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ADVANCED

S T U D E N T S R E S O U R C E B O O K withoutkey

Jan Bell and Nick Kenny

ALWAYS LEARNING
PEARSON
ADVANCED

O O K w i t h o u t

Jan Bell and Nick Kenny


I C o n t e n t s

Module Section Vocabulary R e a d i n g & Use Language Listening


development 1 o f English development 1

1 Success Collocations: Paper 1 Part 1 Perfect and simple Paper 3 Part 1


(P- 6) Findingajob adjectives + nouns, Multiple-choice forms; Perfect, Mltiple
verbs + nouns; cloze: Work simple and choice: short
Phrasal verbs placements continuous forms; extracts
and expressions (p7) Mixed verb forms (p. 10)
with take; Word Paper 1 Part 2 (P-8)
formation: Open cloze: My
adjectives and dream career
nouns (p.9)
(p.6)

2 N e w directions A Compound Paper 1 Part 1 Review of relative Paper 3 Part 4


(p.17) Making a adjectives: Multiple-choice clauses; Relative Mltiple
difference describing cloze: The secret pronouns with matching
characteristics; men prepositions (p- 21)
Using affixes to (p-18) (p. 19)
form opposites; Paper 1 Part 2
Phrasal verbs; Word Open cloze:
formation: attitudes; Facebook friends: the
Expressions with art of deletion
change (p.20)
(P-17)

3 Leisure t i m e Word formation; Paper 1 Part 1 Review of future Paper 3 Part 2


(P- 28) The creative Phrasal verbs; Multiple-choice forms; Expressions Sentence
instinct Verbs to describe cloze: One brick at with future completion
movement; Film a time meaning; Future in (p. 32)
(p.28) (p.29) the past
Paper 1 Part 3 (p. 30)
Word formation: A
fitting trophy
(P- 31)

4 The global A Collocations with Paper 1 Part 1 Word families: verb, Paper 3 Part 4
village A small world? sleep; Expressions Multiple- noun and adjective Mltiple
(p. 39) with fall; Phrasal choice cloze: suffixes; prefixes to matching
verbs with fall; The dangers of change meaning (p.43)
Idioms: word pairs; miscommunication (p- 41)
Cultural experiences (p.40)
(p.39) Paper 1 Part 3
Word formation:
Surrey Sleep
Research Centre
(p.42)

5 Controversy A Word formation; Paper 1 Part 1 Gradable and Paper 3 Part 3


(p. 50) Global issues Compound nouns Multiple-choice ungradable Mltiple C T
with verbs and cloze: Man's best adjectives; (p. 54)
prepositions; friend Modifying adverbs;
Collocations; The (p. 51) Collocations:
environment Paper 1 Part 2 adverbs + adjectives
(P- 50) Open cloze: Shark (p. 52)
fin soup
(p. 53)
Vocabulary R e a d i n g & Use o f Language Writing
development 2 English development 2

Feelings; Teaching and Paper 1 Part 8 The passive: tenses, Paper 2 Part 2
learning; Collocations Mltiple matching: modals, -ing forms and Letter/Email
(P-11) Subjects of desire infinitives; Impersonal (p. 16)
(pp. 12-13) passive structures
Paper 1 Part 4 (p. 14)
Key word transformations
(p. 15)

Words often confused; Paper 1 Part 6 Use of articles; Singular/ Paper 2 Part 2
Word formation: nouns; Cross-text mltiple Plural nouns and verb Report
Phrasal verbs; Law and matching: TV Cameras in agreement; Determiners (p.27)
crime the Classroom: a fly-on- and pronouns
(p.24) the-wall documentary (p.25)
(pp. 22-23)
Paper 1 Part 3
Word formation: Bad
Boys' Bakery
(p.26)

Entertainment; Near Paper 1 Part 7 Modals and semi-modals Paper 2 Part 1


synonyms; Phrasal Gapped text: From selfie (Part 1): Obligation Essay
verbs; Useful language: to photographic art and necessity; Advice, (p. 38)
exchanging ideas (pp. 34-35) recommendation,
(p. 33) Paper 1 Part 4 criticism, permission;
Key word transformations Ability; Possibility/
(p.37) probability, deduction;
Mixed modals
(p. 36)

Issues and opinions: Paper 1 Part 5 that clauses; Clauses Paper 2 Part 2
idioms, verb + noun Mltiple choice: The ce beginning with a question Proposal
collocations; Issues and bucket challenge word; -ing and to- (p.49)
protests (pp. 44-45) infinitive clauses
(p.46) Paper 1 Part 4 (p.47)
Key word transformations
(p.48)

Security: collocations; Paper 1 Part 8 Review of conditionals; Paper 2 Part 1


Prepositional phrases; Mltiple matching: The Alternatives to if; Mixed Essay
Phrasal verbs and hacker hunters conditionals (p-60)
idiomatic expressions; (pp. 56-57) (p. 58)
Verbs and adverbs for Paper 1 Part 3
opinions: intensifying Word formation: How to
expressions avoid internet fraud
(p. 55) (P- 59)
Contents

Module Vocabulary R e a d i n g & Use Language Listenmg


development 1 o f English development 1

6 Communication A Communicating: Paper 1 Part 1 Spelling rules; Paper 3 Part 1


(P- 61) Getting y o u r phrasal verbs; Multiple-choice Words that are Mltiple
message across Expressions with cloze: The benefits of difficult to spell; choice: short
speak, talk and bilingualism Words that are extracts
say; Informal (p. 62) easily confused; (p-65)
expressions: Paper 1 Part 2 Hyphens
speaking and Open cloze: The first (p.63)
understanding; emailer
Communication (p. 64)
(P- 61)

7 Vales A Word formation; Paper 1 Part 1 Cleft sentences: Paper 3 Part 2


(p.72) Home matters Home and family: Multiple-choice emphasis with what, Sentence
expressions and cloze: Should we the thing, the reason, completion
idioms; Words that stay at home? the place, all...; (p-76)
are easily confused; (p-73) Emphasis with it + be
Living at home Paper 1 Part 2 (p.74)
(p.72) Open cloze: No
place like home
(p- 75)

8 A rich life A Business: phrasal Paper 1 Part 1 Emphasis: Paper 3 Part 4


(p. 83) Mixing business verbs; Verb + Multiple-choice using negative Mltiple
and pleasure noun collocations; cloze: The demise of introductory matching
Business: the bookstore expressions; (p. 87)
prepositions; (p.84) through fronting
Compounds; Paper 1 Part 3 parts of the
Business Word formation: sentence
(p-83) The orig'm of plstic (p. 85)
payment cards
(p. 86)

9 The world of A Word formation: Paper 1 Part 1 Review of reported Paper 3 Part 2
science Personal science; Expressions Multiple-choice speech; Sentence
(P- 94) challenges connected to cloze: The search Patterns after completion
space; Ways of for extra-terrestral reporting verbs; (p. 98)
seeing; Idioms with intelligence Impersonal report
like, Prepositional (p. 95) structures
phrases Paper 1 Part 3 (p.96)
(p. 94) Word formation:
The colour of gold
* " 'i -
(P- 97)

10 A Word formation: Paper 1 Part 1 Participle clauses; Paper 3 Part 3


A positive Teamwork fitness; Verb + Multiple-choice to-infinitive clauses Mltiple che ce
outlook noun collocations; cloze: Formula One (p. 107) (p. 109)
(p-105) Prepositional development driver
phrases; Sport (p. 106)
metaphors Paper 1 Part 2
(P-105) Open cloze:
E-health
(p. 108)

P r a c t i c e e x a m (pp. 116-139) R e a d i n g a n d Use o f E n g l i s h a n s w e r s h e e t (p. 140) L i s t e n i n g a n s w e r s h e e t (p. 141)


Contents

Vocabulary R e a d i n g & Use o f ianguage Writing


development 2 English development 2

Emotional reactions: Paper 1 Part 6 Verb + -ing or infinitive Paper 2 Part 1


sense idiomatic expressions, Cross-text mltiple with to?; Verb + object Essay
collocations and everyday matching: The Sixth Sense + infinitive/-/ng; Verb + (P- 71)
expressions (pp. 66-67) -ing form/infinitive with a
(p. 68) Paper 1 Part 3 change of meaning
Word formation: Do you (p.69)
have a sixth sense?
(p.70)

Travel; Collocations and Paper 1 Part 7 Past tenses for Paper 2 Part 2
'the phrasal verbs; Travel and Gapped text: Flight-seeing hypothetical meanings: Letter
transport: idioms in Alaska wish/ifonly; Other (p.82)
(p-77) (pp. 78-79) expressions
Paper 1 Part 4 (p-80)
Key word transformations
(p. 81)

Phrasal verbs: money; Paper 1 Part 5 Modifying comparisons; Paper 2 Part 2


A meara to an Prepositions; Collocations Mltiple choice: Is better Other ways of making Review
emf? (p. 90) off really better? comparisons (p.93)
(pp. 88-89) (p- 91)
Paper 1 Part 4
Key word transformations
(p. 92)

Expressions with mind; Paper 1 Part 6 Verbs/Adjectives/Nouns + Paper 2 Part 1


power Rememberingand Mltiple matching: The prepositions Essay
forgetting; Words Organized Mind (p. 102) (p. 104)
connected to the mind (pp. 100-101)
or brain Paper 1 Part 2
(p. 99) Open cloze: Clean jeans
that wash away pollution
(p. 103)

Word formation: leisure Paper 1 Part 8 Modals and semi- Paper 2 Part 2
Feeiinggood actvities; Phrasal verbs Mltiple matching: The modals (Part 2): Proposal
with get; Reading art of orienteeng certainty, willingness and (p. 115)
(p. 112) (pp. 110-111) characteristic behaviour;
Paper 1 Part 4 Modal revisin;
Key word transformations Alternatives to modals
(p. 114) (p. 113)

E x a m c o u n t d o w n - t o p t i p s (p. 142)
1 Success
Findingajob

Phrasal verbs and expressions with take


Vocabulary development 1
3 C o m p l e t e each sentence w i t h a w o r d f r o m A a n d a
> CB p. 10
p r e p o s i t i o n f r o m B. T h e p r e p o s i t i o n s m a y b e u s e d
m o r e than once.
Collocations: adjectives + nouns
A
1 Complete each sentence w i t h a n adjective f r o m A
aback advantage exception notice pity
a n d a n o u n f r o m B.
pleasure pude stride

high impressive long main strong wide B

by n of on to
B

CV hours preference priority salary variety 1 Tve always enjoyed sport and m y w h o l e family takes
a lot o f w a t c h i n g football.
1 I don't really have a(n) for the kind o f 2 He was freezing, so I eventually t o o k
Job l'm looking f o r w h e n I gradate. h i m and lent h i m m y coat.
2 Graduates can't really expect t o be earning a(n) 3 The teacher was taken t h e strength o f
to start w i t h . the boy's feelings. She had n o idea he was so upset.
3 I suppose m y is t o just get a f o o t o n t h e 4 I took t h e t o n e in w h i c h she spoke t o
career ladder. me and replied angrily.
4 It w o u l d also be very useful t o be given a(n) 5 A l t h o u g h her child was crying, t h e w o m a n t o o k no
o f experience. her and w e n t o n chatting.
5 Preferably, this w o u l d be d o n e w i t h o u t having t o 6 He works extremely hard a n d takes
w o r k very . d o i n g his h o m e w o r k perfectly.
6 However, first I need t o write a really in 7 W e took a break in t h e rain t o run
order t o get an interview. home.
8 M y father is very calm and takes everything
Collocations: verbs + nouns his _.

2 Choose the correct answers. Word formation: adjectives and nouns

4 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h w o r d s f o r m e d f r o m
E v e r since I (1) put I set m y heart o n b e c o m i n g a n
the w o r d s i n brackets.
architect at the age o f six, I have ( 2 ) taken I done i t
1 A (success) (apply) will be
v e r y seriously and ( 3 ) made I put a l o t o f effort into
f o l l o w i n g m y dreams. I have had to ( 4 ) overeme I win one w h o is (confidence).

a l o t o f setbacks along the w a y i n order to ( 5 ) take I gain Good (qualify) are n o t e n o u g h ; there

expertise i n m y field. I f F m g o i n g t o ( 6 ) reach I achieve must be some (evident) that y o u are


m y aims, I w i l l have t o ( 7 ) seize I catch every genuinely _ (interest) in t h e j o b .
o p p o r t u n i t y that comes u p and ( 8 ) make i do os To avoid (disappoint), y o u need
m a n y useful contaets as I possibly can. to remain (optimism) a n d be very
(determination).
4 For me, t h e most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g is
(reliable). l'm also l o o k i n g f o r s o m e o n e w h o is
an excellent (communicate) and is
prepared t o show (flexible) in their
approach t o their work.
\ {Paper *art

Multiple-choice cloze 1 Read the w h o l e text quickly to get the general meaning.

2 Read the text again carefully a n d think about the type o f w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p . C a n y o u p r e d i c t t h e a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at
the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers in place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

RTSTRATEGY For questions 1-8, read the text beow and decide which answer (A, B, C or
D) best fts each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
task, y o u need a g o o d
j g e o f fixed expressions,
verbs and collocations. A d d Work placements
. ones y o u c o m e across W o r k placements give
vocabulary n o t e b o o k and students the chance
m o e r t o review t h e m regularly. to (0) _ A _ hands-
o n experience o f the
workplace before
they embark o n their
> Q4 O n l y o n e o f these w o r d s can be
chosen career. As well
f o l l o w e d by to.
as enhancing students'
Q5 Only one of these words can be
knowledge of the
f o l l o w e d by of particular industry,
Q 7 The w o r d y o u need begins w i t h placements also provide

s
a negative prefix. an o p p o r t u n i t y for t h e m
t o (1) t o gri ps
with managinga workload,
EXPERT L A N G U A G E
(2) deadlines
W h i c h question tests your knowledge and being part o f a team.
r
:*' .e b + n o u n collocations? O n some UK degree courses, year-long w o r k placements are a
c o m p u l s o r y course (3) These are often (4) to
as 'sandwich placements' because they take place between the second
and final years o f study. O n other courses, students can o p t t o d o a
placement (5) of a taught m o d u l e f they wish. Even where
this isn't the (6) , students often arrange placements for
themselves in the s u m m e r holidays.
A p p l y i n g for a w o r k placement can be as competitive as applying for a
permanent Job and many UK companies n o w h o l d formal interviews.
(7) paid e m p l o y m e n t , however, w o r k placements aren't
covered by e m p l o y m e n t legislation, so students should always ensure
that the (8) and conditions are agreed in w r i t i n g beforehand.

0 A gain B earn C grow D form


1 A make Bget Cfind D have
2 A reaching B succeeding C arriving D meeting
3 A tem B matter C element D issue
4 A referred B considered C regarded D mentioned
5 A instead B alternative C rather D substitute
6 A truth B way Cfact D case
7 A Opposite B Dissimilar CUnlike D Contrary
8 A rules B terms C laws D codes
Module 1
Findingajob

Mixed verb forms


Language development 1
3 Complete the texts w i t h the correct f o r m o f the
> CB p. 13, EG p. 173
verbs i n brackets. M o r e than one answer m a y
be possible.
Perfect and simple forms

Two voung people talk about


1 Choose the correct answers.
1 I gained / Ve gained a considerable a m o u n t o f
expertise since starting up m y c o m p a n y .
2 She was relieved t o hear that she was / had been o n
dong work placements
the shortlist f o r the Job she w a n t e d . Stella
3 A l t h o u g h t h e c o m p a n y made / has made very little
l(l) _ (work) unpaid
profit so far this year, it shows potential.
for a w e l l - k n o w n magazine
4 I never had/ had neverhad an interview before, so
at t h e m o m e n t , w h e r e I
I felt very nervous.
(2) (write) short
5 He didn't work/ hasn't worked at all since he handed
arricies for the last three months.
in his notice.
The boss usually (3)
6 I finished / had finished the report as soon as the
(give) m e ridiculously tight
meeting was over.
deadlines, so I ( 4 ) .
7 At the interview, I was asked w h y I decided / had
(be) under pressure t h e
decided t o take a gap year after university.
w h o l e time. Quite often, I
8 Julin suddenly realised w h e r e he met/ had met his
(5) (feel) I can't
boss before.
go o n any longer at this pace,
especially since I ( 6 ) .
Perfect, simple and continuous forms
(not get) any m o n e y for w h a t
2 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f I do. I (7) (realise), t h o u g h , that t h e
the verbs i n the box. Use the same verb for each experience o f the last f e w m o n t h s ( 8 ) , (be)
p a i r o f sentences. very g o o d f o r m e in terms o f the skills I ( 9 )
(acquire). However, I ( 1 0 ) (still/think) that
eat leave read stay travel employers should n o t be allowed t o take advantage o f
new graduates in this way.
1 a This time last year I around Colombia.
b W h e n I visited South America, I to Luke
C o l o m b i a , Brazil and Chile.
When I (11)
2 a I all day and there are still 50 pages
(leave) university ten m o n t h s
to go.
ago, I ( 1 2 ) (have)
b I t h e w h o l e b o o k yesterday in o n e
absolutely n o idea o f w h a t
sitting.
I was g o i n g t o d o next. I
3 a Keith usually w i t h me w h e n he's
(13) (work) far
in Rome.
t o o hard f o r m y final exams t o
b Keith w i t h m e at t h e m o m e n t while
give it a moment's t h o u g h t !
his parents are away.
A m o n t h or so after leaving,
4 a She so many snacks by the t i m e she
1(14) (apply)
left Tim's house that she couldn't face any dinner
for w o r k experience w i t h a
that evening.
small marketing firm, mainly
b She all day and was so full that she
because lots o f people
could hardly move.
05) (tell) m e that this was t h e way t o
5 a We (probably) at t h e usual t i m e if
i m p r o v e m y CV. A t t h e interview, they ( 1 6 )
y o u need a lift.
(promise) t o pay m e travel expenses, b u t after a few
b I t h e key under t h e mat, shall I?
weeks I still ( 1 7 ) ( n o t see) any sign o f any
m o n e y and I ( 1 8 ) (spend) a fortune o n
train fares, w h i c h made m e a bit rritated.
O n the positive side, a short w h i l e later I
(19) (land) a really i n t e r e s t i n g j o b at
another firm, mainly because o f all t h e experience
I (20) (gain) d u r i n g m y w o r k placement.
So it was w o r t h it after all!
Module 1
Finding a j o b

Of English (Paper 1 Part 2)

Open cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 Read the text again carefully a n d think about the type o f w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p .

3 D o t h e task.

4 Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers i n place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

For questions 7-8, read the text beow and think ofthe word which best
fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the
beginning (0).
?T S T R A T E G Y
sure y o u read the text before My dream career
" f ' eazh gap. Think a b o u t the
re o f the sentences and h o w W h e n it (0) comes to c h o o s i n g a career, some people k n o w f r o m an early
'are linked together. age exactly w h a t they w a n t to do. For Christel Kayibi, (1) is
studying law at King's College, L o n d o n , it was the film Legally Blonde,
f e a t u r i n g a lawyer w i t h a h e a r t o f gold, t h a t s w i t c h e d her (2)
t o the legal profession - even (3) Christel is n o t h i n g like the
You need a relative pronoun here. film's ditzy heroine. W h a t the film d i d was t o (4) Christel
Q4 You need a verb that collocates aware that she possessed the analytical skills required o f a lawyer. As
w i t h aware. she says, 'I like figuring (5) problems and the film m a d e me
Z~ _ : : < at the w o r d after the gap realise that was (6) lawyers did.'
t o see w h a t is needed here. As a teenager, Christel believed the law was an lite profession and that
her a m b i t i o n was little (7) than a pipe dream. A c o m b i n a t i o n
o f hard w o r k and family support have made her dream c o m e true,
PERT L A N G U A G E
however. ' M y dad was always big o n education. W e had a study hour
ch t w o answers are part of each even ing. W h e n y o u finished y o u r h o m e w o r k (8) that
verbs? hour was up, y o u were expected t o pick up a book.'

9
Module 1
Findingajob

LStening (Paper 3 Part 1)

Mltiple choice 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d t h e c o n t e x t sentences i n t h e t a s k a n d


answer the questions.
1 H o w many extracts are y o u g o i n g t o hear?
2 W h a t is each extract about?

2 N o w read the context sentence and questions for Extract One. H o w


m u c h d o y o u find o u t a b o u t t h e t o p i c a n d t h e speakers?

3 ^ j l 02 D o t h e task.

HELP
You will hear three different extracts. For questions 7 - 6 , choose the answer
> Q1 Listen for the w o r d baffling; the
(A, B or C) which fts best according to what you hear. There are two
answer comes soon afterwards.
questions for each extract.
> Q2 You need to listen to w h a t b o t h
speakers say a b o u t this.
> Q5 Listen to the end of the man's Extract O n e
first turn to hear the answer. Y o u hear t w o law graduates talking a b o u t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and choice
o f career.
1 W h a t surprised the man about his university?
EXPERT LANGUAGE
A the attitude of some of the students
Look back at the questions. W h i c h
B the emphasis o n vocational education
are asking a b o u t the speakers'
C the broad range of subjects being taught
current feelings and opinions, and
w h i c h are asking a b o u t the past? 2 W h a t aspect of studying law d o both speakers appreciate?
A the wide variety of Jobs it prepares y o u for
B the way it gives y o u clear targets to aim for
C the fact that you are c o m m i t t e d to your career path
EXPERT W O R D C H E C K
baffling crunch numbers Extract T w o
grist to the mili Une up
Y o u hear part o f an i n t e r v i e w w i t h a recent g r a d a t e .
mapped out stumble upon
under your belt wide berth 3 Immediately after his degree course finished, he felt
A in need o f a break before e m b a r k i n g o n a career.
B relieved that he had some t i m e t o think a b o u t his future.
C sorry that he hadn't applied t o a gradate recruitment scheme.

4 H o w did he approach f i n d i n g his first Job as a gradate?


A He targeted the sector he h o p e d to w o r k in.
B He prioritised posts that w o u l d give h i m useful ski lis.
C He m a d e r a n d o m applications in order t o gain experience.

Extract Three

Y o u hear part o f a discussion p r o g r a m m e a b o u t career choices.


5 W h a t did the man leam f r o m his initial mistake?
A Job satisfaction should be a t o p priority.
B A well m a p p e d - o u t career plan is essential.
C It's w r o n g to rush into i m p o r t a n t decisions.

