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SOLUCIONARIO LIBRO PRINCIPLES OF TURBOMACHINERY by SEPPO KORPELA

© All Rights Reserved

92%(13)92% нашли этот документ полезным (13 голосов)

5K просмотров177 страницSOLUCIONARIO LIBRO PRINCIPLES OF TURBOMACHINERY by SEPPO KORPELA

© All Rights Reserved

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SOLUTIONS MANUAL

by

Seppo A. Korpela

Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

January 2012

Copyright 2011-2012,

c Seppo A. Korpela

Chapter 2

Exercise 2.1 Steam flows through a bank of nozzles shown in the figure below,

with wall thickness t2 = 2 mm, spacing s = 4 cm, blade height b = 2.5 cm, and

exit angle 2 = 68 . The exit velocity V2 = 400 m/s, pressure is p2 = 1.5 bar,

and temperature is T2 = 200 C. Find the mass flow rate.

Given:

Find: Mass flow rate.

Solution:

A2 V2 3.25 400

m = = 4 = 0.09 kg/s

v2 10 1.4443

Note that the specific volume could also be approximated as

v2 = = = 1.457 m3 /kg

Mp2 18 150

V1

t1

s

1

t2

2 2

V2

2

Exercise 2.2 Air enters a compressor from atmosphere at pressure 102 kPa and

temperature 42 C. Assuming that its density remains constant determine the spe-

cific compression work required to raise its pressure to 140 kPa in a reversible

adiabatic process, if the exit velocity is 50 m/s.

Given: Since the air is stagnant in the atmosphere, its conditions are the stagnation

conditions. The flow is isentropic and

T2 = 42 C = 315.15 K p1 = 102 kPa p2 = 140 kPa V2 = 50 m/s

Find: Specific work done.

Solution: For isentropic flow T ds = dh vdp leads to dh = dp/. In addition

h0 = h + V 2 /2 is constant. The flow is assumed incompressible because the

pressure changes only slightly and the exit velocity is small.

p 2 p1 1 2

w= + V2

2

The density is

p1 102

= = = 1.128 kg/m2

RT1 0.287 315.156

so that

140 102 502

w= + = 43.95 kJ/kg

1.128 2 1000

Exercise 2.3 Steam flows through a turbine at the rate of m = 9000 kg/h. The

rate at which power is delivered by the turbine is W = 440 hp. The inlet total

pressure is p01 = 70 bar and total temperature is T01 = 420 C. For a reversible

and adiabatic process find the total pressure and temperature. leaving the turbine.

Given: The flow is isentropic and

T01 = 420 C p01 = 70 bar m = 9000 kg/h W = 440 hp

Find: T02 and p02 .

Solution:

W 440 0.7457 3600

w= = = 131.2 kJ/kg

m 9000

From steam tables h)1 = 3209.8 kJ/kg, s1 = 6.5270 kJ/kg K. At the exit

h02 = h01 w = 3209.8 131.2 = 3078.6 kJ/kg s2 = 6.5270 kJ/kg K

From the superheated steam tables, or using EES,

p02 = 43.58 bar T02 = 348.5 C

3

Exercise 2.4 Water enters a pump as saturated liquid at total pressure of p01 =

0.08 bar and leaves it at p02 = 30 bar. If the mass flow rate is m = 10, 000 kg/h

and the process can be assumed to take place reversibly and adiabatically, deter-

mine the power required.

Given: The flow is isentropic and

Find: W .

Solution: For isentropic flow

w= = = 2.998 kJ/kg

998

Therefore

10, 000 2.998

W = mw = = 8.33 kW

3600

Exercise 2.5 Liquid water at 700 kPa and temperature 20 C flows at velocity

15 m/s. Find the stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure.

Given: The flow is isentropic and

Find: T0 and p0 .

Solution: Since water is incompressible

V2 152

T0 = T + = 20 + = 20.027 = 20.027 C

2cp 2 4187

1 998 152

p0 = p + V 2 = 700 + = 700 + 122.75 = 812.3 kPa

2 2 1000

Exercise 2.6 Water at temperature T1 = 20 C flows through a turbine with inlet

velocity V1 = 3 m/s, static pressure p1 = 780 kPa and elevation z1 = 2 m. At

the exit the conditions are V2 = 6 m/s, p2 = 100 kPa and z2 = 1.2 m. Find the

specific work delivered by the turbine.

Given: Assuming that the process is isentropic and given that T1 = 20 C, and

4

p2 = 100 kPa z1 = 1.2 m V1 = 6 m/s

Find: w

Solution: Since water is incompressible

w = h01 h02s = + + g(z1 z2 )

2

w= + + 9.81 (2 2.12) = 681.36 13.50 + 7.85

998 2

w = 675.71 J/kg

Note the small contributions from potential and kinetic energy.

Exercise 2.7 Air at static pressure of 2 bar and static temperature of 300 K flows

with velocity 60 m/s. Find total temperature and pressure.

Given:

p1 = 2 bar T1 = 300 K V1 = 60 m/s

Find: T01 and p01

Solution: The total temperature is

V12 602

T01 = T1 + = 300 + = 301.8 K

2 cp 2 1004.5

and since the velocity is quite small, air may be taken to be incompressible with

density

p1 2 105

= = = 2.323 kg/m3

RT1 287 300

and the stagnation pressure is

1 2.323 602

p01 = p1 + V12 = 2 105 + = 204.2 kPa

2 2

Exercise 2.8 Air at static temperature of 300 K and static pressure of 140 kPa

flow with velocity 60 m/s. Evaluate the total temperature and total pressure of air.

Repeat the calculation if the air speed is 300 m/s.

Given:

p1 = 140 kPa T1 = 300 K V1 = 60 m/s

5

Find: T01 and p01

Solution:

V12 602

T01 = T1 + = 300 + = 301.8 K

2 cp 2 1004.5

and since the velocity is quite small, air may be taken to be incompressible with

density

p1 2 105

= = = 2.323 kg/m3

RT1 287 300

and the stagnation pressure is

1 2.323 602

p01 = p1 + V12 = 140 103 + = 142.93 kPa

2 2

and if V1 = 300 m/s then

V12 3002

T01 = T1 + = 300 + = 344.8 K

2 cp 2 1004.5

and ( )/(1) ( )3/5

T01 344.8

p01 = p1 = 140 = 227.9 kPa

T1 300

Exercise 2.9 Air undergoes an increase of 1.75 kPa in total pressure through a

blower. The inlet total pressure is one atmosphere and the inlet total temperature

is 21 C. Evaluate the exit total temperature if the process is reversible adiabatic.

Evaluate the energy added to the air per unit mass flow.

Given:

p01 = 101.325 kPa T01 = 294.15 K p0 = 1.74 kPa

Find: T02

Solution: The stagnation density is

p01 101.325 103

01 = = = 1.200 kg/m3

RT01 287 294.15

Since the process is reversible and adiabatic and the pressure increase is quite

small, the work done by the blower may be calculated from

p02 p01 1.75

w= = = 1.458 kJ/kg

01 1.200

6

and the stagnation temperature leaving the blower is

w 1458

T02 = T01 + = 294.15 + = 295.6 K = 22.4 C

cp 1004.5

Exercise 2.10 Air enters a blower from the atmosphere where pressure is 101.3 kPa

and temperature is 27 C. Its velocity at the inlet is and with velocity 46 m/s. At

the exit the total temperature is 28 C and the velocity is 123 m/s. Assuming that

the flow is reversible and adiabatic, determine (a) the change in total pressure in

millimeters of water and (b) the change in static pressure, also in millimeters of

water.

Given: The inlet stagnation pressure is p01 = 101.3 kPa and stagnation tempera-

ture and velocity are

At the exit

T02 = 301.15 K V2 = 123 m/s

Find: p0 in millimeters of water.

Solution: Work done by the blower is

p01 101.3 103

01 = = = 1.176 kg/m3

RT01 287 300.15

The flow is isentropic and the pressure rise is small. Therefore

p0

ws = p0 = 01 w = 1.176 1.0045 = 1.181 kPa

01

In millimeters of water this is

p0 1182

H = = = 0.121 mm (a)

w g 998 9.81

To calculate the difference in the static pressure, first calculate

1 462

p1 = p01 01 V12 = 300.15 = 100.06 kPa

2 2 1004.5

7

The static temperatures are

V12 462

T1 = T01 = 300.15 = 299.10 K

2cp 2 1004.5

V22 1232

T2 = T02 = 301.15 = 293.62 K

2cp 2 1004.5

The exit stagnation pressure is p02 = 101.300 + 1.182 = 102.482 kPa. and the

static pressure is

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T2 293.62

p2 = p02 = 102.48 = 93.789 kPa

T02 301.15

and thus

p2 p1 93.789 100.06

Hs = = = 641 mm (b)

w g 998 9.81

Exercise 2.11 The total pressure, static pressure and the total temperature of air

at a certain point in a flow are 700 kPa, 350 kPa, and 450 K, respectively. Find the

velocity at that point.

Given: The properties are

Solution:

( )(1)/ ( )1/3.5

p 350

T = T0 = 450 = 369.15 K

p0 700

and

V = 2cp (T0 T ) = 2 1004.5(450 369.15) = 403.0 m/s

Exercise 2.12 Air has a static pressure of 2 bar and static temperature 300 K

while it flows at speed 1000 m/s. (a) Assuming air obeys the ideal gas law with

constant specific heats, determine its stagnation temperature and stagnation pres-

sure. (b) Repeat part (a) using the air tables.

8

Given: The properties are

Solution:

1 10002

T01 = T1 + 2c p = 300 + = 797.8 K (a)

V12 2 1004.5

( )/(1) ( )3/5

T01 797.8

p01 = p1 = 200 = 61.33 bar (a)

T1 300

Using air tables: At the inlet pr1 = 1.386

V12 10002

h01 =h+ = 300.19 + = 800.19 kJ/kg (b)

2 2cdot1000

Thus with the same entropy and this stagnation enthalpy pr0 = 43.38, and T01 =

780.15 K. Therefore

pr0 43.38

p01 = p1 =2 = 6.26 bar (b)

pr 1.386

Exercise 2.13 At a certain location the velocity of air flowing in a duct is 321.5 m/s.

At that location the stagnation pressure is 700 kPa and stagnation temperature is

450 K. What is the static density at this location.

Given: The properties are

Find: 1 .

Solution:

V12 321.52

T1 = T01 = 450 = 398.55 kPa

2cp 2 1004.5

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T1 389.55

p1 = p01 = 700 = 457.66 kPa

T01 430

The density is then

p1 398550

1 = = = 4.00 kg/m3

RT1 287 457.66

9

Exercise 2.14 Air flows in a circular duct of diameter 4 cm at the rate of 0.5 kg/s.

The flow is adiabatic with stagnation temperature 288 K. At certain location the

static pressure is 110 kPa. Find the velocity at this location.

Given: The properties are

Solution: Solving m = AV = pAV /RT for temperature gives

pAV

T =

mR

Since T = T0 V 2 /2cp a quadratic equation for velocity if found

2cp pA

V2+ V 2cp T0 = 0

mR

the solution of which is

( )

cp pA 2T0 m2 R2

V = 1 1+

mR cp p2 A2

2cp m2 R2 2 288 0.52 2872

= = 0.618

cp p2 A2 1004.5 1100002 ( 0.022 )2

= = 967.61

mR 0.5 287

Therefore

V = 967.61(1 1 + 0.6180) = 263.2 m/s

Exercise 2.15 Saturated steam enters a nozzle at static pressure 14 bar at velocity

52 m/s. It expands isentropically to pressure 8.2 bar. Mass flow rate is m =

0.7 kg/s. Find the exit area if, (a) steam is assumed to behave as an ideal gas with

= 1.135, and cp = 2731 J/kg K; (b) the end state is calculated with properties

obtained from the steam tables.

10

Given: The properties are

Find: A2

Solution: From steam tables the value of enthalpy is h1 = 2789.4 kJ/kg and the

specific volume is V1 = 0.1408 m3 /kg. Then assuming ideal gas behavior with

constant specific heats, gives

V12 522

T01 = T1 + = 468.2 + = 468.7 K

2cp 2 2731

and the stagnation pressure is

1 522

p01 = p1 + 1 V12 = 14 105 + = 14.096 bar

2 2 0.1408

State 2 has p2 = 820 bar, so that

( )(1)/ ( )0.135

p2 820

T2 = T1 = 468.2 1.135 = 439.3 K

p1 1400

Since no work is done T02 = T01 and

V2 = 2cp (T02 T2 ) = 2 2731(468.7 439.3) = 400.5 m/s

( )1/ ( )

p2 1400

v2 = v1 = 0.1408 1/1.315 = 0.2256 m3 /kg

p1 820

Hence

A = mv2 /V2 = 0.7 0.2256/400.5 = 3.944 cm2

Using steam tables

s2 sf 6.4684 2.0559

x2 = = = 0.9596

sg Sf 6.6546 2.0559

v2 = vf + x2 vf g = 1.116 103 + 0.9596(0.2354 1.116 103) = 0.2259 m3 /kg

11

Therefore

V2 2(h02 h2 ) = 2(2791.0 2687.0 = 454.9 m2 /s

so that

A = mv2 /V2 = 0.7 0.2259/54509 = 0.3469 cm2

Exercise 2.16 A fluid enters a turbine with total temperature of 330 K and total

pressure of 700 kPa. The outlet total pressure is 100 kPa. If the expansion process

through the turbine is isentropic, evaluate (a) the work per unit mass flow if the

fluid is incompressible and having a density equal to 1000 kg/m3 , (b) the work

per unit mass flow if the fluid is air

Given: The properties are

Solution: Since the process is isentropic, for water

p01 p02 700 100

ws = = = 0.6 kJ/kg

998

For air ( )(1)/ ( )1/3/5

p02 100

T02 = T01 = 330 = 189.3 K

p01 700

so that

Note that the air temperature leaving the turbine is very low, and operation such as

this would be unusual. It might happen in an expander in cryogenic applications.

Exercise 2.17 Air flows through a turbine which has a total pressure ratio 5 to 1.

The total-to-total efficiency is 80% and the flow rate is 1.5 kg/s. The desired out-

put power is to be 250 hp(186.4 kW). Determine: (a) The inlet total temperature;

(b) The outlet total temperature; (c) the outlet static temperature if the exit velocity

is 90 m/s; (d) draw the process on a T S-diagram and determine the total-to-static

efficiency of the turbine.

12

Given: The properties of air are

Solution:

W 186.4 w 124.27

w= = = 124.27 kJ/kg ws = = = 155.33 kJ/kg

m 1.5 tt 0.8

ws = cp (T01 T02s )

ws 155.33

T01 = = = 419.51 K

cp [1 (p02 /p01 )(1)/ ] 1.0045(1 51/3.5 )

w 124.27

T02 = T01 = 419.51 = 295.80 K

cp 1.0045

V22 902

T2 = T02 = 295.80 = 291.76 K

2cp 2 1.0045

w 155.33

T02s = T01 = 419.51 = 264.9 K

2cp 2 1.0045

Assuming that V2s = V2

V2s2 902

T2s = T02s = 264.9 = 260.8 K

2cp 2 1.0045

Thus

T01 T02 419.51 295.80

ts = = = 0.78

T01 T2s 419.51 260.8

Exercise 2.18 A blower has a change in total enthalpy of 6000 J/kg, an inlet

total temperature 288 K, and inlet total pressure 101.3 kPa. Find: (a) the exit

total temperature if the working fluid is air; (b) the total pressure ratio across the

machine if the total-to-total efficiency is 75%. Given: The properties of air are

h02 h01 = 6000 J/kg T01 = 288 K p01 = 101.3 kPa tt = 0.75

13

Solution:

h02 h01 6000

T02 = T01 + = 288 + = 294.0 K

cp 1004.5

Next

T02s T01

tt =

T02 T01

T02s = T01 + tt (T02 T01 ) = 288 + 0.75 6 = 292.5 K

so that ( )/(1) ( )3/5

p02 T02s 292.5

= = = 1.0555

p01 T01 288

Exercise 2.19 A multi-stage turbine has a total pressure ratio 2.5 across each of

four stages. The inlet total temperature is T01 = 1200 K and the total-to-total

efficiency of each stage is 0.87. Evaluate the overall total-to-total efficiency of the

turbine if steam is flowing through it. Steam can be assumed to behave as a perfect

gas with = 1.3. Why is the overall efficiency higher than the stage efficiency?

Given: The properties of air are

p02

= 2.5 T01 = 1200 K tt = 0.87

p01

Solution:

p01 p01 p02 p03 p04

= = 2.54 = 39

p05 p02 p03 p04 p05

Also [ ( )/(1) ]

p02

T02 = T01 1 tt

p01

and since the efficiency of each stage is the same

[ ( )/(1) ]

p02

T03 = T02 1 tt

p01

[ ( )/(1) ]2

p02

T03 = T01 1 tt

p01

14

and so forth to [ ( )/(1) ]4

p02

T05 = T01 1 tt

p01

so that [ ( )]4

1

T05 = 1200 1 0.87 1 = 581.1 K

2.50.3/1.3

The overall efficiency is therefore

0 = =

T01 T05s 1 (p05 /p01 )/(1)

1 581.1/1200

0 = = 0.904

1 (1/2.54 )0.3/1.3

The overall efficiency is larger than the stage efficiency because the internal en-

ergy at the exit of each stage is higher because of internal heating and this becomes

available during the next expansion process.

Exercise 2.20 Gases from a combustion chamber enter a gas turbine at total pres-

sure of 700 kPa and total temperature of 1100 K. The total pressure and total

temperature at the exit of the turbine are 140 kPa and 780 K. If = 4/3 is used

for the mixture of combustion gases, which has a molecular mass of 28.97, find

the total-to-total efficiency and the total-to-static efficiency of the turbine, if the

exit velocity is 210 m/s.

Given: The inlet and exit conditions are and V2 = 210 m/s.

p01 = 700 kPa p02 = 140 kPa T01 = 1100 K T02 = 780 K

Find: the total-to-total efficiency.

Solution:

R

cp = = 4 287 = 1148 J/kg

1

( )(1)/ ( )1/4

p02 140

T02s = T01 = 1100 = 735.6 K

p01 700

T01 T02 1100 780

tt = = = 0.878

T01 T02s 1100 735.6

15

V2s2 2102

T2s = T02s = 735.6 = 716.4 K

2cp 2 1148

T01 T02 1100 780

ts = = = 0.834

T01 T2s 1100 716.4

Exercise 2.21 Air enters a compressor from atmosphere at 101.3 kPa, 288 K. It

is compressed to static pressure of 420 kPa and at the exit its velocity is 300 m/s.

The compressor total-to-total efficiency is 0.82. (a) Find the exit static temper-

ature, without making the assumption that V2s = V2 . (b) Find the exit static

temperature by assuming that V2s = V2 .

Given: The exit velocity of air is V2 = 300 m and the properties of air are

Solution: Assume first that V2s = V2 , then

( )(1)/ ( )1/3.5

p2 420

T2s = T01 = 288 = 432.4 K

p01 1013.3

V22 3002

T02s = T2s + = 432.4 + = 477.1 K

2cp 2 1004.5

As a result

1 1

T02 = T01 + (T02s T01 ) = 432.4 + (477.1 288) = 518.7 K

tt 0.82

and

V22 3002

T2 = T02 = 518.7 = 473.9 K (a)

2cp 2 1004.5

If V2 = V2s , then

V2s2 V 2 T2s

T02s = T2s + = T2s + 2

2cp 2cp T2

and

1 1 V22 T2s V22

T2 = T01 + (T02s T01 ) = T01 + (T2s T01 + )

tt tt 2cp T2 2cp

16

from which

1 V22 V22 T2s

T22 [T01 + (T2s T01 ) ] T2 =0

tt 2cp 2tt cp

419.2 419.22

T2 = + + 23620 = 469.5 K (b)

2 4

Exercise 2.22 Liquid water issues at velocity V1 = 20 m/s from a bank of five

oblique nozzles shown in Figure 1. The nozzles with wall thickness t = 0.2 cm

are spaced s = 4 cm apart. The nozzle angle is 1 = 70 deg. Using the mass and

momentum balance: (a) Find the downstream velocity V2 . (b) Find the pressure

increase in the flow. (c) Show how to deduce this result from the final equation in

the example on mixing from the text. (d). If the thickness of the wall is vanishingly

small, what is the change in pressure.

Given:

t = 0.2 cm s = 4 cm V1 = 20 m/s 1 = 70

t = 0.

Solution: From the mass balance

V2 V1 (cos 1 t/s)

V2 (V2 V1 cos 1 ) = p1 p2

and after eliminating V2 between this and the mass balance lead to

( ) ( )

2t t 2 0.2 0.2

p2 p1 = V1 cos 1 = 99820 cos(70 ) = 5.84 kPa

s s 4 4

Va A a t t

p2 p1 = V (Va V ) V = = V1 cos 1 (1 ) = V1 (cos 1 )

Aa + Ab s cos 1 s

17

V1 V2

and

t

Va V = V1 cos 1 V1 cos 1 + V1

s

so that ( )

t t

p2 p1 = V12 cos 1

s s

Exercise 2.23 Consider the flow shown in Figure 1. Prove that the kinetic energy

lost in the flow as it moves to the downstream section is equal to that associated

with the transverse component of the velocity.

Given: The channel width s and angle 1 , and V .

Find: the expression for the loss in terms of the transverse component.

Solution: From continuity, after canceling s

V2 = V1 cos 1

From x-component of momentum equation, after canceling s

V2 (V2 V1 cos 1 ) = p1 p2

Substituting from continuity gives p1 = p2 . From energy equation

p1 V12 p2 V22 V2

+ = + + 1

2 2 2

Canceling the pressure terms and from continuity V2 = V1 cos 1 yields

V12 = V22 + V12 1 cos2 1 =

so that

V12 V 2 sin2 1 V2

= 1 = t

2 2 2

18

Chapter 3

Exercise 3.1 Conditions in an air reservoir are 680 kPa and 560 K. From there

the air flows isentropically though a convergent nozzle to a back pressure of

101.3 kPa. Find the velocity at the exit plane of the nozzle.

Given: The properties are

Solution: Since

p2 101.3

= = 0.149

p01 630

the flow is choked and the velocity at the exit is the sonic velocity. To find it first

calculate

2T01 2 560

T = = = 466.7 K

+1 2.4

and then

V = RT = 1.4 287 466.7 = 433 m/s

Exercise 3.2 Air flows in a converging duct. At a certain location, where the area

is A1 = 6.5 cm2 , pressure is p1 = 140 kPa and Mach number is M1 = 0.6. The

mass flow rate is m = 0.25 kg/s. (a) Find the stagnation temperature. (b) If the

flow is choked find the size of the throat area. (c) Give the percent reduction in

area from station 1 to the throat. (d) Find the pressure at the throat.

Given: At the location A1 = 6.5 cm2 and the properties are

Solution: Solve the equation

p 1 A1

m = 1 A1 V1 = M1 RT1

RT1

for T1 . It yields

( )2 ( )2

p1 A1 M1 140000 0.00065 0.6 1.4

T1 = = = 232.7 K

m R 0.25 287

19

and then

( )

1 2

T01 = T1 1+ M1 = 232.7(1 + 0.2 0.62 ) = 249.4 K

2

( )(+1)/2(+1)

A 1 2 1 2

= + M

A1 M1 + 1 + 1 1

so that ( )(+1)/2(+1)

2 1 2

A = A1 M 1 + M

+1 +1 1

2 0.4

= 6.5 0.6( + 0.62 )3 = 5.47 cm2

2.4 2.4

Percent reduction is

A1 A 6.5 5.47

= = 0.1584 15.84 %

A1 6.5

To calculate the exit pressure, first

( )/(1)

1 2

p01 = p1 1 + M1 = 140(10.2 0.62 )3.5 = 178.6 kPa

2

and then

( )/(1) ( )3/5

2 2

p = p01 = 178.6 = 94.3 kPa

1 2.4

Exercise 3.3 Air flows in a convergent nozzle. At a certain location, where the

area is A1 = 5 cm2 , pressure is p1 = 240 kPa and temperature is T1 = 360 K.

Mach number at this location is M1 = 0.4. Find the mass flow rate.

Given: At the location A1 = 5 cm2 and the properties are

T1 = 360 K p1 = 140 kPa M1 = 0.4

Find: Find the mass flow rate.

Solution:

V1 = M1 RT1 = 0.4 1.4 287 360 = 152.1 m/s

p1 240000

1 = = = 2.323 kg/m3

RT1 287 360

so that

m = 1 A1 V1 = 2.323 5 104 152.1 = 0.177 kg/s

20

Exercise 3.4 The area of a throat in a circular nozzle is At = 1 cm2 . For a choked

flow find the diameter where M1 = 0.5. Determine the value of Mach number at a

location where the diameter is D2 = 1.941 cm. Assume the flow to be isentropic

and = 1.4.

Given: At the throat A = 1.0 cm2 and D2 = 1.941 cm.

Find: The D1 and M2

Solution: From

( )(+1)/2(+1) ( )3

A 1 2 1 2 1 2 0.4 2

= + M = + 0.5 ) = 1.34

A1 M1 + 1 + 1 1 0.5 2.4 2.4

so that

4A1

A1 = 1.34A = 1.34 1 = 1.34 cm2 D1 = = 1.31 cm

For D2 = 1.941 cm, the area is A2 = D22 /4 = 2.96 cm2 , then solve

( )(+1)/2(+1)

A2 2.96 1 2 1 2

= = 2.96 = + M

A 1 M2 + 1 + 1 2

for M2 . Carrying out the solution by iteration gives M2 = 0.2

number has the value M1 = 0.2. Find the diameter at a location where M = 0.6.

Given: At the location A1 = 4 cm2 and M1 = 0.2

Find: The area at which M2 = 0.6.

Solution: From

( )(+1)/2(+1) ( )3

A1 1 2 1 2 1 2 0.4 2

= + M = + 0.2 = 2.964

A M1 + 1 + 1 1 0.2 2.4 2.4

( )(+1)/2(+1) ( )3

A2 1 2 1 2 1 2 0.4 2

= + M = + 0.6 = 1.188

A M2 + 1 + 1 2 0.6 2.4 2.4

D2 = 4A2 / = 4 1.604/ = 1.43 cm

21

Exercise 3.6 Air flows through a circular duct 15 cm in diameter with a flow rate

2.25 kg/s. The total temperature and static pressure at a certain location in the

duct are 30 C and 106 kPa, respectively. Evaluate (a) the flow velocity, (b) the

static temperature, (c) the total pressure, and (d) the density at this location.

Given: At the location where D1 = 15.0 cm2 and the flow rate is m = 2.25 kg/s,

the properties are

T01 = 303.15 K p1 = 106 kPa

Find: The velocity, the static temperature, the total pressure, the static density.

Solution:

D12

A1 = = 0.01767 m2

4

From the mass balance

( )1/2

p1 A 1 M 1 T01

m = 1 A1 V1 = RT1 = p1 A1 M1

RT1 RT01 T1

or ( )2

2 2 m RT01

M14 + M12 =0

1 1 p1 A1

Substituting the numerical values into this gives

M14 + 5M12 0.4483 = 0 M12 = 2.5 + 2.52 + 0.4483 M1 = 0.297

Therefore

( )1

1 2 303.15

T1 = T01 1+ M1 = = 297.9 K

2 1 + 0.2 0.2972

and

V1 = M 1 RT1 = 0.297 1.4 287 297.9 = 102.8 m/s

The stagnation pressure is

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T01 303.15

p01 = p1 = 106 = 112.7kPa

T1 297.9

and the static density is

p1 106

1 = = = 1.24 kg/m3

RT1 0.287 297.9

22

Exercise 3.7 Conditions in an air reservoir are 380 kPa and 460 K. From there

the air flows though a convergent nozzle to a back pressure of 101.3 kPa. The

polytropic efficiency of the nozzle is p = 0.98. Find: (a) Exit plane pressure, (b)

Exit plane temperature, (c) Velocity at the exit plane of the nozzle.

Given: The properties of air are.

T01 = 460 K p01 = 380 kPa pb = 101.3 kPa p = 0.98

Find: pe , Te , Ve .

