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CHAPTER-3

RESEARCH METHODS

This chapter sets out the methods used in the research about the changing occupational patterns
about the inhabitants of Dhampus. This study has intended to gain information on the different
roles of the people of the society and then transition towards other prospects of living. This
section discusses the research methods employed to cover all the planned subject matters to
fulfill the objectives of study.

3.1 Rationale for the Selection of Study Site


This study was conducted in Dhampus, a scenic village located in the heights of Kaski District in
the Gandaki Zone of northern-central Nepal. The selection of the study site is directly related to
the purpose of the study. Dhampus is such a place where the villagers have accepted rural
tourism over agriculture as an important utensil for poverty alleviation. This has caused different
level of social and economic change. In this process, the traditional occupations and the social
relationships are changing rapidly. With regard to this drastic change. it is very essential to
investigate its various aspects. With proper understanding of these changes it will be possible to
develop realistic framework that aims at explaining the changing living standards of Nepalese
people. Hence, Dhampus was selected as the perfect destination for research.

3.2 Research Design


The major emphasis in this study is to analyze and explore changing occupational pattern among
the Gurungs in Kaski District in the Gandaki Zone of northern-central Nepal. It has set objectives
to analyze the pattern of change in and among the Gurungs and changes in social setting. This
study tries to explore their perception in their present situation. Considering all these facts, both
exploratory and descriptive research design were chosen in this work. Explorative research
design is used to understand the patterns of change in the traditional occupation among the
Gurungs. Descriptive research design is used to describe the changing factor for the occupational
shill. In this study, the people's perception and the social adjustment of new change of Gurungs
have been studied.

3.3 Nature and Sources of Data


Data can be collected from different sources using different method. Among variety of
methodology for this report preparation, primary and secondary data collection are as follows:
1.Primary data collection
Primary data are originally data gathered by the researcher. Various techniques can be applied
for primary data collection like sampling. using search instruments (questionnaire and
observation), contact method and other statistical tools.

2. Secondary data collection


The secondary data can have collected in the form published data by firms, organization such as
reports, record. pamphlets. websites, newspaper. As for secondary data. various kind of
published and unpublished sources are used. Both the primary as well as secondary data were
employed in this study. But. the primary data and the information were extensively utilized as
the main source of this research work. By nature, the primary data were both qualitative as well
as quantitative. Emphasis had been given to both quantitative as well as qualitative data.
Quantitative data were collected mainly from the interview schedule, and qualitative data from
the focus group discussion and in case studies methods. Some secondary data and information
were also extracted from the different published and unpublished sources; such as journals,
books. articles, village profile. etc. as per the requirement to the research.

3.4 Primary Data Collection Techniques


There are a lot of techniques available for primary data collection. Out of them, on the basis of
research objectives, questions and the types of data required for the study, the following
techniques were adopted to coiled the primary data.
1. Observation
Observation is systematic and deliberate study through the eyes of spontaneous
occurrence at the time they occur.
2. Interview
Interview is one of the tools of data collection in which interviewer initiates the interview
with direct verbal interaction.
3. Case Study
Case Study is an imperial which investigates contemporary phenomenon within its real-
life situations where multiple sources of evidence are used
4. Observation
Observation Technique was adopted in various steps in order to study various aspects in
the research site. Observation has been used to get the relevant ant information for study.
We simply watch people or situation and record it as the observational data.
Observational research findings are considered strong in validity because we can collect a
depth of information about a particular behavior. It has been used to observed the
Dhampus culture, agriculture culture, there lifestyle. dress type and house type. etc.
3.4.2 Interview Schedule
This technique has been the main basis of collection of primary data. To collect required data an
interview schedule question was prepared. A careful attention was provided while constructing
of structuring the schedule. Questions included in the interview schedule were framed in such a
way that they can provide with both qualitative and quantitative data. Importantly the questions
in the interview schedule were structured type. The basic information that gathered from
interview was general socio economic introduction of family, occupational skills and
technological progress of Dhampus. During interview, the applicable respondent represents the
entire family and in some of the case where the individual view was asked in which respondent
represent single interview.

3.4.3 Case Study


As case study research is an important approach to study the topics in social science. we had
conducted a comprehensive study of the present status, past experiences and future expectations
of a woman named Hem Bahadur Gurung, a permanent resident of the village. For this key
informant interview we had created a detailed depth interview schedule.
Hem Bahadur Gurung, the respondent is a man of 30 years who is a permanent resident of
Dhampus. He is a farmer because it was their ancestral traditional occupation. It was the only
traditional skill they had learned and their universe was very small to explore the outside world.
Other alternatives of earning in their village were joining the British or Indian army.
The Dhampus village have become a rural tourism destiny. The community selected him as an
eligible person to run the homestay business seeing his miserable condition. So, he started this
new occupation due to the fact that there were not much laborers in him family willing to do
farming. Now, it has been 8 years since he started homestay business. Where agriculture
produced outcome equivalent of Rs.150 a day, homestay provided income Rs.1500-1600 per
guest excluding the extra pay for extra food. He lives in a 2-storied house in the attic and has a
kitchen and guest room for 3-5 guests in the ground floor. He received 2-3 guests every week
and it was consistent for the whole year. He has reared many hens and a cow in the adjoining
cattle shed. Even though tourism is a seasonal sector, the committee managed the tourists in a
balanced way. It is clear that his family's standards of living had significantly improved. He is
also happy to see the development of his village. He says there is a vast difference between the
village he saw as a newly married bride and the village he sees now. But he is disappointed too
because the development initiative in terms of rural tourism has been mishandled by the
outsiders.

The benefits acquired from the guests are not properly distributed among the villagers and she
cannot do anything about it as women are not allowed to give their opinion. There is a leader
from the same village but it looks like he is established from the outsiders as he has also just
been acting as per outsiders want. When we asked his views on doing a large-scale
commercialization on different agriculture and animal products in the village, he seemed of little
hope because of lack of knowledge, finance and courage to do it. He is much more satisfied with
his present life and regards his past as a bitter phase of his life.

This case study has brought to light the important interactions that deserve more extensive
attention. It has become very fruitful and has set an example to illustrate more generalized
findings. Case studies, however do not allow valid generalizations to the population until the
appropriate follow-up research is accomplished. So, we again continued our research to further
study of the new ground of issues created by the case.