6 H o w does the w o m a n feel a b o u t her current career?


A She always knew that it was the right t h i n g for her.
B She accepts that she was quite lucky t o find it.
C She regrets not having aimed for it earlier.
Learning experiences

Collocations
Vocabulary development 2
3 Choose the correct answers.
1 I was hopeless in / at everything I d i d t o begin w i t h
Feelings and continually on / by edge.
2 I tried t o learn vocabulary at / by heart b u t I was
la Replace the w o r d s i n b o l d w i t h a w o r d f r o m the incapable of/ for remembering anything the next day.
b o x . A d d a p r e p o s i t i o n i f necessary. 3 I used t o get impatient to / with myself. It was
different from / by anything else l'd d o n e .
apprehenslve daunted distracted frustrated
4 Because it wasn't at all similar to / as the way I learnt
ntimidated motivated overwhelmed tense
as a child, I felt on / under pressure.

1 I was a bit n e r v o u s a n d u n a b l e t o relax w h e n I was 5 A t first I felt depressed for / by m y lack o f progress

learning t o ride. I felt w o r r i e d a n d n o t c o n f i d e n t /'n / on t h e subject.

because o f the instructor and in t h e end, I d r o p p e d 6 I was a bit half-hearted about/ of g o i n g t o class and

o u t o f the class. not at all inspired with / by t h e teacher.

2 H e was a responsible, h a r d - w o r k i n g a n d
4 Complete the text w i t h words f r o m the box.
enthusiastic student b u t he w o u l d sometimes
be u n a b l e t o c o n c n t r a t e d u r i n g t h e lessons. H e clear investment key outcomes pay status
f o u n d it hard t o take in all t h e n e w i n f o r m a t i o n top valu
at first.
3 She was a bit w o r r i e d that she w o u l d n ' t d o well
w h e n she first j o i n e d t h e class because she'd never W h a t makes a good school?
d o n e anything like it before. She refused t o be A recent report o n the best global education systems
d i s c o u r a g e d , t h o u g h , and against t h e odds, she concluded that i n ( 1 ) nranking countries such
managed t o keep up w i t h t h e rest o f the students. as Finland and South K o r e a , there is n o ( 2 )
4 M y first week d o i n g c o m p u t e r studies m a d e m e feel correlation between good (3) f o r teachers
upset because I d i d n ' t d o w e l l and t o t a l l y u n a b l e and better educational performance. However, i t was
t o c o p e w i t h the a m o u n t o f n e w i n f o r m a t i o n . It p u t noted that i n these countries, teachers tend to have a
me off completely. high (4) i n society. I n addition, the most
successful countries educationally f u n d each c o m m u n i t y
b F i n d p h r a s a l v e r b s i n E x e r c i s e l a t h a t m a t c h these
equally, whether they are poor o r affluent. There is also
meanings.
heavy ( 5 ) _ _ _ _ _ i n teacher education and a h i g h
1 stay at the same level as others (6) _ _ _ _ _ is placed o n learning b y both society and
2 understand and remember; absorb parents. T h e a i m o f the study was to help p o l i c y makers
3 m a d e me n o t w a n t t o d o s o m e t h i n g and school leaders identify the ( 7 ) _ _ _ _ _ issues
4 stopped g o i n g leading to successful educational ( 8 ) .

Teaching and learning

2 Complete the definitions w i t h words f r o m the b o x .

coaches nstructors lecturers professors


teachers trainers tutors

1 are teachers o f the highest rank in a


British university.
2 give lessons t o just o n e student o r t o
small groups.
3 help people learn a sport or a
practical skill.
4 usually w o r k in a school.
5 teach in a British university.
6 help a person o r team t o i m p r o v e in
a sport.
7 teach p e o p l e t h e skills they need f o r
ajob.


IB
Module 1
L e a r n i n g experiences

adng (Paper 1 Part 8)

Mltiple matching 1 Read the title of the text and the i n t r o d u c t o r y sentence. W h a t do
y o u t h i n k subjects means i n the title?

2 Read the task and m a r k the k e y w o r d s i n each question.

3 R e a d t h e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get a n i d e a o f h o w i t is s t r u c t u r e d a n d w h a t
issues are d i s c u s s e d i n e a c h s e c t i o n . W h a t is t h e m a i n f o c u s o f
e a c h section?

4 L o o k at q u e s t i o n 1 a n d find t h e sections o f t h e t e x t t h a t t a l k a b o u t
the students' families. L o o k for w o r d s a n d expressions that describe
f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . W r i t e t h e q u e s t i o n n u m b e r n e x t t o these sections
so y o u c a n find t h e m a g a i n q u i c k l y . T h e n r e a d these s e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y
a n d d e c i d e w h i c h s e c t i o n m a t c h e s t h e e x a c t w o r d i n g o f q u e s t i o n 1.

5 Repeat the procedure for the other questions.

HELP
You are going to read an article about some tests taken by high school
> Q 2 W h i c h section begins w i t h the
students in the USA. For questions 7 - 7 0 , choose from the sections (A-D).
writer indicating that she is
The sections may be chosen more than once.
giving a personal opinin?
> Q3 Look for w h e n the tests were
In w h i c h section does t h e w r i t e r m e n t i o n :
first introduced.
students' families may be influencing their choice o f
> Q l 0 Look for a w o r d that means the
certain subjects? LTT_]
same as reflect.
personal experience that supports the dea that certain
subjects should be m o r e widely studied? 2
EXPERT STRATEGY
the original aim of the AP tests? 3
Don't try to read the text in detail
before you've read the questions and h o w the tests are unlike others in the US system? 4
k n o w w h a t you're looking for.
an underlying attitude that may account for the unpopularity
o f certain subjects? 5

the reason that students feel under pressure t o take the tests? 6
EXPERT LANGUAGE
Look back at the text. Find the ames historical reasons for the emphasis placed o n certain
of subjects studied in US schools. school subjects? 7

different views as to the educational valu o f the tests? ll

I
lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n regarding the effects o f choices made n-
EXPERT W O R D C H E C K
these tests? 9
civic dentity decrled embedded
a trend in society w h i c h isn't reflected in these tests?
far-minded frazzled heated debate
social anthropology stirred up
threefold trumpeting
Vocabulary

6 Find words i n the text that mean:


1 tired and anxious (section A)
2 extra or additional (section A)
3 caused (section A)
4 a state o f constant change (section B)
5 make use o f s o m e t h i n g in a w a y that will brin^
g o o d results (section B)
6 talking a b o u t s o m e t h i n g proudly (section B)
7 i m p r o v e (section C)
8 directed/guided to (section C)
9 stopped studying a subject (section D)
10 encourage s o m e t h i n g t o develop (section D)
Module 1
Learning experiences

The AP website itself doesn't comment on the pattern, and it's


unclear whether the AP subject choice inffuences students'
4o degree subject. Some of those opting for AP poetry, in other
words, may still become engineers. Indeed, it would be nice
to think - or dream - that some far-minded teenagers are
deliberately ustng the AP exam to enhance their communication
skills or civic knowledge of the American constitution before
45 they become scientists. In truth, though, I suspect that most
Does the USA need more computer students are picking English and history because it seems an
scientists and engineers? Or does it easy thing to do, given the slant of their prior education (or the
actuay require people who understand education of the parents who are helping them study). I would
political history and prose? also bet that very few humanities students are being steered
so towards calculus and physics 'just for fun': in high school, as in
western society more broadly, science has an aura of exclusivity
and inaccessibility; mental barriers are erected at an early age.
z~z- summer, thousands of frazzled families in the USA endure But frankly, that is a tragedy.
- : ~ school exam season. For many teenagers, the toughest
ra eng'e revolves around the so-called Advanced Placement, or
-F tests. In theory, these are voluntary, supplementary exams, Speaking for myself, l've spent my life embedded in the
/r "en were devised six decades ago to let talented teenagers 55 humanities: after doing English, French, maths and art at
Experience introductory college work. In practice, however, the school, I did degrees in social anthropology before becoming a
-cnt to get into American colleges is now so competitive that journalist. But in spite of that background - or rather, because
-xxe and more kids are being pushed into taking these exams. In of it - l'm keenly aware of the valu of STEM subjects. Indeed, I
y.' 2, more than two million students took 3.7 million AP tests, wish I hadn't dropped science at such a young age. That doesn't
- e r e than double the number a decade earlier, and five times 6o mean, let me stress, that literature and history aren't extremely
~e number two decades before. Unsurprisingly, this explosin valuable subjects - they are. After all, studying these subjects
-as stirred up heated debate. John Tierney, a politics professor in high school has helped to foster a common civic identity in
=nd Boston high school teacher, decried the exams as a waste of America, particularly given its immigrant roots. Indeed, many of
.a uable teaching resources, something which the AP organisers those arriving in the country didn't initially come from English-
:on't accept. 65 speaking cultures, which is one explanation for these subjects
being taught so heavily. But a seven-to-one ratio between prose
B and physics seems a strange one for modern America - most of
Vhat is most interesting of all about these exams is the question all at a time of economic challenge and technological change.
of what those kids are choosing to study. If you look at the US
- gh school education system overall, it's admirably broad in
scope. Indeed, the AP is one of the few places where specialism
-.les: teenagers typically choose to sit exams n just one or
two subjects from 39 different courses. Now, you might think
that in this era of economic flux, technological innovation and
g obalisation, students and schools would opt for subjects that
tap into this reality. Policy makers today are trumpeting so-called
STEM subjects (science, technology, engineering and maths) and
parents know that these subjects tend to produce jobs. But the AP
exams don't mirror that at all. In 2013, for example, according to
the AP website, the most popular exam to take, by a long margin,
was English literature and composition: 824,000 kids sat those
tests, a threefold increase on the decade. In second place was
American history, which attracted 428,000 students, twice the
number of a decade before. In third place, with 360,000 students,
was one STEM subject: calculus. After that carne US politics and
government, psychology and world history. Biology ranked below
that, while chemistry and computing science were further down
the list. And physics was so unpopular that seven times more
students sat the English exams than physics.

.13
IB
Module 1
L e a r n i n g experiences

Modal passives
age development 2
3 R e w r i t e t h e sentences i n t h e p a s s i v e .
> CB p. 18, EG p. 174
1 I think a reputable driving instructor, rather than
T h e passive: tenses y o u r parents, should teach y o u .

1 Complete the text w i t h the correct f o r m o f the verb 2 You can't use some models o f vehicle for t h e test.
be. M o r e t h a n o n e a n s w e r m a y b e p o s s i b l e .
3 They m i g h t cancel y o u r test if y o u don't have t h e
right documents.
A b i d t o i m p r o v e
4 The instructor should have taken m e o n t h e b i g
r o u n d a b o u t before I t o o k t h e test.

5 The instructor m a y shout at y o u sometimes.


M u c h t o t h e delight o f high school students, it is likely
that the beginning o f the school day ( 1 ) 6 You have t o show y o u r provisional licence t o t h e
delayed at some point in t h e future in order that instructor o n y o u r first lesson.
teenagers can get more sleep.
After studies (2) , carried o u t in the United
States over three years with 90,000 students across Passive -ing forms and infinitives
three states, it (3) shown that educational
4 F i n d a n d c o r r e c t t h e m i s t a k e s i n t h e sentences.
performance increased dramatically w h e n students g o t
1 The g o v e r n m e n t is being criticise f o r their n e w
m o r e sleep. There were also far fewer car accidents!
inspection policy.
Currently, this experiment (4) rolled o u t
2 Y o u should be prepared t o be asking some
across a wider range o f schools w i t h very positive
questions by the interview panel.
results. Obviousiy, much m o r e research (5) _ _ _ _ _ _
3 W e insisted o n being tell w h a t had happened.
needed, but there are hopes that there will be similar
4 Older students really resent be m a d e t o wear
results when a pilot study (6) trialled in the a uniform.
UK later this year. 5 I want t o be keep informed about what happens next.
6 He is expecting t o be pick up at midday.

2 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t passive Impersonal passive structures


f o r m o f the verbs i n brackets.
5 R e w r i t e t h e sentences b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e w o r d s
1 The university campus (lcate) just
in brackets.
outside t h e city.
1 Everyone says he was a truly inspirational teacher. (he)
2 Subjects (always/teach) by lecturers at
the forefront o f their specialism.
2 W e expect t h e m t o be arriving at a r o u n d six
3 The university (originally/open) in 1928.
o'clock. (they)
4 In recent years m o r e and m o r e teaching fcilities
(develop).
3 The situation is n o w k n o w n t o be far worse than
5 Next year, all first year students w h o require it
had been first t h o u g h t . (it)
(guarantee) a c c o m m o d a t i o n o n
campus.
4 The Education Secretary is believed t o be h a n d i n g
6 A vast a m o u n t o f m o n e y (continually/
in his resignation later today. (it)
invest) in state-of-the-art technology.

5 It is understood that there is very little chance o f a


peace agreement at this stage. (there)

6 They are h o p i n g t o have m o r e news before t h e e n d


o f the even ing. (it)
IB
Module 1
L e a r n i n g experiences

Of English (Paper 1 Part 4)

Ley w o r d transformations 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e task a n d l o o k at t h e e x a m p l e . T h i n k a b o u t


h o w t h e t w o sentences are different a n d n o t i c e h o w t h e m e a n i n g hasn't
changed.

2 D o t h e task.

For questions 1-10, complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
leed to use the n o u n
meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the
z :i your answer.
word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word
. . ' f repiacing the
given. Here is an example (0).
ion about to w i t h o n e
r e key w o r d .
0 Brad w o u l d only play football if he could be the goalkeeper.
esc! to use the w o r d
ON
T in y o u r answer.
Brad insisted on being the goalkeeper w h e n he played football.

I
1 Jason was very surprised t o be offered the first Job he had
:
L E-~ STRATEGY applied for.
:
. :e_ :s your ability to express CAME
t e a s m different ways, using different It Jason w h e n he was offered the first Job he had
. : ir Z syntax, b u t w i t h o u t applied for.
gmg the meaning. W h e n you've
2 Delia f o u n d the application f o r m very hard to fill in.
-r zr answer, check carefully
DIFFICULTY
. sentences have exactly the
Delia filling in the application f o r m .

3 Brian was just a b o u t to accept a j o b in a local bank w h e n he was


invited to an interview in the USA.
POINT
Brian a j o b in a local bank w h e n he was invited t o an
interview in the USA.

4 Even if she works really hard, Yana w o n ' t get p r o m o t i o n in that


company.
HOW
No , Yana w o n ' t get p r o m o t i o n in that company.

5 Fiona's parents did not approve o f her choice o f career.


MEET
Fiona's choice of career approval.

6 Jamal was disappointed w i t h his performance in the maths test.


SOURCE
Jamal's performance in the maths test him.

7 Students are strictly f o r b i d d e n to use the staff car park.


NO
Under use the staff car park.

8 The course o n statistics was even better than Gina had expected.
LIVED
The course o n statistics m o r e than expectations.

9 Simn was really very serious a b o u t his studies.


TOOK
Simn indeed.

10 The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g for many graduates is repaying their


student loans.
PRIORITY
For many graduates, the main of their student loans.
F l _! Module 1
L e a r n i n g experiences

Writing (Paper 2 Part 2: Letter/Email) 1 l'd advise you not t o settle down yet - you're still

> CB pp. 20-21, EW p. 194 very young.


2 Why don't you see a bit of the world, which will
give you the time and space t o think about what t o
EXPERT STRATEGY |
d o next?
Decide o n w h y y o u are w r i t i n g and w h a t y o u h o p e
to achieve. 3 l'd be careful if I were you. It can be hard work and

Underline the points in the task w h i c h y o u need you may feel resentful if you're not paid for it.
to inciude. 4 What Tve found great about having a 'real' j o b is
Inciude an interesting o p e n i n g and closing sentence
earning enough money t o be independent.
or short paragraph.
5 The problem is that you'd need t o work in a bar or
i i i ^

something first t o fund it, and I don't recommend


Analysing the task
doing that for t o o long. It can be tedious!
1 Read the w r i t i n g task and answer the questions. G It might be g o o d for your CV t o t r y out

1 W h o are y o u w r i t i n g to? different jobs.


2 W h a t is the main purpose o f the letter?
3 W h a t style o f language will y o u write in?
Using appropriate language
4 W h a t three pieces of advice m u s t y o u inciude in
y o u r letter? 4 U n d e r l i n e t h e e x p r e s s i o n s o f a d v i c e i n E x e r c i s e 3.

5a Cross o u t t h e l i n k i n g p h r a s e i n e a c h g r o u p t h a t is
You have received a letter from your 27 -year-old cousin,
t o o f o r m a l for this context.
who is about to leave university.
1 As well as that,... / In addition,... / O n t o p o f that,... /
Besides,...
I really d o n ' t know w h a t to do n e x t . I k n o w 2 Having said that,... / M i n d you,... / Even so,... /
t h e m o s t sensible t h i n g w o u l d be t o look f o r a Nevertheless,...
p e r m a n e n t j o b . But o t h e r people have said it's 3 Personally,... / In m y view,... / Quite honestly,...
best t o g e t d i f f e r e n t kinds of w o r k e x p e r i e n c e - 4 ..., w h i l e ... / . . . , whereas... / In contrast,...
p r o b a b l y unpaid - b e f o r e I decide w h a t I w a n t t o
do. A n d p a r t of m e fancies t r a v e l l i n g o v e r s e a s . b J o i n t h e pairs o f c o n t r a s t i n g sentences i n E x e r c i s e
W h a t do y o u t h i n k a b o u t t h e s e ideas? 3 u s i n g l i n k i n g phrases f r o m E x e r c i s e 5 a.

l'd advise y o u n o t t o s e t t l e d o w n y e t - you're


Write your letter in reply, offering advice, in 220-260 words.
still v e r y young. Having said that, what Tve found
great a b o u t . . .
Developing ideas
2 T h i n k a b o u t t h e p r o s a n d / o r c o n s o f t h e ideas Opening and closing an informal letter
m e n t i o n e d i n the task and m a k e notes under
6 T i c k t h e sentences t h a t are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o p e n i n g
these h e a d i n g s .
a n d closing an i n f o r m a l letter.
Opening
Pros Cons
1 Great t o hear f r o m y o u .
going straight into 2 It was very nice t o receive news o f y o u .
a permanent j o b 3 I was really happy to have i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t y o u .
4 Sorry I haven't been in t o u c h for so long.
5 In reply t o y o u r last letter, I am w r i t i n g t o offer
doing work experience s o m e advice.
Closing
1 G o o d luck w i t h the decisions and y o u r results, and
see y o u soon.
travelling overseas 2 I sincerely h o p e y o u manage t o c o m e to a decisin.
3 H o p e the next few weeks go well.
4 Take care.
5 Speak to y o u soon.

3 R e a d t h e n o t e s o p p o s i t e . W h i c h ideas f r o m t h e t a s k
Writing task
d o t h e y refer to? A r e t h e y g i v i n g advice f o r o r against
t h e ideas? M o r e t h a n o n e a n s w e r m a y b e p o s s i b l e . 7 N o w d o t h e t a s k i n E x e r c i s e 1.
2 New directions
M a l c i n Fferer

Phrasal verbs
|Vocabulary development 1
4 Choose the correct answers.
1 I felt that t h e school had let m e down / off w h e n it
C c _ p o u n d adjectives: describing characteristics expelled me.
2 At first, t h e teachers looked down / over o n t h e
1 M a t c h the w o r d s t o m a k e c o m p o u n d adjectives. students w h o they t h o u g h t were lazy.
W h i c h c o m p o u n d adjectives are hyphenated? 3 I h o p e that issues in t e c h n o l o g y sort themselves
W h i c h a r e w r i t t e n as o n e w o r d ? up I out very soon.
1 laid a forward 4 It t o o k m e ages t o c o t t o n up / on t o w h a t is
2 ievel b witted happening.
3 straight c spirited 5 l'll be fine once t h e shock has w o r n out / off.
out d contained 6 It never occurred t o m e t o turn down / up his
5 absent e back proposal.
6 high f minded 7 Everyone says I take over/ after m y father in
personal ity.
7 self g spoken
S quick h headed 8 Technology has a w a y o f taking on / over y o u r life
if y o u allow i t t o .
Replace the w o r d s i n b o l d w i t h a c o m p o u n d
adjective f r o m Exercise 1. M a k e a n y changes Word formation: attitudes
necessary.
5 Complete the f o r u m posts w i t h w o r d s f o r m e d f r o m
the words i n brackets.
M Y F A M I L Y
M y older sister E r n m a is a l w a y s ( 1 ) v e r y r e l a x e d . My i n s p i r a t i o n !
She is also ( 2 ) sensible and has a tendency to ( 3 ) k e e p
h e r s e l f t o h e r s e l f . Jan, m y younger sister, ( 4 ) a l w a y s C o i u m : W h e n I decided to c h a n g e my course, my
tfcinks o f c l e v e r o r f u n n y t h i n g s t o say w i t h o u t tutor w a s incredibly (1) (support) even
t f c i n k i n g f o r a l o n g t i m e . She's also extremely though he didn't w a n t m e to change. He's really
( 5 ) l i v e l y a n d g o o d f u n b u t can r u b people u p the (2) (passion) about his subject.
w r o n g w a y because she's so ( 6 ) b l u n t . A s f o r m y
parents, m y m u m is l o v e l y and ( 7 ) h o n e s t a n d o p e n , Molly: My best friend Sophia has always been there
a n d m y dad is k i n d b u t v e r y ( 8 ) f o r g e t f u l at times. for m e through thick and thin. At one time I went
through quite an (3) (aggression) phase
but she was never (4) (criticise) of me.
Using affixes to form opposites
H e l e n : Tve always been really (5)
3 Replace the w o r d s i n b o l d w i t h their opposites.
(ambition) and you would expect that there would
F o r m t h e m u s i n g t h e affixes i n t h e b o x .
be a fair amount of (6) (hostile) from
dis- im- n- -less un- my brothers, but they've been great.

1 Alice is t a c t f u l and sensitive.


Expressions with change
2 Jessie's incredibly sociable and very c o n s i d r a t e 6 C o m p l e t e each sentence w i t h o n e w o r d .

towards other people. Well that makes change!


Have y o u g o t 5 .change?
3 T o m is practical a n d very o r g a n i s e d . Give m e five minutes t o changed.
Can I change these dollars pesos?
4 Kate is very p a t i e n t and loyal. I think I m i g h t change t h e furnture this
summer.
5 James is selfish b u t sincere. 6 W h y don't y o u wash up a change?