Solution: Since pb /p01 = 101.3/380 = 0.266, the flow is choked. The polytropic

exponent is

1/4

n= = = 1.389

p + (1 p ) 0.98 + 1.4 0.02

Then

( )n/(n1) ( )

2 2

pe = p01 = 380 1/389/0.389 = 198.1 kPa

+1 2.4

and

2 2

Te =

T01 = 460 = 383.3 K

+1 2.4

and the Mach number is Me = (n 1)/( 1) = 0.389/0.4 = 0.986 so

that

Ve = Me RTe = 0.986 1.4 287 383.3 = 387.0 m/s

Exercise 3.8 Air issues from a reservoir at conditions 260 kPa and 540 K into a

converging nozzle. The nozzle efficiency is estimated to be N = 0.986. The

back pressure is pb = 101.3kPa. Find: (a) The exit Mach number, (b) Exit plane

temperature, (c) Exit plane pressure, (d) Exit velocity.

Given: The properties of air are.

T01 = 540 K p01 = 260 kPa pb = 101.3 kPa N = 0.986

Find: Me , pe , Te , Ve .

Solution: Since pb /p01 = 101.3/260 = 0.389, the flow is choked. The Mach

number can be calculated from

[ ]1/2

( 1)(3N 1) 2 + [( 1)(3N 1) 2]2 + 8N (1 N )( 1)2

Me =

2( 1)2 (1 N )

23

[ ]1/2

0.4 1.958 2.8 + (0.4 1.958 2.8)2 + 8 0.989 0.014 0.42

Me = = 0.9883

2 0.16 0.014

The exit temperature is

2T01 2 540

Te = = = 450 K

+1 2.4

( )n/(n1) ( )1.3907

2 2

pe = p01 = 260 0.3907 = 135.9 kPa

+1 2.4

Ve = Me RTe = 0.9882 1.4 287 450 = 420.2 m/s

Exercise 3.9 At the inlet to a nozzle the conditions are M1 = 0.3, p01 = 320 kPa,

and T01 = 430 K. The flow is irreversible with polytropic exponent n = 1.396.

Show that ( )/(1) ( )(n1)/n

T02 p01 p1

=

T2 p1 p2

Find the Mach number at a location where p2 = 210 kPa.

Given: T01 = 430 K, p01 = 320 kPa, M1 = 0.3, and n = 1.396.

Find: Show that the expression in the statement of the exercise is correct. Also

find the Mach number at the location where p2 = 210 kPa.

Solution: From ( )(n1)/n

p1 T1 T1 T01

= =

p2 T2 T01 T2

Therefore ( )(n1)/n

T01 T01 p1

=

T2 T1 p2

and since T01 T02

( )(1)/ ( )(n1)/n

T02 p01 p1

=

T2 p1 p2

24

From

( )/(1)

p01 1 2

= 1+ M1 = (1 + 0.2 0.32 )3/5 = 1.0644

p1 2

so that

320

p1 = = 300.63 kPa

1.0644

and ( ) ( )n/(n1)

T02 T01 T1 1 2 p1

= = 1 M1

T2 T1 T2 2 p2

( )0.396

T02 300.62

= (1 + 0.2 0.32 ) 1.396 = 1.127

T2 210

and also

T02 1 2

=1+ M2

T2 2

so that

( )

2 T02 2

M2 = 1 = (1.127 1) = 0.797

1 T2 0.4

Exercise 3.10 Flow from a reservoir with p01 = 260 kPa and T01 = 530 K flows

through a nozzle. It is estimated that the static enthalpy loss coefficient is =

0.020. The exit pressure is p2 = 180 kPa. (a) Find the exit Mach number. (b)

Find the polytropic efficiency of the nozzle.

Given: The conditions are

Find: p .

Solution: The static temperature for an isentropic process is

( )(1)/ ( )1/3.5

p2 180

T2s = T01 = 530 = 4771 K

p01 260

The static temperature is obtained from

T2 T2s T02 + T 2s 0.02 530 + 477.1

= T2 = = = 478.2 K

T02 T2 1+ 1.002

25

From

T02 1 2 2 T02 2 530

= 1+ M2 M2 = ( 1) = ( 1) = 0.736

T2 2 1 T2 0.4 478.2

( )(n1)/n

T2 p2 1 1

= n= = = 1.3885

T01 p01 1 ln(T2 /T01 )

ln(p2 /p01 )

1 ln(478.2/530)

ln(180/260)

therefore

( )( )

n1 0.3885 1.4

N = = = 0.9793

n 1 1.3885 0.4

4 x(x 1)

y=

+

5 2(x + 2)

nozzle stretches from 0 < x/a < 2( 2 1). The throat is at xt /a =

The

2( 2 1). The scale factor a is chosen such that the half-width of the nozzle at

x = 0 is 4a/5. Assume that 4f = 0.02 and the inlet Mach number is M1 = 0.5.

Calculate and plot p/p1 as a function of x. Calculate the Mach number along the

nozzle and graph it on the same plot.

Given: The shape of the flow channel and the friction factor.

Find: Plot p/p1 and the Mach number.

Solution:

%Nozzle Calculation

%Nozzle Calculation

clear all; clf

k=1.4; f=0.02/4; w=1;

x=[0:0.005:2*(sqrt(2)-1)]; y=4/5+x.*(x-2)./(4+2*x);

n=length(x);

M(1)=0.5

mx(1)=M(1)^2;

d(1)=4*y(1)*w/(w+y(1));

A(1)=2*y(1)*w;

26

p0(1)=1;

p(1)=1;

for i=2:n

d(i)=4*y(i)*w/(w+y(i));

A(i)=2*y(i)*w;

mx(i)=mx(i-1)-2*mx(i-1)*(1+0.5*(k-1)* ...

mx(i-1))*(A(i)/A(i-1)-1)/(1-mx(i-1))+ ...

mx(i-1)*k*mx(i-1)*(1+0.5*(k-1)*mx(i-1))* ...

4*f*(x(i)-x(i-1))/(d(i)*(1-mx(i-1)));

M(i)=sqrt(mx(i));

p0(i)=p0(i-1)-p0(i-1)*k*mx(i-1)*2*f*(x(i)-x(i-1))/d(i);

r(i)=((2+(k-1)*mx(i))/(2+(k-1)*mx(1)))^(k/(k-1));

p(i)=p0(i)*p(1)/(p0(1)*r(i));

end

plot(x,p,x,M);grid;

Exercise 3.12 Steam enters a nozzle from a steam chest at saturated vapor state

at pressure p0 = 0.8 bar. It expands isentropically through a steam nozzle. Find

the degree of supersaturation when it crosses the Wilson line at x = 0.96.

Given: Saturated steam at p01 = 80 kPa.

Find: The degree of saturation if it isentropically expands to x2 = 0.96.

Solution: The temperature of saturated steam at this pressure is T01 = 366.6 K.

Assuming that the adiabatic index according to Zeuners formula is = 1.135,

then for an isentropic process

( )(1)/ ( )0.135/1.135

p2 36.6

T2 = T01 = 366.6 = 333.7 K

p01 80

The pressure of saturated steam at this temperature is pss = 20.43 kPa. Hence the

degree of supersaturation is

p2 36.6

S= = = 1.774

pss 20.43

Exercise 3.13 Consider a supersonic flow over a convex corner with angle 2 =

5 , when the inflow moves in the direction of 1 = 0 . The upstream Mach number

is M1 = 1.1, pressure is p1 = 130 kPa and T1 = 310 K. Find: (a) Mach number,

(b) temperature, and (c) pressure after the expansion is complete.

27

Given: The conditions at the inlet are

Find: M2 , T2 and p2 .

Solution: The Prandtl-Meyer function a the inlet is

( ) ( )

1 1 1 1

1 = tan = tan = 65.38

M12 1 1.12 1

then

( )

+1 1 1 1

1 = tan (M 1) tan

2

M12 1

1 +1 1

( )

2.4 0.4

1 = tan1 (1.12 1) tan1 1.12 1 = 1.336

0.4 2.4

so that

2 = 1 + 2 = 1.336 + 5 = 6.336

Since

( )

+1 1

2 = tan1 (M 1) tan

2 1

M22 1

1 +1 2

With = 1.4 and 1 = 6.336 , this equation can be solved by iterations for M2 .

It gives M2 = 1.306 (a)

Next

1 2

T0 = T1 (1 + M1 ) = 310(1 + 0.2 1.12 ) = 385.0 K

2

and

1 2 1

T2 = T0 (1 + M1 ) = 385(1 + 0.2 1.12 )1 = 287.1 K

2

and ( )/(1) ( )3/5

T2 287.1

p2 = p 1 = 130 = 99.36 kPa

T1 310

28

Exercise 3.14 Consider the steam flow from a low pressure nozzle at an angle

= 65 . At the inlet of the nozzle steam is saturated vapor at pressure p0 =

18 kPa. Steam exhausts into the inter-blade space, where pressure is 7 kPa. Find

the angle by which the flow turns on leaving the nozzle, the far downstream

velocity, and its direction.

Given: Steam, with = 1.135 and R = 8314/18 = 461.9 J/kg K at the inlet as

saturated steam at p0 = 18 kPa and leaves at the nozzle angle 1 = 65 . Its far

downstream pressure is p2 = 7 kPa.

Find: The turning angle , V2 and 2 .

Solution: The nozzle is choked because p2 /p0 = 0.389. The saturation tempera-

ture is T0 = 330.9 K. Then

( )(1)/ ( )0.135/1.135

p2 7

T2 = T0 = 330.9 = 295.7 K

p0 18

From

T0 1 2

=1+ M2

T2 2

( ) ( )

2 T0 2 330.9

M2 = 1 = 1 = 1.327

1 T2 0.135 295.37

so that

V2 = M2 RT2 = 1.327 1.135 461.9 295/7 = 522.6 m/s

Next

+1 1

= tan1 (M 2 1)

1 +1 2

3.135 1 0.135

= tan (1.3282 1) = 49.2

0.135 2.135

In addition

( ) ( )

1 1 1 1

2 = tan = tan = 48.86

M22 1 1.3282 1

therefore

2 = + 2 = 49.36 90 + 4839 = 8.1

2

29

Exercise 3.15 Consider the steam flow from a low pressure nozzle at an angle

= 65 . At the inlet of the nozzle steam is saturated vapor at pressure p0 =

18 kPa. Steam exhausts into the inter-blade space, where pressure is 7 kPa. Using

the continuity equation, find the angle by which the flow turns on leaving the

nozzle, the far downstream velocity, and its direction.

Given: Steam, with = 1.135 and R = 8314/18 = 461.9 J/kg K at the inlet as

saturated steam at p0 = 18 kPa and leaves at the nozzle angle 1 = 65 . Its far

downstream pressure is p2 = 7 kPa

Find: The turning angle , V2 and 2 .

Solution: The flow is choked because p2 /p0 = 0.389. The specific volume of

saturated steam at p0 = 18 kPa is v0 = 8.46 m3 /kg and the temperature is T0 =

330.2 K. The specific volume at the throat is

( )1/0.135

+ 1 1/(1) 2.135

v1 = v0 = 8.46 = 13.7 m3 /kg

2 2

and the temperature is

2T 0 2 330.2

T1 = = = 309.3 K

+1 1.135

and the velocity is

V1 = RT1 = 1.135 461.9 309.3 = 403.1 m/s

( )(1)/ ( )0.135/1.135

p2 7

T2 = T0 = 330.9 = 295.7 K

p0 18

and the Mach number can be calculated from

T0 1 2

=1+ M2

T2 2

( ) ( )

2 T0 2 330.9

M2 = 1 = 1 = 1.327

1 T2 0.135 295.7

so that

V2 = M 2 RT2 = 1.327 1.135 461.9 295.7 = 522.6 m/s

30

The specific volume is

RT2 461.9 295.7

v2 = = = 19.5 m3 /kg

p2 7000

and by continuity the angle is

( )

1 V1 v2

2 = cos cos 1

V2 v1

( )

1 403.1 19.5

2 = cos cos(65 ) = 62.5

522.6 13.77

= 1 2 = 65 62.73 = 2.5

31

Chapter 4

Exercise 4.1 Steam enters a rotor of an axial turbine with an absolute velocity

V2 = 320 m/s at the angle 2 = 73 . The axial velocity remains constant. The

blade speed is U = 165 m/s. The rotor blades are equiangular so that 3 = 2

and the magnitude of the relative velocity remains constant across the rotor. Draw

the velocity triangles. Find, (a) the relative flow angle 2 , (b) the magnitude of

the velocity V3 after the flow leaves the rotor, and (c) the flow angle 3 which V3

makes with the axial direction.

Given: The rotor blades are equiangular with 3 = 2 and W3 = W2 . At the

inlet of the rotor

Find: 2 , V3 , 3 .

Solution: The axial and tangential components of the velocity are

The the tangential component of the relative velocity is

so that

2 2

W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 93.562 + 141.02 = 169.2 m/s

and

Since W3 = W2

Wu3 = W u2 = 141.0m/s

and

Vu3 = Wu3 +U = 141.0+165.0 = 24.0 m/s V3 = 2

Vx3 2

+ Vu3 = 93.562 + 24.02 = 96.6 m/s

so that

32

Exercise 4.2 Water with density 998 kg/m3 flows in centrifugal pump at the rate

of 22 liters per second. The impeller radius is r2 = 7.7 cm and the blade width

at the impeller exit is b2 = 0.8 cm. If the flow angles at the impeller exit are

2 = 67 and 2 = 40 , find the rotational speed of the shaft in rpm.

Given: The flow rate, the impeller radius and the height of its blade. The flow

angles are also known at the exit.

Find: The rotational speed of the shaft.

Solution: From

Q 0.022 104

Q = 2r2 b2 Vr2 Vr2 = = = 5/68 m/s

2r2 b2 2 7.7 0.8

Then

Vu2 = Vr2 tan 2 = 5.68 tan(67 ) = 13.39 m/s

Wu2 = Wr2 tan 2 = 5.68 tan(40 ) = 4.77 m/s

and

U = Vu2 Wu2 = 13.39 + 4.77 = 18.16 m/s

So that

U 18.16 100 30

= = = 2252 rpm

r2 7.7

Exercise 4.3 In a velocity diagram at the inlet of a turbine the angle of the ab-

solute velocity is 60 and the flow angle of the relative velocity is 51.7 . Draw

the velocity diagram and find the value of U/V and Vx /U . Given: The angles

= 60 and = 51.7 .

Find: U/V and Vx /U .

Solution: Let V = 1, then

and

Wu = Wx tan() = 0.5 tan(51.7 ) = 0.633

so that

U = Vu Wu = 0.866 + 0.633 = 1.5

and U/V = 1/5

The ratio Vx /U = 0.866/1.5 = 1/3

33

Exercise 4.4 A small axial-flow turbine has an output power of 37 kW when han-

dling one kg of air per second with an inlet total temperature of 335 K. The total-

to-total efficiency of the turbine is 80%. The rotor operates at 50, 000 rpm and

the mean blade diameter is 10 cm. Evaluate (a) the average driving force on the

turbine blades, (b) the change in the tangential component of the absolute velocity

across the rotor, and (c) the required total pressure ratio across the turbine.

Given: W = 37 kW, m = 1 kg/s, T01 = 335 K, tt = 0.8, and r2 = 0.05 m

= 55, 000 rpm.

Find: The force Fu , Vu2 Vu3 and p03 /p01 .

Solution: The blade speed is

0.05 50, 000

U = r2 = = 261.8 m/s

30

so that from W = Fu U , the force is Fu = W /U = 37, 000/261.8 = 141.3 N

The specific work is w = W /m = 37 kJ/kg and the change in tangential

velocity is from

w 37, 000

w = u(VU 2 Vu3 ) Vu2 Vu3 = = = 141.3 m/s

U 261.8

The isentropic work is

w 37 ws 46.25

ws = = = 46.25 kJ/kg rmso that T02s = T01 = 335 = 289 K

tt 0.8 cp 1.0045

and ( )/(1) ( )3.5

p01 T01 335

= = = 1.678

p03 T02s 289

Exercise 4.5 The exit flow angle of stator in an axial steam turbine is 68 . The

flow angle of the relative velocity leaving the rotor is 67 . Steam leaves the

stator at V2 = 120 m/s and the axial velocity is Vx2 = 0.41U . At the exit of

the rotor blades the axial steam velocity is Vx3 = 0.42U . The mass flow rate is

m = 2.2 kg/s. Find, (a) the flow angle entering the stator assuming it to be the

same as the absolute flow angle leaving the rotor, (b) the flow angle of the relative

velocity entering the rotor, (c) the reaction, and (d) the power delivered by the

stage.

Given: 2 = 68 , 3 = 67 , V2 = 120 m/s, Vx2 = 0.41U , Vx3 = 0.42U , and

m = 2.2 kg/s.

34

Find: 2 , 3 , and R.

Solution: From

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 120 cos(68 ) = 44.95 m/s Vu2 = V1 sin 2 = 120 sin(68 ) = 111.3 m/s

and ( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 1.62

2 = tan = tan = 2.1 (b)

Wx2 44.95

Next

Vx3 = 0.42U = 0.42 109.64 = 46.05 m/s

Wu3 = Wx3 tan 3 = 46.05 tan(67 ) = 108.5 m/s

so that

Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 108.5 + 109.64 = 1.16 m/s

and ( ) ( )

1 Vu3 1 1.16

3 = tan = tan = 1.44 (a)

Vu2 46.05

Next

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 109.64(112.26 1.16) = 12072 J/kg

and W = mw = 202 12072 = 26.6 kW (d).

The reaction is

W32 W22 108.52 + 46.042 1.622 44.952

R= = = 0.492 (c)

2e 2 12072

Exercise 4.6 The axial component of air flow leaving a stator in an axial flow

turbine is Vx2 = 175 m/s and its flow angle is 64 . The axial velocity is constant,

the reaction of the stage is R = 0.5, and the blade speed is U = 140 m/s. Since the

reaction is fifty percent the relationships between the flow angles are 2 = 3

and 2 = 3 . Find the flow angle of the velocity entering the stator.

Given: Vx2 , U , 2 , U and R.

Find: 2 .

Solution: The tangential velocity is

35

and

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 358.8 140 = 218.8 m/s

Therefore

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 218.8

2 = tan = tan = 51.35 3 = 54.3

Wx2 175

Exercise 4.7 The air flow leaving the rotor of an axial flow turbine is Vx3 =

140 m/s and its flow angle is 0 . The axial velocity is constant and equal to the

blade speed. The inlet flow angle to the rotor is 2 = 60 . Find the reaction.

Given: Vx , U = Vx , 1 = 0 , and 2 = 60 .

Find: R

Solution: Since the flow at the inlet and exit of the stage is axial

W3 = Vx2 + U 2 = U 2 = 140 2 = 198 m/s

and

Vu2 = Vx2 tan 2 = 140 tan(60 ) = 242.5 m/s

so that

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 242.5 140 = 102.58 m/s

and

2

W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 1402 + 102.52 = 173.5 m/s

The specific work is

so that

W32 W22 1982 173.52

R+ = 0.134

2w 2 33, 950

Exercise 4.8 A large centrifugal pump operates at 6000 rpm and produces a head

of 800 m while the flow rate is 30, 000 liters per minute. (a) Find the value of the

specific speed. (b) Estimate the efficiency of the pump.

Given: H, , Q.

Find: The specific speed and .

Solution: The flow rate is standard units is

30, 000

Q= = 0.5 m3 /s

1000 60

36

The specific speed is

Q 6000 0.5

s = = = 0.533 (a)

(gH)3/4 30 (9.81 800)3/4

From the figure for Q = 500 liters/s, the efficiency is 0.84 (b).

Exercise 4.9 A fan handles air at the rate of 500 liters per second when operat-

ing at 1800 rpm. (a) What is the flow rate if the same fan is operated at 3600

rpm? (b) What is the percentage increase in total pressure rise of the air assuming

incompressible flow? (c) What is the power input required at 3600 rpm relative

to that at 1800 rpm. Assume that the operating point of the fan in terms of the

dimensionless parameters is the same in both cases.

Given: Q1 , 1 , 2 , and D1 = D2 .

Find: Q2 , increase in total pressure, W2 .

Solution: From

Q1 Q2 2 3600

3

= 3

Q2 = Q1 = 500 = 1000 l/s (a)

1 D1 2 D2 1 1800

Next

W1 W2

3 5

=

1 D1 32 D25

so that

32

W2 = W1 = 8W1 (c)

31

Then

m

W = (p02 p01 )tt = Qp0 tt

and

(p0 )1 W1 Q2 tt 2 1

= = =

(p0 )2 Q1 tt W2 8 4

so that the percent increase is 300 % (b).

Exercise 4.10 An axial flow pump having a rotor diameter of 20 cm handles water

at the rate of 60 liters per second when operating at 3550 rpm. The corresponding

increase in total enthalpy of the water is 120 J/kg and the total-to-total efficiency

is 75%. Suppose a second pump in the same series is to be designed to handle

37

water having a rotor diameter of 30 cm and operating at 1750 rpm. For this second

pump what will be the predicted values for (a) the flow rate, (b) the change in the

total pressure of water, (c) the input power.

Given: Q1 , D1 , 1 , t t, (h0 )1 , D2 and 2 .

Find: Q2 , (p0 )2 , and W2 .

Solution: From

( ) ( )3 ( ) ( )3

Q1 Q2 2 D2 1750 30

3

= 3

Q2 = Q1 = 60 = 99.8 l/s (a)

1 D1 2 D2 1 D1 3550 20

Next

998 60 120

W1 = m1 (h0 )1 = Q1 (h0 )1 = = 7.18 kW

1000

then from

W1 W2

3 5

=

1 D1 32 D25

( )3 ( )5 ( )3 ( )5

1 D2 1750 30

W2 = W1 = 7.18 = 6.54 kW Lef tarrow (b)

2 D1 3550 20

Then

W2 6540

(h0 )2 = = = 65.6 J/kg

Q2 99.8

and

(p0 )2 = (h0 )2 = 998 65.6 = 49.1 kPa (c)

Exercise 4.11 A small centrifugal pump handles water at the rate of 6 liters per

second with input power of 5 hp and total-to-total efficiency of 70%. Suppose the

fluid being handled is changed to gasoline having specific gravity 0.70. What are

the predicted values for (a) flow rate, (b) input power, (c) total pressure rise of the

gasoline?

Given: Q1 , W1 , t t, 1 , Q2 = Q1 and the specific gravity of gasoline.

Find: W2 , (p0 )2 .

Solution: Since the diameter and the shaft speed are the same, then from

Q1 Q2

3

= Q2 = Q1 (a)

1 D1 2 D23

and from

W1 W2

3 5

=

1 1 D1 2 32 D25

38

2

W2 = W1 = 5 0.7 = 3.5 hp (b)

1

Next from

Q2 (p0 )2

W2 = m2 (h0 )2 =

tt

so that

tt W2 3/5 0.7457 1000

(p0 ) = = = 304.5 kPa (c)

Q2 6

Exercise 4.12 A blower handling air at the rate of 240 liters per second at the

inlet conditions of 103.1 kPa for total pressure and 288 K for total temperature. It

produces a pressure rise of air equal to 250 mm of water. If the blower is operated

at the same rotational speed, but with an inlet total pressure and total temperature

of 20 kPa and 253 K, find; (a) the predicted value for the mass flow rate, (b) the

total pressure rise.

Given: 2 = 1 , Q1 , p01 , T01 , (p0 )1 , p02 , and T02 .

Find: m2 , (p0 )2 .

Solution: From

Q1 Q2

3

= Q2 = Q1

1 D1 2 D23

The stagnation densities are

p01 101, 300

01 = = = 1.226 kg/m3

RT01 287 288

p02 20, 000

02 = = = 0.275 kg/m3

RT02 287 253

Density across the blower is assumed small so that

Next

(p0 )1 (p0 )2

2 2

=

01 1 D1 02 22 D22

so that

02 0.275

(p0 )2 = (p0 )1 = 250 = 56.2 mm H2 O (b)

01 1.226

39

Exercise 4.13 Consider a fan with a flow rate of 1500 cfm, (cubic feet per minute)

and has a shaft speed 3600 rpm. If a similar fan one half its size is to have the same

tip speed, what will the flow rate be at a dynamically similar operating condition?

What is the ratio of power consumption of the second fan compared to the first

one?

Given: D2 = D1 /2, U2 = U1 , 1 , Q1 .

Find: Q2 , W2 /W1 .

Solution: Since U2 = U1 , then 2 D2 = 1 D1 and 2 = 21 . Next from

Q1 Q2 2 D23 1500 2

3

= 3

Q2 = Q1 3

= = 375 cfm (a)

1 D1 2 D2 1 D1 8

and since 1 D1 = 2 D2 , from

dotW1 dotW2 D22 1

3 5

= 3 5

W 2 = W 1 2

= W1 (b)

1 D1 2 D2 D1 4

develops a head of 153 mm of water. It is required to build a larger, geometrically

similar fan which will deliver the same head at the same efficiency as the existing

fan, but at the rotational speed of 1440 rpm. (a) Determine the volume flow rate of

the larger fan. (b) If the diameter of the original fan is 40 cm, what is the diameter

of the larger fan. (c) What are the specific speed of these fans.

Given: 1 , 2 , Q1 , D1 , and H2 = H1 .

Find: Q2 , D2 , and s .

Solution: From

H1 H2

2 2

= 2 2

1 D1 2 D2

since H2 = H1 , then D2 = D1 1 /2 . Next from

Q1 Q2

3

=

1 D1 2 D23

2 D23 21 17502

Q2 = Q1 = Q1 = 4.25 = 6.28 m3 /s (a)

1 D13 22 14402

Next convert the head to standard units.

H2 O gH1 998 9.81 0.153

(ws )1 == = = 1246 J/kg

1.20

40

and the density is the standard density at T = 293 K and p = 101.3215 kPa. Then

Q 1750 4.25

s = 3/4 = = 1.80 (b)

ws 30 12463/4

8.75 cm and a blade width b2 = 0.7 cm, operates at 3550 rpm and produces a

pressure rise of 522 kPa at the flow rate of 1.5 liters per minute. Assume that

the inlet flow is axial and that the pump efficiency is 0.63. Find: (a) The specific

speed. (b). Show that the expression (??) for work reduces to w = (Vu2 2

+ U22

2

Wu2 )/2 and calculate the work two ways and confirm that they are equal.

Given: r2 , b2 , , p, Q, 1 and .

Find: s , and the work in terms of kinetic energies.

Solution: The radial velocity component at the exit is

Q 1/45 104

Vr2 = = = 6.28 m/s

2r2 b2 60 2 0.7

The head is

p0 522, 000

H= = = 53.37 m

g 998 9.81

and the specific speed is

Q 3550 1.45/60

s = = = 0.528 (a)

(gH)3/4 30(9.81 53.37)3/4

8.75 3550

U2 = r2 = = 32.53 m/s

100 30

and the isentropic and actual work are

w2 523

ws = gH = 981 53.37 = 523 J/kg w= = = 830 J/kg

0.63

Next the kinetic energy terms are

w 830

Vu2 = = = 25.52 m/s

U2 32.53

41

and

Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 25.52 32.53 = 7.0 m/s

and

2 2

W2 = Wr2 + Wu2 = 6.282 + 7.02 = 9.41 m/s

V2 = Vr22 + Vu2

2

= 6.282 + 25.522 = 26.28 m/s

thus

1 1

w = (V22 + U22 W22 ) = (26.283 + 32.532 9.412 ) = 830 J/kg (b)

2 2

42

Chapter 5

Exercise 5.1 Steam leaves the nozzles of a de Laval turbine with the velocity

V2 = 1000 m/s. The flow angle from the nozzle is 2 = 70 . The blade velocity

is U = 360 m/s and the mass flow rate is 800 kg/h. Take the rotor velocity

coefficient to be cR = 0.8. The rotor blade is equiangular. Draw the velocity

diagrams and determine: (a) The flow angles of the relative velocity at the inlet

to the rotor, (b) the flow angle leaving the rotor, (c) the tangential force on the

blades, (d) the axial thrust on the blades, (e) the power developed, and (f) the rotor

efficiency.

Given: V2 , 2 , U , cR , and m.

