for
p a p
1
2
V 2

172
For which value of a is this the maximum?
Given: The formulas for the pressure difference across the disk.
Find: Express the pressure difference in terms of the interference factor a and for
which value of a is the pressure difference the maximum.
Solution: From
p0+ p a 1 2 p+ 1
= + V = + (1 a)V 2
2 2
so that
p+ p a 1
= V 2 = 1 (1 a)2 = a(2 a)
2
Differentiating to obtain the maximum of this gives

2 2a = 0 a=1

which means that p+ is the stagnation pressure.


Downstream
p0 p 1 pa 1
= + (1 a)2 V 2 = + (1 2a)V 2
2 2
Therefore
p a p
1 2
= (1 a)2 (1 2a)2 = a(2 3a)
2
V
Differentiating this with respect to a and setting the derivative to zero gives
1
a=
3
This value of a corresponds to a maximum power from the turbine. Hence also
maximum for the difference p+ p . or the lowest value of p .

Exercise 12.3 A wind turbine operates at wind speed of V = 12 m/s. Its blade
radius is R = 20 m and its tip speed radius R/V = 4. It operates at the con-
dition Cp = 0.3. a. Find the rate of rotation of the blades. b. Find the power
developed by the turbine. c. Find the value of the interference factor a based on
the momentum theory. d. Find the pressure on the front of the actuator disc, if the
free stream pressure is 101.30 kPa.
Given: V , R/V , Cp , and R.

173
Find: , W , a, p+ .
Solution: The shaft speed is
5V 5 12 30
= = = 28.6 rpm
R 20
From the expression for the power coefficient

Cp = 4a(1 a)2

and expanding the right hand side and setting it equal to 0.4 gives

4a3 8a2 + 4a 0.4 = 0

This has the solutions a = (0.1330, 0.5874, 1.2749). The value in the range 0 <
a < 1/2 is the appropriate one, or a = 0.1339 Lef tarrow (c).
The power delivered is
1 1
W Cp AV 3 = 0.4 1.2 202 123 = 521 kW (b)
2 2
The velocity at the actuator disk is

Vd = (1 a)V = 0.867 12 = 10.4 m/s (c)

The pressure upstream of the disk is


1 1
p+ = pa + V 2 (1 a)2 V 2
2 2
or
1
p+ = pa + a(2a)V 2 = 101, 325+0.51.20.13301.867122 = 101, 325+21 = 101, 346 Pa (
2
Exercise 12.4 Using the axial momentum theory calculate the ratio of the slip-
stream radius to that of the disc radius in terms of the interference factor a. If
the wind turbine blades are 80 m long, what is the radius of the slip stream far
downstream. What is the radius of the streamtube far upstream.
Given: a = 1/3, R.
Rb
Find: R
, Ra .

174
Solution: From continuity

Ra2 V = R2 (1 a)2 V = Rb2 (1 2a)V

it follows that
Ra Rb 1a
= 1a =
R R 1 2a
so that for a = 1/3 these give
Ra
= 2 Ra = 280 = 113 m
R

Rb 2 2
= Ra = 80 = 65.3 m
R 3 3
Exercise 12.5 In a wind with speed V = 8.7 m/s and air density = 1.2 kg/m3 ,
a wind turbine operates at a condition with Cp = 0.31. Find the blade length, if
the power delivered to the turbine is to be W = 250 kW.
Given: V , Cp , and W .
Find: R.
Solution: From
Cp = 4a(1 a)2
with Cp = 0.31 the value of a can be obtained from

4a3 8a2 + 4a 0.31 = 0

The roos are a = (1.2491, 0.6564, 0.0945). The only one in the the range of wind
turbines is a = 0.0945 (a). From
1
W = AV 3
2
the area is
2W 2 250, 000
A= = = 2041.1 m2
3
V Cp 1.2 8.7 0.31
3

so that the radius is


A 2041.1
R= = = 25.5 m Lef tarrow (b)

175
Exercise 12.6 Consider a 3-bladed wind turbine with blade radius of R = 35 m
and constant cord of c = 80 cm, which operates with rotational speed of = 10
rpm. The wind speed is V = 12 m/s. Find the axial and tangential induction
factors at r = 10 m assuming that angle of attack is 6 and CD = 0.01CL .
Given: Z, R, r, c, V , and .
Find: a and a.
Solution: Using the Matlab script on page 425 of the text gives

a = 0.09390423 a = 0.06017493

Exercise 12.7 For the Example 12.4 calculate the force Fx and torque T by using
the mean values at r = 0.6 and compare with the numerical solution given in the
text.
Given: Z, R, X, c, , .
Find: Fx and T .
Solution: At r/R = 0.6 the values for a and a are a = 0.0055 and a = 0.0341,
therefore

Fx = 2a(1a)V 2 R2 (10.22 ) = 20.0460.9541.2122 402 (10.22 ) = 14, 638 N

and the torque is


10
T = V a (1 a)R4 (1 0.24 ) = 1.2 354 (1 0.24 ) = 23, 8670 N m
30
%HW 12.6
clear all;
R=35; V=12; c=0.80; alphad=6;
omega=10*pi/30; X=R*omega/V;
alpha=alphad*pi/180;
CL=2*pi*sin(alpha);
Z=3; rho=1.2;
dr=0.01; Fx=0; T=0; T2=0;
r=[0.2:dr:1.00]*R;
x=r*X/R;

176
n=length(r); kmax=20;
fid=fopen(span,w);
for i=1:n
k=0; a(i) = 0; ap(i) = 0; temp=a(i);
phi(i) = atan((1-a(i))/(x(i)*(1+ap(i))));
theta(i)=phi(i)-alpha;
sigma(i)=Z*c/(2*pi*r(i)); sg(i)=sigma(i)/4;
Cx(i)=CL*cos(phi(i)); Cy(i)=CL*sin(phi(i));
while k < kmax
a(i)=sg(i)*Cx(i)/(sin(phi(i))^2+sg(i)*Cx(i));
ap(i)=sg(i)*Cy(i)/(cos(phi(i))*sin(phi(i))-sg(i)*Cy(i));
phi(i)=atan((1-a(i))/(x(i)*(1+ap(i))));
Cx(i)=CL*cos(phi(i)); Cy(i)=CL*sin(phi(i));
theta(i)=phi(i)-alpha;
res=abs(1-temp/a(i)); temp= a(i);
if res < 0.0001
break
end
k=k+1;
end
thetad(i)=theta(i)*180/pi; phid(i)=phi(i)*180/pi;
fprintf(fid,%12.4f%12.4f%12.4f%12.4f%12.4f\n,r(i)/R, ...
phid(i),thetad(i),a(i),ap(i));
g(i)=4*pi*rho*R*V^2*a(i)*(1-a(i))*r(i)*dr;
gg(i)=4*pi*rho*X*V^2*ap(i)*(1-a(i))*r(i)^3*dr;
Fx=Fx+g(i);
T=T+gg(i);
end
Fx=Fx-0.5*(g(1)+g(n));
T=T-0.5*(gg(1)+gg(n)); % Put these !!!!
P=T*X*V/R;
fclose(fid);
Fx1=2*rho*pi*V^2*a(41)*(1-a(41))*R^2*(1-0.2^2);
T1=rho*pi*omega*V*ap(41)*(1-a(41))*R^4*(1-0.2^4);

177

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