17
Module 2
M a k i n g a difference

Se Of E n g l i s h (Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t . W h o m i g h t h a v e a secret m e n ?

2 Read the w h o l e text quickly to get the general meaning.

3 D o t h e task.

4 Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers i n place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
> Q1 W h i c h verb completes this fixed For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
D) bestfits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
expression w i t h abackl
> Q3 W h i c h of the words means the
T h e secret m e n
same as obviously?
> Q6 Only o n e o f the w o r d s can be Coffee isn't generally (0) A to

f o l l o w e d by as. be a teenage drink, so I was


s o m e w h a t (1) aback
w h e n m y 12-year-old daughter
EXPERT STRATEGY suggested g o i n g for one. W h a t
Don't forget that the four w o r d s have had aroused her nterest, however,
a similar m e a n i n g but only one will wasn't so m u c h the coffee but
fit the gap perfectly. (2) the fact that a
major chain o f coffee shops was
selling a 'secret men', not listed in
public. Stories a b o u t this had gone
EXPERT LANGUAGE
viral amongst teenagers o n social
Find three examples of the past media. (3) the dea o f
perfect in the text. o r d e n n g drinks their parents have
never heard o f appealed to t h e m .
N o d o u b t the chain itself had
placed those links o n social
media - a (4) o f genius
as a marketing strategy but also
a striking (5) o f o u r age. Until the m i d - t w e n t i e t h century,
people were (6) as either adults or children. The c o n c e p t
o f the teenager only ( 7 ) t o life as consumer companies
discovered a new market for their goods. They realised that by making
teen brands (8) f r o m parental brands, and just a little
subversive, they could crate d e m a n d for their products. Coffee is just the
latest example of this.

0 Athought B defined C classified D referred


1 Asent B taken C given D put
2 Agreater B sooner C rather D further
3 ACIearly B Eventually C Accordingly D Effectively
4 Asmack B swipe Cshot D stroke
5 Asymbol B badge C figure D logo
6 Asupposed B regarded C beiieved Djudged
7 A emerged B grew C sprang D rose
8 A diverse B unique C opposite D distinct
Module 2
Making a difference

T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t sentences. C o r r e c t t h e
ge development 1 m i s t a k e s i n t h e w r o n g ones.
1 Lucy is volunteering w i t h a charity, w h o a i m is to
help y o u n g people.
o f relative clauses 2 The main aim o f the project is t o prevent bullying,
that is so c o m m o n amongst groups o f teenagers.
i r ' e t e m e text w i t h relative pronouns. A d d
3 It is a c o m p l e x p r o b l e m , w h i c h it needs t o be fought
_ _ w h e r e necessary.
o n many fronts.
4 It appears that those w h o bully have often been
victims themselves.
. s p i r a t i o n t o u s a l l 5 The strategy will focus o n encouraging the y o u n g
people that g o t o t h e meetings t o think a b o u t their
e (1) has just received an award behaviour.
: by t h e Heart Foundation is a heart attack 6 The g r o u p leader, w h o admits she was once a bully
~~se. herself, has spoken o u t a b o u t her o w n behaviour.
i n g a major cardiac arrest t w o years ago, he 7 A famous singer, who's son was bullied at school, is
: hospital ( 2 ) he received life- helping t o fund the project.
a t m e n t Sadly, this left h i m paralysed d o w n 8 The project, w h i c h it's said t o be o n e o f the most
i . s Simn, T h e things (3) I valued successful a r o u n d at the m o m e n t , welcomes new
e ~ a y i n g t h e guitar a n d painting, seemed to volunteers.
- rj (4) was terrifying.'
zze an outlet for his creativity. The answer
- he was given a laptop. Using his left hand,
: .vritestoriesand s o n g s t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y o f his
iz e -ecovery and the challenges ( 5 )
Dvercome.
"(6)- stories have been turned into a
i . es a powerful insight into w h a t life is like f o r
B (7) are recovering f r o m a heart

_"oin t h e sentences u s i n g r e l a t i v e clauses. U s e


_ie s e n t e n c e i n b r a c k e t s i n t h e r e l a t i v e clause.
A d d c o m m a s w h e r e n e c e s s a r y a n d leave o u t t h e
-e.ative p r o n o u n s i f p o s s i b l e .
1 The w o m a n inspired me t o go into publishing.
(I m e t her at your party.)

2 That singer was fantastic.


(I can never remember her ame.)

3 got the idea f r o m m y brother. Relative pronouns with prepositions


s^He w e n t there last year.)
4 Choose the correct answers.
4 The concert is o n 10 M a r c h . 1 Saturday is t h e day on which / on when / on that
T I supposed to be going to the dentist's o n that day.) I tend t o visit m y aunt.
2 Tve seen t w o gigs recently, ofboth which / both of
5 We're g o i n g t o A n d o r r a f o r a c o u p l e o f days. which I which both o f w e r e very original.
(It should be very interesting.) 3 The person with who I went / I went with / whom
with I went g o t ill o n the first day.
6 It was after midnight. (I finally g o t t o bed.) 4 D o y o u k n o w the girl to who Jo's talking / to Jo's
talking / Jo's talking to?
7 W e went to a restaurant, (l'd never been there before.) 5 The j o b for that Mark applied / Mark applied for /
which Mark applied for it is well-paid.
8 Fred is hoping to be an actor. (He lives over the road.) 6 This is t h e film f o r where / that / which she is
k n o w n best.

19
H
iW Module 2
i Making a difference

(Paper 1 Part 2 )

Open cloze Read the title of the text. W h a t do y o u think the text w i l l be about?

R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

Read the text again carefully a n d think about the type of w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p .

D o t h e task.

Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers i n place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
> Q2 You need a w o r d with a For questions 1-8, read the text below and think ofthe word which best

negative m e a n i n g here. fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the
beginning (0).
> Q6 W h i c h verb collocates w i t h
.. - initiative?
F a c e b o o k friends: t h e art of d e l e t i o n
> Q8 Y o u need an object p r o n o u n
here. Like a lot o f people, (0) when I first signed up for Facebook, I accepted
and issued far (1) , many friend requests, including people
I (2) knew at all. Later, it struck me that I really didn't w a n t
EXPERT STRATEGY all these casual acquaintances to have a w i n d o w onto my prvate
Remember that y o u can only life. I had a choice: either d o less o n Facebook (3) restrict
write o n e w o r d in each gap. Don't access. But (4) d o y o u cut back o n y o u r friends list w i t h o u t
use contractions they c o u n t as upsetting people?
t w o words.
Some users ask y o u to tick a box if y o u w a n t to remain o n their friends
list. (5) polite, this is also risky. You may find all y o u r friends
desert y o u or, worse still, that n o b o d y responds. A m u c h better idea is to
EXPERT LANGUAGE (6) the initiative and 'unfriend' people. But it's hard.

Find t w o phrasal verbs in the text. (7) adults, w e allow friendships to g r o w or w a n e gradually
because to cut (8) short abruptly is to risk giving offence.
Eventually, I decided t o delete anyone I hadn't actually seen or contacted
for three years. Fortunately, n o b o d y seemed to m i n d .
Module 2
M a k i n g a difference

R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e tasks. H o w m a n y e x t r a c t s are y o u g o i n g
t o hear?

2a L o o k at T a s k O n e . W h a t are y o u l i s t e n i n g for? M a r k t h e k e y w o r d s i n
the options.

N o w l o o k at T a s k T w o . W h a t are y o u l i s t e n i n g for? M a r k t h e k e y
words in the options.

Ifjl D o t h e tasks. R e m e m b e r t h a t y o u m u s t c h o o s e o n e o p t i o n
f r o m e a c h t a s k f o r e a c h speaker.

ill hearfve short extracts in which university students are talking about someone they regar as a role model.

TASK O N E TASK T W O
fe
f a r questions 1-5, choose from the list (A-H) what For questions 6-10, choose from the list (A-H) how
frz knpressed each speaker about their role model each speaker feels about their role model now.

I
While you listen you must complete both tasks.

* - 5 -odesty A surprised by his level o f


commitment
5 " 5 generosity
B concerned for his welfare Speaker 1
C - s attention t o detail Speaker 1
p r o u d o f his achievements Speaker 2 f u
Z h is determination Speaker 2
D forgiving o f his weaknesses Speaker 3
E - ; "atience w i t h others Speaker 3
excited by his latest projects Speaker 4
- - s '.villingness t o a d m i t Speaker 4

I
~-"stakes amused by his reputation Speaker 5
Speaker 5
iis loyalty to friends understanding o f his
difficulties
H his professional integrity

i H a d m i r i n g o f his courage

for w h a t is said a b o u t the teacher's maps and EXPERT STRATEGY

ns. Remember, y o u w o n ' t hear the exact w o r d i n g of the


W h i c h o p t i o n matches the spirit o f the sportsmans options o n the recording. Listen for the gist of w h a t the
charity work? speakers are saying; the options summarise their ideas.
_ s:en to w h a t the speaker says a b o u t the person's
faults
Z'. - for the w o r d amazed. W h a t is the speaker EXPERT LANGUAGE
referring to? Find examples o f different n o u n suffixes in the tasks.
1

EXPERT W O R D CHECK
an independent spirit baggy cartography emulte
exacting standards extrovert learning difficulties skinny
to go pear-shaped
(Paper 1 Part 6)

Cross-text mltiple matching 1 Read the title of the text. W h a t do y o u think a 'fly-on-the-wall
d o c u m e n t a r y ' is?

2 R e a d t h e t a s k a n d m a r k w h i c h r e v i e w e r is b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o i n e a c h
question. T h e n m a r k the key w o r d s in each question.

3 R e a d a l l t h e r e v i e w s q u i c k l y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e r e v i e w e r s are
saying about the p r o g r a m m e .

4 L o o k at q u e s t i o n 1 a n d find R e v i e w e r A ' s o p i n i n i n t h e t e x t . T h e n
r e a d t h e o t h e r t e x t s a n d find t h e s e c t i o n s w h e r e e a c h r e v i e w e r t a l k s
about the head teacher's decisin. Decide w h i c h other reviewer
shares t h e s a m e o p i n i n as A .

5 R e p e a t t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r q u e s t i o n s 2 a n d 3. F o r q u e s t i o n 4, y o u n e e d
t o r e a d a l l t h e t e x t s t o see w h a t e a c h o f t h e r e v i e w e r s says a b o u t t h i s .

HELP
> Q 2 Reviewer B has a positive You are going to read four reviews ofa 'fly-on-the-wall' televisin
documentary, which followed the daily Ufe of staff and students in a large
o p i n i n - only one of the others
inner-city secondary school. For questions 1-4, choose from the reviews
is positive o n this issue.
A-D. The reviews may be chosen more than once.
> Q3 Look at the beginning of review
C for the o p i n i n .
W h i c h reviewer:
> Q 4 Look for the w o r d profession
has a different o p i n i n t o Reviewer A about h o w wise the
in all four texts and read that
head teacher was to allow the programme to be made? '
section carefully.
shares Reviewer B's o p i n i n about the valu of this particular
programme?
EXPERT STRATEGY
expresses a similar view to Reviewer C o n h o w objective the
Always read the questions first in
film-makers managed t o be?
this task. Use the information and
vocabulary in the questions to help has a different attitude to the others towards the teaching
y o u find the relevant piece of text in profession in general?
each extract.

Vocabulary
EXPERT LANGUAGE
6a M a t c h t h e v e r b s ( 1 - 6 ) w i t h t h e w o r d s a n d phrases ( a - f ) t o m a k e
Find a determiner in review D. c o m m o n e x p r e s s i o n s . T h e n find t h e e x p r e s s i o n s i n t h e t e x t .

go a light o n s o m e t h i n g
shed b s o m e t h i n g into the public eye
EXPERT W O R D C H E C K have c a long w a y towards (doing) s o m e t h i n g
audience ratings combative restore d the go-ahead
compelling viewing doddle bring e a k n o c k - o n effect
exploding the myth give the go-ahead give f someone's confidence in s o m e t h i n g
glimpse oblivious shed light
stereotype vindcate M a t c h t h e e x p r e s s i o n s i n E x e r c i s e 6a w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g s .
1 make s o m e t h i n g k n o w n t o many people
2 provide i n f o r m a t i o n that makes s o m e t h i n g
easier to understand
3 help a lot to make s o m e t h i n g happen
4 make s o m e o n e believe in s o m e t h i n g again
5 cause other events or situations but not directly
6 give s o m e o n e permission to d o s o m e t h i n g
2B
Module 2
A second chance

pifame
iJJdocumentary
f|y.0ll
0 When the idea of this fly-on-the-wall documentary was originally 0 The editors of the programme inevitably focus on moments
35 they think will engage the audience - that's their brief, after all.
z
: . i : . j to the school's head teacher, he was justifiably concerned
"i" : ,mjldn't present a balance picture of life in his school and They're in the business of audience ratings and their inclination
: : . : ead to unfair criticisms of his staff. Exposing teachers and is to concntrate on moments of conflict and drama. For me,
: . : 5 :o such scrutiny was a risk, yet the finished programme this is exploitation as l'm sure that some of the disruption is
wfcates his decisin to go ahead. It shows us the everyday reality occurring solely for the benefit of the camera. Whatever was the
r fe in the classroom but doesn't appear to have an agenda. What 4o head teacher thinking of in agreeing to this intrusin? Although
- meis is that complex issues, often hidden from the rest of adult the teachers are shown in a good light, one wonders why they
:: z:.'. are part and parcel of life for teachers. The programme goes had allowed these conflicts to arise in the first place. They did
1 :ig way towards exploding the common myth that teaching is a nothing to restore my confidence in the profession. Quite what
: : : i s , comprising short working days and extended holidays. These this programme has added to the debate about education in this
:e:ple deserve our respect. By showing challenging moments in 45 country remains unclear to me.
: Bsses of difficult students, some with behavioural problems, the
:: :..mentary raises relevant issues for debate and airs complex issues. Q I felt very enthusiastic about the concept of this programme:
: ~skes for compelling viewing. a documentary that would bring the teaching profession into the
public eye and show not only the problems but also the good
This programme sheds welcome light on the world of secondary that teachers do. I can see why the head teacher gave the idea
z: jcation in the UK. Originally planned as an expos of the problems so the go-ahead. However, as I watched last night's programme,
'acing teachers in inner-city schools, it has actually managed to. 1 had mixed feelings. Why didn't we see the studious children
:reak through the stereotypes to show us what lies beneath. It was a being asked about their feelings? It's depressing to watch
i'ave move to allow cameras into the school but it does seem to have learning being disrupted by students who clearly have little
nad some positive knock-on effects. In last night's programme, one interest in being there and deeply worrying to see teachers
techer claimed he was now regarded with more respect by a class 55 apparently oblivious to the needs of the majority. Just
with whom he had previously had a very combative relationship. occasionally, we get glimpses of something more reassuring.
The risks of misrepresentation in any such programme are high. On exam results day students were shown crying, either from
The temptation to edit out those sequences that do not provide delight or disappointment, emotions evidently shared by their
entertaining viewing can lead to a biased picture emerging. But the teachers.
film-makers seem to have avoided those particular pitfalls. If this
programme has gone some way towards enhancing the reputation
of teaching and enticing a new generation into the profession, then it
was worth making for that reason alone.
Module 2
A second chance

Phrasal verbs
Vocabulary development 2
3 Replace t h e w o r d s i n b o l d w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m
Words often confused of the phrasal verbs i n t h e b o x . M a k e a n y changes
necessary.
1 Choose the correct answers.
break out (of somewhere) catch (someone) out
1 There s a slight opportunity / possibility that the
get away with (something) get over (something)
plae may be delayed.
give (yourself) up let (someone) off
2 I h o p e l'll get t h e occasion / chance t o travel before
I settle d o w n .
1 The criminal finally w e n t t o the plice station and
3 There should be equal opportunities / possibilities f o r
confessed w h a t he h a d d o n e .
everyone t o d o well.
2 T h e plice a l l o w e d t h e y o u n g offender t o escape
4 There is n o chance / occasion o f m e ever buying a
p u n i s h m e n t o n that occasion.
car like that.
3 He broke into t h e house b u t n o b o d y caught h i m ,
5 I think the party is g o i n g t o be a really special
so he w a s n ' t p u n i s h e d .
opportunity / occasion.
4 W h e n she'd r e c o v e r e d f r o m her addictions, she led
6 Are y o u M r Smith, by any chance / possibility?
a crime-free life.
7 There's a strong possibility / opportunity that he
5 They escaped f r o m prison at least three times.
m i g h t go back t o t h e US soon.
6 The plice finally m a d e t h e offender say s o m e t h i n g
8 N o w is the perfect occasion / opportunity t o have a
w h i c h p r o v e d he'd b e e n lying.
quick break.

Law a n d crime
Word formation: nouns
4 Complete the text w i t h the correct f o r m o f the
2 Complete the text w i t h nouns formed f r o m the
words in the box.
verbs i n brackets.
arrest bars charge commit relase sentence
serve trouble
Failure breeds success!

Walt Disney was once fired by a newspaper


(1) (edit) because he lacked (2) _ m a d e it g o o d
(imagine) and had no good ideas'. His businesses ended
TV star Martha Stewart was
up bankrupt until he found a recipe for (3)
(succeed).
once (1) with
conspiracy and making false
Stephen King received 30 (4). (reject) for statements and f o u n d guilty.
his first book. He finally gave up and it was his wife's She was (2) to
(5) (encourage) that made him try again. a few m o n t h s in prison but
He is n o w o n e o f the world's best-selling authors. after her (3) she
Steve Jobs, a college dropout, was fired from Apple, launched her comeback on TV.
the c o m p a n y he founded. Later he said this was the
After actor Christian Slater was
best thing that could have happened t o h i m because
(4) for assault, he
starting again sparked his (6) - (crate). He
attended a rehabilitation facility
then w e n t o n to invent (7) (produce) such
before (5) a term
as the iPod, iPhone and iPad.
in jail. He then managed to turn
Michael Jordn is possibly the best basketball his life around.
(8) (play) o f all time. Yet he wasn't
ncluded in his school team and has often experienced
Actor Danny Trejo has been
the 'tough guy' in over 200
(9) (fail). 'On 26 occasions I have been
films but earlier in his life he
entrusted t o take the game's w i n n i n g (10)
(shoot) and I missed. I have failed over and over and
was often in (6)
over again in my life. A n d that is w h y I succeed.'
with the law and spent s o m e
time behind (7) for
robbery. When a Hollywood
director asked if he w o u l d be
able to play someone w h o ' d
(8) _ _ _ _ _ a robbery, he
replied, 've done a few of
those!'
2
Module 2
A second chance

Determiners and pronouns


Lage aeveiopment 2
3 Find a n d correct the mistakes i n some o f the
\z - EG p. 175 sentences. T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t sentences.
1 l've already read the t w o books y o u lent m e and all
of articles of t h e m were fantastic.
Zzpete t h e t e x t w i t h a, the o r 0 ( n o a r t i c l e ) . 2 Unfortunately, w e haven't g o t neither o f those in
stock at the m o m e n t .
3 Each person has t o register before being a l l o w e d
ere ' a v e always b e e n (1) disagreements t o enter.
ar n o w t o treat our prisoners. S h o u l d they b e given 4 W e spent w h o l e day shopping.
s a m e luxuries that w e t a k e for g r a n t e d 5 N o n e wants t o c o m e w i t h me.
r (3) c o l d cell 2 4 / 7 ? S h o u l d (4) 6 I r e m e m b e r hardly any o f t h e maths I studied.
p u n i s h m e n t b e (5) goal? O r 7 A great deal o f prisoners g o o n to reoffend.
rehabilitation into (7) 8 I have very little patience f o r such a ridiculous
o e our main aim? argument.

"(8) U K s p e n d s a higher a m o u n t 4 Choose the correct answers.


ZT - e r e . o n (9) _ public order t h a n
fM| U S or a n y EU c o u n t r y , o u r jails are

2
r e f f e c t i v e a n d extremely o v e r c r o w d e d . If
r r e (11) n u m b e r of criminis is
fT2) m o t i v a t i o n for (13)
m e r s e r m e n t , w e are failing; m o s t u n d e r - 1 8 s are
= c : r v ~:ed within (14) year of their

Se : AOuld appear that (15) justice (1) A I The recent YouTube c l i p w h i c h has attracted
s w s s r - s are not only expensive but fail t o rehabiltate m u c h attention shows hundreds o f prisoners from
zr r c : . e behaviour. This is clearly (16) C e b Rehabilitation Centre i n ( 2 ) Philippines I the
e - . r - o o r t a n t issue w h i c h needs t o b e d i s c u s s e d Philippines dancing to M i c h a e l Jackson's song Thriller.
Since it was posted, ( 3 ) a I the c l i p o f the prisoners i n
their orange u n i f o r m s has been watched more than 1.3
m i l l i o n times and a n e w w o r l d record has been set f o r
l a r / P l u r a l nouns and verb agreement the greatest ( 4 ) amount I number o f inmates dancii
simultaneously i n the same place.
C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e p r e s e n t o r
present p e r f e c t f o r m o f t h e v e r b s i n b r a c k e t s . B y r o n Garca, security consultant f o r the C e b
1 I don't think t h e news (be) particularly p r o v i n c i a l g o v e m m e n t , says the dance routine has
nteresting. helped to d r a m a t i c a l l y i m p r o v e the behaviour o f the
2 The plice (try) t o c o m e d o w n really ( 5 ) majority I whole o f the inmates. Those serving
nard o n drink-driving at the m o m e n t . sentences o r a w a i t i n g trial have g o t ( 6 ) the whole I
3 Everyone I talk t o (seem) t o be in favour all of day t o practise their routines. I t takes t h e i r m i n d
of a p p o i n t i n g a n e w director. o f f revenge or p l a n n i n g an escape. ( 7 ) A few I
4 M y family (have) a t o u g h t i m e so far Plenty f o r m e r inmates have even become dancers.
this year. Participation is v o l u n t a r y b u t ( 8 ) few I severa! of
5 I agree that 20 (be) t o o m u c h m o n e y t h e m choose to do it. ( 9 ) Everyone I All seems t o t a l l y
:c give a five-year-old. absorbed i n the performance.
6 The majority o f people Tve spoken t o
(not like) the dea o f a change in the law. M r Garca has been taken aback b y ( 1 0 ) how many I
7 Statistics (show) that far fewer people ow much people have seen the v i d e o , w h i c h he
smoke these days. o r i g i n a l l y posted i n order to share his w o r k w i t h other
8 A n u m b e r o f people still (want) t o leave members o f the penal c o m m u n i t y . T h e v i e w i n g s have
the unin. become a source o f great pride to the inmates.
A second chance

U s e Of E n g l i s h (Paper 1 Part 3)

Word formation 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t . W h y d o y o u t h i n k t h e b a k e r y has this a m e ?