Find: 2 , 3 , Fu , Fx , and R .

Solution: The components of the velocities are

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 1000 sin(70 ) = 939.7 m/s

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 939.7 360 = 579.7 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 1000 cos(70 ) = 342, m/s Wx2 = Vx2

and

2 2

W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 3422 + 579.72 = 673.1 m/s

The relative flow angle is

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 579.7

2 = tan = tan = 59.46 (a)

Wx2 342.0

and

W2 = cR W2 = 0.8 673.1 = 538.5 m/s

so that

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 583.5 sin(59.46 ) = 463.8 m/s

Vu3 = U + Wu3 = 360 463.8 = 103.8 m/s

The flow angle at the exit of the rotor is

( ) ( )

1 Vu3 1 103.8

3 = tan = tan = 20.77 (b)

Vx3 273.6

Next the force on the blades is obtained. First

w = U (Vu2 V u3) = 360(939.7 + 103.8) = 375.64 kJ/kg

43

so that

800 375.64

W = mw = = 83.476 kW (e)

3600

then

W 83, 476

Fu = = = 231.9 N (c)

U 360

The axial thrust is

800

Fx = m(Vx2 Vx3 ) = (342 273.6) = 15.2 N (d)

3600

The rotor efficiency is

w 2 375, 640

R = = = 0.751 (f )

V2 /2 10002

Exercise 5.2 The diameter of a wheel of a single stage impulse turbine is 1060 mm

and its shaft speed is 3000 rpm. The nozzle angle is 72 and the ratio of the blade

speed to the speed at which steam issues from the nozzles is 0.42. The ratio of

the relative velocity leaving the blades is 0.84 of that entering the blades. The

outlet flow angle of the relative velocity is 3 more than the inlet flow angle. The

mass flow rate of steam is 7.23 kg/s. Draw the velocity diagram for the blades

and determine: (a) The axial thrust on the blades. (b) The tangential force on the

blades. (c) Power developed by the blade row. (d) Rotor efficiency.

Given: D, 2 , , U/V2 , W3 /W2 , the difference between 2 and 3 , and m.

Find: Fx , Fu , W , and R .

Solution: The blade speed is

0.53 3000

U = r2 = = 166.5 m/s

30

and the nozzle velocity is V2 = U/0.42 = 166.5/0.42 = 396.4 m/s. Also W3 =

0.84W2 . Next the components of the velocities are

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 396.4 cos(72 ) = 122.5, m/s Wx2 = Vx2

and

2 2

W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 122.52 + 210.52 = 243.6 m/s

44

The relative flow angle is

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 210.5

2 = tan = tan = 59.81 3 = 59.81 3 = 62.81

Wx2 122.5

and

W3 = cR W2 = 0.8 243.6 = 204.6 m/s

so that

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 204.6 sin(62.81 ) = 182.0 m/s

Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 204.6 cos(62.81 ) = 93.5 m/s

and

Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 182 + 166.5 = 15.5 m/s Vx3 = Wx3 = 93.5 m/s

( ) ( )

1 Vu3 1 15.5

3 = tan = tan = 9.41

Vx3 93.5

Next the force on the blades is obtained.

The specific work done is

so that

W = mw = 7.23 65.35 = 472.5 kW

then the rotor efficiency is

w 2 65, 350

R = = = 0.832 (c)

V2 /2 396.42

Exercise 5.3 The wheel diameter of a single stage impulse steam turbine is 40 cm

and the shaft speed is 3000 rpm. The steam issues from nozzles at velocity

275 m/s at the nozzle angle of 70 . The rotor blades are equiangular and fric-

tion reduces the relative velocity as the steam flows through the blades to 0.86

45

times the entering velocity. Find the power developed by the wheel when the

axial thrust is Fx = 120 N.

Given: D, 2 , , V2 , cR , and Fx .

Find: W .

Solution: The blade speed is

0.2 3000

U = r2 = = 62.83 m/s

30

Next the components of the velocities are

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 275 cos(70 ) = 94.06, m/s Wx2 = Vx2

and

Wu3 = cR Wu2 = 0.86 195.6 = 168.2 m/s

and

Vu3 = Wu3 + U = 168.2 + 62.83 = 105.4 m/s

so that

In addition V x3 = cN Vx2 = 0.86 94.06 = 80.89 m/s. From the expression for

the axial component of the blade force

Fx 12)

Fx = m(Vx2 Vx3 ) m = = = 9.11 kg/s

Vx2 Vx3 94.06 80.89

so that

W = mw = 9.11 22.86 = 208.3 kW

Exercise 5.4 Steam issues from the nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine with

velocity 400 m/s. The nozzle angle is at 74 . The absolute velocity at the exit is

94 m/s and its direction is 8.2 . If the blades are equiangular: (a) Find the power

developed by the blade row when the steam flow rate is 7.3 kg/s. (b) The the rate

of irreversible energy conversion per kg of steam flowing through the rotor.

Given: V2 , V3 , 2 , 3 , m, and that 3 = 2 .

46

Find: W , rate of loss of energy by irreversiblities.

Solution: The components of the velocities are

Also

Vu3 = V3 sin 3 = 94.0 sin(8.2 ) = 13.4 m/s

Vx3 = V3 cos 2 = 94.0 cos(8.2 ) = 93.0, m/s Wx3 = Vx3

From

so that

W2 sin 3 W3 sin 2 = Vu2 Vu3

from which

W2 (1 + cv ) sin 2 = Vu2 Vu3

Since the velocity coefficient is the same in the nozzles and the rotor, it can be

written as

W3 Wx3 Vx3 93.0

cv = = = = = 0.843

W2 Wx2 Vx2 110.3

From the previous equation

Vu2 Vu3

W2 sin 2 =

1 + cv

In addition

W2 cos 2 = Vx2

the ratio of these gives

Vu2 Vu3 384.5 + 13.4

tan 2 = = = 1.957

Vx2 (1 + cR ) 110.3(1 + 0.843)

Vx2 110.3

W2 = + = 242.4 m/s W3 = cv W2 = 0.843242.4 = 204.5 m/s

cos 2 cos(62.94

47

From these

and the blade speed is

so that

W = mw = 7.3 67.13 = 490.0 kW

The loss is

1 1

KEloss = (W22 W32 ) = (242.42 204.62 ) = 8.454 kJ/kg

2 2

and the power loss is

Exercise 5.5 Carry out the steps in the development of the expression for ratio of

the optimum blade speed to the steam velocity for a single stage impulse turbine

with equiangular blades. Note that this expression is independent of the velocity

coefficient. Carry out the algebra to obtain the expression for the rotor efficiency

at this condition. (a) Find numerical value for the velocity ratio when the nozzle

angle is 76 . (b) Find the rotor efficiency at this condition assuming that cR = 0.9.

(c) Find the flow angle of the relative velocity entering the blades at the optimum

condition.

Given: 2 , optimum conditions.

Find: R and 3 .

Solution: At optimum conditions

U 1 1

= sin 2 = sin(76 ) = 0.485 (a)

V2 2 2

48

then

sin2 2 1

R = (1 + cv C) = (1 + 0.9) sin(76 ) = 0.894 (b)

2 2

From

W2 sin 2 = V2 sin 2 U W2 cos 2 = V2 cos 2

by dividing gives

tan 2 = = = tan 2

cos 2 cos 2 2

so that ( )

1 1

2 = tan tan(76 ) = 63.50

(c)

2

Exercise 5.6 Steam flows from a set of nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine

at 2 = 78 with velocity V2 = 305 m/s and the blade speed is U = 146 m/s.

The outlet flow angle of the relative velocity is 3 greater than its inlet angle and

the velocity coefficient is cR = 0.84. The nozzle velocity coefficient is cN = 1.

The power delivered by the wheel is 1000 kW. Draw the velocity diagrams at the

inlet and outlet of the blades. Calculate the mass flow rate of steam.

Given: V2 , U , 2 , 3 = 2 3 , cR = 0.84, CN = 1.0 and W .

Find: m.

Solution: The components of the velocities are

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 290.1 146 = 144.1 m/s

so that

W2 sin 3 W3 sin 2 = Vu2 Vu3

2 2

W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 94.32 + 144.12 = 172.7 m/s

and the flow angle of the relative velocity is

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 144.1

2 = tan = tan = 56.80

Wx2 94.3

49

At the exit of the rotor

Then

therefore ( ) ( )

1 Vu3 1 21.0

3 = tan = tan = 16.11

Vx3 72.7

The specific work is

so that

W 1000

m = = = 25.5 kg/s

w 39.29

Exercise 5.7 Steam flows from a set of nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine

at angle 2 = 70 . (a). Find the maximum total-to-static efficiency if the velocity

coefficients are cR = 0.83 and cN = 0.98. (b). If the rotor efficiency is 90 % of its

maximum value, find the possible outlet flow angles for the relative velocity.

Given: 2 , cR = 0.83, CN = 0.83 and speed ratio U/V2 = 0.9(U/V2 )opt .

Find: ts and m.

Solution: At optimal condition

U sin 2 sin(70 )

= = = 0.470

V2 2 2

and

1 1.83 2

Rmax = (1 + CR ) sin2 2 = sin (70 ) = 0.808

2 2

Also

1 0.982 (1 + 0.83) 2

ts = c2N (1 + cR ) sin2 2 = sin (70 ) = 0.776 (a)

2 2

50

The actual rotor efficiency is

and therefore

f

R = 2(1 + cR )(sin 2 ) = (1 + cR ) sin2 2

2

which reduces to

1

2 sin 2 + f sin2 2 = 0

4

The solution of this is

1

sin 2 (1 (1 f ))

2

One root is

sin(70 ) U

a = (1 + (1 0.9) = 0.6184 =

2 V2

and the other root is

sin(70 ) U

a = (1 (1 0.9) = 0.3123 =

2 V2

The flow angles are

( )

1 sin 2 a

2a = tan = 43.21

cos 2

( )

1 sin 2 b

2b = tan = 61.06

cos 2

Exercise 5.8 The nozzles of a single stage impulse turbine have a wall thickness

t = 0.3 cm and height b = 15 cm. The mean diameter of the wheel is D = 116 cm

and the nozzle angle is 2 = 72 . The number of nozzles in a ring is 72. The

specific volume of steam at the exit of the nozzles is 15.3 m3 /kg and the velocity

there is V2 = 366m/s. (a) Find the mass flow rate of steam through the steam

nozzle ring. (b) Find the power developed by the blades for an impulse wheel of

equiangular blades, given that the velocity coefficient cR = 0.86 and cN = 1.0.

The shaft turns at 3000 rpm.

Given: t, b, D, 2 , Z, v1 , cR , cN , and V2 .

Find: m and W .

51

Solution:

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 366 sin(72 ) = 348.1 m/s

Vx2 = V2 cos 2 = 366 cos(72 ) = 113.1, m/s

The exit area is

A = (2r cos 2 Zt)b = (2 0.58 cos(72 ) 72 0.003)0.15 = 0.1365, m2

Mass flow rate is

V2 A 366 0.1365

m = = = 3.266 kg/s (a)

v2 15.3

Next

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 348.14 182.2 = 165.9 m/s Wx2 = 113.1 m/s

and the magnitude of the relative velocity leaving the nozzles is

2 2

W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 113.12 + 165.92 = 200.8 m/s

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 165.9

2 = tan = tan = 55.71

Wx2 113.1

Therefore after the rotor

W3 = cR W2 = 0.86 200.8 = 172.7 m/s 3 = 55.71

Then

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 172.7 sin(55.71 ) = 142.7 m/s

Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 172.7 cos(55.71 ) = 97.3, m/s

The tangential component of the absolute velocity at the exit of the rotor is

Vu3 = U + Wu3 = 182.2 142.7 = 39.5 m/s

and the specific work is

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = 182.2(348.1 39.5) = 56.23 kJ/kg

and the power is

W = mw = 3.266 56.23 = 183.6 kW (b)

52

Exercise 5.9 The isentropic static enthalpy change across a stage of a single stage

impulse turbine is hs = 22 kJ/kg. The nozzle exit angle is 2 = 74 . The mean

diameter of the wheel is 148 cm and the shaft turns as 1500 rpm. The blades are

equiangular with a velocity coefficient cR = 0.87. The nozzle velocity coefficient

is cN = 0.98. (a) Find the steam velocity at the exit from the nozzles. (b) Find the

flow angles of the relative velocity at the inlet and exit of the wheel. (c) Find the

overall efficiency of the stage.

Given: r2 , 2 , , cR , cN , and hs .

Find: V2 , 2 , 3 and tt .

Solution: The blade speed is

0.74 1500

U = r2 = = 116.2 m/s

30

For isentropic flow assuming that the exit velocity is the same as at the inlet to the

stage

ws = hs = 2U (V2s sin 2 U )

therefore

( ) ( )

hs 1 22, 000 1

V2s = +U = + 116.2 = 219.4 m/s

2U sin 2 2 116.2 sin(74 )

Then from

V2

CN = V2 = CN V2s = 0.98 219.4 = 215.0 m/s (a)

V2s

and

U 116.2

= = = 0.540

V2 215.0

To find the flow angles, first calculate

then

53

and the angle at which the relative velocity enters the rotor is

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 90.5

2 = tan = tan = 56.76 (b)

Wx2 59.3

and the exit angle from the rotor is 3 = 56.76 .

The efficiency is

ts = 2Cn2 (1 + CR )(sin 2 )

Exercise 5.10 An impulse turbine has a nozzle angle 2 = 72 and steam velocity

V2 = 244 m/s. The velocity coefficient for the rotor blades is cR = 0.85 and the

nozzle efficiency is n = 0.92. The output power generated by the wheel is

W = 562 kW when the mass flow rate is m = 23 kg/s. Find the efficiency of the

turbine.

Given: 2 , V2 , cR , cN , m, and W .

Find: ts .

Solution: The specific work is

W 562

w= = = 24.43 kJ/kg

m 23

and from

But

Wu2 = V2 sin 2 U

so that

w

(1 + cR )U 2 (1 + cR )V2 sin 2 U + =0

1 + cR

The solution of this is

1 1 2 2 w

U = V2 sin 2 V2 sin 2

2 4 1 + cR

and

244 sin(72 ) 2442 sin2 (72 ) 24, 430

U1 = + = 132 m/s

2 4 1.85

54

and the second root is

244 sin(72 ) 2442 sin2 (72 ) 24, 430

U2 = = 100.1 m/s

2 4 1.85

From these

U1 U2

1 = = 0.541 lambda2 = = 0.410

V2 V2

The efficiency using either root becomes

ts = 2c2N (1 + cR )(sin 2 )

Exercise 5.11 A two row velocity compounded impulse wheel is part of a steam

turbine with many other stages. The steam velocity from the nozzles is V2 =

580 m/s and the means speed of the blades is U = 116 m/s. The flow angle

leaving the nozzle is 2 = 74 and the flow angle of the relative velocity leaving

the first set of rotor blades is 3 = 72 . The absolute velocity of the flow as it

leaves the stator vanes between the two rotors is 4 = 68 and the outlet angle of

the relative velocity leaving the second rotor is 5 = 54 . The steam flow rate is

m = 2.4 kg/s. The velocity coefficient is cv = 0.84 for both the stator and rotor

rows. (a) Find the axial thrust from each wheel. (b) Find the tangential thrust from

each wheel. (c) Find the efficiency of the rotors defined as the work out divided

by the kinetic energy available from the nozzles.

Given: V2 , U , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , cN = CR , and m.

Find: Fx , Fu , R .

Solution: The velocity components are

and

W2 = Wx2 2

+ Wu2 2

= 469.6 m/s W3 = 0.84 469.6 = 394.4 m/s

55

Next

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 394.4 sin(72 ) = 375.1 m/s

Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 394.4 cos(72 ) = 121.9 m/s

The components of the absolute velocity are

and

2

V3 = Vx3 2

+ Vu3 = 286.3 m/s V4 = 0.84 286.3 = 240.5 m/s

Next

Vu4 = V4 sin 4 = 240.5 sin(68 ) = 223.0 m/s

Vx4 = V4 cos 4 = 240.5 cos(68 ) = 90.1 m/s

and the components of the relative velocity become

W4 = Wx4 2 2

+ Wu4 = 139.9 m/s W5 = 0.84 139.9 = 117.5 m/s

and finally

Vu5 = Wu5 + U = 95.1 + 116 = 20.9 m/s Vx5 = Wx5 = 69.1 m/s

For the second rotor

56

Fu2 = m(Vu4 Vu5 ) = 2.4(223 20.9) = 485.0 N

The power output is

an the efficiency is

w1 + w2 2U

= 2

= 2 (Vu2 Vu3 + Vu4 Vu5 )

V2 /2 V2

2 116

= (555705259.1 + 223 20.9) = 0.703

5802

Exercise 5.12 A velocity-compounded impulse wheel has two rows of moving

blades with a mean diameter of D = 72 cm. The shaft rotates at 3000 rpm. Steam

issues from the nozzles at an angle 2 = 74 with velocity V2 = 555 m/s. The

mass flow rate is m = 5.1 kg/s. The energy loss through each of the moving

blades is 24 percent of the kinetic energy entering the blades based on the relative

velocity. Steam leaves the first set of moving blades at 3 = 72 the guide vanes

between the rows at 4 = 68 and the second set of moving blades at 5 = 52 .

(a) Draw the velocity diagrams and find the flow angles at the blade inlets both

for absolute and relative velocities. (b) Find the power developed by each row of

blades. (c) Find the rotor efficiency as a whole.

Given: V2 , D, , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , cN = CR , and m.

Find: Fx , Fu , R .

Solution: The blade speed is

0.36 3000

U = r2 = = 113.1 m/s

30

and the velocity coefficients are cR = cN = 0.76 = 0.872.

The velocity components are

57

and

W2 = Wx2 2

+ Wu2 2

= 447.4 m/s W3 = 0.872 447.4 = 390.0 m/s

Next

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 390.0 sin(72 ) = 370.9 m/s

Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 390.0 cos(72 ) = 120.5 m/s

The components of the absolute velocity are

and

V3 = 2

Vx3 2

+ Vu3 = 284.6 m/s V4 = 0.872 284.6 = 248.1 m/s

Next

Vu4 = V4 sin 4 = 248.1 sin(68 ) = 230.0 m/s

Vx4 = V4 cos 4 = 248.1 cos(68 ) = 92.9 m/s

and the components of the relative velocity become

W4 = Wx4 2 2

+ Wu4 = 149.3 m/s W5 = 0.872 149.3 = 130.2 m/s

and finally

Vu5 = Wu5 + U = 102.6 + 113.1 = 10.5 m/s Vx5 = Wx5 = 80.2 m/s

58

The work done is

and the power is

so the efficiency is

w1 + w2 2(89496 + 24825)

= 2

= = 0.742 (c)

V2 /2 5552

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 420.4

2 = tan = tan = 70

Wx2 153.0

( ) ( )

1 Vu3 1 257.8

3 = tan = tan = 64.9

Vx3 120.5

( ) ( )

1 Wu4 1 116.9

4 = tan = tan = 51.5

Wx4 92.9

Exercise 5.13 Steam flows from the nozzles of a zero percent repeating stage at

an angle 2 = 69 and speed V2 = 450 m/s and enters the rotor with blade speed

moving at U = 200 m/s. (a) Find its efficiency when the loss coefficients are

calculated from Soderbergs correlation. (b) Find the work delivered by the stage.

Given: V2 , U , and 2 .

Find: , w.

Solution: The velocity components are

so that

Wu2 = Vu2 U = 420.1 200 = 220.1 m/s Wx2 = Vx2 = 161.3 m/s

59

2 2

and W2 = Wx2 + Wu2 = 272.9 m/s. Next

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 220.1

2 = tan = tan = 53.76 3 = 53.73

Wx2 161.3

= 68 = 107/5

( )2

69

N = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.0686

100

( )2

107.5

R = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.1094

100

The velocity coefficients are

1 1

cN = = 0.9674 cR = = 0.9494

1 + N 1 + R

Now

W3 = CR W2 = 0/9494 272.9 = 259.1 m/s

and

Wu3 = W3 sin 3 = 259.1 sin(53.76 ) = 209.0 m/s

Wx3 = W3 cos 3 = 2559.1 cos (53.76 ) = 153.1 m/s

and the components of the absolute velocity after the rotor are

( ) ( )

1 Vu3 1 9.0

3 = tan = tan = 3.35

Vx3 153.1

2 2

and V3 = Vx3 + Vu3 = 153.3 m/s. The value of the speed ratio is

U 200

= = = 0.444

V2 450

60

and the word delivered is

The efficiency is

4(sin 2 )

tt = = 0.888 (a)

(R 4)2 + (4 2R ) sin 2 + R + N

Exercise 5.14 Show that for a repeating stage the efficiency of a zero percent

reaction is

4(sin 2 )

tt =

(R 4) + (4 2R ) sin 2 + R + N

2

R + S (R + N )(R + S R sin2 2 )

=

R sin 2

Find: tt , and for maximum efficiency.

Solution: Examination of the figure for a stage with zero reaction shows that

h01 h03

tt =

h01 h03ss

which can be written as

1 h01 h03ss h03 h03ss

1= 1=

tt h01 h03 w

which can be written as

1 h3 h3ss + 12 (V32 V3ss

2

)

1=

tt w

Since

T2 T3s

=

T2s T3ss

then

T3ss T3s

h3s h3ss = (h2 h2s ) = (h2 h2s )

T3s T2

61

and the expression for efficiency becomes

1 h3 h3s + T3s

(h2 h2s ) + (1 T3ss

)V32

1= T2 T3

tt w

or

1 R W32 + TT3s2 N V22 + (1 T3ss

)V33

1= T3

tt 2w

Neglecting the temperature factors leads to

1 R W32 + N V22

1=

tt 2w

Since W3 = W2 and

Substituting these into the expression for efficiency and introducing the parameter

= U/V2 gives

1 R (2 2 sin 2 + 1) + N

1=

tt 4(sin 2 )

4(sin 2 )

tt = (a)

(R 4)2 + (4 2R ) sin 2 + R + N

Differentiating this with respect to and setting the derivative to zero gives

R + S (R + N )(R + S R sin2 2 )

= (b)

R sin 2

62

Chapter 6

Exercise 6.1 At inlet to the rotor in a single stage axial-flow turbine the magni-

tude of the absolute velocity of fluid is 610 m/s. Its direction is 61 as measured

from the cascade front in the direction of the blade motion. At exit of this rotor the

absolute velocity of the fluid is 305 m/s directed such that its tangential compo-

nent is negative. The axial velocity is constant, the blade speed is 305 m/s, and the

flow rate through the rotor is 5 kg/s. (a) Construct the rotor inlet and exit velocity

diagrams showing the axial and tangential components of the absolute velocities.

(b) Evaluate the change in total enthalpy across the rotor. (c) Evaluate the power

delivered by the rotor. (d) Evaluate the average driving force exerted on the blades.

(e) Evaluate the change in static and stagnation temperature of the fluid across the

rotor, assuming the fluid to be a perfect gas with cp = 1148 J/kg K. (f) Calculate

the flow coefficient and the blade loading coefficient. Are they reasonable?

Given: V2 , 2 , V1 , U , and m.

Find: T , T0 , , .

Solution: For a The axial and tangential velocity components at the inlet to the

rotor are

Vx = V2 cos 2 = 610 cos(61 ) = 295.7 m/s

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 610 sin(61 ) = 533.5 m/s

At the exit of the rotor cos 1 = Vx /V3 so that

( )

1 295.7

3 = cos = 14.16

305

and

Vu3 = V3 sin 2 = 610 sin(14.16 ) = 74.6 m/s

To construct the velocity diagrams the relative flow angles are needed. First the

relative velocity components are

so that ( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 228.5

2 = tan = tan = 37.7

Wx2 295.7

The relative velocity component after the rotor are

63

so that

( ) ( )

1 Wu3 1 379.5

3 = tan = tan = 52.08 (a)

Wx3 295.7

The specific work delivered is

W 185, 480

Fu = = = 3040 N (d)

U 305

The drop in the stagnation temperature of

w 185, 4801

T02 T03 = = = 161.6 K (e)

cp 1148

and the drop in static temperature is

1 6102 3052

T2 T3 = T02 T03 (V22 V32 ) = 161.6 + = 40.0 K (e)

2cp 2 1148

The flow coefficient and the blade loading coefficients are (reasonable)

Vx 295.7

= = = 0.969 = 2.00 (f )

U 305

Exercise 6.2 A small axial-flow turbine must have an output power of 37 kW

when handling one half of a kilogram of combustion gases per second with an

inlet total temperature of 410 K. The value of the gas constant is 287 J/kg K and

= 4/3. The total-to-total efficiency of the turbine is 80%. The rotor operates

at 50, 000 rpm and the mean blade diameter is 10 cm. Evaluate (a) the average

driving force on the turbine blades, (b) the change in the tangential component

64

of the absolute velocity across the rotor, and (c) the required total pressure ratio

across the turbine.

Given: W , T01 , , D, tt and m.

Find: Fu , Vu2 Vu3 , p01 /p03 .

Solution: The blade speed is

0.05 50, 000

U = r = = 261.8 m/s

30

and the average blade force is

W 37, 000

Fu = = = 141.3 N (a)

U 261.8

The specific work is

W 37, 000

w= = = 74 kJ/kg

m 0.5

and therefore the change in the tangential velocity components is

w 74000

Vu2 Vu3 = = = 282.7 m/s (b)

U 261.8

The isentropic work is

w 74

ws = = = 92.5 kJ/kg

tt 0.8

so that the exit stagnation temperature for an isentropic expansion is

ws 925, 000

T03s = T01 = 410 = 329.4 K

cp 1148

( )/(1) ( )4

p01 T01 410

= = = 2.4 (c)

p03 T03s 329.4

Exercise 6.3 A turbine stage of a multi-stage axial turbine is shown in Figure ??.

The value of the gas constant is 287 J/kg K and = 4/3. The inlet gas angle

to the stator is 1 = 36.8 and the outlet angle from the stator is 2 = 60.3 .

65

The flow angle of the relative velocity at the inlet to the rotor is 2 = 36.8 and

the flow leaves at 3 = 60.3 . (a) If the blade speed is U = 220 m/s, find the

axial velocity, which is assumed constant throughout the turbine. (b) Find the

work done by the fluid on the rotor blades for one stage. (c) The inlet stagnation

temperature to the turbine is 950 K and the mass flow rate is m = 400 kg/s. If

this turbine produces a power output of 145 MW, find the number of stages. (d)

Find the overall stagnation pressure ratio if its isentropic adiabatic efficiency is

t = 0.85. (e) Why does the static pressure fall across the stator and the rotor?

Given: 1 , 2 , 2 , 3 , tt , U , W , m, and T01 .

Find: Vx , w, number of stages, p01 /p0e .

Solution: From Vu2 = Wu2 + U follows

Vx tan 2 = Vx tan 2 + U

so that

U 220

Vx = = = 218.9 m/s (a)

tan 2 tan 2 tan(60.3 ) tan(36.8 )

Work delivered by a repeating stage is

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U Vx (tan 2 tan 1 )

w = 220 218.9(tan(60.3 ) tan(36.8 )) = 120.5 kJ/kg (b)

To work done by all the stages is

W 145 106

wt = = = 362.5 kJ/kg

m 400

Hence the number of stages is N = wt /w = 362.5/120.5 = 3.00 (c).

The temperature drop per stage is

w 120, 500

T01 T03 = = = 104.9 K

cp 1148

and the pressure drop across the entire machine is

T01] T0e = 3 104.9 = 314.7 K

and the exit temperature for an isentropic process is

T01 T0e 314.7

T03s = T01 = 950 = 579.7 K

tt 0.85

66

and the pressure ratio is

( )/(1) ( )4

p01 T01 950

= = = 7.21 (d)

p0e T0es 579.7

The static pressure drops because velocity increases. Static pressure drops across

the rotor because the relative stagnation enthalpy remains constant and the relative

velocity increases across the rotor.

Exercise 6.4 A single stage axial turbine has a total pressure ratio of 1.5 to 1, with

an inlet total pressure 300 kPa and temperature of 600 K. The absolute velocity

at the inlet to the stator row is in the axial direction. The adiabatic total-to-total

efficiency is 80%. The relative velocity is at an angle of 30 at the inlet of the rotor

and it exits at 35 . If the flow coefficient is = 0.9, find the blade velocity.