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read the text again carefully and think about the f o r m of the w o r d
n e e d e d t o fit i n each g a p .

4 D o the task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h the t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
> Q1 A d d a suffix t o crate the For questions 7 -8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at
general w o r d for the hotel and the end ofsome ofthe Unes to form a word thatfits in the gap in the same
restaurant trade. Une. There is an example at the beginning (0).

> Q3 You need to make a n o u n f r o m


Bad Boys' Bakery
this verb.
In (0) response to the UK government's wish to RESPOND
> Q 8 A d d a prefix that means 'again'
encourage the rehabilitation o f offenders, Brixton
to the verb. W h a t tense will the
prison in L o n d o n has set up its o w n craft bakery.
new verb be in?
Founded by the celebrity chef G o r d o n Ramsay, the
Bad Boys' Bakery is a fully-stocked professional kitchen
EXPERT STRATEGY that supplies local (1) establishments. CATER
For this task, y o u need a g o o d The inmates learn traditional bakery skills rather than
knowledge of prefixes, suffixes and a mechanised m e t h o d because what's called 'artisan
spelling rules. W h e n learning new bakery' is b e c o m i n g (2) popular. In this way, INCREASE
vocabulary, make a note o f other prisoners have the chance t o go for Jobs in what is a
words that can be f o r m e d f r o m the (3) sector of the e c o n o m y after their relase. GROW
w o r d y o u are learning (e.g. a n o u n Despite the successes, there are obvious (4) DRAW
f o r m e d f r o m a verb, the negative in trying to oprate a commercial kitchen in a prison
f o r m of an adjective). Also make a because it is a(n) (5) place. For example, PREDIO"
note o f the spelling rules that apply security concerns or (6) o f prison staff SHORT
w h e n the f o r m of a w o r d changes. can lead to last-minute lockdowns. Such unavoidable
(7) in p r o d u c t i o n make it hard to guarantee INTERRUPT
a reliable supply to all customers.
Nonetheless, there are already signs that the bakery is
EXPERT L A N G U A G E
having a positive effect. So far, only three percent of
Find t w o linkers of contrast in the text. those w h o have undergone training in the kitchen have
1

(8) , compared to around 45 percent overall. OFFEND


Module 2
A second chance

C h o o s e o n e o f these p a r a g r a p h p l a n s a n d p l a n
(Paper 2 Part 2 : Report) y o u r report. Decide o n the headings and w h e t h e r /
O : : EW 93 where y o u w i l l inciude bullet points or numbers.

rSTRATEGY I 1 introduction (aims of the report)


r>*se and lay o u t y o u r report clearly. You can use
2 h o w y o u got the i n f o r m a t i o n
jers a n d / o r bullets to make t easier to follow.
3 reporting views o n exclusin (for and against)
de all the points in the task. Invent facts and
4 summary o f feedback
5 if necessary.
5 recommendations
a clear i n t r o d u c t i o n and conclusin.

B
A_ahrsing the task
1 introduction (aims o f the report, h o w y o u got the
1 r _ a d the task a n d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s .
information)
1 W h o are y o u w r i t i n g the report for?
2 reporting views in favour o f exclusin
2 .'.""at style o f language will y o u use?
3 reporting views against exclusin
z .'/hat three things d o y o u have to inciude?
4 conclusin (summary and recommendations)

_ e a student representative o n your school Using appropriate language


i . The council has been asked t o get the views
5a M a t c h these g r o u p s o f s e n t e n c e o p e n i n g s w i t h t h e
F o t h e r students at the school o n the current policy
h e a d i n g s i n Exercise 3. O n e o f t h e g r o u p s goes
: : e ' ~ a n e n t exclusin f r o m school for students w h o
w i t h t w o headings.
y break school rules. You have been asked to
- ".i i -eport for the principal, outlining the benefits 1
---z i ' s w b a c k s of exclusin f r o m school. Give the W e think that o n balance, it's probably best t o ...
school council's views o n w h a t should be d o n e . Taking everything into account, the best o p t i o n
If y o u w a n t m y opinin,...

! your report in 220-260 words.


Students were given a questionnaire in w h i c h ...
W e chatted to people a b o u t the issue ...
Developing ideas Students were asked t o attend a meeting...

2 L o o k at s o m e s t u d e n t s ' c o m m e n t s o n e x c l u s i n
T o sum up,...
a n d d e c i d e w h e t h e r t h e y are i n f a v o u r o f ( / ) o r
OK, so the general feeling was...
against (X) e x c l u s i n .
In conclusin,...
1 W h y should another school have t o deal w i t h
the problem?
i The arguments in favour of excluding t r o u b l e s o m e
2 Excluding students makes things worse for t h e m .
students were...
3 It gives other students the o p p o r t u n i t y t o w o r k
ii There were loads o f pros and cons, including...
w i t h o u t being disturbed.
iii In the main, students were o f the o p i n i n that...
4 It's less stressful for teachers if they don't have to
v A c c o r d i n g to most students,...
focus o n discipline.
v It was felt by the majority o f those w e spoke to ...
5 It means the school has given up o n these students.
vi The main things that c r o p p e d up ...
6 There are usually g o o d reasons for misbehaviour.
vii A high p r o p o r t i o n of those interviewed expressed
Can't they see a psychologist?
the view that...
7 It shows that bad behaviour won't be tolerated.

The a i m / m a i n purpose o f this report is t o ...


Organising your report i W h a t l'm h o p i n g t o try and d o in this report is...

3 W h a t o r d e r ( 1 - 6 ) w i l l these p o i n t s b e i n i n y o u r ii The report discusses/outlines/describes...

report? M o r e than one answer m a y be possible.


b W h i c h o f t h e s e n t e n c e o p e n i n g s i n Exercise 5a are
a recommendations too informal for a report?
b summary of feedback
c (reporting views on) the benefits o f exclusin Writing task
d h o w y o u got the i n f o r m a t i o n
e the aims of the report 6 N o w d o t h e t a s k i n E x e r c i s e 1.
f (reporting views on) the drawbacks of exclusin
b M a t c h the sentence halves.
ary development 1 1 She p o p p e d
> CB p. 42 2 Flora shot
3 H e spent a year drifting
Word formation 4 The d o g sidled
5 He plunged
1 Complete the text w i t h words formed f r o m the
6 T o m plodded
w o r d s i n brackets.
a along, head d o w n , trying t o ignore t h e rain,
b a r o u n d Europe, staying a few days here and there.
How to be creative: c past me, obviously late, hardly pausing t o say helio,

tips from a young writer


d past, h o p i n g I wouldn't notice what was in his m o u t h .
e in for a quick coffee o n the way back from the dentist's.
f into the p o o l w i t h a shout o f delight.
Learn t o w o r k wherever and whenever and be
(1) (adapt). I n o w c o m e up w i t h m o r e 4 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e past f o r m o f v e r b s

ideas w h e n l'm surrounded by noise. f r o m Exercise 3a, u s e d i n a m e t a p h o r i c a l sense.

i Don't be t o o hard o n yourself. The need for 1 M y spirits as I realised l'd w o n t h e race.
(2) (perfect) can block y o u . A n d even if 2 I o n w i t h the book, n o t e n j o y i n g it at all.
y o u get stuck, you'll break t h r o u g h sooner or later. 3 We along t h e m o t o r w a y at 10 m p h
W h e n l'm setting up a plot, it's very t i m e - because o f the traffic.
c o n s u m i n g . Creativity develops over a period o f 4 It was such a b o r i n g talk that m y m i n d
t i m e and y o u need t o be (3) (persist). and I couldn't concntrate.
Experiment! A n d don't be t o o (4) (fuss) 5 She off while he was w a t c h i n g T V .
a b o u t the first draft - just get s o m e t h i n g d o w n o n
paper and m o v e o n . You can always c o m e back to Film
it later.
5 Complete the text w i t h the words in the box.

Phrasal verbs budget deal debut motion realise released


shoot soundtrack
2 F i n d phrasal verbs i n Exercise 1 that m e a n :
1 organising; putting into place
Aardman
2 return
3 start d o i n g s o m e t h i n g n e w or different Aardman isacompany which wasfounded by Peter Lord and
4 write David Sproxton in 1972 a s a w a y o f t r y i n g t o (1)
5 manage to d o s o m e t h i n g successfully their ambition t o produce an innovative (2)
6 think o f film. The project had a very tight (3) and was
their first attempt t o (4) an animated film for
Verbs to describe movement adults using real-life conversations as the (5)
for the film.
3a Put the verbs i n the b o x under one o f the headings. Lord and Sproxton became successful enough to hire
more animators, three of w h o m were about t o make their
crawl creep dash dawdle drift nip
(6) as directors. O n e o f these was Nick Park,
plod plunge pop race saunter shoot
w h o later developed the clay models that featured the
sldle sneak soar tear wander
adventures o f Wallace and Gromit. T w o o f these films, A
1 m o v e fast Grand Day Out and The Wrong Trousers, went o n to w i n

2 g o somewhere quickly for a short t i m e Academy Awards.

3 m o v e slowly/aimlessly Aardman later worked with Dreamworks to make Chicken


4 m o v e quietly in order n o t t o be noticed Run, which was (7) in 2000, to great success.
They signed a (8) to make four m o r e films but
later decided to termnate the agreement.
Module 3
T h e creative instinct

(Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 Read the text again carefully and think about the type o f w o r d that
w i l l fit i n each g a p . C a n y o u p r e d i c t t h e a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at
the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 Read through the text again, w i t h y o u r answers in place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

CLP
For questions 1-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
You need the w o r d that means
D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
'although'.
O n l y o n e o f the w o r d s
O n e brick at a t i m e
collocates w i t h part.
F o l l o w e d by in, the correct The Lego story (0) back to 1958,

o p t i o n means 'take part in'. the year in w h i c h its creator, Gotfred


Kirk Christiansen, filed a patent for
the distinctive plstic brick.
Since then, p r o d u c t i o n
E X P E R T STRATEGY
H a n k carefully about the exact
has been g o i n g ahead ^
at f u l l ( l )
e a n i n g o f each o p t i o n before
w i t h millions o f pieces
natang a decisin a b o u t w h i c h o n e
being made every year
te the context.
- m o r e than 80 bricks _
for every person o n
Earth! It is t h o u g h t that
EXPERT LANGUAGE over four million Lego
R n d three examples o f the present m e n have been constructed since 1974, so it may not be long before
perfect passive in the text. they (2) the real thing. What's more, Lego is believed to be
the world's largest producer of tyres, (3) very small ones, as
these are an (4) part o f the kits f r o m w h i c h Lego vehicles
are constructed.
The appeal of Lego (5) in the fact that it offers a blank canvas
in 3D. Kids might be (6) . into t w o camps - instinctive builders
and followers of plans - but y o u n g and od (7) can build
anything w i t h the stuff, and generally do. Since the late 1990s, the brand
has also been heavily (8) in the v i d e o g a m e industry, w i t h
their iconic mini-figures starring in high-profile games.

A dates B begins C takes D comes


A pace B rush C snap D steam
A surpass B exceed C outnumber D override
Aalbeit B however C indeed D otherwise
A inward B integral C intact D inborn
A lies B shows C stays D lives

L
Ajoined B divided C shared D allotted
A akin B similarly C identically Dalike
A included B implied C involved D implicated


ivioauie
T h e creative instinct

Expressions with future meaning


age development 1
2 C h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t e x p r e s s i o n i n b r a c k e t s a n d use
> CBp. 45, EG p. 111
i t t o r e w r i t e t h e u n d e r l i n e d p a r t s o f t h e sentences.

Review of future forms 1 The train will arrive in approximately 20 minutes o n


Platform 6. {be due to / be on the verge of)
1 Choose the correct answer (A, B o r C). 2 l'm g o i n g o u t any minute. Can y o u be quick?
1 Don't forget that French film next {be likely to / be about to)
month. 3 You can ask her if y o u like, b u t l'm sure she'll refuse.
A will be shown {expect to / be bound to)
B is being shown 4 l'm g o i n g t o give up w i t h this h o m e w o r k . I can't
C is shown understand a w o r d ! {be to / be on the point of)
5 The talks will break d o w n very soon.
2 Afterwards, t h e director about the
{be on the verge of I be due to)
process o f adapting books to t h e screen.
6 There are rumours that Beyonc will be headlining
A will be talking
next year's festival, {be likely to / be bound to)
B talks
C will have talked
Future in the past
3 l'd love t o hear h i m speak b u t for t h e
US by then. 3 Complete the email extract w i t h the correct f o r m
A w e l l be leaving o f t h e phrases i n t h e b o x .
B w e l l have left
be about to/sign up be due to/hand in
C w e l l have been leaving
be going to/join be going to/offer will not/be
4 Tickets o n sale as f r o m next Tuesday.
will not/take
A are being
B will have been
C will be
5 We've decided that other speakers later I know I said last year that I ( 1 ) a
in the year. drama group in the new year but life has just got
A we're inviting in the way, as usual! I had assumed that the work
B we're g o i n g t o invite l'd been given ( 2 ) too much time but
C w e invite it turned out to be quite tough and I had to work
really hard to get it done. I ( 3 ) the
6 l'll let y o u k n o w as soon as the p r o g r a m m e
work two weeks ago but that didn't happen, so I
missed the deadline. But Tve just finished now,
A comes o u t
thank goodness!
B is c o m i n g o u t
C will have c o m e o u t Then,just as I (4) for the new play
which takes place in April, I realised that there
7 l'm sure it very interesting.
(5) any good parts left in the
A y o u ' l l find
production by that time and they ( 6 )
B you're f i n d i n g
me a non-speaking part. S o anyway, T v e now-
C you'll have f o u n d decided that l'm going to take up ballroom
8 Anyway, I must go. The last train in half dancing instead.
an hour.
A will have left
B will leave
C leaves Choose the correct answers.
1 W e were on the verge of I due to having a
breakthrough w h e n t h e f u n d i n g was cut.
2 I knew t h e news was about to / would be bad, so
I wasn't surprised.
3 I t h o u g h t t h e g o v e r n m e n t were bound to / would
have raised taxes, so I was pleasantly surprised w h e n
they didn't.
4 The football club was to / would transfer at least t w o
players b u t decided against it at t h e last minute.
5 W e were on the point of phoning / to have phoned
y o u w h e n y o u arrived.
6 He was just about to /due to leave t h e house w h e n
he saw her text.
Module 3
The creative nstinct

English (Paper 1 Part 3 )

Word formation 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t . W h a t is a t r o p h y g e n e r a l l y u s e d for?

2 R e a d the w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 R e a d t h e t e x t a g a i n c a r e f u l l y a n d t h i n k a b o u t the f o r m o f the w o r d
n e e d e d t o fit i n e a c h gap.

4 D o t h e task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

b o t h a prefix and suffix For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at
create a w o r d that means the end ofsome ofthe Unes to form a word that fits in the gap in the same

eptional'. Une. There is an example at the beginning (0).

I a suffix and r e m e m b e r to
A fitting t r o p h y
b l e the final consonant.
need t o add t w o suffixes The Brit Award for Music is a(n) (0) hiqhly coveted HIGH

us w o r d . Check the spelling prize awarded annually to a performer w h o has made


a(n) (1) c o n t r i b u t i o n to British popular STAND
music. The prize celebrates the creativity o f t h e UK
music scene and is awarded at a(n) (2) PRESTIGE
STRATEGY 1 televised ceremony. In 2012, the j o b of d e s i g n i n g a new
t r o p h y t o be presented to the (3) fell to Sir WIN
that y o u r answers must
correctly. Some letters Peter Blake, one o f t h e country's most (4)
t o r changed in base artists. Sir Peter has long been interested in the INFLUENCE
n y o u add a suffix, so (5) o f art into the w o r l d o f popular culture
fully. and music, and he carne up w i t h an elegant t r o p h y INTEGRATE
w h i c h was typical o f his work. C o l o u r e d red, w h i t e and

1
blue, it (6) incorporates some of the classic SUCCESS
motifs of the p o p art m o v e m e n t , capturing the
P B T T LANGUAGE
(7) and fun of the music scene and of the VITAL
hrasal verb made up o f three
event itself. To celbrate the completion o f t h e trophy,
, the text.
a fine art print was produced in a limited edition of 150,
w h i c h w e n t o n sale w i t h a letter o f (8) . This AUTHENTIC
print has n o w b e c o m e a collector's item in its o w n right.

2 0 1 2
Module 3
l T h e creative instinct

(Paper 3 Part 2 )

Sentence completion 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e task. W h o is g o i n g t o be speaking? W h a t


w i l l that person be speaking about?

2 R e a d t h e sentences i n t h e task. H o w m u c h d o y o u find o u t a b o u t t h e


topic?

3 T r y to predict the type of i n f o r m a t i o n that y o u need to listen for in


each gap.

4 D o t h e task.

HELP
You will hear a student called Aaron Col giving a presentation about how
> Q1 You are listening for an expression
leisure activities can influence a person's job prospects. For questions 1-8,
m a d e up o f t w o words.
complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
> Q 2 Three personal qualities are
m e n t i o n e d - listen for w h i c h
H o w leisure interests c a n i n f l u e n c e j o b prospects
o n e is most important.
Aaron says that the term (1) is used to describe what
> Q3 Listen to what Aaron says a b o u t
employers are a i m i n g for w h e n they take j o b candidates' leisure interests
risks - the answer comes soon
into consideration.
afterwards.
Aaron identifies (2) as the key personal quality associated w i t h
participation in endurance sports.
EXPERT STRATEGY
Aaron says that an e n j o y m e n t o f adventure sports might suggest a
Remember that y o u have time to read suitability for Jobs requiring (3) skills.
through the sentences before y o u
Aaron says that only those j o b applicants w i t h experience in the role of
listen. Use this time to think about the
(4) should m e n t i o n playing team sports.
topic and make predictions about the
missing words. Aaron was surprised to learn that Jobs in (5) are seen as
suitable for m o r e creative people.
W h e r e employers are developing their (6) presence, candidates

EXPERT LANGUAGE w i t h g o o d written c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills are in great d e m a n d .

Find t w o adjective + preposition Aaron gives the example of policy d e v e l o p m e n t as an rea w h e r e


collocations in the task. (7) - m i n d e d people are likely to d o well.
Aaron warns against listing what recruiters refer t o as (8) on a
j o b application.

EXPERT W O R D CHECK
backgammon calculated risks
copywriter employability
key indicator outline perseverance
push boundaries recruiter tenacity

/fe
r 4
3B Stars i n t h e i r e y e

Phrasal verbs
tbulary development 2
3 C o m p l e t e t h e p h r a s a l v e r b s i n t h e sentences w i t h
the particles i n the b o x .

ent forward in into off(x2) on (x2) out

Q o o s e the correct answers. The film carne last year.


Ittook straightaway.
Ac I k n o w y o u loved t h e b o o k War Horse. Have y o u It's based a best-selling book.
H-" :~e film (1) versin / edition? The film c o m p a n y p u t a lot o f m o n e y
i - =. e Dut I actually preferred it (2) on /at stage. the p r o d u c t i o n .
A_ zi 're puppets were amazmg and it was such a However, the film adaptation has c o m e ,
(3) powerful / strong cast, wasn't it? for criticism f r o m some people.
5. _
es h e stage show was (4) broadcast / streamed The leading actor has been p u t for
i n cinemas all over t h e country, so I saw it twice. an Oscar.
A: r ed t o get tickets w h e n it first (5) began / opened He pulled a remarkable performance,
D_: ended up q u e u i n g for (6) retums / cancellations. despite the weak script.
8 The rest o f the cast also p u t fantastic
= performances.
- i n o t usually that keen o n opera b u t the w o m a n
- m e (7) main / major role was fantastic, wasn't she? Useful language: exchanging ideas
I t h o u g h t so t o o . Really (8) convincing / likely. She
r-eserved her stand ing (9) applause / ovation. 4 M a t c h the sentence halves.
A : A n d it's received (10) w/7d / rave reviews. 1 l'm n o t into ballet myself. Having said that,
Bt ~*ight g o again w h e n it comes here (11) in / on tour. 2 I k n o w w h a t y o u mean a b o u t musicals
3 Right, anyway, let's m o v e o n
A. '. -re was the film (12) located I setl 4 It's a tricky one, b u t let's go for
E _
Italy, in t h e 16th century. But the (13) plot / theme 5 Actually,
..as really far-fetched. 6 That's a difficult o n e
A. . ' . " "layed the (14) person / part of Ludovico? a I have t o a d m i t that I find circuses really b o r i n g
:
3 _ :~-eone l'd never heard of. But I suspect he'll but l'm obviously in t h e minority here.
(15) receive / make a ame for himself soon. He b b u t they can be really g o o d f u n as well.
0 6 ) gave / did an astonishing performance. c because I haven't t h o u g h t a b o u t it m u c h u p t o n o w .
A. - r i a ^ e n t l y , that actor's been (17) proposed I d and talk a b o u t stand-up c o m e d y next.
nominated for lots o f awards. e films, shall we, since w e all like those?
L Tm n o t surprised. He (18) placed / put a lot into it. f I haven't actually seen o n e performed live.

synonyms

Replace t h e w o r d s i n b o l d w i t h w o r d s a n d phrases
f r o m Exercise 1.

1 Have y o u seen the m o d e r n r e m a k e o f that 60s film?

2 "!"he football will be t r a n s m i t t e d live o n TV.

3 ' f o u n d his performance really persuasive.

- ~-e critics gave the gig an enthusiastic r e c e p t i o n .

5 The d r a m a t o o k place in medieval times.

6 ~ e is o n t h e verge o f b e c o m i n g f a m o u s .

7 The s t o r y line was a bit weak.

8 - e invested a lot in the part.


Module 3
Stars in their eyes

Reading (Paper 1 Part 7)

Gapped text 1 Read the title o f the text and the i n t r o d u c t o r y sentence. W h a t do y o u
think the text w i l l be about?

2 Read the m a i n text quickly a n d answer the questions.


1 W h a t does Martin do?
2 W h a t different things does Martin collect?
3 W h i c h of his collections is most mportant?
4 W h a t has he written?

3a R e a d t h e task a n d t h e p a r a g r a p h b e f o r e g a p 1. W h a t t y p e o f
p h o t o g r a p h y is it t a l k i n g a b o u t ? W h i c h o f t h e o p t i o n s is a b o u t t h i s
type of photography?

b N o w r e a d t h e p a r a g r a p h after g a p 1. W h a t d o y o u t h i n k here i n l i n e 8
refers to?
W h i c h o p t i o n i n t r o d u c e s t h i s idea?

4 D o t h e rest o f t h e task.

HELP
You are going to read a magazine artice. Six paragraphs have been removed
> Q 2 The text before the gap s
from the article. Choose from the paragraphs A-G the one which fits each
describing m o v e m e n t . W h i c h
gap (1-6). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.
o p t i o n picks up o n this?
> Q 3 Look at the p r o n o u n their after
A Having said that, he is the first to a d m i t that his collection is
the gap (line 24). W h o might
not comprehensive. 'I get sent a lot o f books. I get sent a lot of
this be referring to?
bad books,' he says. 'If I don't w a n t a book, l'll give it away. But
> Q 5 The text before the gap ends occasionally, s o m e t h i n g really fantastic turns up.'
w i t h a question. W h i c h o p t i o n
picks up o n this? B He doesn't deny this but reminds m e that he's looking for things
before anyone else is looking for t h e m . 'That's what's happened in
China. W h e n people see w h a t we've c o m e across in China, they are
EXPERT STRATEGY 1 absolutely bog-eyed.'
Read the text before and after
C He's been a d d i n g to it ever since his first acquisitions as a student
each gap, marking key w o r d s and
in Manchester but only became really h o o k e d o n c e he'd started
checking all reference words. D o the
earning. 'You probably have t o be an obsessive person to collect, if
same in the o p t i o n s A - G .
you're going to d o it seriously and thoroughly, w h i c h I attempt to do.'

D Since then, the selective listings have encouraged an insider market


EXPERT LANGUAGE
Look back at the m a m text. Find
1 to emerge amongst collectors, publishers and photographers.
Inclusin bhngs kudos to both the publisher and to a photographer's
reputation, and almost guarantees an eventual rise in the resale valu.
examples o f c o m p o u n d nouns and
adjectives, where t w o w o r d s are E To find an example of this g r o u n d b r e a k i n g work, w e need look no
j o i n e d by a h y p h e n . further than the Japanese p h o t o b o o k . Until the 1980s, this was a
specialist rea, reserved for a few maverick enthusiasts, historians
and collectors.

EXPERT W O R D CHECK F Using s o m e t h i n g a little m o r e sophisticated, l'm trying to capture


bull market candi enduring legacy m y o w n image o f the man at his h o m e in Bristol, surrounded by
insider market kudos maverick his b o o k collection. Surprisingly, he's not an easy subject; partly
overspill provenance public domain because he looks so sceptical; partly because he keeps o p e n i n g
research tool tea caddies books up o n the floor t o show me things and so I have to keep
asking h i m t o stand up.

5 W e eventually arrive in a small r o o m stacked w i t h boxes and lined


w i t h shelves o f books. 'China and Latin America are d o w n here,'
he says, 'Well, some of China ...and Latin America overspill.' It's t o o
tight for t w o , so w e go next door, where a cabinet holds some o f his
novelty watch collection - another o f his passions.
3
Module 3
Stars in t h e i r eyes

From Selfie to
photography art
leet the British photographer
on a mission to revise the history
rphotography.
V l a r t m Parr is one o f the b e s t - k n o w n p h o t o g r a p h e r s i n
the U K . H i s r e p u t a t i o n d e r i v e s f r o m h i s c a n d i d p i c t u r e s
:r.er>, b u t he is also a dedicated exponent of the
see - he m a y even h a v e i n v e n t e d t h e t e r m . H i s series
r-portraits, t a k e n i n p h o t o b o o t h s a l l a r o u n d t h e
* : r . d , began l o n g before t h e m o b i l e p h o n e camera
5 i n v e n t e d .

Ve are here t o t a l k a b o u t h i s books b u t Parr collects


r r e r t v m u c h e v e r y t h i n g , f r o m Chinese tea caddies t o
- _~: a ture televisions, c o m m e m o r a t i v e plates t o cigarette
esees decorated w i t h Russian space-dogs: 'Yes, L a i k a , H i s critics are q u i c k t o p o i n t o u t , h o w e v e r , t h a t i n b e i n g
> r e l k a a n d Belka, t h e y ' r e t h e three m o s t f a m o u s . ' That's one o f its generators, he has also been one o f the chief
r t r o r e v o u get t o h i s p h o t o g r a p h i c p r i n t s , some o f w h i c h 35 beneficiaries o f the g r o w i n g interest i n p h o t o g r a p h y
se to a d m i r e o n the w a l l s of the s t a i r w e l l as h e leads b o o k s a n d t h e steep rise i n prices. I s n ' t he n o w
- - r . av to t h e basement. c o m p e t i n g i n a b u l l m a r k e t he has h e l p e d t o crate?

Parr is i n h i s early 60s a n d , alongside h i s r e p u t a t i o n I n 2004, Parr p u b l i s h e d t h e first v o l u m e o f T h e


3 a p h o t o g r a p h e r , his m o s t e n d u r i n g legacy is l i k e l y P h o t o b o o k : A H i s t o r y , a n e d i t e d selection o f h i s
*o be the 12,000 p h o t o g r a p h y b o o k s h e has collected 4o c o l l e c t i o n , i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h l a y o u t s f r o m each
:he past 35 years. W h a t began as a h o b b y has v o l u m e , w r i t t e n b y h i s f r i e n d a n d collaborator, t h e
i e v e l o p e d i n t o a m i s s i o n t o change t h e w a y t h e h i s t o r y p h o t o - h i s t o r i a n G e r r y Badger. I n i t i a l l y p o r e d over
; : p h o t o g r a p h y is d e f i n e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d . A s a collector, solely b y p h o t o g r a p h y fans, dealers a n d collectors,
he has d i s c o v e r e d , d o c u m e n t e d a n d p r o m o t e d p r e v i o u s l y the w o r k q u i c k l y became indispensable f o r a u c t i o n
u n k n o w n reas o f p h o t o g r a p h i c b o o k m a k i n g . 45 houses, w h i c h often h a d l i t t l e else t o q u o t e b y w a y o f
provenance for a photographer's w o r k .

Parr is q u i c k t o a c k n o w l e d g e their c o n t r i b u t i o n b u t once


he discovered w h a t w a s there, i t w a s h i s o w n e n t h u s i a s m So w h a t w o u l d he l i k e t o see h a p p e n t o this v a l u a b l e
that b r o u g h t those b o o k s t o t h e fore. ' T h e m a i n t h i n g collection? ' E v e n t u a l l y , I w a n t i t t o g o i n t o a p u b l i c
. e learnt,' h e says, 'is h o w l a z y a n d n a r r o w - m i n d e d collection, t o be l o o k e d after a n d be used as a research
o u r histories o f p h o t o g r a p h y have been a n d h o w , w i t h so t o o l , ' he replies. ' T h a t ' s t h e w h o l e p o i n t , really. There
- me i n v e s t m e n t a n d some a p p l i c a t i o n , there is so m u c h is n o p a r t i c u l a r l y g o o d p h o t o g r a p h i c b o o k collection
to discover.' W h e n I ask i f h e has estimated t h e v a l u o f i n the p u b l i c d o m a i n i n the U K . T h e Tate M u s e u m i n
the collection, h e says, T h a v e n ' t . B u t I k n o w i t w o u l d be L o n d o n is m y p r e f e r r e d v e n u e . l ' m i n discussion w i t h
ubstantial.' t h e m b u t n o t h i n g has been d e t e r m i n e d . '
3B
Module 3
Stars n t h e i r eyes

Possibility/Probability, deduction
elopment 2
4 Cross o u t the o n e i n c o r r e c t a n s w e r i n each sentence.
> CBp. 50, EGp. 178
1 They're not answering the phone. They
Modals and semi-modals (Part 1) have shut d o w n for the day.
A might
Obligation and necessity B could
C should
1 Choose the correct answers. 2 He have seen our text by now. I sent it
1 These days, people mustn't usually / don't usually ages ago.
have to dress up to go to the theatre. A must
2 You must I don't have to remind m e t o switch off B might
my p h o n e d u r i n g the performance. I always forget! C should
3 I made a mistake w i t h the time, so w e didn't need / 3 She caught the last train, so she be
needn't have rushed. It starts at 2.30, not 2.00! h o m e before midnight.
4 W e had to / needed get there a bit earlier so that A can
I c o u l d allow t i m e t o collect the tickets f r o m the B should
box office. C may
5 I must I have to r e m e m b e r to pay y o u for the
4 They be nearly here by now, l'm sure.
tickets later.
It's six o'clock.
6 You needn't wait / needn't have waited. III catch
A must
y o u up in a m i n u t e .
B could
C should
Advice, recommendation, criticism, permission
5 It have broken already. I only b o u g h t it
2 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f yesterday.
should, ought to, had better, must o r can. M o r e t h a n A can't
one answer m a y be possible. B may
1 It's a brilliant adaptation. You really go C couldn't
and see it!
2 D o y o u think w e get the t u b e if there's Mixed modals
g o i n g to be a lot o f traffic?
5 Choose the correct m o d a l verb. T h e n complete
3 Sorry, but y o u take that glass into the
the sentences w i t h the correct f o r m of the verbs
a u d i t o r i u m . Plstic ones are available at the bar.
in brackets.
4 You told m e y o u were g o i n g to see it.
I've always w a n t e d to go. 1 You can't / mustn't (see) Jim yesterday.
5 You get upset. It does get happier. He's still in Brazil.
6 W h e n I was y o u r age, w e get part-time 2 I w o n d e r w h o it was. It could / should
Jobs because our parents w o u l d n ' t let us. (be) his brother, perhaps. They are quite similar.
3 You must I should (tell) me yesterday

Ability that y o u w o u l d need m o n e y . I've rurl out!


4 You k n o w y o u needn't / mustn't (wear)
3 T i c k ( / ) the c o r r e c t sentences. C o r r e c t t h e mistakes jewellery in school. Take it off.
i n the w r o n g ones. 5 I can't I needn't (worry). Everything was
1 I c o u l d finally b o r r o w the car and drive up and visit absolutely fine.
my parents last week. 6 I didn't need / mustn't (explain) as she
2 He could have c o m e w i t h us t o the gig but the already knew the situation.
tickets were sold out.
3 I c o u l d sing quite well but was t o o shy t o perform
in public.
4 I could pass m y violin exam in the end but only
after a lot o f extra work.
5 Unfortunately, they couldn't c o m e w i t h us after all.
6 Next year w e will can apply for an audition.
3B
Module 3
Stars n their eyes

S e Of E n g l i s h (Paper 1 Part 4)

Key word transformations 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e t a s k a n d l o o k at t h e e x a m p l e . T h i n k


a b o u t h o w t h e t w o sentences are d i f f e r e n t a n d n o t i c e h o w t h e
m e a n i n g hasn't changed.

D o t h e task.

You need to make a sentence For questions 7 - 7 0 , complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the
w i t h used to.
word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word
You need to use the w o r d
given. Here is an example (0).
expected in y o u r answer.
You need a m o d a l verb in your
0 She didn't cali me, even t h o u g h she said she w o u l d .
answer.
SUPPOSED
She was supposed t o cali me but she didn't.
STRATEGY 1 W h e n he was a student, Dan w e n t r u n n i n g every day.
ir t w o marks available for USED
question. To get b o t h marks, Dan daily basis as a student.
answer has to be completely 2 Everyone expects that Roan will w i n the award.
_te. Check y o u r answers WIDELY
ly to make sure they are Roan w i n the award.
~ely accurate.
3 Fiona hasn't seen her brother for over a year.
LAST
It's m o r e saw her brother.
LANGUAGE 4 W e were late arriving at the conference and so w e missed the
five examples of the passive in opening ceremony.
answers. BY
The o p e n i n g c e r e m o n y w e arrived at the conference.
5 People think that the ring may be m o r e than 1,000 years od.
OVER
The ring 1,000 years od.
6 l'm sure Maurice broke the vase because he looked so guilty.
HAVE
Maurice because he looked so guilty.
7 You have to press the button first, then y o u can insert coins in the slot.
BEFORE
The b u t t o n can be inserted in the slot.
8 It's a long t i m e since anyone carne to service the photocopier.
NOT
The p h o t o c o p i e r ages.
9 Diana was completely taken aback to see her daughter o n televisin.
CAME
It Diana to see her daughter o n televisin.
10 The c o m m i t t e e will reach its decisin after considering all the facts.
TAKEN
All the facts the c o m m i t t e e reaches its decisin.
Module 3
Stars in t h e i r eyes

Writing (Paper 2 Part 1: E s s a y )


MiTiny yoiv ng people r e r.\\jc\&v\\ to t k e wf
> CB 52-53. EW L 191-192
n y t n i n g c r e a t i v e s^n s drawa, wv^c, d n e or
arf becwSe t k e y w o r r y t n t t k e y w i g n t f i l t it- If

EXPERT STRATEGY
Read the task carefully and underline the main points.
1 tney w e r e obliged to t r y f n e t ^ O^t r t n e r t k n jo'St
n v i n g t k e ^ S e x t r - v r r i C i y | r optiOnS, people
w\ay d^cover t l e n t s t n t t k e y w e r e ^ / n w r e tney
Read the opinions; they will give y o u ideas. possessed. A w i d e r r n g e of subjects, to i n d ^ d e
entrepreneo-rSnip, f o r exi^ple, wo^vld t e v^or-e
Make sure y o u discuss t w o of the points but decide o n
ppeling S not e v e r y o n e i$ yt.r$orw\c*Y\C-t rfist
the o n e y o u think is best.

Analysing the task


Ir cor\C\v$\Or\, it wov/ld p p e r to w e t n t yoi^ng
1 Read the task a n d tick ( / ) the correct i n f o r m a t i o n .
people n e e d to t e o f f e r e d e v e r y o p p o r t u n i t y to
You have to: e n c o g e in C r e a t i v e tivitieS w n i C n t n e y l ^ i g n t
1 write a b o u t all three notes. o t n e r w i S e n o t OnSider f r y i n g o r be o>nble
2 use the o p i n i o n s given. to do. It wov/ld t e w o n d e r f ^ l i f t n i s c o ^ l d be
C r r i e d Over into t n e i r w o r k i n g liveS, in \wy
3 use the same w o r d i n g as in the task.
v i e w it is still w o r f n w n i l e , e v e n i f it is k e p t 5 C\
4 justify y o u r opinions. personal interest
5 c o m e t o a conclusin.

Your class has attended a talk on how the government


could encourage creativity at school. You have made lt iS g e n e r a l l y o c e p t e d t n t b e i n g c r e a t i v e iS
the notes below. S v i t l f o r One's p e r s o n a l nppineSS 5 V^vcV\
s it b e n e f i t s society. A t o n e t i i ^ e , y o ^ n g people
M e t h o d s by w h i c h the g o v e r n m e n t could w o ^ l d t ^ r n to w r i t i n g o r d n a w i n g w n e n t n e y
w e r e b o r e d , wWereS n o w t n e s r e e n t e n d s to
e n c o u r a g e creativity at s c h o o l
Serve tniS Y<jryo$- So n o w c o u l d y o u n g people
crate m o r e career opportunities be .vyCovrcMj-ec\ \o be i^ore i n v e n f i v e n d use
make creative subjects c o m p u l s o r y t n e i r i i^v\ g i n t i O n f
i m p r o v e teacher training

S o m e o p i n i o n s expressed in t h e discussion:
A t t n e k^O^ent, ^ n y yo
'Unless m o r e Jobs b e c o m e available, people w o n ' t
t k e r e iS k^ore C n n c e o f
be motivated t o study creative subjects.' study S o i ^ e t n i n g c d e i ^
'You can't forc students t o be creative.' re{uiring Oretivity vil
people to study t k e s e Subj
Teachers should t o inspire students.' w o ^ e n t , n*ny r e diS0
t n t 're^tive jobs' r e o
Write an essay for your tutor discussing two of the Outstndingly tlented.
methods in the notes. You should explain which
method you think is more important for governments
to consider and provide reasons in support ofyour
Using appropriate language: introduction and
answer. You may, ifyou wish, make use ofthe opinions
conclusin
expressed in the discussion, but you should use your
own words as far as possible.
3 W h i c h o f these phrases w o u l d b e u s e f u l f o r a) t h e
Write your essay in 220-260 words.
introduction b) the conclusin?
1 In summary,...
Structuring your essay 2 It has been claimed that...
3 To my mind,...
2a P u t t h e p a r a g r a p h s o f a s t u d e n t ' s essay i n a l o g i c a l
4 It is c o m m o n knowledge that...
order: introduction, m a i n b o d y and conclusin.
5 Overall/On t h e w h o l e / O n balance/Everything
b A n s w e r the q u e s t i o n s . considered,...
6 It is probably true t o say that...
1 W h i c h t w o notes has the student written about?
2 Has the student used any o f t h e opinions? If so,
have they agreed or disagreed w i t h them?
Writing task
3 W h a t is the main p o i n t m a d e a b o u t each o f t h e 4 N o w d o t h e t a s k i n E x e r c i s e 1. R e m e m b e r t o m a k e
t w o notes?
y o u r m a i n p o i n t s a n d s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e clear f o r
4 W h a t are the s u p p o r t i n g ideas/examples? e a c h o f the n o t e s y o u c h o o s e .
The global village

Phrasal verbs with fall


^Bcabulary development 1
3 U s e t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f fall a n d t h e p a r t i c l e s i n t h e
b o x t o m a k e p h r a s a l v e r b s t o r e p l a c e t h e phrases
in bold.
:L:T.S w i t h sleep
back behlnd in out over through
z.i'.e each sentence w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f a
from b o x A a n d a p r e p o s i t i o n f r o m b o x B. 1 Although the contract was ready for signing, t h e
deal w a s n ' t c o m p l e t e d for reasons w e never knew.
2 It rained so hard that the shed roof collapsed.
ose put rough send sleep (x3)
3 Laura has s t o p p e d m a k i n g progress w i t h her work.
4 Her t w o boys are so near in age they q u a r r e l a lot.
5 Having lost so m u c h m o n e y d u r i n g the recession,
r
;- :.e (x2) through to (x3) Tim had t o rely o n his savings t o live o n .
6 She tripped and w e n t d o w n o n t h e g r o u n d .
sleep that ssue, so l'm
its been sorted out. Idioms: word pairs
cat was very od and frail. In the end, the vet
us t o have her sleep. 4 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e w o r d s i n t h e b o x .
t s h o u l d n ' t underestimate h o w many homeless
1
go large miss parcel thin when
are sleeping the streets.
a lot but didn't sleep until after 1 I g o s h o p p i n g as and I can - l'm so busy.
2 M y best friend and I have been t h r o u g h thick and
film was so tedious that it us b o t h together.
sleep. 3 Injury is part and o f a dancer's life.
most o f t h e play. I was really tired a n d 4 By and w e get o n very well.
>lay wasn't very gripping at all. 5 It's a bit hit a n d as t o whether they wil
n : set the alarm, w h i c h meant that I carry o u t the investigation.
and was late for work. 6 l'm n o t sure if III pass m y driving test. It's t o u c h and
a s at a friend's house tonight, so
an lock up.

Cultural experiences
ns with fall
5 C o m p l e t e t h e text w i t h t h e w o r d s in t h e box.
i".e sentence halves.
bear brought extensively invaluable on onset
put rituals

efell
?rest rate fell
Jacqui has been l i v i n g abroad o f f and ( 1 )
ss falls
for m a n y years, usually disappearing at the
desperately
(2) o f every winter. People i n i t i a l l y tried
to (3) her o f f the idea o f g o i n g b y herself
Dly a n d w e decided n o t t o invest.
because they said it m i g h t be dangerous. H o w e v e r , she
m d n o b o d y laughed.
has f o u n d it a(n) ( 4 ) experience because
ve and neglected her work.
she's leamt so m u c h about different cultures and their
?p as soon as m y head t o u c h e d the pillow.
various (5) , some o f w h i c h ( 6 )
eces as soon as w e tried t o use it.
little resemblance to her o w n country's traditions. She
~e second syllable.
has travelled ( 7 ) f o r many years n o w and it
has really ( 8 ) it home to her h o w m u c h o f
the w o r l d there is still to see.

39
Module 4
A small world?

Use Of English (Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 R e a d t h e t e x t a g a i n c a r e f u l l y a n d t h i n k a b o u t the t y p e o f w o r d t h a t
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p . C a n y o u p r e d i c t t h e a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at
the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers in place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

EXPERT STRATEGY For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
D) best fits each gap. There is an exampie at the beginning (0).
If y o u are not sure about an answer,
y o u can start by crossing out the
options that you are sure are not The dangers of
correct. miscommunication
As the w o r l d becomes m o r e
HELP global, it is easy to (0) A prey
> Q1 This is a similar expression to in to the Ilusin that y o u can
practice. c o m m u n i c a t e easily across cultures

> Q3 The w o r d y o u need means 'it simply by using the English

doesn't matter which'. language. In (1)


miscommunications a b o u n d ,
> Q8 Only o n e of these verbs is a
especially in a business context.
reflexive verb (used w i t h myself,
(2) the English
yourself, etc.).
expression with all due respect, for
example. If you're British, this is a
EXPERT LANGUAGE
Find examples o f linking words and
I polite way of signalling that you're
a b o u t to disagree w i t h somebody,
but this signal could easily be
expressions at the beginning of
missed or misinterpreted in an
sentences in the text.
J international business meeting.
What's m o r e , cultural conventions
tend t o persist (3)
language is being spoken. For example, in the USA it is mportant to
finish a m e e t i n g by (4) up the key points, whereas in Europe
meetings often end (5) w i t h o u t this level of clarification.
In some cultures, managers giving negative feedback to staff will c o m e
straight to the (6) , but use reassuring language; in others
it may be impolite to ( 7 ) such a direct approach. Clearly,
the best w a y to avoid such breakdowns in c o m m u n i c a t i o n is to keep
(8) ourselves that these differences exist.