Use compressible flow analysis with cp = 1148 J/kg K, = 4/3, and R =

287 J/kg K.

Given: p01 /p03 , p01 , T01 , 1 , 2 , 3 , tt , ,

Find: U .

Solution: From

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U (Wu2 Wu3 ) = U Vx (tan 2 tan 3 )

Dividing by U 2 gives

= (tan 2 tan 3 ) = 0.9(tan(30 ) tan(35 )) = 1.15

Then from ( )/(1)

T01 p01

= = 1.50.25 = 1.1067

T03s p03

so that T03s = 600/1.1067 = 542.2 K, and

T03 = T01 tt (T01 T03s ) = 600 0.8(600 542.2) = 553.7 K

The work is now

w = cp (T01 T03 ) = 1148(600 553.7) = 53.15 kJ/kg

From w = U 2 the blade speed is

w 53150

U= = = 215 m/s

1.15

67

Exercise 6.5 An axial turbine has a total pressure ratio of 4 to 1, with an inlet

total pressure 650 kPa and total temperature of 800 K. The combustion gases that

pass through the turbine have = 4/3, and R = 287 J/kg K. (a) Justify the

choice of two stages for this turbine? Each stage is normal stage and they are

designed the same way, with the blade loading coefficient equal to 1.1 and the

flow coefficient equal to 0.6. The absolute velocity at the inlet to the stator row

is at angle 5 from the axial direction. The overall total-to-total efficiency of the

turbine is 91.0%. Find: (b) The angle at which the the absolute velocity leaves the

stator,(c) the angle of the relative velocity at the inlet of the rotor, (d) the angle at

which the relative velocity leaves the rotor. (e) Draw the velocity diagrams at the

inlet and outlet of the rotor. (f) What are the blade speed and the axial velocity?

(g) A consequence of the design is that each stage has the same work output and

efficiency. Find (g) the stage efficiency, and (h) the pressure ratio for each stage.

Given: p01 /p0e , p01 , T01 , psi, , and tt .

Find: Justify that two stages is appropriate, 2 , 2 , 3 , U , Vx , s , p01 /p03 .

Solution: The stagnation temperature at the exit of the turbine is

( )(1)/

p0e

T0es = T01 = 800 0.250.25 = 565.7 K

p01

w 244, 800

T02 T0e = = = 213.2 K (a)

cp 1148

A typical temperature drop across a stage is about 120 K. Hence two stages are

justified and ws = w/2 = 122.39 kJ/kg. Each stage has the same flow angles.

Hence their efficiency is the same.

Solving from

1 R /2

tan 1 =

for the reaction R gives

R=1 tan 1 = 1 0.555 0.6 tan(5 ) = 0.3975

2

68

and

R + /2 0.3975 + 0.55

tan 1 = = = 1.5792 1 = 57.65 (c)

0.6

1 R + /2 1 0.3975 + 0.55

tan 2 = = = 1.9208 2 = 62.50

0.6

R /2 0.3975 0.55

tan 2 = = = 02542 2 = 14.26 (b)

0.6

The blade speed is

w 122, 390

U= = = 333.6 m/s (e)

1.1

T01 T02 1 T02 /T 01

s = =

T01 T02s 1 (p02 /p01 )/(1 )

s = =

T02 T0es 1 (p0e /p02 )/(1 )

so that [ ( )]/(1)

p02 1 T02

= 1 1

p01 s T01

[ ( )]/(1)

p0e 1 T0e

= 1 1

p02 s T02

and

[ ( )]/(1) [ ( )]/(1)

p0e p02 p0e 1 T02 1 T0e

= = 1 1 1 1

p01 p01 p02 s T01 s T02

Hence

( )( ) ( ) ( )(1)/

T02 T0e 1 T02 T0e 1 p0e

1 1 1 +1 +1

T01 T02 s T01 T02 s p01

69

Which when solved for the stage efficiency 1/s gives

1 2 T02 /T01 T0e /T02

= +

s 2(1 T02 /T01 )(1 T0e /T02 )

(2 T02 /T01 T0e /T02 )2 4(1 T02 /T01 )(1 T0e /T02 )(1 p0e /p01 )(1)/

2(1 T02 /T01 )(1 T0e /T02 )

and

T02 693.4 T0e 586.8

= = 0.827 = = 0.846

T01 800 T02 693.4

and

1 0.287 0.0824 4 0.133 0.154 0.293

= = 1.108

s 2 0.133 0.154

so that

s = 0.9024

and

1 T02 /T01

s =

1 (p02 /p01 )(1)/

so that

[ ( )]/(1) ( )4

p02 1 T02 0.133

= 1 1 = 1 = 0.528

p01 s T01 0.9024

and p02 = 0.528 0.528 = 343 kPa. Similarly

1 T0e /T02

s =

1 (p0e /p02 )(1)/

[ ( )]/(1) ( )4

p0e 1 T02 0.154

= 1 1 = 1 = 0.474

p02 s T01 0.9024

or

p01 p02

= 1.895 = 2.111 (h)

p02 p0e

Exercise 6.6 For a steam turbine rotor the blade speed at the casing is U =

300 m/s and at the hub its speed is 240 m/s. The absolute velocity at the cas-

ing section at the inlet to the rotor is V2c = 540 m/s and at the hub section it is

V2h = 667 m/s. The angle of the absolute and relative velocities at the inlet and

exit of the casing and hub sections are c2 = 65 , c3 = 60 , h2 = 70 , and

70

h3 = 50 . The exit relative velocity at the casing is Wc3 = 456 m/s and at the

hub it is Wh3 = 355 m/s. Evaluate for the tip section: (a) The axial velocity at

the inlet and exit; (b) the change in total enthalpy of the steam across the rotor; (c)

the outlet total and static temperatures at the hub and casing sections, if the inlet

static temperature is 540 C and inlet total pressure is 7 MPa and they are the same

at all radii. Assume that the process is adiabatic and steam can be considered a

perfect gas with = 1.3. The static pressure at the exit of the rotor is the same

for all radii and is equal to the static pressure at inlet of the hub section. Repeat

the calculations for the hub section. (d) Find the stagnation pressure at the outlet

at the casing and the hub.

Given: Uc , Uh , V2c , V2h , 2c , 2h , 3c , 3h , W3c , W3h , T2 , p02 .

Find: Vx3c , Vx2c , h0 , T03 , T3 , and similarly for the hub.

Solution: The axial velocities are

Vx2h = V2h cos 2h = 667 cos(70 ) = 228.1 m/s (a)

Vx3c = V3c cos 3c = 456 cos(60 ) = 228.0 m/s (a)

Vx3h = V3h cos 3h = 355 cos(50 ) = 228.2 m/s (a)

Vx 228.1 Vx 228.0

c = = = 0.76 h = = = 0.95

Uc 300 Uh 240

The tangential components of the velocities are

and

The stagnation enthalpy change is therefore

71

Note that if rVu = C then w is independent of the radius. Here

rc Vu2c 489.4

= 1.25 = 0.976

rh Vu2h 626.8

so that the condition for a free vortex distribution does not quite hold. Take

1 1

w = (wc + wh ) = (175, 290 + 158, 088) = 166, 690 J/kg

2 2

The blade loading coefficients are

wc 175, 290 wh 158, 088

c = = = 1.947 h = 2

= = 2.744

Uc2 3002 Uh 2402

Using the average value U = 0.5(Uc + Uh ) = 270 m/s, the average value for the

blade loading coefficient is = w/U 2 = 166, 690/2702 = 2.286. The average

force on the blades is therefore

Rc = c tan 3c = 0.76 tan(60 )0.51.947 = 0.343 Rh = h tan 3h = 0.95 tan

2 2

The negative reaction at the hub is undesirable.

The static temperature at the in let to the rotor is uniform T2 = 813.15 K. and

the gas constant is R = R/M = 8314/18 = 461.9 J/kg K. The specific heat is

cp = R/( 1) = 1.3416.9/0.3

= 2001.2001.5 J/kg K, and the speed of sound

is c2 = sqrtRT2 = 1.3 461.9 813.15 = 698.8 m/s. So the Mach number is

V2c 540

M2c = = = 0.773

c2 689.8

and the stagnation temperature at the casing is

1 2

T2c = T2 (1 + M2c ) = 813.15(1 + 0.15 0.7732 ) = 886.0 K

2

From the work done on the casing end of the blade the exit stagnation temperature

is

wc 175, 290

wc = cp (T02c T03c ) T03c = T02c = 886.0 = 798.4 K

cp 2001.6

72

and the absolute velocity is

2 2

V3c = Vx3c + Vu3c = 228.22 + 94.62 = 247.0 m/s

so that

V3c2 2472

T3c = T03c = 798.4 = 783.2 K

2cp 2 2001.6

At the hub

V2h 667

M2h = = = 0.995

c2 689.8

and the stagnation temperature at the hub is

1 2

T2h = T2 (1 + M2h ) = 813.15(1 + 0.15 0.9952 ) = 924.3 K

2

The exit stagnation temperature is

wh 158, 088

T03h = T02h = 924.3 = 845.3 K

cp 2001.6

and the absolute velocity is

2 2

V3h = Vx3h + Vu3h = 228.22 + 31.92 = 230.4 m/s

so that

2

V3h 230.4

T3h = T03h = 845.3 = 832.0 K

2cp 2 2001.6

The stagnation pressure is a uniform p02 = 7 MPa at the inlet to the rotor. so that

the static pressure at the casing is

( )(1)/

1

p2c = p02 1 + = 7000(1 + 0.15 0.7732 )1.3/0.3 = 4826 kPa

2

and a similar calculation at the hub give

( )(1)/

1

p2h = p02 1 + = 7000(1 + 0.15 0.9952 )1.3/0.3 = 4018 kPa

2

At the exit p3 = 4016 kPa and it is uniform. The mach number at the casing is

V3c V3c 247

M3c = = = = 0.360

c3c RT3c 1.3 2001.6 783.2

73

and

( )/(1)

1 2

p03c = p3c 1+ M3c = (1 + 0.15 0.3602 )1.3/0.3 = 4368 kPa

2

At the hub

V3h V3h 230.2

M3h = = = = 0.326

c3h RT3h 1.3 2001.6 832.0

and

( )/(1)

1 2

p03h = p3h 1+ M3h = (1 + 0.15 0.3262 )1.3/0.3 = 4303 kPa

2

Exercise 6.7 Combustion gases, with = 4/3 and R = 287 kJ/kg K, flow thor-

ough a turbine stage. The inlet flow angle for a normal stage is 1 = 0 . The

flow coefficient is = 0.52 and the blade loading coefficient is = 1.4. (a)

Draw the velocity diagrams for the stage. (b) Determine the angle at which rel-

ative velocity leaves the rotor. (c) Find the flow angle at the exit of the stator.

(d) A two-stage turbine has an inlet stagnation temperature of T01 = 1250 K and

blade speed U = 320 m/s. If the adiabatic efficiency of the turbine is t = 0.89,

find the stagnation temperature of the gas at the exit of the turbine and the stagna-

tion pressure ratio for the turbine. (e) Assuming that the density ratio across the

turbine based on static temperature and pressure ratios is the same as that based

on the stagnation temperature and stagnation pressure ratios, find the ratio of the

cross-sectional areas across the two-stage turbine.

Given: , , 1 , T01 , U , tt and two stages.

Find: 3 , 2 , T03 , Ae /A1 .

Solution: With the flow coefficient and blade loading coefficient known, as well

as the inlet flow angle 1 = 0, the reaction can be calculated from

1 R /2 1.4

tan 1 = R=1 =1 = 0.3

2 2

and the flow angles are

( )

1 R + /2 1 1 0.3 + 0.7

tan 2 = 2 = tan = 69.62 (c)

0.52

74

) (

R + /2 0.3 + 0.7

1

tan 1 = 1 = tan = 62.53 (b)

0.52

( )

R /2 1 0.3 0.7

tan 2 = 2 = tan = 37.59 (b)

0.53

With the flow angles fixed and axial velocity equal for both stages, the work is the

same. Hence

therefore

wt 286, 720

wts = = = 322.2 kJ/kg

tt 0.89

and

wt 286, 720

T0e = T01 = 1250 = 1000.0 K

cp 1148

wts 322, 200

T0es = T01 = 1250 = 969.4 K

cp 1148

Therefore

( )/(1) ( )4

p01 T01 1250

= = = 2.76 (d)

p0e T0es 969.4

With p1 = 1 RT1 ] p e = e T Te ,

= |f racTe T1 = 2.76 = 2.208

e pe p0e T01 1250

The detailed calculations show that

and

Ve5 166.42

Te = T0e = 1000 = 988.2 K

2cp 2 1148

so that ( )/(1) ( )4

pe Te 988.2

= = = 0.9526

p0e T0e 1000

75

and

V15 166.42

T1 = T01 = 1450 = 1237.9 K

2cp 2 1148

so that ( )/(1) ( )4

p1 T1 1237.9

= = = 0.962

p01 T01 1250

Therefore

p5 p5 p05 p01 0.9526

= = = 0.3582

p1 p05 p01 p1 2.76 0.962

so that

1 p1 Te 988.2

= = = 2.229 (e)

e pe T1 0.362 1250

and the approximation is reasonably good.

Exercise 6.8 Steam enters a 10-stage fifty percent reaction turbine at pressure

0.8 MPa and 200 C and leaves at pressure 5 kPa and with quality equal to 0.86.

(a) If the steam flow rate is 7 kg/s, find the power output and the overall efficiency

of the turbine. (b) The steam enters each stator stage axially with velocity of

75 m/s. The mean rotor diameter for all stages is 1.4 m and the axial velocity is

constant through the machine. Find the rotational speed of the shaft. (c) Find the

inlet and exit flow angles at the mean blade height assuming equal enthalpy drops

for each stage.

Given: R, p01 , T01 , 1 , p0e , x = 0.86, Vx , D, m and the number of stages is 10

and equal stagnation enthalpy drops across each stage.

Find: W , tt , 2 , and 1 .

Solution: From the steam tables with p01 = 80, 00 kPa and T01 , enthalpy is h01 =

2839.3 kJ/kg and entropy is s1 = 6.8158 kJ/kg K. For an isentropic process to

exit pressure of p0e = 5 kPa, entropy is ses = s1 , the quality is

ses sf 6.1858 0.4764

xe = = = 0.808

sg sf 7.9187

and

h0es = hf + xes hf g = 137.82 + 0.808 2424.4 = 2077.3 kJ/kg

h0e = hf + xe hf g = 137.82 + 0.86 2424.4 = 2222.8 kJ/kg

Therefore

h01 h0e 2839.3 2222.8

tt = = 2839.3 2077.3 = 0.811 (a)

h01 h0es |

76

Since equal work is done by each stage

2839.3 2222.8

w= = 61.74 kJ/kg

10

Since the inlet and exit are axial and the reaction is 50 percent, the velocity trian-

gles are symmetric and 2 = 0 so that Vu2 = u. Then the expression for work can

be solved for the blade speed

w = U (Vu2 Vu3 ) = U Vu2 = U 2 U = sqrtw = 61740 = 248.5 m/s

Therefore

U 248.5 30

= = = 3390 rpm (b)

r 0.7

The flow angle to the rotor is

( ) ( )

1 U 1 248.5

2 = 1 = tan = tan = 73.2 (c)

Vx 75

Exercise 6.9 Combustion gases enter axially into a normal stage at stagnation

temperature T01 = 1200 K and stagnation pressure p01 = 1500 kPa. The flow

coefficient is = 0.8 and the reaction is R = 0.4 and the inlet Mach number to

the stator is M1 = 0.4. Find; (a) the blade speed, (b) the Mach number leaving

the stator and the relative Mach number leaving the rotor. (c) Using the Soderberg

loss coefficients find the efficiency of the stage. (d) Repeat the calculations with

inlet Mach number M1 = 0.52.

Given: , 1 , R, T01 and p01 .

Find: 2 , 1 , R, and plot results for 1 = 10 to 30 .

Solution: With 1 = 0 and R = 0.4, then = 2(1 R) = 1.2. As a consequence

1 R + /2 0.6 + 0.6

tan 2 = = = 1.5 2 = 56.31

0.8

(R + /2) 0.4 + 0.6

tan 1 = = = 1.25 1 = 51.34

0.8

(R /2) 0.4 0.6

tan 2 = = = 0.25 2 = 14.04

0.8

With M1 = 0.4 and the inlet flow axial

( )1

1 2 0.42

T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 1200(1 + ) = 1168.8 K

2 6

77

and

V1 = Vx = M1 RT1 = 0.4 1.333 287 1168.8 = 267.5 m/s

Vx 267.5

V2 = = = 482.2 m/s

cos 2 cos(56.31 )

V22 482.22

T2 = T02 = 1200 = 1098.7 K

2cp 2 1.148

and

V2 482.2

M2 = = = 0.744 (a)

RT2 1.333 287 1098.7

The stagnation temperature after the rotor is

w 134.2

T03 = T02 = 1200 = 1083.1 K

cp 1.148

Wx 267.5

W3 = = = 428.3 m/s

cos 3 cos(51.34 )

and

V32 267.52

T3 = T03 = 1083.1 = 1051.9 K

2cp 2 1148

and

W3 428.3

M3R = = = 0.675 (b)

RT3 1.333 287 1051.9

The deflections are

= 2 1 = 56.31

= 2 3 = 14.0451.34 = 65.38

78

so that

( )2 ( )2

56.31

S = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.0590

100 100

( )2 ( )2

65.38

R = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.04 + 0.06 = 0.0656

100 100

so that ( )

1 2 R S

1= +

tt 2 cos2 3 cos2 2

( )

0.82 0.0656 2 0.0590

= (51.34 ) + = 0.09596

2 1.2 cos cos2 (56.312 )

and the total-to-total efficiency is tt = 0.9124 (c).

If the inlet Mach number is increased to M1 = 0.52, then M2 = 0.9889 and

M3R = 0.9131. The efficiency remains the same.

Exercise 6.10 For a normal turbine stage fluid enters the stator at the angle 10 .

The relative velocity has an angle 40 as it leaves the rotor. The blade loading

factor is 1.6. (a) Determine the exit angle of the flow leaving the stator and the an-

gle of the relative velocity as it enters the rotor. Determine the degree of reaction.

(b) For the conditions of part (a) calculate the flow exit angle and the angle of the

relative velocity entering the rotor, as well as the degree of reaction and plot them

as functions of 1 , from 1 = 10 to 30 .

Given: , 1 , 3 .

Find: 2 , 1 , R, and plot results for 1 = 10 to 30 .

Solution:

1

= tan 1 tan 1 = tan(10 ) tan(40 ) = 1.015 = 0.985

Reaction is

R=1 tan 1 = 1 0.8 0.985 tan(10 ) = 0.026 (b)

2

2 = tan1 (/ + tan 1 ) = tan1 (1.6/0985 + tan(10 )) = 60.96 (a)

From

79

%Hw 6.10

alpha3deg=10; alpha3=alpha3deg*pi/180;

beta3deg=-40; beta3=beta3deg*pi/180;

phi=1/(tan(alpha3)-tan(beta3)); psi=1.6

alpha2=atan(psi/phi+tan(alpha3));

alpha2deg=alpha2*180/pi;

R=1-0.5*phi*(tan(alpha2)+tan(alpha3))

% Computer part

alpha3adeg=linspace(-20,10);

alpha3a=alpha3adeg*pi/180;

n=length(alpha3a);

for i=1:n

phia(i)=1/(tan(alpha3a(i))-tan(beta3));

alpha2a(i)=atan(psi/phia(i)+tan(alpha3a(i)));

beta2a(i)=atan(tan(alpha2a(i)-1/phia(i)));

Ra(i)=1-0.5*phia(i)*(tan(alpha2a(i))+tan(alpha3a(i)));

end

plot(alpha3adeg,Ra); grid;

Exercise 6.11 For Example 6.6 plot the variation of the reaction from the hub to

the casing.

%HW=6.11

clear all

Rgas=287; cp=1148; k=4/3; T01=1100; p01=420000;

rho01=p01/(Rgas*T01); c01=sqrt(k*Rgas*T01);

rm=0.17; kappa2=0.7; rc2=2*rm/(1+kappa2); rh2=kappa2*rc2;

kappa3=0.65; rc3=2*rm/(1+kappa3); rh3=kappa3*rc3 ;

alpha2mdeg=60.08; alpha2m=alpha2mdeg*pi/180;

alpha3mdeg=-21.20; alpha3m=alpha3mdeg*pi/180;

beta2mdeg=25.98; beta2m=beta2mdeg*pi/180;

beta3mdeg=-58.59; beta3m=beta3mdeg*pi/180;

Rinv=1-(tan(alpha2m)+tan(alpha3m))/(tan(beta2m)+tan(beta3m));

Rm=1/Rinv; phi1=-2*Rm/(tan(beta2m)+tan(beta3m))

phi=0.8; psim=phi*(tan(beta2m)-tan(beta3m));

Rm=-0.5*phi*(tan(beta3m)+tan(beta2m));

psi=2*(1-Rm-phi*tan(alpha3m)); kp=k/(k-1);

Vx=231; U=Vx/phi; Vum2=Vx*tan(alpha2m); Vum3=Vx*tan(alpha3m);

80

n=100;

for i=1:n+1;

zeta(i)=(i-1)*0.01;

r2(i)=2*((1-kappa2)/(1+kappa2))*zeta(i)+2*kappa2/(1+kappa2);

r3(i)=2*((1-kappa3)/(1+kappa3))*zeta(i)+2*kappa3/(1+kappa3);

alpha2(i)=atan(tan(alpha2m)/r2(i));

alpha3(i)=atan(tan(alpha3m)/r3(i));

beta2(i)=atan(tan(alpha2m)/r2(i)-r2(i)/phi);

beta3(i)=atan(tan(alpha3m)/r3(i)-r3(i)/phi);

R(i)=1-(1-Rm)/r2(i)^2;

end

alpha2deg=alpha2*180/pi; alpha3deg=alpha3*180/pi;

beta2deg=beta2*180/pi; beta3deg=beta3*180/pi;

plot(zeta,alpha2deg,zeta,alpha3deg,zeta,beta2deg,zeta,beta3deg)

figure(2); plot(zeta,R)

m=100;

%Numerical check

a=(2*pi*Vx*rho01);

sum=0; dr=(rc2-rh2)/m;

Vxr=Vx^2/(2*cp*T01);

Vur=Vum2^2/(2*cp*T01);

rhom=rho01*(1-Vxr-Vur)^(1/(k-1));

b=(2*pi*Vx*rhom);

for i=1:m+1

r(i)=rh2+(i-1)*dr;

rho(i)=(1-Vxr-Vur*rm^2/r(i)^2)^(1/(k-1));

f(i)=r(i)*rho(i);

end

mdota=0.5*a*(rc2^2-rh2^2)

mdotb=0.5*b*(rc2^2-rh2^2)

mdot=a*trapz(r,f)

Rh = 0.204 Rc = 0.610

81

Exercise 6.12 For a normal turbine stage the exit blade angle of the stator at 70

and relative velocity has an angle 60 as it leaves the rotor. For a range of

flow coefficients = 0.2 0.8 calculate and plot the gas exit angle from the

rotor, the angle the relative velocity makes as it leaves the stator, the blade loading

coefficient and the degree of reaction. Comment on what is a good operating range

and what are the deleterious effects in the flow over the blades if the mass flow

rate is reduced too much or if it is increased far beyond this range.

Given: , 1 , 3 .

Find: 2 , 1 , R, and plot results for 1 = 10 to 30 .

Solution:

%HW6.12

clear all

phi=0.2:0.05:0.8;

alpha2d=70; alpha2=alpha2d*pi/180;

beta1d=-60; beta1=beta1d*pi/180;

psi=-1+phi.*(tan(alpha2)-tan(beta1));

alpha1=atan(tan(alpha2)-psi./phi);

alpha1d=alpha1*180/pi;

R=1-0.5.*phi.*(tan(alpha2)+tan(alpha1));

beta2=atan(tan(alpha2)-1./phi);

beta2d=beta2*180/pi;

subplot(2,2,1); plot(phi,alpha1d); grid;

xlabel(Flow Coefficient \phi);

ylabel(Air rotor outlet angle \alpha_1);

subplot(2,2,2); plot(phi,beta2d); grid;

xlabel(Flow Coefficient, \phi);

ylabel(Flow angle, \beta_2);

subplot(2,2,3); plot(phi, psi); grid;

xlabel(Flow Coefficient \phi);

ylabel(Blade Loading Factor, \psi);

subplot(2,2,4); plot(phi,R); grid;

xlabel(Flow Coefficient \phi);

ylabel(Degree of Reaction, R);

Find: 2 , 2 , R, and DpLS .

82

Solution: The flow coefficient is

1 1

= = = 0.985

tan 1 tan 1 tan(10 ) tan(40 )

The reaction is

1 1

R = 1 (tan 2 + tan 1 ) = 1 (tan(60.96 ) + tan(10 )) = 0.026

2 2

The Ainley-Mathieson correlations give

[ ( )2 ( ) ]( )

2 2 s 2

Ypa = 0.627 + 0.821 0.129

100 100 c

[ ( )2 ( ) ]( )

2 2 s

+ 1.489 1.676 + 0.242

100 100 c

( )2 ( )

2 2

0.356 + 0.399 + 0.007 = 0.0268

100 100

[ ( )2 ]( )

2 2 s 2

Ype = 1.56 + 1.554 0.0639

100 100 c

[ ( )2 ]( )

2 2 s

+ 3.73 3.435 + 0.289

100 100 c

( )2

2 2

+ 0.82 + 0.7806 + 0.078 = 0.1058

100 100

and then

[ ( )2 ] ( )|1 /2 |

1 t/c

Yp = Ypa + (Ype Ypa ) = 0.029

2 0.2

V2 4202

T2 = T02 = 700 = 699.8 K

2cp 2 1148

83

so that the Mach number is

V2 420

M2 = = = 0.8116

RT2 1.333 287 699.38

( )/(1)

p02 1 2 0.792 4

= 1+ M2 = (1 + ) = 1.517

p2 2 6

( )

p01 p2

= 1 + Yp 1 = 1.010

p02 p02

Therefore

p02 380

p02 = p01 = = 376.3 kPa

p01 1.01

and

p2 376.3

p2 = p02 = = 248.0 kPa

p02 1.517

and the loss of stagnation pressure is

( )(1)/ ( )0.25

p2 248.0

T2s = T02 = 700 = 630.8 K

p02 376.3

p02

02 = = 1.873 kg/m3

RT02

and therefore

2dp0LS /02

N = ( ) = 0.0205

1 + 1

2

M22 V22

84

Chapter 7

Exercise 7.1 The inlet and exit total pressures of a air flowing through a com-

pressor are 100 kPa and 1000 kPa. The inlet total temperature is 281 K. What is

the work of compression if the adiabatic total-to-total efficiency is 0.75

Given: Inlet p01 and T01 , and exit p0e as well as tt .

Find: Work to compress the air.

Solution: From

ws h02s h01

tt = =

w h02 h01

the work done is

[( )(1)/ ]

1 cp T01 p02

w= (h02s h01 ) = 1

tt tt p01

so that [( )1/3.5 ]

1004.5 281 1000

w= 1 = 350 kJ/kg

0.75 100

Exercise 7.2 Air flows through an axial fan rotor at mean radius of 15 cm. The

tangential component of the absolute velocity is increased by 15 m/s through the

rotor. (a) Evaluate the torque exerted on the air by the rotor, if the flow rate is

0.472 m3 s and the pressure and temperature of the air are 100 kPa and 300 K. (b)

What is the rate of energy transfer to the air, if the rotational speed is 3000 rpm.

Given: Inlet p1 , T1 , and the change in the swirl velocity; the flow rate Q, rotational

speed , and r.

Find: Torque and power.