0 A fall Bget Ccome D have


1 A honesty B reality C actual ity D validity
2 A Give B Regard CTake D View
3 Aregardless B nonetheless C irrespective D whatever
4 Aending B total 1 ing C finalising D summing
5 Aabruptly B shortly C roughly D sharply
6 A issue Bfact C point D truth
7 Aadopt B resume C deliver Denact
8 A remembering B recalling C reminding D reviewing

40
Module 4
4
Asmall world?

Word families: prefxes to change meaning


|Language development 1
3a Replace t h e phrases i n b o l d b y a d d i n g t h e c o r r e c t
p r e f i x e s from t h e b o x t o t h e a d j e c t i v e s o r v e r b s .
M a k e a n y changes necessary.
families: verb, noun and adjective suffixes
dis- en- im- m- mis- over- pre- re-
c n p l e t e t h e table. un- under-

Noun Adjective 1 She isn't v e r y p a t i e n t w i t h her brother.


he&tate 0) (2) 2 Marc is a bit t o o e m o t i o n a l .
3 She isn't w i l l i n g t o help us.
| happiness (3)
4 H o w can I m a k e this picture larger?
j. (5) pleasant
5 I think she has every reason n o t t o
(6) (?) trust him.
i defence (9) 6 I always p r o n o u n c e that w o r d w r o n g l y .
-r- hopeful/hopeless 7 D o w e need t o b o o k tickets in advance?
(11)
8 The w o r k is n o t y e t c o m p l e t e .
_c-r; 02) 03)
9 I was c h a r g e d t o o little.
(14) critic (15) 10 Y o u can use that plstic bag again - don't
i Z . - - ' (16) (17) t h r o w it a way.
"1 09) wide
3b Use prefixes from t h e b o x i n Exercise 3a t o change
danger (21) these w o r d s . M o r e t h a n o n e a n s w e r m a y b e possible.
(22) (23) 1 decrate
2 rated
c k at t h e w o r d s i n Exercise l a a n d w r i t e t h e 3 worked
&ces in the correct group. 4 probable
5 edible
jffixes: : .
6 loyal
- : e r . . e suffixes:
7 wrap
V e t ) suffixes:
8 understand
".piete t h e t e x t w i t h n o u n s o r a d j e c t i v e s f o r m e d 9 danger
i m e w o r d s i n brackets. 10 place

k at y o u r a n s w e r s t o Exercise 2 a a n d a d d t h e
ixes f r o m Exercise I b t o y o u r list.

C I L T U R E s h o c k
^ . 1-5 ; : i i v i n g i n a n e w culture for any l e n g t h prevailing (12) (culture) attitudes a r e a
3 e often r e g a r d e d as v e r y ( 1 ) w o r l d a p a r t f r o m one's o w n . P e o p l e g o t h r o u g h a stage
r r r _ i r . : e b u t it is not without its p r o b l e m s . It is of f e e l i n g ( 1 3 ) (confuse) a n d n e e d t i m e to
o n e j : : b e a (2) (travel), m o v i n g o n adjust to t h e i r n e w ( 1 4 ) (surround).
? i = : y o u have h a d e n o u g h ; it is another to m a k e t h e
( d e c i d e ) to live t h e r e f o r a y e a r o r so,
Some tips
r s for study or work.
T h e r e are ( 1 5 ) ( v a r y ) t h i n g s y o u c a n d o to
sgh Irving a b r o a d p r o v i d e s a u n i q u e o p p o r t u n i t y p r e p a r e yourself b e f o r e s e t t i n g off.
:c k n o w another s o c i e t y a n d ( 4 ) It is ( 1 6 ) (use) to r e a d u p as m u c h
y o u r horizons, it also r e q u i r e s p e o p l e to as y o u c a n a b o u t t h e culture b e f o r e y o u r
their ( 5 ) ( b e h a v e ) to t h e c u s t o m s (17) ( d e p a r f ) . Take a n interest i n l o c a l
i e , v culture. It is v i t a l to b e c o m e aware o f issues a n d b e o p e n to t h e n e w culture.
) (similar) a n d ( 7 )
B r e a k out o f y o u r ( 1 8 ) (comfort) cocoon
a n d to l e a r n rather than j u d g e . If y o u are
w h e n y o u get there a n d play an (19)
3* ( p a t i e n c e ) , this c a n b e t h e m o s t
(act) role.
( r e w a r d ) e x p e r i e n c e of all.
_r_je sr.ock occurs w h e n the ( 1 0 ) Be (20) (tolrate) a n d ( 2 1 )
a d a p t i n g to t h e n e w e n v i r o n m e n t w e a r s (flexibility).
r e is a n ( 1 1 ) (aware) that t h e
R e m e m b e r : it all takes t i m e , a n d culture s h o c k is all
part and parcel of living abroad!
Module 4
A small w o r l d ?

Use Of English (Paper 1 Part 3)

Word formation 1 Read the t i t l e o f t h e t e x t . W h a t t y p e o f research d o y o u t h i n k


scientists m i g h t d o o n this subject?

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get the g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read t h e t e x t a g a i n c a r e f u l l y a n d t h i n k a b o u t h o w t o c h a n g e t h e w o r d
t h a t w i l l fit i n each g a p .

4 D o t h e task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

EXPERT STRATEGY 1 For questions


the end ofsome
7 -8, read the text below. Use the word
ofthe
given in capitals
Unes to form a word that fits in the gap in the
at
same
Remember that y o u may need to
make m o r e than one change to some line. There is an example at the beginning (0).
words, e.g. add a prefix and a suffix.
Surrey Sleep Research Centre
Sleep disorders are very (0) prevalent in today's PREVAIL
HELP
> Q3 Look at the beginning of the w o r l d , w i t h up t o 20 percent o f t h e European and US
population reporting frequent sleep (1) DISRUPT
sentence to see if this w o r d is
Unfortunately, (2) strategies to alleviate EFFECT
positive or negative.
sleep complaints and disorders are often (3) AVAILABILITY
> Q4 You need to add letters to the
That is w h y the Surrey Sleep Research Centre in the UK
beginning o f this w o r d .
is so important. The Centre offers a range of state-of-
> Q 7 You need to add both a prefix
t h e - a r t e q u i p m e n t , (4) o f r e c o r d i n g and ABLE
and a suffix to this w o r d .
analysing b o t h sleep patterns and sleep disorders. The
centre is engaged in various types o f sleep research,
EXPERT LANGUAGE c o v e r i n g fascinating reas, i n c l u d i n g the regulation
o f h u m a n sleep by o u r infernal b o d y d o c k and the
Find five examples of words w i t h
effects o f (5) t o light o n sleep patterns. EXPOSE
negative prefixes in the text.
It is also investigating the causes, consequences and
(6) of the sleep disorders expehenced by TREAT
shift workers, frequent long-distance air travellers and
blind people, as well as the effects o f (7) SUFFICE
sleep o n cognition, m o o d and metabolism. The
centre's g r o u n d b r e a k i n g sleep studies are published
in (8) respected academic journals and its HIGH
academics frequently appear o n televisin and feature
in the international news media.
Module 4
A small w o r l d ?

g (Paper 3 Part 4)

Mltiple matching 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e tasks. W i l l t h e r e be a seprate l i s t e n i n g


f o r e a c h task o r d o y o u n e e d t o c o m p l e t e t h e m b o t h at t h e s a m e t i m e ?

2a L o o k at T a s k O n e . W h a t are y o u l i s t e n i n g for? M a r k t h e k e y w o r d s i n
the options.

b N o w l o o k at T a s k T w o . W h a t are y o u l i s t e n i n g for? M a r k t h e k e y
w o r d s i n the o p t i o n s .

3 ^ j l os D o t h e tasks. R e m e m b e r t h a t y o u m u s t c h o o s e o n e o p t i o n
f r o m e a c h task f o r e a c h speaker.

1
hear five short extracts in which university students are talking about campaign groups they have joined.

TASK O N E TASK T W O

mzz zns 7-5, choose from the list (A-H) each For questions 6 - 7 0 , choose from the list (A-H) what each
i ~ u / n reason for joining the group. speaker has gained most from being part ofthe group.

While you listen you must complete both tasks.

'-' :z <eep up a family tradition A greater self-knowledge

--e: :z gain debating experience B i m p r o v e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n skills

~e-~c s request Speaker 1 1 C better j o b prospects Speaker 1 6

soeaker's persuasive Speaker 2 2 D a clearer dea o f career Speaker 2 7


rguments options
Speaker 3 3 Speaker 3 8
cg-standing E a stronger sense of
Speaker 4 4 Speaker 4 9
r - n i t m e n t t o a cause purpose
Speaker 5 5 Speaker 5 10
- :e :o influence a F a wider social circle

a deeper understanding
desire to put a principie o f society
t e oractice
H ncreased awareness of
- ..^expected invitation certain issues

n for w h a t happened at the meeting she EXPERT W O R D CHECK


affinity calculating childcare cut and thrust
n for the phrase out ofthe blue - it relates to cut out for doing wonders hustings plight
mswer. principled stand tagged along
areful: she talks a b o u t her career, but o p t i o n D
t the correct answer.
for w h a t the j o b is teaching her.

STRATEGY
instructions and o p t i o n s in b o t h tasks before
1
n. and mark the key words.

LANGUAGE
\az~z es of comparative adjectives in the options.
1

43
Paper 1 Part 5)

Mltiple choice 1 Read the title o f the text a n d the i n t r o d u c t o r y sentence. W h a t do y o u


think the text w i l l be about? Can y o u predict the writer's attitude to
the topic?

2 R e a d t h e t e x t q u i c k l y t o see i f y o u w e r e right.

3 Read question 1 and m a r k the key words. T h e n read the text carefully
t o find t h e s e c t i o n w h i c h c o n t a i n s the a n s w e r .

4 Choose the o p t i o n t h a t best answers the q u e s t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o t h e text.

5 Repeat t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s .

HELP
You are going to read an artice about charity fundraising. For questions
> Ql Read what the writer says a b o u t
7 - 6 , choose the answer (A, B, C or D) which you think fits best according
fundraising. W h i c h o p t i o n does
to the text.
it match?
> Q3 Look at the sentences before that
1 W h a t view o f t h e ice bucket challenge is expressed in the first
proposition to find the answer.
paragraph?
> Q 4 Look at the t w o questions the
A It was a very clever way o f generating charitable donations.
writer asks in the paragraph.
B It unfairly targeted certain people in the public eye.
C It used social pressure in an undesirable way.
EXPERT STRATEGY D Its success t o o k everyone by surprise.

Mark the w o r d s in the question stem W h a t d o the t w o research studies m e n t i o n e d in the second
that will help y o u lcate the relevant paragraph suggest?
piece o f text (e.g. ames and main A The most generous people prefer to d n a t e discreetly.
deas). Sometimes the question tells B Aggressive forms o f fundraising can be counterproductive.
y o u w h i c h paragraph to look at. C Some people may only dnate to charity to keep up appearances.
In that case, don't let i n f o r m a t i o n D Targeting certain households can make charity fundraising
and deas f r o m other paragraphs m o r e effective.
influence your answer. The phrase that proposition in line 38 refers to
A a question posed by the writer himself.

1
B a theory w h i c h is popular amongst economists.
EXPERT LANGUAGE C a claim made by critics of the ice bucket challenge.
D an a m o u n t o f m o n e y raised for one particular charity.
Find examples o f different adjective
suffixes in the first paragraph o f t h e 4 I n the fourth paragraph, the writer is questioning whether
text. A the challenge was a fair way to raise money.
B people taking part in the challenge were really sincere.
C those receiving funds f r o m the challenge were in genuine need.
D other charities are likely t o find success w i t h similar challenges.
EXPERT W O R D CHECK
According to the writer, the main aim o f t h e GiveWell organisation is to
anti-malahal bednets catchier
A p r o m o t e the cause of less w e l l - k n o w n charities.
chuckle door-to-door drenched
give guidance to those intending to make charitable donations.
flyer gathers momentum
encourage charities to provide useful e q u i p m e n t rather
parasitic worms philanthropic
than money.
succumbed
ensure that funds raised by charities reach their ntended
beneficiarles.
In the final paragraph, w e learn that the writer
A n o w regrets taking part in the ce bucket challenge.
B has decided to initiate a charitable challenge o f his o w n .
C resents having been put under pressure to give m o n e y to charity.
D prefers to make a principled choice w h e n d o n a t i n g m o n e y
to charity.
Module 4
M a k i n g a difference

that more money for Motor Neurone Disease meant less for
35 other charities. The evidence for that proposition is thin, as
it happens, but even if the many tens of millions raised by
the ice bucket challenge were brand-new charitable giving,
we could still ask where that money would best be spent.

The strength of a viral giving campaign, however, is also its


4o weakness: people join in for a laugh because their friends
have put them up to it rather than because of a logical
analysis of the most worthy cause. Motor Neurone Disease
is a truly dreadful condition but so is cncer, ebola or
simple starvation. In a world of limited generosity and finite
45 resources, who is to say which cause should be at the head
of the queue? The fact that ice bucketeers were donating
to a Motor Neurone Disease charity feels entirely arbitrary.
If another charity had happened to be the beneficiary
instead, very little else about the viral campaign would have
so changed. Would that have been a better situation?

GiveWell is an organisation which seems well placed


to answer such questions: it sets out to give donors the
information they need to make the most effective donations.
It sounds like an impossible job. GiveWell's approach is
n h o t a r e t h e pros a n d cons w h e n a
55 to find cost-effective, evidence-based approaches such
as distributing anti-malarial bednets and then search for
jority fundraising initiative g o e s viral?
transparent, efficient charities pursuing that approach.
r o t y succumbed to social pressure and invited some One of their top recommendations, for example, is the
r z : .es to film me having a bucket of iced water tipped Schistosomiasis Control Initiative - incidentally, a charity
T m y head. This is the ce bucket challenge. The deal is 60 that would benefit from a catchier ame. It organises
oeoole film themselves being drenched, dnate money to treatment for parasitic worms, a very unappealing cause
- ocal Motor Neurone Disease charity, and then nomnate indeed. But the worms can do a lot of harm and are
e jrther people for the same treatment. It is fundraising absurdly inexpensive to treat, henee the finding that the SCI
tus and it went viral at some point. Lady Gaga did it; offers valu for your donated money.
I_:Kerberg did it. By the time you read this, I imagine 65 In the end, I sent a few pounds of my ice bucket donation
r j
> oe ebrity on the planet will have done it. Social pressure to the Motor Neurone Disease Association.
ocverful thing and it's refreshing to see it being used It would have felt wrong, somehow,
c e a d smiles and encourage a generous spirit. This
to do otherwise. I sent
: -ew. of course. Charities have long sought celebrity
a more substantial
c s e m e n t s and getting famous people to make fools of
7o donation to SCI, surely
-selves is part of that venerable tradition.
one of the least media-
:5ure can also produce reluctant givers. Adriaan friendly charities on
Tevent, an economist at the University of Groningen, the planet. All lives are
: ed charitable collections in an open basket versus equally valuable but some
:sed collection bag. The open basket elicited larger 75 lives may be saved far
ations. And in another clever field experiment run by more cheaply than others.
e economists, Stefano DellaVigna, John List and Ulrike It seems strange
~endier, fundraisers went door-to-door raising money. not to respond to a
Te households, chosen randomly, had received a flyer philanthropic bargain.
- og them exactly when the fundraisers would be around: so No doubt, some will find this line
.-.arning dramatically increased the chance that the door of reasoning colder than a bucket
. on't be opened. Not all of us welcome the opportunity to full of iced water. But the truth is
; money to randomly selected charities, it seems. that whenever we give money to
one cause rather than another,
s case, however, the social element seemed to be a ss we're making a decisin about how deserving
se of joy, and surely, the ce bucket challenge was a that cause is. When a social media campaign
d thing, raising money for a worthy cause while giving gathers momentum, it is human nature to make that
good chuckle into the bargain. But any good economist decisin spontaneously and without a moment's reflection.
:o ask - and I do apologise about this: a good thing It feels good. But feeling good and doing good aren't the
: ared to what? Some critics of the challenge suggested 9o same thing.
: might represent a 'zero-sum game' - in other words,
Module 4
Making a difference

Issues and protests

4 C o m p l e t e the m i n u t e s o f a n i n f o r m a l neighbourhooc
> CB p. 64
m e e t i n g w i t h w o r d s f r o m the b o x .

Issues and opinions: idioms basis consultation high opposed petition


publicity put raised reach unanimous
1 Replace t h e phrases i n b o l d w i t h a n i d i o m f r o m t h e
way went
box. Put the verbs in the correct f o r m and m a k e
a n y o t h e r c h a n g e s necessary.

agree to differ dig your heels in


give you the benefit of the doubt go round in reles
meet somebody halfway sit on the fence

1 She is refusing t o give in o n this issue.


2 Let's give u p t r y i n g t o have t h e same o p i n i n o n
this particular issue.
3 W e had to agree t o s o m e o f t h e things t h e y
w a n t e d in order to reach a final agreement.
4 She w o n ' t c o m m i t herself e i t h e r w a y o n w h a t she
t h i n k s a b o u t this p r o b l e m .
5 W e keep t a l k i n g a b o u t t h e same t h i n g w i t h o u t
m a k i n g any progress - w e need t o make a
decisin!
6 l'm not convinced but l'll accept w h a t y o u say
A t the meeting o f local residents on 4th June,
because I can't p r o v e t h a t you're w r o n g
the issue o f potential traffic lights at the j u n c t i o n
o f the t w o m a i n roads was (1) yet
Issues and opinions: verb + noun collocations again. There was (2) agreement that

2 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h the c o r r e c t f o r m o f plans should not have been put into place before

have, take, make o r put. proper (3) w i t h people l i v i n g i n the


neighbourhood.
1 It's mportant that w e all a say o n local
issues. A t the meeting, feelings ran very (4) .
2 The aim is to pressure o n the council t o Several people (5) f o r w a r d the point
find a solution. that the traffic lights w o u l d indeed make it safer for
3 If w e don't a stand now, til be t o o late. children w h o have to cross the busy roads, and the
4 W e must act together if w e w a n t t o an vast m a j o r i t y o f those present (6) along
influence o n decisions m a d e in our ame. w i t h that view. H o w e v e r , most people were still
5 There is u n a n i m o u s agreement that w e should (7) to the p l a n , on the (8) .
immediate action. that the b u i l d - u p o f traffic at the lights w o u l d
6 You can help by forward y o u r view o n inevitably increase p o l l u t i o n .
w h a t should happen next.
7 Signing the petition has already a huge The rest o f the discussion focused on t r y i n g to
difference to the potential o u t e o m e . f i n d a(n) (9) r o u n d the p r o b l e m and
8 It shows that w e are matters very attempting to (10) a compromise.
seriously indeed and will not give in.
It was f i n a l l y agreed that more pressure should
3 C o m p l e t e t h e phrases w i t h v e r b s f r o m t h e b o x . be put on the council to j u s t i f y their plans.
L o c a l people are to be encouraged to sign the
accept be change come settle work
(11) and w e agreed to try to genrate
more (12) on the issue through
to a c o m p r o m i s e
the media.
towards an agreement
another p o i n t of view
strongly o p p o s e d to s o m e t h i n g
for a c o m p r o m i s e
y o u r m i n d a b o u t an issue

46
Module 4
M a k i n g a difference

-ing and o-infinitive clauses


Language development 2
3 C o m p l e t e t h e t e x t w i t h t h e i n f i n i t i v e o r -ing f o r m o f
> 3 -.i EG p. 179
the verbs i n brackets.

c r clauses
A community cinema
r.ewrite t h e sentences u s i n g that clauses.
" " e r e is n o evidence o f her involvement in the T h e decisin ( 1 ) (set u p ) a c o m m u n i t y
crime. cinema o n the premises o f the local h i g h school meant
""here . that it was o n l y possible (2) (use) it at
I He is very likely t o ask us t o w o r k late. the weekends and d u r i n g the holidays. T h e i n i t i a l
There . challenge was o b v i o u s l y f o r residents ( 3 )
5 r
andas may b e c o m e extinct, w h i c h is very sad. (raise) enough m o n e y to f u n d the project. I n a d d i t i o n ,
the o n l y w a y o f (4) (staff) the cinema was
4 During m y research, a high n u m b e r o f people were (5) ( r e l y o n ) volunteers.
f o u n d t o be face-blind. Despite the d i f f i c u l t i e s , there was a general feeling that
M y research . (6) ( p r o v i d e ) an independent c o m m u n i t y
5 The teacher explained the w i d e variety o f different cinema was essential ( 7 ) ( i m p r o v e ) the
earning o p t i o n s available t o students. quality o f l i f e i n the t o w n . Despite a rather s l o w start,
fhe teacher explained the cinema is n o w very popular and residents are
6 A lot o f y o u n g people have j o i n e d the p r o g r a m m e delighted ( 8 ) ( b e ) o f f e r e d free p a r k i n g a n d
this year, w h i c h is very encouraging. refreshments, as w e l l as cheap tickets f o r a w i d e
It range o f films.
There are n o w 15 p a r t - t i m e p a i d w o r k e r s , as w e l l
;s beginning with a question word as m o r e than 100 volunteers ( 9 ) (work)
there. H o w e v e r , i t is s t i l l d i f f i c u l t ( 1 0 )
C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h q u e s t i o n w o r d s f r o m (persuade) y o u n g people to go to films at w h a t t h e y
ihe b o x . regard as s c h o o l .
-ow what (x2) when where which
who (x2) why (x2)
C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h w o r d s f r o m t h e b o x .
1 l'm n o t sure yet to cali m y story. Put the verbs in the correct f o r m .
2 y o u choose t o invite is up t o y o u .
have it overstate share that(x2) volunteer
3 I've n o idea at all caf she decided t o
what who
goto.
4 I just don't understand I could have 1 in t h e c o m m u n i t y is n o t s o m e t h i n g just
forgotten it. for retired people.
5 Shall w e decide to go out? Is M o n d a y 2 It's impossible t h e benefits that it can
g o o d for you? provide at all ages.
6 I couldn't w o r k o u t y o u were talking to. 3 For example, it's i m p o r t a n t young
7 she really wants for her birthday is a people get experience o f the w o r k i n g w o r l d as early
new laptop. as possible.
8 I was talking t o h i m a b o u t . l'd decided 4 Paid w o r k often depends o n you know
to b e c o m e a nurse. rather than y o u k n o w - skills a n d
9 I have n o idea l'm g o i n g t o put t h e qualifications are often less i m p o r t a n t than y o u r
grand piano! contacts.
10 she always goes t o t h e same place is a 5 is also crucial that retired people have
mystery t o me. the o p p o r t u n i t y their skills and expertise
w i t h people less experienced than t h e m .
6 They frequently find that their main w o r r y is
t o o m u c h t i m e o n their hands.
7 Some kind o f structure in their lives helps
e n o r m o u s l y and evidence suggests
w o r k i n g w i t h a n e w set o f people can help t o
p r o l o n g people's lives.
Module 4
Making a difference

(Paper 1 Part 4)

K e y w o r d transformations 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e task a n d l o o k at t h e e x a m p l e . T h i n k
a b o u t h o w t h e t w o sentences are d i f f e r e n t a n d n o t i c e h o w t h e
meaning hasn't changed.