Solution: Density at the inlet is

p1 100

1 = = = 1.61 kg/m3

RT1 0.287 300

Mass flow rate is

85

The blade speed is

0.15 3000

U = r = = 47.12 kg/s

30

The power needed to compress the air is

W 394 30

T = = = 1.23 N m (a)

3000

Exercise 7.3 The blade speed of a compressor rotor is U = 280 m/s and the

total enthalpy change across a normal stage is 31.6 kJ/kg. If the flow coefficient

= 0.5 and the inlet to the rotor is axial, find the gas angle leaving the rotor.

Given: and w, and U .

Find: Find the value of the flow angle at the exit of the rotor.

Solution: Since the flow at the inlet is axial, the equation for work reduces to

or

= tan 2

With

w 31600

=

= = 0.403

U2 2802

then ( ) ( )

1 1 0.403

2 = tan = tan = 38.9

0.5

Also

Vx = U = 0.5 280 = 140 m/s

and

and ( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 167.1

2 = tan = tan 50.05

Vx 140

86

Exercise 7.4 Air flows through an axial flow fan, with an axial velocity of 40 m/s.

The absolute velocities at the inlet and the outlet of the stator are at angles of 60

and 30 , respectively. The relative velocity at the outlet of the rotor is at an angle

25 . Assume reversible adiabatic flow and a normal stage. (a) Draw the velocity

diagrams at the inlet and outlet of the rotor. (b) Determine the flow coefficient. (c)

Determine the blade loading coefficient. (d) Determine at what angle the relative

velocity enters the rotor. (e) Determine the static pressure increase across the

rotor in Pascals. The inlet total temperature is 300 K and the inlet total pressure is

101.3 kPa. (f) Determine the degree of reaction.

Given: Inlet p01 , T01 , Vx , 1 , 2 , 2 . Reversible adiabatic flow.

Find: , , R and p2 p1 .

Solution: The blade speed

Vx 40

= = = 0.455 (b)

U 87.93

The work done is

so that

w 4061.5

= = = 0.525 (c)

U2 87.932

Writing the equation for work as

so that

( ) ( )

1 1 0.525

1 = tan tan 2 = tan tan(25 ) = 58.3 (d)

0.455

The reaction is

1 0.455

R = 1 (tan 2 +tan 1 ) = 1 [tan(60 ) + tan(30 )] = 0.475 (f )

2 2

87

Since the velocities are low, the flow may be assumed incompressible and since it

is reversible and adiabatic

p0

w=

The density is

p01 101.3

01 = = = 1.1765 kg/m3

RT01 0.287 300

and it may be assumed that 1 = 01 . Thus

Vx 40

V1 = = = 46.19 m/s

cos 1 cos(30 )

Vx 40

V2 = = = 80.00 m/s

cos 2 cos(60 )

The static pressure at the inlet is

1 1.1765 46.192

p1 = p01 V12 = 101.3 = 100.05kPa

2 2 1000

1 1.1765 80.02

p2 = p02 V22 = 106.1 = 102.31kPa

2 2 1000

so that p2 p1 = 102.31 100.05 = 2.26 kPa (e)

Exercise 7.5 Air flows through an axial flow compressor. The axial velocity is

60 percent of the blade speed at the mean radius. The reaction ratio is 0.4. The

absolute velocity enters the stator at an angle of 55 deg from the axial direction.

Assume a normal stage. (a) Draw the velocity diagrams at the inlet and outlet

of the rotor. (b) Determine the flow coefficient. (c) Determine the blade loading

coefficient. (d) Determine at what angle the relative velocity enters the rotor. (e)

Determine at what angle the relative velocity leaves the rotor. (f) Determine at

what angle the absolute velocity leaves the stator.

Given: Vx = 0.U , R = 04, and 2 = 55 .

Find: 1 , 1 , 2 and .

88

Solution: Since Vx = 0.6U , the flow coefficient is = 0.6. The flow angle 1

can be obtained from

( ) ( )

1 2(1 R) 1 2 0.6

1 = tan tan 2 = tan tan(55 ) = 29.76

0.6

and then

( )

R + /2 1 0.5 + 0.514/2

tan 1 = 1 = tan = 47.59 (e)

0.6

( )

R /2 1 0.5 0.514/2

tan 2 = 2 = tan = 13.42 (e)

0.6

Exercise 7.6 The angle at which the absolute velocity enters the rotor of single

stage axial compressor is 1 = 40 and the relative velocity at the inlet of the rotor

is 1 = 60 . These angles at the inlet of the stator are 2 = 60 and 2 = 40 .

The mean radius of the rotor is 30 cm and the hub to tip radius is 0.8. The axial

velocity is constant and has a value Vx = 125 m/s. The inlet air is atmospheric

at pressure 101.325 kPa and temperature 293 K. (a) Find the mass flow rate. (b)

What is the rotational speed of the shaft under these conditions? (c) What is the

power requirement of the compressor?

Given: 1 , 2 , 1 , r, rh /rt and Vx . The inlet conditions are p01 and T01 .

Find: m, , W .

Solution: To calculate the mass flow rate from

m = 1 AVx

the area and density need to be determined. The area can be written as

1 rc

rm = (rh + rc ) (1 + )

2 2

89

thus

2rm 2 0.3 1

rc = = = m

1+ 1 + 0.8 3

and

A= (1 0.64) = 0.1257 m2

9

The velocity at the inlet is

Vx 125

V1 = = = 163.18 m/s

cos 1 cos(40 )

The stagnation Mach number is

V1 163.18

M01 = = = 0.4756

RT01 (1.4 287 293

and the Mach number is

M01 0.4756

M1 = = = 0.4876

1 1 M 2 1 0.2 0.27562

2 01

Then

T01 293

T1 = = = 279.75 K

1+ 1

2

M12 1 0.2 0.48762

and ( )/(1) ( )3.5

T1 279.75

p1 = p01 = 101.325 = 86.17 kPa

T01 293

and the density is

p1 81.17

1 = = = 1.073 kg/m3

RT1 0.287 279.75

The mass flow rate is

From

so that

U 321.4 30

= = = 10230 rpm (b)

rm 0.3

90

The work done is

Exercise 7.7 The angle at which the absolute velocity enters the rotor a compres-

sor stage is 1 = 35 and the relative velocity makes an angle 1 = 60 . The

corresponding angles at the inlet to the stator are 2 = 60 and 2 = 35 . The

stage is normal and the axial velocity is constant through the compressor. (a) Why

does the static pressure rise across both the rotor and the stator. (b) Draw the ve-

locity triangles. (c) If the blade speed is U = 290ms, find the axial velocity. (d)

Find the work done per unit mass flow for a stage and the increase in stagnation

temperature across it. (e) The stagnation temperature at the inlet is 300 K. The

overall adiabatic efficiency of the compressor is c = 0.9 and the overall stagna-

tion pressure ratio is 17.5. Determine the number of stages in the compressor. (f)

How many axial turbine stages will it take to power this compressor?

Given: Inlet T01 , U , 1 , 2 , 1 , 2 and p0e /p01 as well as c .

Find: Vx , w and T0 across as stage, the number of stages in the compressor and

suggest how many turbine stages are needed to power the compressor.

Solution: The first part asks why pressure increases across the stator and the ro-

tor. Because the flow is turned toward the axis in the stator and the axil velocity

remains constant, its kinetic energy decreases. This means that the static enthalpy

increases, since the stagnation remains constant. With an increase in static en-

thalpy pressure increases, as seen from

T ds = dh vdp

for isentropic flow and there is no qualitative change as irreversibilities are in-

troduced. The same arguments hold for the rotor, but now the relative velocity is

turned toward the axis and since the relative stagnation enthalpy remains constant,

the static enthalpy and thus also the pressure increased across the rotor. Part (b)

asks for the velocity diagrams. Since the angles are given, and the velocity U is

also given, they can be drawn. From

1

= tan 1 tan 1 = tan(35 ) tan(60 ) = 2.4323

91

so that phi = 0.411 and

Next

R=1 (tan 2 + tan 1 ) = 0.5

2

as was expected as the velocity diagrams are symmetric. Then

and

w

w = U 2 = 0.424 2902 = 35, 678 K/kg DT0 = = 35.5 K (d)

cp

With the pressure ratio known, the exit temperature can be determined from

( )(1)/

1 p0e 1

f racT0e T01 = 1 + =1+ (17.51/3.5 ) = 2.401

c p01 0.9

so that T0e = 2.401300 = 721.8 K. The number of stages can now be determined

from

T0e T01 421.8

N= = = 11.88 N = 12 (e)

T03 T01 35.5

Typically one turbine stage is needed to power 5 or 6 compressor stages, so 2

turbine stages are needed. This is the answer to part (f).

Exercise 7.8 The blade speed of a rotor of an axial air compressor is U = 150 m/s.

The axial velocity is constant and equal to Vx = 75 m/s. The tangential compo-

nent of the relative velocity leaving the rotor is Wu2 = 30 m/s, the tangential

component of the absolute velocity entering the rotor is Vu1 = 55m/s. The stagna-

tion temperature and pressure at the inlet to the rotor are 340 K and 185 kPa. The

stage efficiency is 0.9 and one-half of the loss in stagnation pressure takes place

through the rotor. (a) Draw the velocity diagrams at the inlet and exit of the rotor.

(b) Find the work done per unit mass flow through the compressor. (c) Draw the

states in an hs-diagram. (d) The stagnation and static temperatures between the

rotor and the stator. (e) The stagnation pressure between the rotor and the stator.

Given: Inlet p01 and T01 , Vu1 , Vx , Wu2 and tt .

Find: Work to compress the air, T02 and T2 , p02 .

92

Solution: The remaining velocity components are

Vu2 = U + Wu2 = 150 30 = 20mm/s

Wu1 = Vu1 U = 65 150 = 95 m/s

and the work done is

w = U (Vu2 Vu1 ) = 150(120 55) = 9750 J/kg (b)

and

w 9750

T02 = T01 + = 340 + = 349.7 K (d)

cp 1004.5

The isentropic work is

ws = tt w = 0.9 9750 = 8775 J/kg

and

8775

T03s = T01 + = 348.7 K

1004.5

so that

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T03s 349.7

p03 = p01 = 185 + = 202.18 kPa

T01 340

The ideal pressure reached after the rotor is there were no losses and the same

amount of work is done as in the actual case is

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T02 349.7

p02i = p01 = 185 = 204.15 kPa

T01 340

and the stagnation pressure loss is

Dp0L = p02i p03 = 204.15 202.18 = 1.97 kPa

The stagnation pressure after the rotor is

p02 = p03 + 0.5Dp0L = 202.18 + 0.985 = 203.17 kPa (e)

The velocity after the rotor is

2

V2 = Vx2 + Vu2 = 752 + 1202 = 141.51 m/s

and the static temperature is

V22 141.512

T2 = T02 = 349.7 = 339.7 K (d)

2cp 2 1004.5

93

Exercise 7.9 Air from ambient at 101.325 kPa and temperature 20 C enters the

first stage of multistage axial flow compressor with velocity 61 m/s. The blade tip

radius is 60 cm and the hub radius is is 42 cm. The shaft speed is 1800 rpm. The

air enters a stage axially and leaves it axially at the same speed. The rotor turns the

relative velocity 18.7 toward the direction of the blade movement. The total-to-

total stage efficiency is 0.87. (a) Draw the inlet and exit velocity diagrams for the

rotor. (b) Draw the blade shapes. (c) Determine the flow coefficient and the blade

loading factor. (d) Determine the mass flow rate. (e) What is the work required

per unit mass. (f) What is the total pressure ratio for the stage? (g) Determine the

degree of reaction.

Find: , , R, m, w and p0e /p01 .

Solution: Since the inlet velocity is axial and it is quite small the density at the

inlet is the same as the stagnation density

p01 101.325

01 = = = 1.205 kg/m3

RT01 287 293

and the mass flow rate is

m = AVx = (rc2 rh2 )Vx = 1.205 (0.62 0.422 ) = 42.40 kg/s (d)

1 0.6 + 0.42 0.51 1800

r = (rc + rh ) = 0.51 m U = rm = = 96.13 m/s

2 2 30

Now the flow angles can be determined. The relative velocity is at the angle 1

entering the rotor. It is

( ) ( )

1 U 1 96.13

1 = tan = tan = 57.6

Vx 61

and

2 = 1 + 18.7 = 57.6 + 18.7 = 38.9

The tangential component of the velocity entering the stator is

94

and ( ) ( )

1 Vu2 1 46.91

2 = tan = tan = 37.56

Vx 61

The specific work done is

and

ws = tt w = 0.87 4509 = 3922.8 J/kg

so that

w 4509 Vx 61

= 2

= 2

= 0.488 = = = 0.635 (c)

U 96.13 U 96.13

The stagnation temperature after the rotor is

w 4509

T02 = T01 + = 293 + = 297.5 K

cp 1004.5

and

ws 3922.8

T02s = T01 + = 293 + = 296.9 K

cp 1004.5

The pressure ratio is therefore

( )/(1) ( )3.5

p02 T02s 296.9

= = = 1.047

p01 T01 293

The reaction is

0.635

R=1 (2 + tan 1 ) = 1 (tan(37.56 ) 0) = 0.756 (g)

2 2

Exercise 7.10 Air from ambient at 101.325 kPa and temperature 300 K enters an

axial flow compressor stage axially with velocity 122 m/s. The blade tip radius

is 35 cm and the hub radius is 30 cm. The shaft speed is 6000 rpm. At the exit

relative velocity is at an angle 45 . The total-to-total stage efficiency is 0.86. (a)

Draw the inlet and exit velocity diagrams for the rotor. (b) Draw the blade shapes.

(c) Determine the flow coefficient and the blade loading factor. (d) Determine the

mass flow rate. (e) What is the total pressure ratio for the stage? (f) Determine the

degree of reaction.

95

Given: Inlet p01 , T01 , Vx , rc , rh , 1 and tt .

Find: , , R, and p03 /p01 .

Solution: The mean radius and the blade speed are

1 0.35 + 0.30 0.325 6000

r = (rc +rh ) = 0.325 m U = rm = = 204.2 m/s

2 2 30

Now the flow angles can be determined. The relative velocity is at the angle 1

entering the rotor. It is

( ) ( )

1 U 1 204.2

1 = tan = tan = 59.1

Vx 122

Vx tan 2 = U + Vx tan 2

which gives

( ) ( )

1 U 1 204.2

2 = tan + tan 2 = tan + tan(45 ) = 34.0

Vx 122

and

ws = tt w = 0.86 16806 = 14, 453 J/kg

so that

w 16806 Vx 122

= 2

= 2

= 0.40 = = = 0.60 (c)

U 204.2 U 204.2

The stagnation temperature after the rotor is

w 16, 806

T02 = T01 + = 300 + = 316.7 K

cp 1004.5

and

ws 14, 453

T02s = T01 + = 300 + = 314.4 K

cp 1004.5

96

The pressure ratio is therefore

( )/(1) ( )3.5

p02 T02s 314.4

= = = 1.178 (e)

p01 T01 300

The reaction is

0.60

R=1 (2 + tan 1 ) = 1 (tan(34.0 ) 0) = 0.80 (f )

2 2

The stagnation density at the inlet is

p01 101.325

01 = = = 1.205 kg/m3

RT01 287 300

The static temperature at the inlet is

V12 1222

T1 = T01 = 300 = 292.6 K

2cp 2 1004.5

and the static pressure is

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T1 292.6

p1 = p01 = 101.325 = 92.83 kPa

T01 300

and the static density is

p1 92.83

1 = = = 1.1055 kg/m3

RT1 287 292.6

and the mass flow rate is

m = AVx = (rc2 rh2 )Vx = 1.1055 (0.352 0.302 ) = 13.77 kg/s (d)

Exercise 7.11 Carry out design calculations for a compressor stage with blade

loading factor in the range = 0.25 to = 0.55, flow coefficient = 0.7 and

reaction R = 0.6. Keep the diffusion factor equal to 0.45. Calculate and plot 1,

solidity, and the static pressure rise 1 V22 /V12 for the rotor and stator (including

the de Haller criterion). What are the stagnation losses across the stator and rotor?

Given: The range of blade loading factors and R = 0.6

Find: Solidity, diffusion factor, loss, diffusion.

Solution:

97

% Compressor calculations

clear all; clf;

% Specified conditions

R=0.4; phi=0.6; DF=0.45;

% Blade angles

alpha1=atan((1-R-0.5*psi)./phi);

alpha2=atan((1-R+0.5*psi)./phi);

beta1=-atan((R+0.5*psi)./phi);

beta2=-atan((R-0.5*psi)./phi);

% Solidities using Liebleins diffusion factor

sigmar=0.5*sin(beta2-beta1)./(cos(beta1)-(1-DF).*cos(beta2));

sigmas=0.5*sin(alpha2-alpha1)./(cos(alpha2)-(1-DF).*cos(alpha1));

% Loss coefficients

omegar=0.014*sigmar./cos(beta2);

omegas=0.014*sigmas./cos(alpha1);

% Pressure rise and de Haller Conditions

w1sq=phi.^2+(0.5*psi+R).^2;

w2sq=phi.^2.*(1+tan(beta2).^2);

v2sq=phi.^2+(0.5*psi+1-R).^2;

v1sq=phi^2.*(1+tan(alpha1).^2);

hallerr=1-w2sq./w1sq; hallers=1-v1sq./v2sq;

% Stagantion pressure loss and efficiency

Dp0LR=(0.5*phi^2./psi).*omegar./cos(beta1).^2;

Dp0LS=(0.5*phi^2./psi).*omegas./cos(alpha2).^2;

Dp0L=Dp0LR+Dp0LS;

% Plots

n=length(hallers);

dehaller=0.44*ones(1,n);

subplot(2,2,1), plot(psi,hallerr,.-,psi,hallers,psi,dehaller);

grid on; axis([0.25 0.52 0.2 0.7]);

xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)

ylabel(1-V_2^2/V_1^2,Fontsize,12)

text(0.26, 0.47,de Haller)

legend(Rotor,Stator)

set(gca,Fontsize,12); hold on;

subplot(2,2,2), plot(psi,Dp0LR,.-,psi,Dp0LS,psi,Dp0L);

grid on; axis([0.25 0.52 0.00 0.08]);

xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)

98

ylabel(Loss, 1-\eta,Fontsize,12)

legend(Rotor,Stator,Total)

subplot(2,2,3), plot(psi,sigmar,.-,psi,sigmas);

grid on; axis([0.25 0.52 0.0 3.0]);

xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)

ylabel(Solidity,Fontsize,12)

legend(Rotor,Stator)

s=[1.0 1.4 2.0];

subplot(2,2,4);

for i=1:3

ddf(i,:)=1-cos(beta1)./cos(beta2) + ...

0.5*cos(beta1).*(tan(beta2)-tan(beta1))./s(i);

plot(psi,ddf(i,:)); hold on;

end

axis([0.25 0.52 0.2 0.6]); grid;

xlabel(Blade Loading, \psi=\Delta h_0/U^2,Fontsize,12)

ylabel(Diffusion Factor,Fontsize,12)

text(0.405,0.55,\sigma=1.0), text(0.405,0.35,\sigma=2.0)

text(0.405,0.482,\sigma=1.4);

% End of script

Exercise 7.12 A compressor stage with reaction ratio R = 0.54, and stator outlet

metal angle 3 = 14.5 . The camber angle is = 32 , pitch chord ratio is

s/c = 0.82, and the position of maximum camber a/c = 0.45. The ratio of the

blade height to the chord is b/c = 1.7. (a) Find the deviation of the flow leaving

the stator. (b) Find the deflection. (c) Find the flow coefficient and blade loading

coefficient if the inflow is at zero incidence.

Given: R, 2 , , s/c, a/c, b/c.

Find: Deviation, deflection, , .

Solution: The flow angle at the exit of the stator is

( a )2 s

s

3 = 3 + = 3 + 0.902 + 3

c c 500 c

and solving this for 3 gives

3 + 0.92(a/c)2 s/c

3 = = 21.12

1 500 s/c

99

and the deviation at the exit is

( )

1 1.55

2 = tan tan 3 +

1 + 1.5s/c

( )

1 1.55

= tan tan(21.12 ) + = 47.24

1 + 1.5 0.82

and the deflection is

1

= tan 3 + tan 2 = tan(21.12 ) + tan(47.24 ) = 1.429 = 0.7 (c)

and

Exercise 7.13 The circular arc blades of a compressor cascade have camber =

30 and the maximum thickness at a/c = 0.5. The spacing to chord ratio is

s/c = 1.0. The nominal outflow angle is = 25 . (a) Determine the nominal

incidence. (b) Determine that lift coefficient at the nominal incidence if the drag

coefficient is CD = 0.016.

Given: , s/c, a/c, 2 , and CD .

Find: The nominal incidence and the lift coefficient.

Solution: From the tangent difference formula

( )

1 1.55

2 = tan tan 3 +

1 + 1.5s/c

( )

1 1.55

2 = tan tan(25 ) + = 47.37

2.5

100

The deviation is obtained from

s

= m

c

in which ( a )2 3 25

m = 0.92 + = 0.92 0.25 + = 0.28

c 500 500

so that

= 0.28 30 1 = 8.4 (a)

The metal angle at the exit is

2 = 3 + = 16.6 + 30 = 46.6

(s)

CL = 2 cos m (tan 2 tan3 ) CD tan m

c

the mean flow direction is

( ) [ ]

1 1 1 1

m = tan (tan 2 + tan 3 ) = tan (tan(47.37 ) + tan(35 )3 ) = 37.83

2 2

so that

Exercise 7.14 Air with density 1.21 kg/m3 flows into a compressor stator with

velocity V2 = 120 m/s and leaves at the angle 3 = 30 . If the Leibleins diffusion

factor is to be held at 0.5 and the the stagnation pressure loss across a compressor

stator is 0.165 kPa, find the static pressure increase across the stage assuming that

the flow is incompressible.

Given: 1 , V2 , Dp0 LS, and DF .

Find: p3 p2 .

101

Solution: The definition of the diffusion factor

V2 V3 Vu2 Vu3 s

DF = +

V2 2V2 c

can be written as

cos 2 Vx s

DF = 1 + (tan 2 tan 3 )

cos 3 2V2 c

or

cos 2 cos 2 s

DF = 1 + (tan 2 tan 3 )

cos 3 2 c

Letting x = cos2 then inserting the numerical values gives

( )

1 2 4x 1 x2 1

=1 x+

2 3 10 x 3

which reduces to

9

13x2 5 3x + =0

16

and the solution of this is

5 3 + 75 13 9/4

x= x = 0.593236 2 = 53.61

26

Assuming incompressible flow the difference is the stagnation pressures is

1

p02 p03 = p2 p3 + (V22 V32 )

2

and [ ]

1 2 cos2 2

p3 p2 = V2 1 p0

2 cos2 3

( )

1.21 cos2 (53.61 )

= 120 1

2

125, 000 = 4.46 kPa

2 cos2 (30 )

Exercise 7.15 Air at temperature 288 K and at pressure 101.325 kPa flows into

a compressor with 10 stages. The efficiency of the first stage is 0.920 and the

second stage 0.916. For the rest of the stages the stage efficiency drops by 0.004

successively so that the last stage has an efficiency 0.884. The axial velocity is

constant and the flow angles are the same at the inlet and exit of each of the stages.

Hence the work done by each stage is the same. (a) Find the overall efficiency of

102

the compressor. (b) Find the overall efficiency by using the theory for a polytropic

compression with small stage efficiency p = 0.902.

Given: Inlet p01 and T01 , and the stage efficiencies of ten stages.

Find: Find the overall efficiency.

Solution: The following Matlab script gives the overall effieciency.

%HW 7.15

clear all

p0(1)=101325; T0(1)=288; T0s(1)=T0(1);

n=10; r=4.3;

k=1.4; kp=k/(k-1);

etapg=0.902;

etag=(r^(1/kp)-1)/(r^(1/(kp*etapg))-1);

T0eg=T0(1)*r^(1/kp)

T0e=T0(1)+(T0eg-T0(1))/etag;

dT0a=(T0e-T0(1))/n

dT0=16.8323

etap=[0.92, 0.916, 0.912, 0.908, 0.904, ...

0.900, 0.896, 0.892, 0.888, 0.884]

for i=2:n+1

T0s(i)=T0(i-1)+etap(i-1)*dT0;

T0(i)=T0(i-1)+dT0

p0(i)=p0(i-1)*(T0s(i)/T0(i-1))^kp

end

rt=p0(n+1)/p0(1)

T0ss=T0(1)*r^(1/kp)

eta=(T0ss-T0(1))/(T0(n+1)-T0(1))

etaa=(r^(1/kp)-1)/(r^(1/(etapg*kp))-1)

The exact value for the overall efficiency is c = 0.8846 and the approximate

value is c = 0.8804. Hence the use of the average small stage efficiency does not

change the overall efficiency by much.

Exercise 7.16 Air flows in a axial flow fan of free vortex design, with hub radius

rh = 7.5 cm and casing radius 17 cm. The fan operates at 2400 rpm. The volu-

metric flow rate Q = 1.1 m3 /s and the stagnation pressure rise is 3 cm H2 O. The

fan efficiency is tt = 0.86. (a) Find the axial velocity. (b) Find the work done on

103

the fluid. (c) Find the absolute and relative flow angles at the inlet and exit of the

rotor when the inlet is axial.

Given: rh and rc , , Q, p, tt .

Find: w 1 , 2, 1 , 2 .

Solution: Free vortex design. Then mean radius is

1 1

rm = (rh + rc ) = (7.5 + 17.0) = 12.25 cm

2 2

and the blade speed at the mean radius is

0.1225 2400

Um = rm = = 30.79 m/s

30

The blade speed at the hub and the casing are

rh rc

Uh = Um Uc = Um

rm rm

The density is

p01 101325

01 = = = 1.20 kgm2

RT01 287 293

and the flow area is

Q 1.1

Vx = = = 15.0m/s

A 0.07312

The ideal work is

p0 0.03 cdot9.81 998

ws = = = 243.8 J/kg

1.2

and the actual work is w = ws /eta = 243.8/0.86 = 283.4 J/kg. Thus since the

inlet is axial

w 243.8

Vu2 = = = 9.21 m/s

Um 30.79

Now

( ) ( )

1 Um 1 30.79

1m = tan = tan = 64 (a)

Vx 15

104

and

( ) ( )

1 Vu2m 1 9.217

2m = tan = tan = 31.6 (a)

Vx 15

From Vu2m = Um + Wu2m which is also Vx tan 2m = Um + Vx tan 2m from

which

( ) ( )

1 Um 1 30.79

2m = tan tan 2m = tan tan(31.6 ) = 55.2 (a)

Vx 15

Similarly at the hub and the casing

1h = 0 2h = 45 1h = 51.4 2h = 14.2

Exercise 7.17 Consider an axial flow compressor in which flow leaves the stator

with a tangential velocity distributed as a free vortex. The hub radius is 20 cm and

the static pressure at the hub is 94 kPa and the static temperature there is 292 K.

The radius of the casing is 30 cm and the static pressure at the casing is 97 kPa.

The total pressure at this location is 101.3 kPa. Find the exit flow angles at the

hub and the casing.

Given: pc , p01h , ph Th , rh , rc .

Find: c and h .

Solution: The density at the hub is

ph 94

h = = = 1.12 kg/m3

RTh 0.287 292

From

1

p0h = ph + h Vh2

2

the velocity at the hub is

2(p0h ph ) 2(101.3 94)1000

Vh = = = 114.1 m/s

h 1.122

so that

rc rc ( )

Vu dr K 2 1 1

pt p h = dr = K 2 = 2

2

rh r rh r3 2 rh rc

105

so that

2(pc ph ) 2(97000 94000)

K= = = 9.81 m2 /s

(1/rh2 1/rc2 ) 1.12(1/0.102 1/0.152 )

1 1

pc + Vc2 = ph + Vh2

2 2

The velocity at the casing is

2(p0c pc ) 2(101300 97000)

Vc = = = 87.56 m/s

1.12

and

K 9.81 9.81

Vuc = = = 65.4 m/s Vuh = = 98.1 m/s

rc 0.15 0.1

and

Vx = Vc2 Vuc2 = Vh2 Vuh

2

= 87.552 65.42 = 58.21 m/s

and ( ) ) (

1 Vuc 65.4 1

c = tan = tan = 48.3

Vx 58.21

( ) ( )

1 Vuh 1 98.1

h = tan = tan = 59.3

Vx 58.21

106

Chapter 8

Exercise 8.1 An industrial air compressor has 29 backward swept blades with

blade angle 21 . The tip speed of the blades is 440 m/s and the radial compo-

nent of the velocity is 110 m/s. Air is inducted from atmospheric conditions at

101.3 kPa and 298 K with an axial velocity equal to 95 m/s. The hub to tip ratio

at the inlet is 0.4. The total-to-total efficiency of the compressor is 0.83, and the

mass flow rate is 2.4 kg/s. (a) Find the total pressure ratio using the Stodola slip

factor. (b) Find the tip radius of the impeller.

Given: p01 , T01 , V1 , r1h /r1s , m, Z , 2 , U2 , Vr2 .

Find: p03 /p01 and U2 .

Solution: The flow coefficient is

Vr2 110

= = = .35

U2 44)

The slip coefficient is

cos 2 cos(21 )

=1 =1 = 0.899

Z 29

and the tangential velocity is

ws 129.02

T02s = T01 + = 298 + = 426.4 K

cp 1.0045

and the pressure ratio is

( )/(1) ( )3.5

p02 T02s 426.4

= = = 3.505 (a)

p01 T01 298

107

At the inlet

V12 952

T1 = T01 = 298 = 293.5 K

2cp 2 1004.5

V1 95

M1 = = = 0.277

RT1 1.4 287 293.5

The stagnation density is

p01 101300

01 = = = 1.184 kg/m3

RT01 287 298

and the static density is

( )1/(1) ( )2.5

T1 293/5

1 = 01 = 1.184 = 1.140 kg/m3

T01 298

m 2.4

m = 1 A1 V1 A1 = = = 0.02216 m2

1 V1 1.1.4 95

and from the expression for the area

A1 0.002216

rs = = = 0.0916 m (b)

(1 2 ) (1 0.16)

Exercise 8.2 A centrifugal compressor has 23 radial vanes and an exit area equal

to 0.12 m2 . The radial velocity is 27 m/s and the tip speed of the impeller is

350 m/s. The total-to-total efficiency is 0.83. (a) Find the mass flow rate of air, if

at the inlet the total pressure and temperature are 101.3 kPa and 298 K. (b) Find

the exit Mach number. (c) If the blade height at the exit is b = 3 cm and there is

no leakage flow, find the tip radius of the impeller. (d) Find the rotational speed of

the compressor wheel. (e) Find the required power neglecting mechanical losses.

Given: p01 , T01 , Z , 2 , U2 , Vr2 , and tt .

Find: m, M2 , r2 , and .

108

Solution: The slip factor is

cos 2

=1 =1 = 0.863

Z 23

The tangential velocity is

w 105.8

T02 = T01 + = 298 + = 403.3 K

cp 1.0045

[ ( )] [ ( )]

T02 403.3

T02s = T01 1 + tt 1 = 298 1 + 0.83 1 = 385.4 K

T01 298

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T02s 385.4

p02 = p01 = 101.3 1 = 249.2 kPa

T01 298

V2 = Vr22 + Vu2

2

= 272 + 302.22 = 303.3 m/s

V22 303.32

T2 = T02 = 403.3 = 357.5 K

2cp 2 1004.5

( ) ( )

2 T02 2 403.3

M2 = 1 = 1 = 0.8

1 T2 0.4 357.5

109

The static pressure at the exit is

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T2 357.5

p2 = p02 = 249.2 = 163.4 kPa

T02 403.3

p2 163.4

2 = = = 1.593 kg/m3

RT2 0.287 357.5

The mass flow rate is

A2 0.12

r2 = = = 0.637 m

2b2 2 0.03

and the shaft speed is

U 35) 30

= = = 5250 rpm

r2 0.637

The power to the compressor is

Exercise 8.3 A centrifugal compressor has an axial inlet and the outlet blades at

an angle such that the tangential component of the exit velocity has a value equal

to 0.9 times the blade speed. The outlet radius is 30 cm and the desired pressure

ratio is 3.5. The inlet stagnation temperature is T0 = 298 K. If the total-to-

total efficiency of the compressor is 0.8, at what angular speed does it need to be

operated.

Given: Axial inlet with T01 . At the exit Vu2 = 0.9U2 , r2 = 0.3 m, p03 /p01 = 3.5,

tt = 0.8.

Find: .

Solution: Work done is

w = Vu2 U2 = 0.9U22

110

so that the isentropic work is

[( )]

p03

ws = tt0.9U22 = cp (T02s T01 ) = cp T01 1

p01

Solving this for U2 gives

1004.5 298(3.51/3.5 1)

U2 = = 423.0m/s

0.8 0.9

and

U2 423.0 30

= = = 13, 464 rpm Lef tarrow

r2 0.3

Exercise 8.4 A small centrifugal compressor as a part of a turbocharger operates

at 55,000 rpm. It draws air from atmosphere at temperature 288 K and pressure

101.325 kPa. The inlet Mach number is M1 = 0.4 and the flow angle of the

relative velocity is 1s = 60 at the shroud. The radius ratio at the inlet is

= r1h /r1s = 0.43. Find, (a) the tip blade speed at the inlet, (b) the mass flow

rate and (c) the throat are if the inducer is choked.

Given: Axial inlet T01 , p01 , M1 , 1s , and r1s /r2 . The shaft speed is .

Find: U1s , m, At .

Solution: The inlet static temperature is

( )1

1 2

T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 288(1 + 0.2 0.42 )1 = 279.1 K

2

and the stagnation density is

p01 101325

01 = = = 1.226 kg/m3

RT01 287 288

The static density is therefore

( )1/(1) ( )1/(1)

T1 279.1

1 = 01 = 1.226 = 1.333 kg/m3

T01 288

The relative Mach number at the inlet shroud is

M1 0.4

M1Rs = = = 0.8

cos 1s cos(60 )

111

The sound speed and stagnation sound speed at the inlet are

c1 = RT1 = 1.4 287 279.1 = 334.9 m/s

c01 = RT01 = 1.4 287 288.0 = 340.2 m/s

and the blade speed at the shroud inlet is

U1s = W1s 2

V12 = c1s M1Rs 2

M12 = 334.9 0.82 0.42 = 232.0 m/s (a)

U1s 232.0 30

r1s = = = 0.0403 m

55, 000

The mean radius at the inlet is

1 r1s 0.0403

r1 = (r1h + r1s ) = (1 + ) = (1 + 0.62) = 0.0288 m

2 2 2

The inlet area is

2

A1 = (r1s r1h

2 2

) = pir1s (1 2 ) = 0.4032 (1 0.622 ) = 0.004155 m2

( )(+1)/2(1) ( )(+1)/2(1)

1 2 1 2

A1 cos 1s M1Rs 1+ M1Rs = At Mt 1+ Mt

2 2

M1RS

At = A1 cos1s ( )(+1)/2(1) = 0.0020 m

2

(c)

2

+1

+ 1

+1

2

M1Rs

112

Exercise 8.5 A centrifugal compressor in a turbocharger operates at 40,000 rpm

and inlet Mach number M1 = 0.35. It draws air from atmosphere at temperature

293 K and pressure 101.325 kPa. The radius ratio is r1s /r2 = 0.71 and the diffu-

sion ratio is W1s /W2 = 1.8. The inlet angle of the relative velocity at the shroud is

1s = 63 . The slip factor is = 0.85 and the flow angle at the exit is 2 = 69 .

Find, (a) the tip speed of the blade at the inlet, (b) the tip speed of the blade at the

outlet, (c) the loading coefficient, and (d) the metal angle at the exit.

Given: Axial inlet and T01 , p01 , M1 , 1s , r1s /r2 , W1s /W2 , and 2 .

Find: U1s , U2 , , 2 .

Solution: The inlet static temperature is

( )1

1 2

T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 293(1 + 0.2 0.352 )1 = 286.0 K

2

and the stagnation density is

p01 101325

01 = = = 1.205 kg/m3

RT01 287 293

The static density is therefore

( )1/(1) ( )1/(1)

T1 286.0

1 = 01 = 1.205 = 1.134 kg/m3

T01 293

The sound speed at the inlet is

c1 = RT1 = 1.4 287 286 = 339.0 m/s

M1 0.35

M1Rs = = = 0.771

cos 1s cos(63 )

and the blade speed at the shroud inlet is

U1s = W1s 2

V12 = c1s M1Rs 2

M12 = 339.0 0.7712 0.352 = 232.8 m/s (a)

113

The radius of the inlet shroud is

U1s 232.8 30

r1s = = = 0.0556 m

40, 000

and the exit radius is

r2 0.0556

r2 = r1s = = 0.0783 m (b)

r1s 0.71

and the blade speed there is

r2 0.0783

U2 = U1s = 232.8 = 328.0 m/s

r1s 0.0556

With

W1s r1s /r2

=

W2 sin 1s 1 2 + 2 / sin2 2

which can be written as

2

1 2 + =c

sin2 2

where ( )2

(r1s /r2 )2 0.71

c= = = 0.196

(W1s /W2 )2 sin2 1s 1.8 sin(65 )

Hence the loading factor can be found by solving

2 2 sin2 2 + (1 c) sin2 2 = 0

or

= sin 2 sin4 2 (1 c) sin2 2 = 0.629

2

(c)

The choice of the minus sign gives backward swept blades.

Then ( )

tan 2 = 1 tan 2

gives

114

Exercise 8.6 A small centrifugal compressor draws atmospheric air at 293 K and

101.325 kPa, At the inlet r1h = 3.2 cm and r1s = 5 cm. The total-to-total effi-

ciency of the compressor is 0.88. The relative Mach number at the inlet shroud

is 0.9 and the corresponding relative flow angle is 1s = 62 . At the outlet the

absolute velocity is at the angle 2 = 69 . The diffusion ratio is W1s /W2 = 1.8

and the radius ratio is r1s /r2 = 0.72. (a) Find the rotational speed of the shaft. (b).

Find the blade loading coefficient w/U22 . (c) Find the flow coefficient = Vr2 /U2

(d) Find the blade width at the exit.

Given: Axial inlet and T01 , p01 , , tt , M1Rs , 1s , r1s /r2 , W1s /W2 , and 2 .

Find: , = w/U22 , = Vr2 /U2 , b2 .

Solution: The inlet static temperature is

( )1

1 2

T1 = T01 1 + M1 = 293(1 + 0.2 0.52 )1 = 279.0 K

2

and the sound speed at the inlet is

c1 = RT1 = 1.4 287 279 = 334.8 m/s

U1s = W1s V1 = c1s M1Rs

2 2 2

M12 = 334.8 0.812 0.52 = 213.1 m/s

U1s 213.1 30

= = = 40, 700 rpm (a)

r1s 0.05

and the exit radius is

r2 0.05

r2 = r1s = = 0.0694 m

r1s 0.72

and the blade speed there is

r2 213.1

U2 = U1s = = 296.0 m/s

r1s 0.72

115

By squaring and adding the equations

leads to

V22 2U2 V2 sin 2 + U22 W22 = 0

which when solved for V2 gives

V2 = U2 sin 2 U22 sin2 2 U22 + W22

= 296 cos(69 ) 2962 cos2 (69 ) 2962 + 150.672 = 169.35 m/s

and

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 169.35 sin(69 ) = 158.1 m/s

The work done is

w Vu2 158.1

= 2

= = = 0.534 (b)

U2 U2 296

Vr2 60.69

= = = 0.205 (c)

U2 296

The stagnation temperature at the exit is

w 46, 795

T02 = T01 + = 293 + = 339.6 K

cp 1004.5

116

and the stagnation temperature for an isentropic process is

w2 41, 180

T02s = T01 + = 293 + = 334.0 K

cp 1004.5

The stagnation pressure at the exit is

( )/(1) ( )3.5

T02s 334.0

p02 = p01 = 101325 = 160.24 kPa

T01 293

The flow function at the inlet is

( )(+1)/2(1)

1 2 1.4

F1 = M1 1 + M1 = 0.5(1+0.20.52 )3 = 0.957

1 2 0.4

The stagnation Mach number at the exit is

V2 169.35

M02 = = = 0.458

c02 1.4 287 339.6

and the Mach number is

M02 0.458

M2 = = = 0.468

1 1 2

M02 1 = 0.2 0.4582

2

( )(+1)/2(1)

1 2

F2 = M2 1 + M2

1 2

1.4

= 0.468(1 + 0.2 0.4682 )3 = 0.9115

0.4

From

A2 T02 p01 F1 339.6 101325 0.957

= = = 0.7149

A1 T01 p02 F2 293 160240 0.9115

With

2

A1 = (r1s r1h

2

) = (0.052 0.0322 ) = 0.004637 m2

then

A2 = 0.7149 0.004637 = 0.003315 m2

and the blade width is

A2 0.003315

b2 = = = 0.0076 m = 7.6 mm (d)

2r2 2]pi 0.0694

117

Exercise 8.7 Show that in the incompressible limit the angle of the relative ve-

locity at the inlet is optimum at 54.7 .

Given: The expression which yields the correct angle.

Find: 1s in the incompressible limit.

Solution: The general equation is

( )( )

2 2

3 + M1R 4M1R

cos2 1s = 2

1 1 2 2

2M1R (2 + M1R )

2

4M1R 4 1 2 2

1 2 2

= 1 M1R = 1 M1R

(2 + M1R ) 9 9

Therefore

( 2

) 2

3 + M1R 2 2 2(3 + M1R ) 1

2

cos 1s = (1 1 + M1R )= =

2

2M1R 9 29 3

So that cos 1s = 1

3

and thus 1s = 54.7 .

Exercise 8.8 Show that the expression for the dimensionless mass flow rate for a

compressor with pre-swirl at angle 1 is

3

M1R (tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos3 1s

f = ( )

1 2 cos2 1s

1+ M1R

2 sin2 1

Plot the results for 1 = 30 , with 1s on the abscissa and f on the ordinate, for

relative Mach numbers 0.6, 0.7, 0.8. For a given mass flow rate does the pre-swirl

increase or decrease the allowable relative Mach number and does the absolute

value of the relative flow angle increase or decrease with pre-swirl.

Solution: The mass balance can be written as

2

m = 1 A1 V1 = 1 A1 W1s cos 1s = 1 r1s (1 2 )W1s cos 1s

2 2

1 r1s W1s 1 U1s W1s

= 2

(1 2

) cos 1s = 2

(1 2 ) cos 1s

01 r2 c01 01 U2 c01

118

Since

U1s = Vu1 Wu1 Vx = W1s cos 1s

this can be written as

1 Vx2 c31 W1s c201

= (1 2 )(tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos 1s

01 c21 c301 c01 U22

or as ( )3 3

1 T1 M1R

= 3

(1 2 )(tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos3 1s

01 T01 M0u

With

2

M0u V12 Vx2 W1s2

cos2 1 s

f = M12 = = =

1 c21 c21 cos2 1 c21 cos2 1

so that

M 2 (tan 1 tan 1s )2 cos3 1s

f = ( 1R )(31)/(22)

2 cos2 1 s

1 + 1

2

M 1R cos2 1

Exercise 8.9 Water with density 998 kg/m3 flows through the inlet pipe of a cen-

trifugal pump at a velocity of 6 m/s. The inlet shroud radius is 6.5 cm and water

flow has an axial entry. The relative velocity at the exit of the impeller is 15 m/s

and is directed by backward curved impeller blades such that the exit angle of the

absolute velocity is 2 = 65 . The impeller rotates at 1800 rpm and has a tip ra-

dius of 15 cm. Assume that the adiabatic efficiency of the pump is 75 %. Evaluate

(a) the power into the pump, (b) the increase in total pressure pressure of the water

across the impeller, (c) the change in static pressure of the water between the inlet

and outlet of the impeller. (d) If the inlet mean inlet radius is 5.0 cm, what is the

ratio of the change in kinetic energy of the water across the impeller to the total

enthalpy of the water across the pump. (d) What is the ratio of the change in the

absolute kinetic energy, the change in the relative kinetic energy and the change

in the kinetic energy owing to the centrifugal effect as a fraction of work done.

(f) If the velocity at the exit of the volute is 6 m/s, what is the ratio of the change

in static pressure across the rotor to the change in static pressure across the entire

pump?

, Given: V1 , r1s , R1h , , W2 , 2 , r2 .

Find: W , p0 , p, KE/h0 , KEU /h0 , KEW /h0 , (p)R /(p)p .

Solution: The inlet area is

2

A1 = (r1s r1h

2

) = 0.00942 m2

119

and the mass flow rate is

0.15 1800

U2 = r2 = = 28.2 m/s

30

By squaring and adding the equations

leads to

V22 2U2 V2 sin 2 + U22 W22 = 0

which when solved for V2 gives

V2 = U2 sin 2 U22 sin2 2 U22 + W22

= 28.27 cos(65 ) 28.272 sin2 (65 ) 28.272 + 15.02 = 16.56 m/s

in which the minus sign was chosen for backward swept blades.

Next

Vu2 = V2 sin 2 = 16.56 sin(65 ) = 15.00 m/s

Vr2 = V2 cos 2 = 16.56 cos(65 ) = 7.00 m/s

so that

( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 13.27

2 = tan = tan = 62.19

Wr2 7.00

and the specific work is

120

The isentropic work is

998

p2 p1 = p02 p01 (v22 V12 ) = 317.6 (16.562 62 ) = 198.75 kPa

2 2

The kinetic energies are obtained from

1 1 1800

U1 = r1 = (r1h + r1s ) = (0.065 + 0.035) = 9.425 m/s

2 2 30

and

W1 = V12 + U12 = 62 + 9.4252 = 11.17 m/s

so that

1 1

KEV = (V22 V12 ) = (16.562 62 ) = 119.1 J/kg

2 2

1 1

KEU = (U22 U12 ) = (28.272 9.4252 ) = 355.3 J/kg

2 2

1 1

KEW = (W12 W22 ) = (11.172 192 ) = 50.17 J/kg

2 2

so that

KEV 119.1

= = 0.281

w 424.3

KEU 355.3

= = 0.827

w 424.3

KEW 50.1

= = 0.118

w 424.3

For the stator p0 = 0, so that

( 2 ) 988 ( )

p3 p2 = V2 V32 = 16.562 62 = 118.8 kPa

2 2

so that

pR 198.75

= = 0.626 (d)

pR + pV 198.75 + 118.8

121

Exercise 8.10 Centrifugal pump handling water operates with backward curving

blades. The angle between the relative velocity and the tip section is 45 . The

radial velocity at the tip section is 4.5 m/s, the flow at the inlet is axial, and the

impeller rotational speed is 1800 rpm. Assume that there is no leakage and that

the mechanical friction may be neglected, and the total-to-total efficiency is 70%.

(a) Construct the velocity diagram at the impeller exit. (b). Evaluate the required

tip radius for a water pressure rise of 600 kPa, (c) For the total pressure rise of

600 kPa, evaluate the difference between the total and static pressure of water at

the impeller tip section.

Given: Vr2 , Wu2 , 2 , p3 p1 .

Find: r2 , p03 p3 .

Solution: From

w = Vu2 U2 = U2 (U2 + Wu 2)

and

p0 = tt w = tt U2 (U2 + Wu2 )

and

p0 600, 000

= = 858.86

tt 998 0.7

so that

p0

U22 + Wu2 U2 =0

tt

the solution of which is

1 1 2 p0

U2 = Wu2 + Wu2 + = 2.25 + 2.252 + 858.86 = 31.64mm/s

2 4 tt

Hence

U2 31.64 30

r2 = = = 0.168 m (b)

1800

and

Vu2 = U2 + Wu2 = 31.64 4.5 = 27.145 m/s

and

V2 = sqrtVu2 + Vr2 = 4.52 + 27.142 = 27.51 m/s

so that the difference in the stagnation and static pressure is

1 998

p02 p2 = V22 = 27.512 = 377.6 kPa (c)

2 2

122

Exercise 8.11 A centrifugal water pump has an impeller diameter D2 = 27 cm

and when its shaft speed is 1750 rpm it produces a head H = 33 m. (a) Find the

volumetric flow rate. (b) Find the blade height at the exit of the impeller. (c) Find

the blade angle at the exit of the impeller if it has 11 blades.

Given: D2 , , H, Z.

Find: Q, b2 , 2 .

Solution: The blade tip speed is

0.135 1750

U2 = r2 = = 24.74 m/s

30

The blade loading coefficient is

gH 9.81 33

s = 2

= = 0.5289

U 24.742

From the expression

0.383

s = 1/3

s

the specific speed becomes

( )3 ( )3

0.383 0.383

s = = = 0.380

s 0.5289

Then from

Q

s =

(gh)3/4

( )2 ( )2

s (gh)3/4 0.380 30(9.81 33)3/4

Q= = = 0.0250 m3 /s (a)

1750

The flow coefficient is

= 0.1715 s = 0.1715 0.380 = 0.1057

0.1057

b2 = = = 0.0113 m (b)

2r2 Vr2 2 0.135 2.615

123

The hydraulic efficiency is

0.4 0.4

h = 1 1/4

= 1/4 = 0.821

Q 25

and the work done is

ws gH 9.81 33

w= = = = 394.3 J/kg

h h 0.821

The tangential component of velocity is

w 394.3

Vu2 = = = 15.94 m/s

U2 24.74

The flow angle is therefore

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 1 15.94

2 = tan = tan = 80.7

Vr2 2.615

and

Wu2 = Vu2 U2 = 15.94 24.74 = 8.80 m/s

so that ( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 8.80

2 = tan = tan = 73.46

Wr2 2.615

The slip coefficient is

0.63 0.63

=1 =1 = 0.82

Z 11

so that the metal angle can be obtained by solving

for 2 , which is

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 U2 1 15.94 0.82 24.74

2 = tan = tan = 59.0 (c)

Vr2 2.615

and when its shaft speed is 1750 rpm, it delivers 20 liters per second of water. (a)

Find the head of water delivered by the pump. (b) Find the power to drive the

124

pump. (c) The impeller has 9 blades. Use the Stanitz slip factor to find the blade

angle at the exit of the impeller. (d) Use the Wiesner slip factor to find the blade

exit blade angle.

Given: D2 , , Q, Z.

Find: H, m, 2 .

Solution: The blade speed is

0.125 1750

U2 = r2 = = 22.91 m/s

30

The specific speed is

Q

s =

(gH)3/4

and the blade loading coefficient is

gH

s =

U22

In addition, the blade loading is related to the specific speed by the empirical

equation

0.383

s = 1/3

s

Equating these expressions for s and solving for gH gives

( )4/3 ( )4/3

0.383U22 0.383 22.912

gH = = = 277.1 J/kg

( Q)1/3 (1750 0.020/30)1/3

Then

gH 277.1

H= = = 28.24 m (a)

g 9.81

and the mass flow rate is

0.4 0.4

h = 1 = 1 = 0.811

Q1/4 201/4

125

and the actual work is

ws gH 277.1

w= = = = 341.7 J/kg

h h 0.811

and the power to the pump is

Q 1750 0.02

s = = = 0.3816

(gh)3/4 30 277.13/4

and the flow coefficient is

= 0.1715 s = 0.1715 0.3816 = 0.1059

w 341.7

Vu2 = = = 14.9 m/s

U2 22.91

and the flow angle at the exit is

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 1 14.9

2 = tan = tan = 80.76

Vr2 2.43

The tangential component of the relative velocity is

so that ( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 7.99

2 = tan = tan = 73.1

Wr2 2.43

The first guess of the slip coefficient is obtained from the Stanitz formula

0.63 0.63

=1 =1 = 0.78

Z 9

126

and this is used to obtain the metal angle

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 U2 1 14.9 0.78 22.91

2 = tan = tan = 50.71

Vr2 2.43

Using this in the Wiesners formula

cos 2 cos(50.71 )

=1 = = 0.829

Z 0.7 90.7

Iterating gives

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 U2 1 14.9 0.829 22.91

2 = tan = tan = 59.3

W Vr2 2.43

and one more iteration leads to 2 = 62.4 (c)

20 m while operating at 880 rpm. The hub to shroud radius ratio at the inlet

is 0.35 and the relative velocity makes an angle 52 at the inlet. (a) Find the

reversible work done by the pump. (b) What is the work done by the impeller. (c)

Find the radius of impeller and the inlet radius ratio of the shroud to the hub. (d)

Determine the blade width at the exit of the impeller. (e) Assume a reasonable

number of blades and calculate the blade angle at the exit. Use the Pfleiderer

equation to determine more accurately the number of blades and recalculate the

blade angle at the exit if needed. (f) What is the power to drive the pump?

Given: Q, , H, 1s , .

Find: ws , w, r2 , r1s /r2 , b2 , 2 .

Solution: The isentropic work is

Since the inlet flow is axis, the flow rate can be written as

2

r1s (1 2 )U1s r3 (1 2 )U

Q = A1 V1 = = 1s

tan(1s ) tan(1s )

from which

( )1/3 ( )1/3

Q tan(1s ) 75 tan(52 )30

r1s = = = 0.0723 m (c)

(1 2 ) 1000(1 0.352 ) 880

127

and the tip speed of the blade at the inlet shroud is

0.0723 880

U1s = r1s = = 6.66 m/s

30

The hydraulic efficiency is

0.4 0.4

h = 1 1/4

= 1 1/4 = 0.864

Q 75

so that the specific work done by the rotor is

196.2

w = f racws h = = 227.1 J/kg (b)

0.864

The specific speed is

Q 880 0.075

s = = = 0.481

(gH)3/4 30196/23/4

1/3

(Note that s = 0.383/(s ) = 0.489, which is close).

The blade speed is

w 227.1

U2 = = = 21.56 m/s

s 0.481

= 0.1715 s = 0.1715 0.481 = 0.119

w 227.1

Vu2 = = = 10.53 m/s Vr2 = U2 = 0.119 21.56 = 2.565 m/s

U2 21.56

The volumetric efficiency is obtained by using the correlation in the text. It is

C 0.0988

v = 1 n

=1 = 0.977

Q 0.0750.3387

Thus

Q 0.075

QR = = = 0.0768 m3 /s

v 0.977

128

and the blade width is

QR 0.0768

b2 = = = 0.0204 m (d)

2r2 V r2 2 0.234 2.565

The overall efficiency can be obtained from the correlation in the text. It is

= 0.8393

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 1 10.53

2 = tan = tan = 76.3

Vr2 2.565

The tangential component of the relative velocity is

so that ( ) ( )

1 Wu2 1 11.02

2 = tan = tan = 76.9

Wr2 2.565

Assume that Z = 6 and assume that the metal angle is 2 = 70 , then

2 cos(70 )

= 1 0.7 = 1 = 0.833

Z 60.7

and this is used to obtain the metal angle

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 U2 1 10.53 0.833 21.56

2 = tan = tan = 70.94

Vr2 2.565

After one iteration the metal angle is 2 = 71.19 . Using the Pfleiders formula

gives ( ) ( )

1 + r1s /r2 1

Z = 6.5 cos (1s + 2 )

1 r1s /r2 2

( ) ( )

1 + 0.3091 1

= 6.5 cos (52.0 71.9 ) = 6.4 (e)

1 0.3091 2

Thus Z = 6 is an appropriate number. Finally the power to the pup is

ws 998 75 96.2

W = Q = = 17.5 kW (f )

h 1000 0.839

129

Exercise 8.14 A fan draws in atmospheric air at 0.4 m3 /s at pressure 101.32, kPa

and temperature 288 K. The total pressure rise across the fan, which has 30 radial

blades, is 2.8 cm of water. The inner radius is 14.8 cm and outer radius is 17.0 cm.

The rotational speed of the fan is 980 rpm. Use the Stanitz slip factor and a fan

efficiency of 78 %. (a) If the velocity into the fan is radially outward, find the

angle of the relative velocity at the inlet. (b) Determine the power to the fan if 4

% is lost to mechanical friction. (c) Find the angle blade angle at the exit.

Given: p01 , T01 , , Q, r1s , r2 , b2 , , m , total pressure rise in h of water.

Find: 1 , W , 2 .