2 D o t h e task.

EXPERT STRATEGY For questions 7 - 7 0 , complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
Remember that the w o r d given must meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the
be included in y o u r answer and it word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word
c a n n o t be changed in any way. given. Here is an example (0).

0 Mark doesn't like it w h e n people tell h i m w h a t to d o .


HELP
RESENTS
> Ql You need to express future time Mark resents beinq told w h a t t o do.
in the new sentence.
1 Debbie is very likely to w i n the charity run fun.
> Q3 You need to transform the
LIKELIHOOD
adjective concerned into a n o u n .
In w i n the charity fun run.
> Q4 Use the w o r d us in y o u r answer.
2 Julin couldn't wait to begin his voluntan/ w o r k placement.
FORWARD
EXPERT LANGUAGE
Julin his voluntan/ w o r k placement.
W h i c h t w o questions test phrasal
3 Rachel was particularly concerned about the issue of noise pollution.
verbs?
OF
The issue of noise pollution to Rachel.

4 Because o f the heavy traffic, w e didn't arrive in time for the meeting.
PREVENTED
The heavy in t i m e for the meeting.

5 You have to be very c o m m i t t e d to d o this kind o f charity work.


CALLS
This kind o f charity w o r k deal o f c o m m i t m e n t .

6 Delia has always been a loyal supporter o f local charities.


LENT
Delia has always local charities.

7 Y o u n g people in the c o m m u n i t y w o u l d benefit greatly f r o m


the project.
HIGHLY
The project to y o u n g people in the c o m m u n i t y .

8 It is uncertain w h a t effect the new proposals will have.


REMAINS
It seen w h a t effect the new proposals will have.

9 In the end, only a very small number of protestors signed the petition.
HARDLY
In the end signed the petition.
10 The loss of f u n d i n g was the end of Jane's plan to go to India.
PAID
The loss o f f u n d i n g Jane's plan to go to India.
Module 4
Making a difference

W h i c h o f t h e f o l l o w i n g are t y p i c a l o f a p r o p o s a l ?
rriting (Paper 2 Part 2: Proposal) F i n d e x a m p l e s i n the p r o p o s a l i n E x e r c i s e 2b.
taz?.68-69, EWp. 196 1 passive forms/an impersonal style
2 phrasal verbs

EXPERTSTRATEGY
t o e the purpose of the proposal.
1 3 formal vocabulary
4 contracted forms
5 c o m p l e x sentences
n v i d e it into different parts w i t h clear headings. 6 persuasive language
recommendations.
Writing task

sing the task 5 N o w d o t h e t a s k i n E x e r c i s e 1.

r.ead the task a n d a n s w e r t h e q u e s t i o n s .


1 W h a t is the purpose o f t h e proposal?
2 W h o are y o u w r i t i n g it for? P r o p o s a l t o i m p r o v e
3 W h a t style of language will y o u use?
c o m m u n i t v r e l a t i o n s
notice on the students' noticeboard at the
tal language college where you are studying.
Introduction
(1) What I want to do in this proposal is t o suggest
n t survey by the council has revealed that local
w a y s in w h i c h g o o d relations with our neighbours
-:s nave a n u m b e r of concerns regarding the
c a n be reestablished (2) given the (3) problems
e, particularly the noise level late at night and
which carne up in t h e recent survey. It is obviously
i o u n t of discarded litter. W e are looking for
extremely important that a g o o d relationship be
tions of h o w to improve c o m m u n i t y relations.
maintained w i t h t h e local c o m m u n i t y a n d (4) just
; end, the college is prepared to fund some
now, this is clearly not h a p p e n i n g .
f social activity. You are invited to submit a
sal t o the principal, o u t l i n i n g ideas for this, after Current situation
a decisin will be made. Since the college is located (5) very near residential
family h o m e s , it is clearly vital that (6) we keep the
t . :ur proposal In 220-260 words. noise down after a certain hour. It is u n d e r s t o o d
that there has b e e n a t e n d e n c y for s t u d e n t s t o
shout a n d laugh very loudly w h e n walking b a c k
eloping ideas f r o m t o w n late at night, w h i c h disturbs y o u n g
children sleeping. It has also been n o t e d that t h e
r.ead these suggestions f o r t h e p r o p o s a l . T i c k t h e
following m o r n i n g s t a k e a w a y w r a p p e r s a n d e m p t y
:r.es y o u like a n d a d d a n y f u r t h e r ideas.
soft drink c a n s are often f o u n d littering the street,
1 W e could offer a variety of conversation classes in w h i c h d o e s not (7) make our town look good.
different languages for a term.
1 .'.e could organise a f o o d festival. Recommendations
I .'. e could send the residents a letter of apology. I w o u l d suggest t h e following (8) plan:
- .'. e could give talks a b o u t different cultures. a letter of apology t o be written by a 'task
g r o u p ' a n d (9) given out t o local residents.
r.ead a s t u d e n t ' s p r o p o s a l . W h i c h suggestions f r o m
Exercise 2a are p u t f o r w a r d ? I g n o r e t h e w o r d s i n c o n t a c t with our neighbours to b e initiated,
:z'.:cs at this stage. e.g. hosting an 'international evening' o n
w h i c h w e serve typical s n a c k s a n d drinks
f r o m our countries.
appropriate language
a s y s t e m t o be put in place w h e r e b y residents
r.ead the p r o p o s a l a g a i n a n d r e p l a c e t h e w o r d s c a n liaise directly with t h e s t u d e n t s (10) if there
L i d phrases i n italics w i t h these m o r e f o r m a l are any further p r o b l e m s .
a_:ematives. M a k e a n y o t h e r changes necessary.
Conclusin
a ntheeventof h in cise proximity to
r
W e r e t h e s h o r t - t e r m r e c o m m e n d a t i o n - the letter
b esolved i reflect well o n
- t o b e (11) put into action relatively s o o n a n d
c distributed j is kept to a m n i m u m
followed by a social event within t h e m o n t h , I feel
d mplemented k n view of
confident that any present tensin c o u l d quickly be
e at present I concerns raised
(12) sorted out.
f course o f a c t i o n
g :ne principal objective of

49
5 Controversy

Collocations
cabulary development 1
3 Complete each sentence w i t h a w o r d f r o m A and a
> CB p. 74
w o r d f r o m B.

Word formation
ecolgica! limlted natural renewable toxic
1 Complete the text w i t h words formed f r o m the
w o r d s i n brackets.
B

energy fumes footprlnt habitis resources

A r e p e t s g o o d f o r u s ? 1 The search for m o r e sources of such ai


w i n d farms is continuing.
In a recent b o o k o n ( I ) (sustain) living, t h e If fewer people travelled by car, there w o u l d be
authors r e c o m m e n d e d that p e t (2) (own) fewer in the atmosphere.
should restrict the n u m b e r o f pets they have and In a w o r l d o f , everyone should recyc
avoid feeding t h e m top-quality f o o d . T h e authors The destruction o f the o f some a n i m ;
arge that t is hard t o (3) (justice) giving and plants has resulted in their extinction.
this kind o f f o o d t o animis w h e n global resources People w h o use fewer resources are said t o have
are becoming scarcer. Feeding m o r e basic f o o d smaller than others.
w o u l d be (4) (ecology) m o r e friendly and
w o u l d (5) (less) t h e negative impact o f T h e environment
pets o n t h e environment. However, t h e argument
4 Choose t h e answers.
in (6) (defend) o f having pets states that
the f o o d currently fed t o pets is surplus t o human
(7) (require) and w o u l d otherwise end up in
landfill (8) (dispose) sites. In addition, pets ECOTOURISM
are k n o w n t o (9) _ (rich) o u r lives and be Ecotourism is the fastest g r o w i n g rea i n the holiday
(10) (benefit) t o o u r health. business, aiming to preserve and sustain the (1) diversity I
difference o f the w o r l d ' s natural and cultural resources.
It is intended as a ( 2 ) low-effect I low-impact altemative
to mass conventional t o u r i s m . Environmentalists hope
C o m p o u n d nouns with verbs a n d prepositions
it offers tourists an invaluable ( 3 ) understanding I
2 Use the words i n the b o x and the prepositions i n insight into the impact o f humans o n the environment.
brackets t o f o r m c o m p o u n d nouns a n d complete The purpose m a y be t o edcate the traveller and
t h e sentences. p r o v i d e funds f o r the ( 4 ) conservation I keeping o f v i t a l
resources such as energy and water. I t is also o f huge
1
break bulla look set sight turn
(5) profitable I economic benefit f o r the local community.
Since p r e s e r v i n g resources is a h i g h p r i o r i t y o n these
1 D u r i n g a financial (down), people tend
h o l i d a y s , travellers are u r g e d t o ( 6 ) recycle I reclaim
to have fewer pets.
w h e r e v e r possible and take a w a y non-biodegradable
2 The (out) for o u r e n v i r o n m e n t gets ever
( 7 ) mess I litter such as t i n s , plstic bags and e m p t y
m o r e depressing.
bottles, cut noise ( 8 ) pollution I impurity a n d
3 O n e day there may be a (through) and
generally make a p o s i t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o n society,
w e may find a solution t o w o r l d poverty.
the e n v i r o n m e n t and economy. H o w e v e r , as m a n y
4 The p r o g r a m m e gave a fascinating (in)
o f the destinations require people to travel b y air, the
into the causes o f global w a r m i n g .
lack o f e c o l o g i c a l l y - f r i e n d l y transport is a critical
5 It was a huge (back) w h e n the main
issue as i t contributes t o greenhouse gas emissions
striker got injured. and therefore t o ( 9 ) world I global w a r m i n g and
6 The (up) t o the event seemed t o g o o n (10) weather I climate change.
all day.

50
Module 5
G l o b a l issues

Of English (Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get the g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 Read the text again carefully and think about the type of w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p . C a n y o u p r e d i c t the a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at
the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 R e a d t h r o u g h the t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
LANGUAGE
1 D) bestfits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
re not sure a b o u t an answer,
ing the sentence w i t h each
Man's best friend
four options and see if o n e of
>unds right. There are various
theories to (0) A
for the cise
relationship that
T h e answer y o u need means
exists between
comparatively'.
people and dogs.
Read the rest of the paragraph Scientists agree
t o see w h i c h o p t i o n is correct. that this b o n d
Only o n e of these w o r d s can be has its origins in
used after by. prehistory but
various explanations
have been
LANGUAGE
(D
back at the text. Find an to suggest h o w
of an adverb + adjective it first carne about. Until (2) recently, the prevailing theory
tion. was that primitive people had been the nstigators o f t h e process of
domestication. (3) this view, primitive people realised
that not only were some species of wild dogs g o o d hunters, but that
they were also fiercely territorial by (4) . In order to take
(5) of these instinctive skills, people captured y o u n g
animis, trained t h e m and then bred t h e m in captivity. Recent research,
however, suggests that it may have been the dogs w h i c h made the first
(6) , attracted to h u m a n settlements by the opportunities
to scavenge amongst the waste material that ( 7 ) there. Like
domestic cats, dogs (8) f r o m their wild cousins in their ability
to digest carbohydrates and starch, and it is t h o u g h t that such digestive
changes facilitated the process of domestication.

0 Aaccount B explain C describe Djustify


1 A laid d o w n B set about C put forward D made up
2 A closely B relatively C approximately D respectively
3 A As well as B Apart from C In addition to D According to
4 A nature B character C habit D personality
5 A exploitation B benefit C advantage D profit
6 A move B contact C touch D turn
7 A arrived B deposited C dumped D accumulated
8 A change B differ C alter D contrast

1
Module 5
G l o b a l issues

Collocations: adverbs + adjectives


iage development 1
4 Cross o u t t h e o n e i n c o r r e c t o p t i o n i n e a c h
> CB p.77, EG p. 180
sentence.

Gradable and ungradable adjectives 1 I am o p p o s e d t o t h e fur trade.


A bitterly B perfectly C totally
la M a t c h the gradable adjectives (1-8) w i t h the
2 It's different f r o m w h a t I expected.
ungradable adjectives (a-h).
A highly B somewhat C completely
1 pleased a unforgettable
2 annoyed b disastro us 3 T h e s i t u a t i o n is disastrous.
3 interesting c spotless A absolutely B utterly C painfully
4 bad d stunning 4 The rea is d e p e n d e n t o n tourism.
5 attractive e furious
A bitterly B heavily C completely
6 memorable f terrified
7 apprehensive 5 The proposal is controversial.
g fascinating
8 clean h thrilled A deeply B highly C completely
6 To me, it is obvious that s o m e t h i n g
b W h i c h o f the adjectives i n the b o x are ungradable?
needs t o be done.
different efficient expensive impossible A incredibly B quite C painfully
informative outstanding perfect polluted
7 The a m o u n t o f litter is unacceptable.
remarkable spectacular welcoming
A totally B pretty C completely

Modifying adverbs 8 It is unlikely that the g o v e r n m e n t w i


back d o w n o n this issue.
2a W h i c h o f the adverbs i n the b o x make adjectives
A deeply B extremely C highly
stronger? W h i c h m a k e t h e m weaker? W r i t e t h e m
in the correct column. One adverb can go in b o t h R e a d t h e r e v i e w s a n d l o o k at t h e m o d i f y i n g
columns. adverbs i n italics. T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t ones a n d give
alternatives f o r t h e ones t h a t are u s e d i n c o r r e c t l y .
a bit/ittle absolutely completely extremely
M o r e t h a n o n e a n s w e r m a y b e possible.
fairly incredibly pretty quite really seriously
slightly somewhat utterly very

The trip w a s (1) very outstanding. T h e guides were


(2) really charming and the beaches were (3) a bit
deserted. I w a s (4) rather disappointed by the size
of my room, but l'd go back again tomorrow!

Seeing the wildlife w a s (5) totally magical and all


the people we met were (6) absolutely welcoming.
It w a s (7) completely expensive and the journey
there w a s (8) a bit stressful, but that wasn't the
company's fault.

The location w a s (9) deeply spectacular. All the


T i c k t h e a d v e r b s i n Exercise 2 a w h i c h c a n b e u s e d
people at the hotel were (10) very nice and I thought
o n l y w i t h ungradable adjectives.
it was (11) quite good valu for money. It was
Choose the correct answers. (12) bitteriy different from anywhere else l'd been.
1 Unless w e tackle the p r o b l e m o f water shortage, it
will be very / completely disastrous for the planet.
2 Agriculture uses an extremely / absolutely large
a m o u n t o f water.
3 I was a bit / totally fascinated by the lecture.
4 I was slightly / utterly surprised by her reaction.
5 She f o u n d the waterfalls really / fairly stunning.
6 It's highly / absolutely likely that w e will run o u t o f oil.
7 The fridge was extremely / virtually empty.
8 It was absolutely / extremely impossible t o w o r k w i t h
all that noise.
Module 5
G l o b a l issues

of Eng] 1 Part 2)

Open cloze 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f the t e x t a n d t h i n k a b o u t w h a t y o u are g o i n g t o r e a d .

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read the text again carefully and think about the type of w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p .

4 D o t h e task.

5 Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers in place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

STRATEGY For questions 7-8, read the text below and think ofthe word which best
fits each gap. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at
iding what part of speech is
the beginning (0).
)r a gap, also think about the
le w o r d , i.e. whether it needs
Shark fin s o u p
litive or negative, singular or
tive or passive, etc. Shark meat is rarely eaten. The animal's flesh has an unpleasant smel
J w h i c h (0) puts most people off. Shark fins, o n the other (1) ,
are a traditional delicacy, a key ingredient in shark fin soup. O n c e only
enjoyed by a few wealthy people in China, the soup has b e c o m e a luxury
W h a t n o u n completes this fixed
available all a r o u n d the w o r l d and some shark species face extinction
phrase that expresses purpose? (2) a result.
You need a relative p r o n o u n In (3) to maintain the supply o f fins to restaurants, sharks are
caught, their fins shaved off and their bodies t h r o w n back (4)
Look before the gap - this w o r d the water. (5) fins to give t h e m orientation and balance, the
relates to the year. sharks die. Particularly upsetting for wildlife campaigners is the fact that
the fin itself is virtually tasteless, simply providing a gelatinous liquid to
(6) other flavours are added.
LANGUAGE
A m o v e m e n t against shark fin soup began in 2006, (7) a
i n example of inversin in the W i l d A i d campaign was taken up by a g r o u p o f businesspeople and
celebrities. It has since gathered pace, w i t h a recent report suggesting the
soup is (8) longer the fashionable dish it once was.
Module 5
G l o b a l issues

Listening (Paper 3 Part 3)

Mltiple choice 1 Read the instructions for the task and answer the questions.
1 H o w m a n y speakers are y o u g o i n g to hear?
2 W h a t are they g o i n g t o talk about?

2 L o o k at t h e q u e s t i o n s a n d m a r k t h e k e y w o r d s i n t h e s t e m s a n d
options.

3 H o w m u c h d o y o u find o u t a b o u t t h e s t o r y f r o m t h e questions?

4 Q D o t h e task.

EXPERT STRATEGY
Remember that the questions follow
1 You will hear an interview
who once rescued
with a wildlife
a bear from drowning.
biologist
For questions
callea Adam
1-6, choose
Warwick,
the
the order of i n f o r m a t i o n in the answer (A, B, C or D) which fits best according to what you hear.
record ing. Listen to the interviewer's
questions to k n o w w h i c h question 1 W h e n A d a m initially heard reports a b o u t the bear, he felt
y o u should be answering. A intrigued to hear m o r e a b o u t it.
J B hopeful that it w o u l d n ' t remain in the rea.
C sure it was o n e that he'd previously studied.
HELP
D concerned a b o u t h o w local people w o u l d react to it.
> Q 2 Listen for h o w the bear felt
2 In Adam's o p i n i n , the bear w e n t into the water because
w h e n the cars stopped.
A it was suffering f r o m the effects of the drug.
Q 5 Listen for the phrase l'm not
B it was unaware that it had been hit by the dart.
really a hero. The answer comes
C it was frightened by the attention o f onlookers.
soon afterwards.
D it was planning to make its escape across the bay.
> Q 6 A d a m talks a b o u t all these
3 W h e n A d a m reached the bear in the water, he realised
things, but only one of t h e m
A it was already unconscious.
amazes h i m .
B it was trying to save its o w n life.
C it was angry at being intercepted.
EXPERT LANGUAGE
Find four examples o f verb +
1 4
D it was a b o u t to start attacking h i m .
H o w did A d a m eventually manage to save the bear?
p r e p o s i t i o n c o l l o c a t i o n s in the A By dragging it along in shallow water
questions. B By s w i m m i n g w i t h it towards the shore
C By enlisting the support of people in a boat
D By h o l d i n g its head o u t of the water until help arrived
EXPERT W O R D C H E C K 5 H o w does A d a m respond to being regarded as a hero?
beachfront dart dextrous eartag A He's embarrassed by some o f t h e attention he's received.
marrage proposal musky pennsula B He admits to having experienced fear d u r i n g the rescue.
sedatlve stumbling C He's offended by the gifts of m o n e y he's been sent.
D He's keen to stress that he was only d o i n g his j o b .
6 W h a t surprises A d a m most a b o u t the bears in Florida?
A the delicate movements they are capable of
B the level o f intelligence they demnstrate
C their particularly evocative smel
D their great physical strength
Phrasal verbs and idiomatic expressions
cabulary development 2
3a C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f
IDO. oU-oI
the w o r d s i n the b o x .

Security: collocations catch come fall freak get hush take

1 I z m p l e t e each sentence w i t h a w o r d f r o m A a n d a 1 Experts u p w i t h n e w protection systems


v r o r d f r o m B. to stop people hold o f information.
2 There are often attempts to up what
hackers are doing.
z z^etric code phone security spy swipe
3 People often f o r the scams used by
hackers.
4 W h a t really the journalist o u t was
r
checks guards number satelltes tapping feeling that her identity had ben taken hostage.
5 There are m o r e and m o r e clever ways to
1 M a n y airports are n o w using as p r o o f people unawares.
o f identity. 6 The c o m p u t e r expert agreed t o p a r t n
2 n some big schools there are n o w an interview.
e m p l o y e d t o stand at the doors.
3 Peopie w o r k i n g in offices often have t o key in a b N o w l o o k at y o u r a n s w e r s a n d t h e w o r d s i n b o l d i n
before they can enter t h e building. Exercise 3 a. M a t c h t h e c o m p l e t e d e x p r e s s i o n s w i t h
4 To unlock an electronic door, y o u sometimes their meanings.
need t o run a t h r o u g h the slot o f a a manage t o find s o m e t h i n g t o use
special reader. b make s o m e o n e very upset and anxious
5 The press are often criticised for using c prevent people f r o m k n o w i n g a b o u t
to find o u t i n f o r m a t i o n . something
are sometimes used in militar/ operations. d d o s o m e t h i n g w h e n s o m e o n e is n o t
expecting it
repositional phrases e particpate
f think o f a new idea
T h e t e x t b e l o w is b a s e d o n t h e l i s t e n i n g t e x t o n
g be tricked into s o m e t h i n g
page 80 o f t h e C o u r s e b o o k . C o m p l e t e i t w i t h
prepositions f r o m the box. T h e prepositions m a y
Verbs and adverbs for opinions: intensifying
be u s e d m o r e t h a n o n c e .
expressions
at for n of on to
4 Choose the correct answers.
1
radio interview, a j o u r n a l i s t talked about her A: I flrmly / absolutely believe the g o v e r n m e n t should
;riences w i t h a person w h o hacked into her emails. cut the n u m b e r o f CCTV cameras. We're b e c o m i n g
The person had emailed her contacts to say that she had
a surveillance society.
reen held up ( 1 ) gunpoint ( 2 )
B: M m , I must say I completely / bitterly resent being
attempt to get m o n e y f r o m them.
spied o n all the t i m e unless it's really necessary.
31 the j o u r n a l i s t ' s amazement, the hacker
j l i e d w h e n she w r o t e h i m an email demanding her 2
itacts back. W h a t worries the j o u r n a l i s t is that it's A: I think g o o d security software is totally / vitally
r.ot just hardened criminis w h o do i t ; kids obsessed important.
::h technology are also h a c k i n g ( 4 ) secret B: I quite / really agree.
f r o m their bedrooms, perhaps j u s t ( 5 )
run. She points o u t that h a c k i n g puts a l l o u r lives 3
16) risk and there should be better A: I a m highly / seriously c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h o w
procedures ( 7 ) place to prevent it. newspapers o b t a i n their stories.
A consultant ( 8 ) the field o f i n f o r m a t i o n B: Yes, I strongly / distinctly o b j e c t t o t h e m hacking
:echnology was also interviewed ( 9 ) the into celebrities' phones just t o get gossip.
u b j e c t (10) online crime. H e agreed that 4
Ipeople should be (11) their guard at a l l
A: I wish w e didn't have so m u c h airport security. It
times, b u t p o i n t e d out that i t is important to keep the
makes m e entirely / deeply frustrated.
danger (12) perspective
B: Ah, I vividly / strongly r e m e m b e r h o w quick and
easy check-in used to be in the od days.
Module 5
An open society?