Solution: The stagnation density at the inlet is

p01 101325

01 = = = 1.226 kg/m3

RT01 287 288

The pressure rise is small and this can be taken to be incompressible flow. The

stagnation pressure rise is

p0 274.1

ws = = = 223.6 J/kg

1.226

and the actual work is

ws 223.6

w= = = 286.7 J/kg

h 0.78

The power to the fan is therefore

Qw 1.226 0.4 286.7

W = = = 146.4 W

m 0.96

The blade speed at the inlet is

0.148 980

U1 = r2 = = 15.19 m/s

30

and at the exit it is

r2 17

U2 = U1 = 15.19 = 17.45 m/s

r1 14.8

130

and the inlet radial velocity is

Q 0.4

Vr1 = = = 2.76 m/s

2r1 b 2 0.148 0.156

The tangential component of the relative velocity at the inlet is

( ) ( )

1 Wu1 1 15.19

1 = tan = tan = 79.7

Wr11 2.76

At the exit

r1 14.8

Vr2 = Vr1 = 2.76 = 2.40 m/s

r2 17.0

and the tangential component of the velocity is

W 286.7

Vu2 = = = 16.43 m/s

U2 17.45

The slip factor is

0.63 0.63

=1 =1 = 0.934

Z 30

so that the metal angle is

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 U2 1 16.43 0.934 17.45

2 = tan = tan = 3.3

Vr2 2.4

Exercise 8.15 A pump draws water at the rate of 75 liters per second from a

large tank with the air pressure above the free surface at 98.00 kPa. The pump is

z = 2 m above the water level in the tank. The pipe diameter is 14.0 cm and the

suction pipe is 20 m in length. The entrance loss coefficient is Ki = 0.2 and the

loss coefficient of the elbow is Ke = 0.6 and the pipe roughness is 55 m. Find

the suction specific speed if the shaft speed is 1800 rpm. The viscosity of water is

1.08 103 kg/m s.

Given: Q, pa , z1 , Dp , Ki , Ke , , .

Find: ss .

131

Solution: From the Bernoulli equation

[ ( ) ] 2

pa 1 2 pt L Vp

+ V1 + gz1 = + f Ki + Ke

2 D + 2

Q 4Q 4 0.075

Vp = = = = 4.87 m/s

Ap D 2 0.142

Reynolds number is

Vp Dp 998 4.87 0.14

Re = = = 630, 300

1080 106

The friction factor is obtained from the Colebrook formula in Chapter 3. For a

pipe with roughness = 55 m, it gives f = 0.01677. Thus the head loss is

[ ( ) ]

20 4.872

hl = 0.01677 + 0.2 + 0.6 = 3.867 m

0.14 2 9.81

The vapor pressure is pv = 37.8 kPa and the pressure at the free surface is pa =

98 kPa. Thus the NPSH is

pa pv 98000 3780

NPSH = z1 hl = 2 3.863 = 3.75 m

g g 998 9.81 998 9.81

The suction specific speed is therefore

Q 1800 0.075

ss = = = 3.455

(gNPSH)3/4 30 (9.81 3.75)3/4

Exercise 8.16 Consider a volute consisting only a circular section. (a) If the tan-

gential velocity varies as Vu = K/r, show that the value of K in terms of the

volumetric flow rate Q, the radius of the section R and the radius to the center of

the section a is given by

Q

K=

2R( 2 1)

132

in which = a/R. (b) For R = 0.5 m, a = 2 m and Q = 1.5 m3 /s, find the

pressure difference p2 p1 at the centerline, between the outside and inside edge

of the section.

Given: R, a, Q.

Find: K and p2 p1 .

Solution: With the coordinate origin at the

center of the pipe its circumference is

given by x + y = a . From this y = a2 x2 for the upper half of the pipe.

2 2 2

K

Q= V dA = dA

A A r

a 2

K a x2

Q=2 dx

a R+x

Let z = x/a and = R/a, and then dx = adz and the equation becomes

1

1 z2

Q = 2aK dz

1 + z

Since R > a it follows that > 1. It remains to evaluate the integral, which is an

exercise in calculus. First write

1

1 z2

I= dz

1 + z

as ( )

1

1 z2 z 1

z

I= dz + dz

1 +z 1 z2 1 1 z2

This is

1

dz 1

z

I = (1 ) 2

+ dz

1 ( + z) 1 z 2 1 1 z2

or considering the two integrals separately

1

dz 1

z

I1 = (1 )

2

I2 = dz

1 ( + z) 1 z 1 z2

2

1

133

In evaluating I1 let z = tanh u so that dz = du/ cosh2 u and

du du

I1 = (1 )2

2 = (1 )

2

cosh u( + tanh u) cosh u + sinh u

But

( + u ) 1 ( u ) + 1 u 1 u

cosh u + sinh u = e e + e e = e + e

2 2 2 2

Thus

du eu du

I1 = 2(1 )2

+ 2(1 2 )

( + 1)e + ( 1)eu

u ( + 1)e2u + 1

Next let v = eu and dv = eu du, then

dv

I1 = 2(1 ) 2

( + 1)v 2 + 1

Now write + 1v = 1 tan , so thatdv = ( 1)/( + 1) tan d.

Hence

( )

d + 1

I1 = 2 2 1 = 2 2 1 tan1 eu

cos2 (tan2 + 1) 1

u 1+z

e =

1z

and

( )

+1 1+z ( )

I1 = 2 2 1 tan1 |11 = 2 2 1 0

1 1z 2

so that

I1 = 2 1

The second integral

1

z sin

I2 = dz = cos d

1 1 z2 cos

134

or

I2 = (sin )d = cos = z sin1 z|11 + 1 z 2 |11 = ( ) =

2 2

Hence

I = ( 2 1

and

Q

K=

2R( 2 1)

135

Chapter 9

Exercise 9.1 Combustion gases with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K, at T01 =

1050 K and p01 = 310 kPa enter a radial inflow turbine. At the exit of the stator

M2 = 0.9. As the flow leaves the turbine it is diffused to atmospheric pressure at

p4 = 101.325 kPa. The total-to-total efficiency of the turbine is tt = 0.89. Find

the stator exit angle.

Given: T01 , p01 , M2 , p4 , ts .

Find: 2

Solution: Since T02 = T01 , the temperature at the inlet the the rotor can be ob-

tained from

1 2 1 1050

T2 = T 02(1 + M2 ) = = 925.1 K

2 1 + 0.81/6

and the velocity is

V2 = M2 RT2 = 0.8 1.333 287 925.1 = 535.49 m/s

From

T01 T03

ts =

T01 T4s

The stagnation temperature at the exit is

[ ( ( )(1)/ )]

p4

T03 = T01 1 ts 1

p01

[ ( ( ))]

101.325

T03 = 1050 1 0.89 1 = 822.1 K

310

The word delivered is

w = cp (T01 T03 ) = 1148(1050 822.1) = 261.65 kJ/kg

Since w = U 2 , the blade speed is

U2 = w = 261, 640 = 511.5 m/s

and the flow angle is

( ) ( )

1 U2 1 511.5

2 = sin = sin = 72.8

V2 535.49

136

Exercise 9.2 During a test air runs through a radial inflow turbine at the rate of

m = 0.323 kg/s when the shaft speed is 55, 000 rpm. The inlet stagnation tem-

perature is T01 = 1000 K and the pressure ratio is p01 /p3 = 2.1. The blade radius

at the inlet is r2 = 6.35 cm. The relative velocity entering the blade is radial and

the flow leaves the blade without swirl. Find, (a) the spouting velocity, (b) the

total-to-static efficiency, and (c) the power delivered.

Given: T01 , p01 /p3 , m, , and r2 .

Find: V0 , ts and W .

Solution: The blase speed is

6.35 55, 000

U2 = r2 = = 365.73 m/s

100 30

and [ ( )(1)/ ]

p3 1

ws = cp (T01 T3ss ) = cp T01 1 = V02

p01 2

so that [ ( ( )(1)/ )]

p3

V0 = 2cp T01 1

p01

V0 = 2 1148 980 (1 (1/2.1)0 .35) = 617.20 m/s (a)

and the work and isentropic work delivered are

1 617.22

w = U22 = 365.752 = 133.7 kJ/kg ws = V02 = = 190.5 kJ/kg

2 2

so that

w 133.7

ts = = = 0.702 (b)

ws 90.5

and the power delivered is

Exercise 9.3 A radial turbine delivers W = 80 kW as its shaft turns at 44, 000

rpm. Combustion gases with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K enter the rotor with

relative velocity radially inward at radius r2 = 8.10 cm. At the exit the shroud

radius is r3s = 6.00 cm and at this location M3Rs = 0.59. The exit pressure is

137

p3 = 101.325 kPa and exit temperature is T3 = 650 K. Find the hub to shroud

ratio = r3h /r3s at the exit.

Given: T3 , p3 , W , , r2 , and r3s .

Find: b3

Solution: The blade speed is

0.081 44, 000

U2 = r2 = = 373.22 m/s

30

0.060 44, 000

U3s = r3s = = 276.46 m/s

30

and the relative velocity at the shroud is

W3s = M3s RT3 = 0.59 1.333 287 650 = 294.25 m, /s

The absolute velocity at the exit is

V3 = W3s 2

U3s

2

= 294.252 276.462 = 100.8 m/s

The specific work is

w = U22 = 373.222 = 139.3 kJ/kg

and the mass flow rate is therefore

W 80, 000

m = = = 0.574 kg/s

w 139.3

The static density at the exit is

p3 101325

3 = = = 0.543 kg/m3

RT3 287 650

and the exit area is

m 0.574

A3 = = = 0.01049 m2

3 V 3 0.543 100.8

so that

A3

r3h = 2

r3s = 0.0161 m

and the radius ratio is

r3h 0.0161

= = = 0.268

r3s 0.060

138

Exercise 9.4 A radial inflow turbine rotor, with rotor inlet radius r2 = 9.3 cm and

blade height b2 = 1.8 cm, turns at 42, 000 rpm. Its working fluid is a gas mixture

with cp = 1148 J/kg K and = 4/3. The exhaust pressure is p3 = 101.325 kPa

and the total-to-static efficiency is ts = 0.82. The nozzle (stator) angle is 2 =

67 and the velocity coefficient for the flow through the stator is cv = 0.96 and the

Mach number at the inlet to the rotor is M2 = 0.9. Find, (a) the inlet stagnation

pressure to the stator, and (b) the stagnation pressure loss across the stator.

Given: r2 , b2 , , p3 , 2 , and ts .

Find: T01 and p0LS .

Solution: The blade speed is

9.3 42, 000

U2 = r2 = = 409.03 m/s

100 30

and the absolute velocity is

U2 409.03

V2 = = = 444.36 m/s

sin 2 sin(67 )

The radial component is

V22 444.362

T2 = = = 637.0 K

RT M22 1.333 287 0.92

and the stagnation temperature T02 = T01 is

1 2 0.81

T02 = T2 (1 + M2 ) = 637(1 + ) = 723.0 K

2 6

The velocity for isentropic flow is

V2 444.36

V2s = = = 462.88 m/s

cv 0.96

and the static temperature for the isentropic process is

V2s2 462.882

T2s = T02 = 637 = 629.7 K

2cp 2 1148

139

The specific work is

w 167, 310

T03 = T02 = 723 = 577.3 K

cp 1148

From the total-to-static efficiency

T01 T03

ts =

T01 T3ss

the static temperature T3ss is

1 1

T3ss = T01 (T01 T03 ) = 723 (723 573.3)545.3 K

ts 0.822

The stagnation pressure at the inlet is therefore

( )/(1) ( )4

T01 723

p01 = p3 = 101.325 = 313.25 kPa (a)

T3ss 545.3

The stagnation pressure p02 is obtained from

( )/(1) ( )4

T2s 629.7

p02 = p01 = 313.2 = 299.1 kPa

T2 637

and the stagnation pressure loss is

Exercise 9.5 Gas with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 K/kg K flows in a radial inflow

turbine, in which the inlet stagnation temperature is T01 = 980 K and the inlet

stagnation pressure is p01 = 205.00 kPa. The exit pressure is p3 = 101.325 kPa

and the exit temperature is T3 = 831.5 K. The stagnation temperature at the exit

is T03 = 836.7 K. The pressure at the inlet to the rotor is T2 = 901.6 K and the

pressure is p2 = 142.340 kPa. The shaft speed is 160,000 rpm and the radius ratio

is r3 /r2 = 0.57. Assume that the relative velocity is radial at the inlet and that

there is no exit swirl. Find, (a) the total-to-static efficiency, (b) the flow angles 2

and 3 , and (c) S and R .

140

Given: T01 , p01 , p3 , T3 , p2 , T2 , , r3 /r2 .

Find: ts , 3 , N , and R .

Solution: The velocity at the inlet to the rotor is

V2 = 2cp (T02 T2 ) = 2 1148(980 901.6) = 424.3 m/s

V2 424.3

M2 = = = 0.722

RT2 1.333 287 901.6

The stagnation pressure at the inlet to the rotor is

( )/(1) ( )4

1 2 0./722

p02 = p2 1 + M2 = 142, 340 1 + = 198.69 kPa

2 6

The temperature T2s can be calculated from

( )(1)/ ( )0.25

p02 198.69

T2s = T2 = 901.6 = 894.6 K

p01 205.00

The static enthalpy loss coefficient for the stator is

2cp (T2 T2s ) 2 1148(901.6 894.6)

S = 2

= = 0.0895 (c)

V2 424.32

and the total-to-static efficiency is

1 T03 /T01 1 836.7/908

ts = = = 0.905 (a)

1 (p3 /p01 )(1)/ 1 (101.325/205.00)0.25

The specific work delivered is

U2 = w= 164, 510 = 405.6 m/s

( ) ( )

1 U2 1 405.6

2 = sin = sin = 72.94 (b)

V2 421.90

141

The blade velocity at the exit at the mean radius is

r3

U3 = U2 = 405.6 0.57 = 231.2 m/s

r2

The velocity at the exit is

V3 = 2cp (T03 T3 ) = 2 1148(836.7 831.5) = 109.2 m/s

( ) ( )

1 U3 1 231.2

3 = tan = tan = 64.7 (c)

V3 109.2

The calculation of the static enthalpy loss coefficient of the rotor flow is carried

out by [ ]

( )2

1 1 r3 S Tr 2 sin2 3

R = 1

ts 2 tan2 3 r2 2 sin2 2 (r3 /r2 )2

[ ]

1 0.572 0.0895 2 sin2 (64.72 )

= 1 = 0.0974

0.905 2 tan2 (64.72 ) 2 sin2 (73 ) 0.325

The temperature ratio Tr = T2s /T2 was taken to be unity in the previous forgoing

calculation. It can now determined to be

[( ) ]

2

T2s 1 2 2 r3 1 + S 1

=1= M2 sin 2 2 1 +1 = 0.919

T2 2 r2 sin 3 tan2 2

and when this is used for the value of Tr the static enthalpy loss coefficient for the

rotor can be recalculated. The result is

R = 0.117 (c)

W3 (r) sin(2 2 ) r3 r2

= 2

+ cot2 3

W2 cos 2 r2 r3

in which r is the radius at an arbitrary location of the exit plane of the blade and

r3 and 3 are the mean values of the exit radius and angle. Show further that at

the mean radius

W3 sin(2 2 ) r3

=

W2 cos 2 sin 3 r2

142

and plot the angle 3 for the range 0.53 < r3 /r2 < 0.65 when W3 /W2 = 2 and

2 = 70 and 2 = 40 .

Given: A range of r3 /r2 , and W3 /W2 = 2 as well as 2 = 70c irc and 2 = 40 .

Find: 3

Solution: From the exit velocity diagram

and U3 (r) = U3 r/r3 in which U3 is the blade speed at the mean radius r3 , this

expression can be written as

r2

W32 (r) = U32 + cot2 3 U32

r32

or ( ) ( )

r2 r2 r2

W32 (r) = U32 + cos2 3 = U22 32 + cos2 3

r32 r2 r32

The tangential component of the velocity give

U2 = V2 sin 2 W2 sin 2

U2 V2

= sin 2 sin 2

W2 W2

From the radial components

V2 cos 2 = W2 cos 2

the equation

cos 2

f racV2 W2 =

cos 2

is obtained. Thus

U2

= tan 2 cos 2 sin 2

W2

or

U2 sin 2 cos 2 cos 2 sin 2

=

W2 cos 2

143

which is also

U2 sin(2 2

=

W2 cos 2

Therefore

W3 (r) sin(2 2 ) r3 r2

= + cot2 3

W2 cos 2 r2 r32

At the shroud

W3s sin(2 2 ) r3 r2

= 2

+ cot2 3

W2 cos 2 r2 r3s

and at the hub

W3h sin(2 2 ) r3 r2

= 2

+ cot2 3

W2 cos 2 r2 r3h

so that

2

W3s r3s + r32 cos2 3

=

W3h 2

r3h + r32 cot2 3

at the mean radius

W3 sin(2 2 ) r3

= 1 + cot2 3

W2 cos 2 r2

or

W3 sin(2 2 ) r3

=

W2 cos 2 sin 3 r2

For 2 40 and 2 = 70 the relationship

r3 sin(110 )

sin 3 = = 1.373739

r2 2 cos(70 )

so that

r3

sin 3 = 1.373739

r2

and the results are shown in the table below.

3 46.7 50.3 54.1 58.4 63.2

144

Exercise 9.7 An inexpensive radial inflow turbine has flat radial blades both at

the inlet and the exit of the rotor. The shaft speed is 20,000 rpm. The radius of

the inlet to the rotor is 10 cm and the mean radius at the exit is 6 cm. The ratio

of blade widths is b3 /b2 = 1.8. The inlet stagnation temperature is T01 = 420 K

and the exhaust flows into the atmospheric pressure 101.325 kPa. Assume that

the gases which flow through the turbine have = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K.

If the power delivered by the turbine is 10 kW, find (a) the mass flow rate, (b)

the static temperature at the exit of the stator, (c) the static temperature at the exit

of the turbine, (d) the blade height at the inlet and the exit of the turbine, (e) the

total-to-total efficiency, and the total-to-static efficiency.

Given: r3 , r2 , 2 , cN , R , T01 , , p3 , and b3 /b2 .

Find: m, T3 , p01 , b3 , b2 , tt and ts .

Solution: The blade speeds are

0.1 20, 000

U2 = r2 = = 209.4 m/s

30

and

r3 0.06

U3 = U2 = 209.4 = 125.7 m/s

r2 0.1

The specific work delivered is

w = U2 U3 = 209.42 125.72 = 28.07 kJ/kg

and the mass flow rate is therefore

W 10, 000

m = = = 0.356 kg/s (a)

w 28, 070

The inlet velocity to the rotor is

U2 209.4

V2 = = = 216.8 m/s

sin 2 sin(75 )

and the radial component of the velocity is

Vr2 = V2 cos 2 = 216.8 cos(75 ) = 56.12 m/s W2 = 56.12 m/s

The static temperature leaving the stator is

V22 216.82

T2 = T02 = 420 = 399.5 K (b)

2cp 2 1148

145

The isentropic velocity is

V2 216.8

V2s = = = 223.5 m/s

cN 0.97

and the isentropic static temperature is therefore

V2s2 223.52

T2s = T02 = 420 = 398.2 K

2cp 2 1148

The ratio of stagnation pressures at the inlet and exit of the stator are therefore

( )/(1) ( )4

p01 T2 399.5

= = = 1.013

p02 T2s 398.2

The stagnation temperature after the rotor is

w 28.07

T03 = T02 = 420 = 395.5 K

cp 1.148

Mass balance gives

2 r2 b2 W2 = 3 r3 b3 W3

This equation contains three unknowns 2 , 3 and W3 . One may proceed by trial

by assuming a trial value for the flow angle at the exit. As the first attempt the

value 3 = 50 is chosen. Then

U3 125.7

V3 = = = 164.0 m/s

sin 3 sin(50 )

and the axial velocity component at the exit is

V32 164.02

T3 = T03 = 395.5 = 383.3 K

2cp 2 1148

Next the temperature for an isentropic expansion is calculated from

W32 105.42

T3s = T3 R = 383.8 0.5 = 381.4 K

2cp 2 1148

146

The static pressure at the inlet can now be obtained from

( )/(1) ( )4

T2 399.5

p 2 = p3 = 101.325 = 122.0 kPa

T3s 381.4

The densities can now be calculated. They are

p2 122, 000

2 = = = 1.064 kg/m3

RT2 287 399.5

and

p3 101, 325

3 = = = 0.920 kg/m3

RT3 287 383.8

The value of density 3 may now be calculated from

r2 W2 b2 0.1 56.12

3 = 2 = 0.920 = 0.524 kg/m3

r3 W3 b3 0.06 105.4 1.8

This is in error by the amount r = 3 3 = 0.396 kg/m3 . By writing a Matlab

scrip to carry out the calculations, and changing the trial value of 3 , the error is

made nearly zero when 3 = 65.414 . The calculations with this value give

U3 125.7

V3 = = = 138.2 m/s

sin 3 sin(65.414 )

and the axial velocity component at the exit is

V32 138.22

T3 = T03 = 395.5 = 387.2 K (c)

2cp 2 1148

Next the temperature for an isentropic expansion is calculated from

W32 57.52

T3s = T3 R = 387.2 0.5 = 386.5 K

2cp 2 1148

The static pressure at the inlet can now be obtained from

( )/(1) ( )4

T2 399.5

p2 = p 3 = 101.325 ) = 115.68 kPa

T3s 386.5

147

The densities can now be calculated. They are

p2 115, 680

2 = = = 1.0088 kg/m3

RT2 287 399.5

and

p3 101, 325

3 = = = 0.9117, kg/m3

RT3 287 387.2

The value of density 3 may now be calculated from

r2 W2 b2 0.1 56.12

3 = 2 = 0.9117 = 0.9117 kg/m3

r3 W3 b3 0.06 57.50 1.8

and the error is now only e = 0.000014 kg/m3 .

The static temperature

( )(1)/ ( )0.25

p02 1

T3ss = T3s = 386.5 = 385.3 K

p01 1.013

and the stagnation pressure at the inlet to the stator is

( )/(1) ( )4

T01 420

p01 = p3 = 101.325 = 143.11 kPa

T3ss 385.26

The blade widths can be now determined. They are

m 0.3562

b2 = = = 0.010 m (d)

2r2 2 W2 2 0.10 1.0088 56.12

and

m 0.3562

b3 = = = 0.018 m (d)

2r3 3 W3 2 0.06 0.9117 57.50

The total-to-static efficiency is

T01 T03 420 395.5

ts = = = 0.704 (e)

T01 T3ss 420 385.3

To determine the total-to-total efficiency, the stagnation temperature T03ss is needed.

It is ( )(1)/ ( )0.25

p03 110.320

T03ss = T3ss = 385.3 = 393.5 K

p3 101.325

so that

T01 T03 420 395.5

tt = = = 0.924 (d)

T01 T03ss 420 393.5

148

Exercise 9.8 Combustion gases with = 4/3 and cp = 1148 J/kg K enter a

stator of a radial flow turbine with T01 = 1150 K, p01 = 1300 kPa, and M1 = 0.5,

and with a flow rate of m = 5.2 kg/s. The radius of the inlet is r1 = 17.4 cm,

the exit from the stator is at r2 = 15.8 cm and the inlet to the rotor is at r2 =

15.2 cm. The chord of the stator is ct = 4.8 cm and the width of the channel

is b = 1.6 cm. The rotational speed of the rotor is 31, 000 rpm. The exit static

pressure is p3 = 320 kPa. The trailing edge thickness of the 17 stator vanes can

be ignored. Find, (a) the total-to-static efficiency of the turbine, (b) the stagnation

pressure loss across the stator, and (c) the stagnation pressure loss across the gap.

Given: T3 , p3 , W , , r2 , and r3s .

Find: b3

Solution:

Exercise 9.9 Combustion gases enter the stator of a radial inflow turbine at the

stagnation pressure p01 = 346 kPa and stagnation temperature T01 = 980 K. They

enter the rotor at the speed V2 = 481.4 m/s with the relative flow making an angle

2 = 35 and exhaust into the atmosphere at 101.3325 kPa. The total-to-static

efficiency of the turbine is ts = 0.83. Find, (a) the angle at which the flow enters

the rotor and (b) the relative Mach number at the inlet.

Given: T3 , p3 , W , , r2 , and r3s .

Find: b3

Solution:

149

Chapter 10

Exercise 10.1 A Pelton wheel operates from an effective head of He = 300 m and

at a flow rate of 4.2 m3 /s. The wheel radius is r2 = 0.75 m and its rotational speed

is 450 rpm. The water which leaves the penstock is divided into 5 streams. The

nozzle coefficient is cN = 0.98 for each of the nozzles. Impulse blades turn the

flow into the direction 3 = 65 and as a result of friction the relative velocity

reduces by an amount which gives a velocity coefficient cv = 0.90. Find, (a) the

efficiency of the turbine, (b) the power specific speed, and (c) the nozzle diameter

and the number of buckets in the wheel.

Given: He , Q, , r2 , cN , cv , 3

Find: ts , sp , d, Z

Solution: The exit velocity from the nozzle is

V2 = cN 2gHe = 0.98 2 9.81 300 = 75.19 m/s

0.75 450

U = r2 = = 35.34 m/s

30

The relative velocity entering the wheel is

150

or

w = U (Vu2 U )(1 cv sin 3 ) = 2556.8J/kg

The power is therefore

W w

= = = 0.869 (a)

QgHe He

The specific speed is

Q 450 4.2

s = = = 0.24

(gHe )3/4 30(9.81 400)3/4

and the power specific speed is

sp = s = 0.869 0.24 = 0.22 (b)

Q 4.2

Qj = = = 0.84 m3 /s

N 5

and the jet area is

Qj 0.84

Aj = = = 0.0111 m2

V2 75.19

so that the jet diameter is

4Aj 4 0.0111

d= = = 0.119 m

The ratio of the wheel diameter to the jet diameter is

D 2 0.75

= = 12.6 (c)

d 0.119

and the number of buckets is

D

Z= + 15 = 21.3 Z = 21 (c)

2d

151

Exercise 10.2 The flow rate through a small Francis turbine is 4.5 m3 /s, its head

is 150 m and the the rotational speed is 450 rpm. The inlet radius is r2 = 0.6 m and

the water leaves the guide vanes at the angle 2 = 72 and velocity V2 = 53.3 m/s.

It leaves the turbine without swirl. (a) Find the velocity coefficient of the stator

(inlet spiral and gates). (b) Find the inlet angle of the relative velocity, 2 . (c)

What is the output power? (d) What is the torque on the shaft? (d) Determine the

power specific speed and comment if the runner shape in the figure is appropriate.

Given: He , Q, V2 , r2 , 2 , cv , 3

Find: cN , 2 W , torque, s , sp .

Solution: The nozzle coefficient is

V2 53.7

cN = = = 0.9825 m/s (a)

2gHe 2 9.81 150

The tangential component of the velocity is

0.6 450

U2 = r2 = = 28.27 m/s

30

and the tangential component of the relative velocity is

Wu2 22.42

2 = = = 54.6 (b)

Wr2 16.44

The specific work is

152

and the efficiency is

w 1433.3

= = = 0.974

gHe 9.81 150

The shaft torque is

W 6, 437, 000 30

T = = = 136.6 kN (d)

450

The specific speed and power specific speed are

Q 450 4.5

s = = = 0.421 (e)

(gHe )3/4 30(9.81 150)3/4

and

sp = s = 0.9740.421 = 0.415 (e)

Exercise 10.3 The pressure at the entrance of a Francis turbine runner is 189.5 kPa

and at the exit it is 22.6 kPa. The shaft turns at 210 rpm. At the exit the flow

leaves without swirl. The inlet radius is r2 = 910 mm, and the exit radius is

r3 = 760 mm. The relative velocity entering the runner is W2 = 10.2 m/s, and

the flow angle of the relative velocity leaving the runner is 3 = 72 . The blade

height at the inlet is b2 = 600 mm. (a) Compute the stagnation pressure loss in

the runner. (b) Find the power delivered by the turbine.

Given: p2 , p3 , , r2 , r3 , 3 , W2 .

Find: dp0LR and W .

Solution: The blade speed at the inlet is

0.91 210

U2 = r2 = = 20.0 m/s

30

and at the exit it is

r3 0.76

U3 = U2 = 20.0 = 16.7 m/s

r2 0.91

The radial velocity at the exit is

U3 16.7

Vr3 = = = 5.43 m/s

tan 3 tan(72 )

153

The mass balance gives

r3 0.76

Vr2 = Vr3 = 5.43 = 4.54 m/s

r2 0.91

and thus the relative flow angle into the rotor is

( ) ( )

1 Vr2 1 5.45

2 = cos = cos = 63.6

W2 10.2

The isentropic work is ws = (p02 p03 )/. The stagnation pressure at the inlet is

V22 29.52

p02 = p2 + = 189, 600 + 998 = 623.8 kPa

2 2

and at the exit it is

V32 5.432

p03 = P3 + = 226, 000 + 998 = 37.2 kPa

2 2

and

p02 p03 623, 800 373, 000

ws = = = 587.68 J/kg

998

and the stagnation pressure loss is

154

Exercise 10.4 A Francis turbine has an inlet radius r2 = 1450 mm and outlet

radius r3 = 1220 mm. The blade width is constant b = 370 mm. The shaft speed

is 360 rpm and the volumetric flow rate is Q = 16.7 m3 /s. The flow enters the

runner at 2 = 78 . Water leaves the the turbine without swirl and the outlet

pressure p3 = 35 kPa. The loss through the runner is 0.20W23 /2g m. Find the

pressure p2 at the inlet and the head loss through the runner.

Given: r2 , r3 , b, Q, 2 , p3 and given the head loss across the runner as 0.02W32 /2g.

Find: p2 .

Solution: The blade speed is

1.45 360

U2 = r2 = = 54.66 m/s

30

The flow area at the inlet to the runner is

Q 16.7

Vr2 = = = 4.95 m/s

A2 3.37

and the tangential component is

V2 = Vrw 2 +V2 =

u2 4.952 + 23.312 = 23.83 m/s

r3 1.22

U3 = U2 = 54.66 = 46.00 m/s

r2 1.45

The exit area is

155

and the relative velocity at the exit is

W3 = U32 + Vr32 = 46.002 + 5.892 = 46.37 m/s

W32 0.2 46.372

HR = 0.2 = = 21.92 m

2g 2 9.81

The stagnation pressure at the exit is

V32 5.892

p03 = p3 + = 35000 + 998 = 52.30 kPa

2 2

The stagnation pressure loss is

998 1274

p02 = p03 + p0LR + w = 52.3 + 214.6 + = 1538.3 kPa

1000

and the static pressure is

V22 998 23.832

p2 = p02 = 1, 538, 300 = 1255, kPa

2 2

Exercise 10.5 The relative velocities at the inlet and the exit of a Francis turbine

are W2 = 10.0 m/s and W3 = 33.7 m/s. The shaft speed is = 200 rpm. The

inlet radius of the runner is r2 = 1880 mm and its outlet radius is r3 = 1500 mm.

The runner blade width is constant b = 855 mm. Find, (a) the flow rate through

the turbine and (b) the torque assuming the flow leaves without exit swirl.

Given: W2 , W3 , , r2 , r3 , b.

Find: Q and torque.

Solution: The blade speeds are

1.88 200

U2 = r2 = = 39.37 m/s

30

and

r3 1.88

U3 = U2 = 39.37 = 31.42 m/s

r2 1.50

156

and the redial velocity at the exit is

Vr3 = W32 U32 = 33.72 31.422 = 12.20 m/s

r3 1.50

Vr2 = Vr3 = 12.20 = 9.74 m/s

r2 1.88

The angle of the relative flow at the inlet is

( ) ( )

1 Vr2 1 9.734

2 = cos = cos = 13.3

V2 10.0

Now the tangential component of the relative velocity is

W 161 106 30

T = = = 7, 685, 000 N m (b)

200

Exercise 10.6 A Francis runner is to be designed for effective head of He =

140 m and flow rate Q = 20 m3 /s. Assume that the efficiency is = 0.9 and

that there is no exit swirl. Use the formula of Lugaresi and Massa to calculate

157

the specific speed. Use other the formulas in the text to obtain br and U2 /V0 from

sp . Assume that the mechanical and volumetric losses are negligible. Find the

specific diameter on this basis. (a) Find the diameter at the inlet. (b) Find the blade

speed at the inlet. (c) Find the flow angles of the absolute and relative velocities

at the inlet.

Given: He , Q, .

Find: D2 , U2 , 2 and 2 .

Solution: The power delivered is

w= = = 1236 J/kg

Q 998 20

The specific speed is

( )0.512 ( )0.512

Hr 100

s = 1.14 = 1.14 = 0.9596

He 140

and

sp = s = 0.90 0.9596 = 0.9104

The shaft speed can now be determined from

= = = 462 rpm

Q 20

The blade width to diameter ratio is

U2

= 0.740.238

sp = 0.724

V0

Thus

8U2 8 0.724

Ds = = = 2.13

s V0 0.9596

158

Hence

Ds Q 2.13 20

D2 = = = 1.567 m

(gHe )1/4 (9.81 140)1/4

and

b2 br D2 = 0.213 1.567 = 0.334 m

and

D2 1.567 462

U2 = = = 37.93 m/s

2 2 30

Now the radial velocity at the inlet is

Q 20

Vr2 = = = 12.12 m/s

2r2 b 20.7835 0.335

and the tangential velocity component can be obtained from

w 1236.1

Vu2 = = = 32.59 m/s

U2 37.93

so that

( ) ( )

1 Vr2 1 12.12

2 = tan = tan = 69.5 (a)

Vu2 32.59

and the tangential component of the relative flow is

( ) ( )

1 Wr2 1 12.12

2 = tan = tan = 23.6 (b)

Wu2 5.33

Exercise 10.7 Water enters the runner of a Francis turbine with a relative velocity

at angle 12 . The inlet radius is 2.29 m and the mean radius at the exit is 1.37 m.

The rotational speed is 200 rpm. The blade height at the inlet is b2 = 1.22 m and

at the exit the inclined width of the blade is b3 = 1.55 m. The radial velocity at the

runner inlet is 10.0 m/s and the flow leaves the runner without swirl. Evaluate (a)

the change in total enthalpy of the water across the runner, (b) the torque exerted

by the water on the runner normalized to a metric tonne per second, (c) the power

developed, (d) the flow rate of water, (e) the change in total pressure across the

runner if the total-to-total efficiency is 95%, and the volumetric and mechanical

159

losses can be neglected. (f) What is the change in static pressure across the runner,

and (h) the total-to-static efficiency.

Given: r2 , r3m , , 2 , b2 , , Vr2 , b3 .

Find: h02 h03 , T , W , Q, p02 p03 , p2 p3 , ts .

Solution: The blade speeds are

2.29 200

U2 = r2 = = 47.96 m/s

30

and the blade speed at the mean radius at the exit is

r3m 1.37

U3m = U2 = 47.96 = 28.69 m/s

r2 2.29

The flow areas are

and the flow rate is

Q 175.54

V3m = = = 13.16 m/s

A3 12.342

The angle of the relative flow at the exit is

( ) ( )

1 U3 1 28.69

3 = tan = tan = 65.4

Wm3 13.16

160

and the corresponding value of the absolute velocity is

so that

V2 = Vr22 + Vu2

2

= 102 + 45.842 = 46.91 m/s

and the flow angle is

( ) ( )

1 Vu2 1 45.84

2 = tan = tan = 77.7

Vr2 10.0

T = = = 18, 39, 000 N m

200 pi

Hence per ton of water flow it is

T 1, 839, 100

Ts = = = 105 kN m (b)

m 175.2

The isentropic work is

w 2198.4

He = = = 2314.1 J/kg

0.95

The total pressure loss is

161

and the change in stagnation pressure is

998 2314.1

p02 p03 = gHe p0LR = 115.5 = 2194 kPa (e)

1000

The change in static pressure is

1 998

p2 p3 = p02 p03 (V22 V3m

2

) = 2, 194, 000 (46.912 13.162 ) = 1182 kPa (f )

2 2

:

Exercise 10.8 The Otari number 2 power plant in Japan delivers 89.5 MW of

power when the flow rate is 207 m3 /s and the head is 48.1 m. The diameter of

the Kaplan turbine is D2t = 5.1 m and hub-to-tip ratio = 0.56. The generator

has 36 poles and delivers power at line frequency is 50 Hz. (a) Find the efficiency

of the turbine. (b) Calculate and flow angles entering and leaving the rotor and

construct a graph to show their variation across the span.

Solution: (a) The efficiency is

W0 89.5 106

= = = 0.918

QgHe 998 207 9.81 48.1

(b) With a 50 Hz line frequency and 36 poles, the shaft speed is = 12050/36 =

166.67 rpm. The tip speed of the runner blade is

D2t 2.55 166.67

U2t = = = 44.5 m/s

2 30

The axial velocity is uniform and it is given by

4Q 4 207

Vx2 = = = 14.76 m/s

2

D2t (1 )

2 5.12 (1 0.562 )

Since each blade element delivers the same amount of work, the tangential veloc-

ity at the tip can be determined from

gHe 0.91 9.81 51

Vu2t = = = 9.73 m/s

U2t 39.9

The flow angles for the absolute and relative velocities can now be determined.

The calculations, at the mean radius r2m = 1.99 m the absolute velocity makes an

angle ( ) ( )

1 Vu2t rt 1 9.73 2.55

2m = tan = tan = 40.2

Vx2 rm 14.76 1.99

162

The tangential component of the relative velocity at this location is

rm 44.5 1.99

Wu2m = Vx2 tan 2m U2t = 14.76 tan(40.2 ) = 22.25 m/s

rt 2.55

and the flow angle is

( ) ( )

1 Wu2m 1 22.25

2m = tan = tan = 56.4

Wx2 14.76

The flow leaves the runner axially. Therefore the tangential component of the

relative velocity is Wu3m = U2t rm /rt and with the axial velocity constant, the

flow angle is

( ) ( )

1 Wu3m 1 44.5 1.99

3m = tan = tan = 67.0

Wx3 14.76 2.55

163

Chapter 11

Exercise 11.1 A fluid coupling operates with oil flowing in a closed circuit. The

device consists of two elements, the primary and secondary, each making up one-

half of a torus, as shown in the figure in the text. The input power is 100 hp and

input rotational speed is 1800 rpm. The output rotational speed is 1200 rpm. (a)

Evaluate the efficiency of and output power of this device. (b) At what rate must

energy as heat be transferred to the cooling system, to prevent a temperature rise

of the oil in the coupling?

Given: Wp , p , s .

Find: , Q = Wp Ws .

Solution: Since the torque in the primary and the secondary are the same

Wp = T p Wp = T p

and

s 1200

Ws = Wp = 100 = 66.7 HP

p 1800

The efficiency is

Ws 66.7

= = = 0.667

Wp 100

and the rate of heat transfer from the converter fluid to the hardware and the sur-

roundings is

Q = Wp Ws = 33.3 745.7 = 24.86 kW

After the hardware has reached its steady state temperature all the heat is trans-

ferred to the surroundings.

Exercise 11.2 (a) Carry out the algebraic details to show that the expression for

the flow rate through a fluid coupling is given by

( )( )

Dh 2s r12

Q = Ap r2 1 2 1 2 (1)

fL p r2

and if for a low values of slip the friction factor is related to the flow rate by an

expression

c cA

f= =

Re QD

164

express the flow rate in terms of the slip for small values of s. (b) Carry out the

algebraic details to show that the expression for the torque of a fluid coupling is

given by

( )( )( )

Dh 2s r12 r12 s

T = Ap r22 3

1 2 1 2 1 2 (2)

fL P r2 r2 p

(c) What is the appropriate form for this equation for low values of slip.

Given: The form of the equation for the flow rate and torque.

Find: Derive the equations.

Solution: The details are shown in the text. For small values of slip

2s s s

1 2

= (1 )(1 + ) = s(2 s)

p p p

and with

c cA D ReD

f= = so that =

Re QD fL cL

and the flow rate becomes

D2 Q

Q = Ap r2 s(2 s)(1 r12 /r22 )

cAL

( )

r2 D2

Q= A2p r22 s(2 s) 1 12

r2 cL

( )

r12 D2

Q= 2A2p r22 s 1 2 (b)

r2 cL

The expression for torque coefficient is obtained from

( )

r12 D2

T = Q(p r2 s r1 ) = Qp r2 s(2 s) 1 2

2 2 2 2

r2 cL

165

and

( )( )

T r12 r12 AD2 p

CT = = s(2 s) 1 2 1 (1 s) 2

2p r25 r2 r2 cLr2

and for a small s this becomes

( )2

r2 AD2 p

CT = 2s 1 12

r2 cLr2

and this is also linear in s for small values.

Exercise 11.3 A fluid coupling operates with an input power of 200 hp, 5% slip

and a circulatory flow rate of 1500 l/s. (a) What is the rate at which energy as

heat must be transferred from the coupling in order for its temperature remain

constant? (b) What would be the temperature rise of the coupling over a period of

one-half hour assuming that no heat is transferred form the device and that it has a

mass of 45 kg, consisting of 70% metal with a specific heat 840 J/kg K, and 30%

oil with a specific heat 2000 J/kg K.

Given: Wp , s and a time duration of 30 minutes.

Find: , Q = Wp Ws .

Solution: The output power is

S

Ws = Wp = (1 s)Wp = 0.95 200 = 190 hp

p

The rate at which heat is transferred out from the coupling oil is

Q = Wp Ws = 10 745.7 = 7457 W (a)

The change in internal energy is

U2 U1 = Qt = 7457 30 60 = 13, 422, 600 J

The change in internal energy is also

U2 U1 = ms cs (T2 T1 ) + mf cf (T2 T1 ) = (ms cs + mf cf )(T2 T1 )

which can be written as

U2 U1 = m(fs cs + ff cf )(T2 T1 )

so that

13, 422, 600

T2 T1 = = 251 C (b)

45(0.7 840 + 0.3 2000)

166

Exercise 11.4 In a fluid coupling the input and output shafts rotate at 2000 and

1800 rpm, respectively. The fluid is an oil having a specific gravity of 0.88 and

viscosity 0.25 kg/m s. The outer mean radius of the torus is r2 = 15 cm the inner

mean radius is r1 = 7.5 cm. The radial height is b = 2r2 /15. The axial flow

area around the torus is the same as the flow area at the outer clearance between

the primary and secondary rotors. Given that the relative roughness of the flow

conduit is 0.01, find the volumetric flow rate and the axial velocity.

Given: p , s , r2 , r1 , b, SG, ,

Find: Q

Solution: The cross sectional area of the flow is

[ ]

A = (r2 = b/2)2 (r2 b/2)2 = 2r2 b

and the circumference is

C = 2(r2 b/2) + 2(r1 + b/2) + 4r2

so that the hydraulic diameter is

4A 4 2r2 b

D= = = 2b

C 4r2

The flow rate is

( )( )

Dh 2 r2

Q = Ap r2 1 2s 1 12

fL p r2

or ( )( )

b 2 r2

Q= 2r22 bp 1 2s 1 12

2f p r2

With

2

r1 = 7.5 cm r2 = 15 cm b= R2 = 2 cm

15

and the flow area is

A = 2r2 b = 20.15 0.02 = 0.0118 m2

Assume that the flow is laminar and f = 64/Re. If Reynolds number is Re =

3200, then f = 64/3200 = 0.02 and

Q = 0.3256 m3 /s

167

so that the axial velocity is

Q 0.3256

Vx = = = 17.28 m/s

A 0.0118

and the Reynolds number is

Vx D 0.88 998 17.28 0.04

Re = = = 2428

0.25

And the friction factor is f = 64/Re = 0.0264. Iterating gives finally f = 0.0346

and the flow rate is

Q = 0.2476 m3 /s = 247.6 liters/s (a)

and the axial flow rate is

Q 0.02476

Vx = = = 13.l1 m/s (b)

A 2 0.15 0.02

Exercise 11.5 Show that the kinetic energy loss model at the inlet to the turbine

given by

1 2

r2 (p s )2

2

is based on the conversion of the change in the one half of the tangential compo-

nent of the velocity squared, irreversibly into internal energy. To show this, note

that the incidence of the relative velocity at the inlet to the turbine is 2 since

the blades are radial. This leads to a leading edge separation, after which the

flow reattaches to the blade. After this reattachement the radial component of the

relative velocity is the same as in the flow incident on the blade.

Given: The velocity triangles

Find: The loss

Solution: Inspection of the velocity diagrams shows that

Vus2 = Us2 + Wus2 Vus2 = Us2

and therefore the expression

Vus2 Vus2 = Wus2 = Up2 Us2 = r2 (p )

so that

1 1

(Vus2 Vus2 )2 = r22 (p s )2

2 2

168

Exercise 11.6 For a fluid coupling for which r1 /r2 = 0.7, find the value of the

slip at which the power is maximum.

Given: The expressions for power delivered by the secondary

Find: For what value of the ratio = s /p is the power maximum.

Solution: From ( )

Ws r12

= 1 1 2

2

Tm p r2

in which = S /p . Let w = Ws /Tm p , and k = r12 /r22 the following equation

is obtained

w = 1 2 (1 k)

Differentiating with respect to and setting the derivative to zero gives

1 2 (1 2k) ( k 2 ) = 0

1 2

which simplifies to

2k 3 2 2 2k + 1 = 0

With k = 0.72 = 0.49 the correct root of this cubic equation gives

= 0.6053

s = 1 = 1 0.6053 = 0.3947

Exercise 11.7 A torque converter operates with oil flowing in a closed circuit. It

consists of a torus is made of a pump, a turbine, and a stator. The input and output

rotational speeds are 4000 rpm and 1200 rpm, respectively. At this operating con-

dition the torque exerted on the stator is twice that exerted on the pump. Evaluate

(a) the output to input torque ratio and (b) the efficiency.

Given: p , s , and Tf = 2Tp .

Find: Ts /Tp , Ws /Wp .

Solution: From

Tp = m(r1 Vu2 r1 Vu1 )

Ts = m(r2 Vu2 r3 Vu3 )

Tf = m(r1 Vu1 r3 Vu3 )

169

it is seen that Ts = Tp + Tf . Therefore

Ts

Ts = Tp + 2Tp = 2Tp or =3 (a)

Tp

and

Ws Ts s 3 1200

= = = 0.9 (b)

Wp Tp p 4000

provide a torque multiplication ratio of 3.3 to 1. The circulating oil flow rate is

500 kg/s. The oil enters the fixed vanes in the axial direction at 10 m/s, and leaves

at an angle 60 deg in the direction of the blade motion. The axial flow area is

constant. Find the torque which the primary exerts on the fluid and the torque by

the fluid on the blades of the secondary. The inlet and outlet radii of fixed vanes

are 15 cm.

Given: r2 , 1 = 0, 2 = 60c irc, Vx1 = Vx2 = 10 m/s, Ts = 3.3Tp , and m =

500 kg/s

Find: Tf , Tp , Ts .

Solution: The tangential component of the velocity leaving the fixed member is

and V u1 = 0. Thus

Tf = mr2 Vu2

Tp = m(r3 Vu3 r2 Vu2 )

Tf = mr3 Vu3

From

Tp + Tf = Ts Ts = 3.3Tp Tf = 2.3Tp

and

Tf = 500 0.15 17.32 = 1299 N m

and thus Tp = 565 N m and Ts = 1864 N m.

170

Exercise 11.9 Develop the equations for the torque ratio and efficiency for a

torque converter given in the text. (a) At what ratio of the rotational speeds is

the efficiency maximum. From this and the experimental curves shown in the text

estimate (b) the ratio r2 /r3 , and the value of Qr1 tan 1 /Ar32 p .

Given: The graphs in the text.

Find: r2 /r3 , and Qr1 tan 1 /Ar32 p

Solution: From

Ts = Q(r22 p r32 s )

and

Tp = Q(r22 p r1 Vu1 )

Defining the ratios

Ts s r2 r1Vu1

T = = R= a=

Tp p r3 r32 p

the ratio of the first two equations can be written as

R2

T =

R2 a

The efficiency is

Ts s (R2 )

= =

Tp p R2 a

The graph shown that efficiency and torque ratio are zero when = R2 = 0.85.

The maximum efficiency is obtained by differentiating

d R2 2

= 2 =0

d R a

so that max = R2 /2 = 0.425 (a). At this value the graph shows that

T = 1.6. Then from the equation for the torque ratio may be written as

(R2 a)T = R2

R2 0.85 0.425

a = R2 = 0.85 = 0.584 (b)

T 1.6

171

Chapter 12

Exercise 12.1 Reconsider the ducted windmill but now let the duct be a cylindri-

cal control volume Ae in cross sectional area. Show that the axial force on the

blades is

Fd = Ab Vb (V Vb )

which is in agreement with the equation for wind turbine drag.

Given: The flow variables and the control volume.

Find: The drag force.

Solution: From a cylindrical control volume

Ae V = me + (Ae Ab ) + Ab Vb

in which Ae is the cross sectional area of the duct, Ab is the cross sectional area

of the slipstream where the velocity is Vb and me is the rate at which mass leaves

the control volume across its lateral boundary. Solving this for me gives

me = Ab (V Vb )

Ab Vb2 + (Ae Ab )V 2 + mV Ae V 2 = Fd

which reduces to

Ab (V Vb )[V (V + Vb )] = Fd

so that

Fd = Ab Vb (V Vb )

p + pa

1

2

V 2

in which the pressure difference is between is that just before the disc and the free

stream. (a) Use the momentum theory for a wind turbine to express this in terms

of the interference factor a. For which value of a is this maximum? Interpret this

physically. (b) Develop the expression for

p a p

1

2

V 2

172

For which value of a is this the maximum?

Given: The formulas for the pressure difference across the disk.

Find: Express the pressure difference in terms of the interference factor a and for

which value of a is the pressure difference the maximum.

Solution: From

p0+ p a 1 2 p+ 1

= + V = + (1 a)V 2

2 2

so that

p+ p a 1

= V 2 = 1 (1 a)2 = a(2 a)

2

Differentiating to obtain the maximum of this gives

2 2a = 0 a=1

Downstream

p0 p 1 pa 1

= + (1 a)2 V 2 = + (1 2a)V 2

2 2

Therefore

p a p

1 2

= (1 a)2 (1 2a)2 = a(2 3a)

2

V

Differentiating this with respect to a and setting the derivative to zero gives

1

a=

3

This value of a corresponds to a maximum power from the turbine. Hence also

maximum for the difference p+ p . or the lowest value of p .

Exercise 12.3 A wind turbine operates at wind speed of V = 12 m/s. Its blade

radius is R = 20 m and its tip speed radius R/V = 4. It operates at the con-

dition Cp = 0.3. a. Find the rate of rotation of the blades. b. Find the power

developed by the turbine. c. Find the value of the interference factor a based on

the momentum theory. d. Find the pressure on the front of the actuator disc, if the

free stream pressure is 101.30 kPa.

Given: V , R/V , Cp , and R.

173

Find: , W , a, p+ .

Solution: The shaft speed is

5V 5 12 30

= = = 28.6 rpm

R 20

From the expression for the power coefficient

Cp = 4a(1 a)2

and expanding the right hand side and setting it equal to 0.4 gives

This has the solutions a = (0.1330, 0.5874, 1.2749). The value in the range 0 <

a < 1/2 is the appropriate one, or a = 0.1339 Lef tarrow (c).

The power delivered is

1 1

W Cp AV 3 = 0.4 1.2 202 123 = 521 kW (b)

2 2

The velocity at the actuator disk is

1 1

p+ = pa + V 2 (1 a)2 V 2

2 2

or

1

p+ = pa + a(2a)V 2 = 101, 325+0.51.20.13301.867122 = 101, 325+21 = 101, 346 Pa (

2

Exercise 12.4 Using the axial momentum theory calculate the ratio of the slip-

stream radius to that of the disc radius in terms of the interference factor a. If

the wind turbine blades are 80 m long, what is the radius of the slip stream far

downstream. What is the radius of the streamtube far upstream.

Given: a = 1/3, R.

Rb

Find: R

, Ra .

174

Solution: From continuity

it follows that

Ra Rb 1a

= 1a =

R R 1 2a

so that for a = 1/3 these give

Ra

= 2 Ra = 280 = 113 m

R

Rb 2 2

= Ra = 80 = 65.3 m

R 3 3

Exercise 12.5 In a wind with speed V = 8.7 m/s and air density = 1.2 kg/m3 ,

a wind turbine operates at a condition with Cp = 0.31. Find the blade length, if

the power delivered to the turbine is to be W = 250 kW.

Given: V , Cp , and W .

Find: R.

Solution: From

Cp = 4a(1 a)2

with Cp = 0.31 the value of a can be obtained from

The roos are a = (1.2491, 0.6564, 0.0945). The only one in the the range of wind

turbines is a = 0.0945 (a). From

1

W = AV 3

2

the area is

2W 2 250, 000

A= = = 2041.1 m2

3

V Cp 1.2 8.7 0.31

3

A 2041.1

R= = = 25.5 m Lef tarrow (b)

175

Exercise 12.6 Consider a 3-bladed wind turbine with blade radius of R = 35 m

and constant cord of c = 80 cm, which operates with rotational speed of = 10

rpm. The wind speed is V = 12 m/s. Find the axial and tangential induction

factors at r = 10 m assuming that angle of attack is 6 and CD = 0.01CL .

Given: Z, R, r, c, V , and .

Find: a and a.

Solution: Using the Matlab script on page 425 of the text gives

a = 0.09390423 a = 0.06017493

Exercise 12.7 For the Example 12.4 calculate the force Fx and torque T by using

the mean values at r = 0.6 and compare with the numerical solution given in the

text.

Given: Z, R, X, c, , .

Find: Fx and T .

Solution: At r/R = 0.6 the values for a and a are a = 0.0055 and a = 0.0341,

therefore

10

T = V a (1 a)R4 (1 0.24 ) = 1.2 354 (1 0.24 ) = 23, 8670 N m

30

%HW 12.6

clear all;

R=35; V=12; c=0.80; alphad=6;

omega=10*pi/30; X=R*omega/V;

alpha=alphad*pi/180;

CL=2*pi*sin(alpha);

Z=3; rho=1.2;

dr=0.01; Fx=0; T=0; T2=0;

r=[0.2:dr:1.00]*R;

x=r*X/R;

176

n=length(r); kmax=20;

fid=fopen(span,w);

for i=1:n

k=0; a(i) = 0; ap(i) = 0; temp=a(i);

phi(i) = atan((1-a(i))/(x(i)*(1+ap(i))));

theta(i)=phi(i)-alpha;

sigma(i)=Z*c/(2*pi*r(i)); sg(i)=sigma(i)/4;

Cx(i)=CL*cos(phi(i)); Cy(i)=CL*sin(phi(i));

while k < kmax

a(i)=sg(i)*Cx(i)/(sin(phi(i))^2+sg(i)*Cx(i));

ap(i)=sg(i)*Cy(i)/(cos(phi(i))*sin(phi(i))-sg(i)*Cy(i));

phi(i)=atan((1-a(i))/(x(i)*(1+ap(i))));

Cx(i)=CL*cos(phi(i)); Cy(i)=CL*sin(phi(i));

theta(i)=phi(i)-alpha;

res=abs(1-temp/a(i)); temp= a(i);

if res < 0.0001

break

end

k=k+1;

end

thetad(i)=theta(i)*180/pi; phid(i)=phi(i)*180/pi;

fprintf(fid,%12.4f%12.4f%12.4f%12.4f%12.4f\n,r(i)/R, ...

phid(i),thetad(i),a(i),ap(i));

g(i)=4*pi*rho*R*V^2*a(i)*(1-a(i))*r(i)*dr;

gg(i)=4*pi*rho*X*V^2*ap(i)*(1-a(i))*r(i)^3*dr;

Fx=Fx+g(i);

T=T+gg(i);

end

Fx=Fx-0.5*(g(1)+g(n));

T=T-0.5*(gg(1)+gg(n)); % Put these !!!!

P=T*X*V/R;

fclose(fid);

Fx1=2*rho*pi*V^2*a(41)*(1-a(41))*R^2*(1-0.2^2);

T1=rho*pi*omega*V*ap(41)*(1-a(41))*R^4*(1-0.2^4);

177