Reading (Paper 1 Part 8)

Mltiple matching 1 Read the title of the text a n d the i n t r o d u c t o r y sentence. W h a t do y o i


t h i n k t h e m e m b e r s o f the t e a m w i l l l o o k like?

2 R e a d t h e task a n d m a r k t h e k e y w o r d s i n each q u e s t i o n .

3 R e a d t h e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get a n i d e a o f h o w i t is s t r u c t u r e d a n d w h a t
issues are discussed i n e a c h s e c t i o n . W h a t is t h e m a i n focus o f e a c h
section?

4 L o o k at q u e s t i o n 1 a n d find t h e sections o f the t e x t t h a t t a l k a b o u t


the 'hiring' of the t e a m m e m b e r s . L o o k for w o r d s and expressions
that describe energetic m o v e m e n t s . W r i t e the question n u m b e r next
t o these s e c t i o n s so y o u c a n find t h e m a g a i n q u i c k l y . T h e n r e a d
these sections c a r e f u l l y a n d d e c i d e w h i c h s e c t i o n m a t c h e s t h e e x a c t
w o r d i n g o f q u e s t i o n 1.

5 Repeat the p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s .

HELP
> Q 2 Look at the section w h i c h talks You are going to read an article about a team of computer experts who
fight cyber crime. For questions 7 - 7 0 , choose from the sections (A-D).
a b o u t w h a t o n e team m e m b e r
The sections may be chosen more than once.
wears.
> Q 3 Look again at the sections that
In which section does the writer mention:
talk a b o u t recruitment.
the decisin to embark o n an intensive recruitment campaign?
> Q 7 Be careful: the w o r d talent is in
the text but not in the section a stereotypical image not c o n f i r m e d by the appearance of
w i t h the answer to this question. o n e team member?

a m e t h o d of assessing the suitability of those wishing to j o i n


EXPERT STRATEGY the team?

If y o u are unsure of a question, go o n evidence that suggests the identity of one particular criminal?
to the next one and c o m e back to it.
research that confirms the level of damage nflicted by cyber
It may be easier to answer once you
criminis? 5
have answered some o f t h e others.
o n e team member's particular rea of technical expertise? 6

the personal qualities required of potential team members? 7


EXPERT LANGUAGE
the visual representation of an ongoing investigation? 8
Find four examples of c o m p o u n d
adjectives in section A of the text. increasing levis of concern amongst those targeted by cyber
criminis? 9

a natural talent that has been put to good use? 10


EXPERT W O R D CHECK
battalion bewilderment
disconcertingly forensic investigator Vocabulary
geek hiring spree pinpointed
6 L o o k at these c o m p o u n d w o r d s f r o m t h e t e x t . D e c i d e w h i c h s h o u l d
prime suspect replicas
b e w r i t t e n as o n e w o r d a n d w h i c h s h o u l d b e w r i t t e n as t w o w o r d s .
reverse engineering sleuths
T h e n l o o k b a c k at t h e t e x t a n d c h e c k y o u r a n s w e r s .
stock-in-trade
1 hacker hunters (title)
2 head quarters (Section A)
3 cyber crime (Section B)
4 short hand (Section C)
5 rare breed (Section D)
6 trust w o r t h y (Section D)
7 family farm (Section E)
8 soft ware (Section E)
5B
Module 5
An open society?

Dan Kelly, a 28 -year-old former farm boy turned forensic


35 investigator of computer code heads the team, which has

h e tiaeKef
pinpointed a one-man hack attack amid a string of dots,
numbers and letters. 'This is malware that's been tied t o
several campaigns, which targeted people in the western and
eastern hemispheres,' says Kelly, w h o left school at 16, having
4o completed all his qualifications early. Malware is shorthand for
the malicious software that is the stock-in-trade of hackers
worldwide. 'What we've actually managed t o do is tie the
malware and the campaigns backto an individual.' Kelly, an
expert in reverse engineering - taking code apart t o deduce
45 ts origin and purpose - points out that the image projected
on the teams meeting room wall is also telegraphing
something personal about his prime suspect. Much like a
:eam of lite young experts are on graffiti artist, the hacker tagged his work, embedding his
trail of t h e cyber criminis signature somewhere within the malware.

xnewhere deep within the headquarters of a London- so Hiring the right talent has been among the IT company's
: T company, a projection flickers on the whitewashed biggest challenges. Cyber experts - some of w h o m t r y
a meeting room. Its uniform multi-coloured dots form out for Jobs in simulated sessions of 'ethical hacking' or
ge that wouldn't look out of place in a modern art gallery. 'penetration testing', where they attempt t o hack into
isn't art; it is science. Each lilac and rose-coloured replicas of companies' systems to find any vulnerabilities - are
epresents one step in a hunt for hackers. For the 55 something of a rare breed. Stephen Page, w h o advises the
:ers of the company's newest security team, UK government on the digital issues facing companies,
. of cyber sleuths mostly still in their 20s, offers a job description of what is needed in a
bright lights are fiares of corporate tech detective, no matter the age. 'We need
. The team offers its services t o a people who are not only technically age
number of corporate clients - 6o but also totally trustworthy.'
nes seeking protection against
raud, activism and industrial @ The poster boy o f the teams
ge, perpetrated by unseen cyber efforts is Kris McConkey, a
;tes who can be thousands 3 I -year-old w h o has been obsessed
es away. In response, the IT with computers since primary
gcmoany has launched a hiring spree 65 school. McConkey, whose just-so
the past t w o years t o crate an hair, designer stubble and sharp
. se battalion of more than 80 shirts dispel any notion of the hoodie-
pOLthful experts f r o m across the UK wearing geek, grew up on a family farm
I abroad. in a rural comer o f Ireland and bought his
7o first computer at age 13. The first thing he
I v b e r protection has become one of did, somewhat disconcertingly to his parents,
T
company's fastest-growing departments, was pul it apart. Luckily, the young teenager also
- no small part by the increasing number of such figured out how t o fit all the pieces back together. Within
r~.iz<s and deepening sense o f bewilderment and fear within the year, he was learning h o w t o dissect computer viruses
prvate corporations over w h o is profiting f r o m these secret and malware. By the time he left school, he'd set up his own
r
r . t e wars. Hackers want t o steal the secrets and money and software company. 1 was always trying t o w o r k out how stuff
ra.-*"age the reputations of the companies they target. Recent worked and take things to bits - whether it was machinery
r - ~ e s show that their persistence pays: the UK government or radios or anything - just to figure it out. I started doing
est. mates that the cost of cyber crime t o the country's that with computers and with computer programs as well,' he
economy alone reaches 27 billion annually, while a W h i t e explains. Tve pretty much done that either as a hobby or as
-*ouse white paper on cyber policy estimated that data theft my job for 16 years now; just trying t o w o r k out what the bad
te US businesses costs cise t o $ I trillion annually. guys are up t o and how t o defend against t.'

L o o k at these phrases f r o m t h e t e x t a n d a d d 4 an in house battalion (Section A)


h y p h e n s w h e r e necessary. T h e n l o o k b a c k at the 5 a 28 year od f o r m e r farm boy (Section C)
text and check y o u r answers. 6 a o n e man hack attack (Section C)
1 a London based IT c o m p a n y (Section A) 7 the stock in trade of hackers worldwide (Section C)
2 multi coloured dots (Section A) 8 a h o o d i e wearing geek (Section E)
3 each rose coloured spot (Section A)
5B
Module 5
A n o p e n society?

3 Find a n d correct the mistakes i n some o f the


Language development 2 sentences. T i c k ( / ) t h e ones t h a t are c o r r e c t .
1 l'll help y o u providing that I have time.
> C B p . 82, E G p 181
2 If it were up to me, I had a smaller car.
3 Should y o u deciding to c o m e , we'd be happy t o
Review of conditionals
put y o u up.
1 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences a b o u t h o m e a n d w o r k
4 We'd be sitting o n the beach by n o w i f y o u were
s e c u r i t y w i t h t h e pairs o f v e r b s f r o m t h e b o x i n t h e
better at reading maps!
correct conditional form. M o r e than one answer
5 l'll go instead unless y o u don't w a n t to.
m a y be possible.
6 I f y o u can't understand it, l'm sure I w o n ' t be
be / invest feel / carry get / Uve nstall / know able to.
need/ask not leave / not be able to use/be 7 I can c o m e as long that y o u can drive me back
want / recommend before n o o n .
8 Should y o u need anything, please don't hesitate
1 Ifyou your h o m e t o be secure, the to contact me.
plice that y o u install n e w w i n d o w and
d o o r locks. Mixed conditionals
2 Personally, I a d o g if I in the
middle of the country like y o u . 4 R e w r i t e t h e sentences u s i n g m i x e d c o n d i t i o n a l s .

3 If business g o o d next year, I B e g i n w i t h If.

in some CCTV cameras. 1 Sam doesn't k n o w h o w to encrypt the data, so o u r


4 Ifyou smoke alarms, y o u business information was hacked.
a b o u t the fire m u c h earlier than y o u d i d .
5 If y o u t o be away for a few weeks, I 2 I can't get o n w i t h m y w o r k because I left my laptop
Mark t o put some lights o n a timer o n the train.
switch for y o u , i f y o u like.
6 If I the ladder in the garden that day, 3 Because people are generally very honest, my
the burglar t o c l i m b into the t o p p h o n e was returned.
w i n d o w w h i c h was o p e n .
7 When you a swipe card, the risk of 4 I've lost my credit card, so I w o n ' t be able t o c o m e
non-authorised people entering the premises shopping with you.
reduced.
8 I k n o w you'll ignore me, but I much 5 There are CCTV cameras outside the station, so they
happier if y o u a personal alarm w h e n saw the m a n that stole my bike.
you're o n your way h o m e late at night.
6 She g o t away w i t h it because she knows influential
Alternatives to if people.

2 Choose the correct answers. 7 I know a c o m p u t e r expert, w h i c h is w h y I was able


1 It's Ilegal to tap s o m e o n e else's p h o n e calis to sort o u t the p r o b l e m .
providing / unless it is d o n e for reasons o f
national security. 8 He isn't aware of h o w t h o r o u g h airport security is,
2 Smoke alarms are great inventions but for / so he didn't allow enough t i m e to catch t h e flight.
as long as y o u don't burn a lot o f toast!
3 Calis to businesses may be m o n i t o r e d suppose /
provlded that y o u are nformed.
4 I am g o i n g to install a spam filter o n the c o m p u t e r
\f I whether y o u w a n t me to or not!
5 Should I Were w e have a break-in, l'd get CCTV
cameras p u t in.
6 I w o u l d have lost all m y data were it I whether or
not for Dave's help.
7 I don't o p e n messages f r o m u n k n o w n senders,
otherwise / supposing I might have g o t a virus.
8 l'd feel happier a b o u t leaving the house e m p t y
had I suppose I r e m e m b e r e d t o ask a neighbour
to p o p in f r o m t i m e to time.

58
Module 5
An o p e n society?

Use Of English (Paper 1 Part 3)

Word formation 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t . W h a t is i n t e r n e t fraud? W h a t t y p e o f a d v i c e


d o y o u e x p e c t t o read?

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read the text again carefully a n d think about the f o r m of the w o r d


n e e d e d t o fit i n e a c h gap.

4 D o t h e task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

EXPERT S T R A T E G Y For questions 1-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at
iheck the rest o f the sentence after the end ofsome of the Unes to form a word that fits in the gap in the same
change the w o r d . Does it make Une. There is an exampie at the beginning (0).

H o w to a v o i d internet fraud

You need a verb in the present


simple that has a negative
meaning.
Q4 You need to f o r m an adjective
from this noun by adding a suffix.
Q 6 A d d a prefix t o f o r m a n o u n
that means 'buying or selling
something'.

EXPERT L A N G U A G E
F n d three examples of negative
<es in the text.
J

4
Because the internet allows us to make (0) payments PAY
online, criminis are always o n the l o o k o u t for
opportunities to cash in. For example, it's by no means
(1) for a buyer to provide credit card details to USUAL
a seller w h o actually has n o t h i n g to sell and whose website
(2) overnight. Needless to say, the criminal then APPEAR
makes (3) use o f t h e card details. That's w h y LEGAL
before buying anything, it is (4) to d o a bit of
background research to make sure the site is (5) ADVICE
and well-established. It's a g o o d idea to check o u t any REPUTE
feedback f r o m previous clients and y o u should only use
sites that offer what's called a secure (6) to
collect your card details. A padlock symbol somewhere ACTION
o n the browser should help to put your m i n d at rest. The
internet is also full of get-rich-quick schemes. Companies
w i t h (7) websites may offer fantastic returns if IMPRESS
y o u invest y o u r m o n e y w i t h t h e m . Beware of these and be
(8) ; if s o m e t h i n g sounds t o o g o o d to be true, REAL
then it probably is.

59
Module 5
A n o p e n society?

Structuring paragraphs
(Paper 2 Part 1: E s s a y )
3 R e a d t h e m a i n b o d y o f a s t u d e n t ' s essay a n d
> CB pp. -85, EW pp. 191-192
answer the questions.
1 W h i c h t w o notes has the student chosen to write
EXPERT STRATEGY about?
Structure y o u r essay carefully, t o inciude an 2 W h a t is the main p o i n t made a b o u t each o f t h e
i n t r o d u c t i o n , t w o main paragraphs and a conclusin. notes? W h a t is the s u p p o r t i n g evidence?
Inciude evidence to back up y o u r main points. 3 W h a t drawbacks to these suggestions are mentioned?

Analysing the task It is undeniable t h a t m o r e c o u l d b e d o n e t o c u t d o w n


on t h e amount of e n e r g y u s e d during s c h o o l hours.
1 Read the task and m a r k the m a i n points. T h e n read
T h e h e a t m g is t u r n e d up far t o o high a n d t h e r e is
t h e o p i n i o n s , w h i c h m a y g i v e y o u ideas f o r w h a t
no flexibility for it t o b e s w i t c h e d off o r d o w n . T h e r e
y o u m i g h t w r i t e i n y o u r essay.
is s o m e t h i n g s e r i o u s l y w r o n g when s t u d e n t s a r e in
s h i r t s l e e v e s in mid-winter. In a d d i t i o n , p a r t s of t h e
s c h o o l n o t u s e d s o often c o u l d b e h e a t e d l e s s ,
Your class has attended a lecture on how schools could
although t h i s is only an i s s u e during winter.
be more eco-friendly. You have made the notes below.
E v e n m o r e c r u c i a l than t h i s , h o w e v e r , is t h e n e e d
t o r e 5 t n c t t h e a m o u n t of c a r s which c u r r e n t l y c l o g
M a k i n g schools e c o - f r i e n d l y
t h e s u r r o u n d i n g rea. A t t h e v e r y l e a s t , e n g i n e s
transport t o school c o u l d b e t u r n e d off whilst p e o p l e a r e waiting, t o
energy c o n s e r v a r o n a v o i d t o x i c e m i s s i o n s . If w e h a d a s a f e b i c y c l e park,
recycling m o r e p e o p l e might c y c l e t o s c h o o l . H o w e v e r , many
p a r e n t s a r e w o r r i e d a b o u t t h e b u s y road5. A n d whilst
walking is beneficial for t h e health a s well a s for t h e
S o m e o p i n i o n s expressed in t h e discussion:
e n v i r o n m e n t , s o m e p e o p l e live t o o far away. Despite
'If m o r e children w o u l d walk or cycle t o school, it t h i s , w h a t t h e y c o u l d do is t o make e v e r y effort t o
w o u l d cut d o w n o n air pollution.' s h a r e lifts o r g e t a b u s .

'We should not sell any f o o d o r d r i n k if the packaging


can't be used again.'

'Classrooms are usually overheated in the winter.' Using appropriate language

Write an essay for your head teacher discussing two of 4 F i n d e x a m p l e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t h e essay.

the suggestions in the notes. You should expiain which 1 c o m p l e x vocabulary


suggestion is better and give reasons in support of 2 impersonal style
your answer. You may, ifyou wish, make use ofthe 3 linking w o r d s and phrases
opinions expressed in the discussion, but you should use 4 c o m p l e x sentences
your own words as far as possible.
Write your essay in 220-260 words. Writing a conclusin

5 R e a d t w o c o n c l u s i o n s f o r t h e essay. W h i c h o n e is
Writing a n introduction
m o r e appropriate? W h y ?
2 R e a d t w o o p e n i n g p a r a g r a p h s f o r t h e essay. W h i c h
o n e is m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e ? T h i n k a b o u t w h i c h o n e :
1 uses impersonal language? So, <7i5 I $?d b-e^ore, it's otvio^S, really, t^vf w
2 is m o r e general? need t o bc\r\ cnr$ cmd ^ k e s t ^ d e r v t wialk
3 leads o n well t o the next paragraph? or t i k e t o scUool so t k t w e d o r / t destroy t k e
rv vi r o r\ ^ e rT-

There is little doubt that we should be domq everything


B
we can to help our planet survive. And where better to
start than in our schools, with the young people who will
be living in the environment of the future? T o sum up, I Wou\ arge that pressure nees to be put
or\ stuAents ar\A parents to aetto ar\A {rom school \n
a more ecologically responsMe Vay. Cutt'mg oWn on
I thinK that heiping to save the environment is one of fofyil f u e l y as Well as air pollution iYiak.es tWis change the
the most important things we can do. We should all most immeA'iately important.
be doing everything we can because if we don't, there
will be no planet left for our children in the future.
go let's IOOK at some of the things we can do Writing task

6 N o w d o t h e t a s k i n E x e r c i s e 1.
Communication

Informal expressions: speaking a n d


ulary development 1 understanding
p.90
3 M a t c h t h e sentence h a l v e s .

unicating: phrasal verbs 1 I can't make head


2 I can never get a w o r d
r.eplace t h e w o r d s i n b o l d w i t h t h e w o r d ( s ) i n 3 I think Becky g o t t h e w r o n g end
crackets a n d t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f a v e r b f r o m t h e 4 You t o o k t h e words right
b o x . M a k e a n y o t h e r c h a n g e s necessary. 5 M y brother and sister are always having a go
;" "a get (x3) speak talk (x2) try 6 I think you've missed

a at each other a b o u t money.


.persuaded A n d y n o t t o l e n d Lucy his car. (out of) b o f the stick a b o u t t h e arrangements because she's
2 The boss d i d a g o o d j o b c o m m u n i c a t i n g the not arrived yet.
importance o f the changes t o the staff. (over) c o r tail o f these instructions. Can you?
3 l'm n o t brilliant at French b u t I can m a n a g e in m o s t d the point o f w h y we're going.
situations. (by) e o u t o f my m o u t h - that's what I was about to suggest.
4 Let's discuss it this evening before making a final f in edgeways w h e n Mandy's a r o u n d .
decisin, (over)
5 vVhen I go t o Poland, I enjoy h a v i n g a g o at using Communication
the phrases I've learnt. (out)
6 I tried t o expiain t o her h o w serious the situation 4 Complete the text w i t h words f r o m the box.
was b u t didn't seem t o be able t o make her
achieve building effectively engaged express
understand. (through)
familiar means stand
7 A t t h e meeting, I m e n t i o n e d the subject o f t h e pay
rise. (up)
I couldn't hear a w o r d at the back, so I asked
Andrea t o raise h e r voice. (up) Types o l motivation o r language learning

ssions with speak, talk and say Instrumental m o t i v a t i o n


Learning a foreign language is often a (1) to an
Choose the correct answers. end. People often study a language in order to (2)
1 I really dislike standing a r o u n d making small speak / another goal, such as getting into college or getting a better job.
talk t o people at parties. They may enjoy the learning process or eventually become
2 It goes w i t h o u t saying / speaking that I will d o (3) in the target culture, but their main motivation
anything I can t o help. is instrumental: a language can help them to fulfil a college
3 Everybody talks / speaks very highly of that new teacher. language requirement or (4) out in a tough
4 Liz can usually be relied o n t o say / speak her m i n d . job market.
5 I still haven't finished decorating, needless to say / talk. Integrative m o t i v a t i o n
6 I haven't a clue w h a t she's speaking / talking about. For some learners, the main motivation for studying a language
Have you? is the desire to understand a culture and society better and
7 She didn't talk / say a w o r d about what had happened. (5) themselves in the target language. For them,
8 C o u l d y o u p h o n e Miranda? We're n o t really o n the language is a tool for (6) relationships and
talking / speaking terms at t h e m o m e n t . communicating (7) , for example with a friend or
family member who speaks the language.
Studies have shown that integratively motivated learners are
often more successful and that lack of interest in the target
culture may make the learning process more difficult. It is
thought that a desire to become (8) with the
culture and society in which a language is used makes learning
it much easier.
6A
Module 6
G e t t i n g y o u r message across

Us nglish (Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 L o o k at t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t . W h a t sort o f b e n e f i t s d o y o u e x p e c t t o


read about?

2 R e a d t h e t e x t q u i c k l y t o see i f y o u w e r e c o r r e c t .

3 Read the text again carefully and think about the type of w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p . C a n y o u p r e d i c t t h e a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at
the options?

4 D o t h e task.

5 Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers in place. Does it m


c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
> Q 2 You need to choose the
D) bestfits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
o p t i o n that makes a phrasal
verb w i t h for.
Q3 You need the w o r d that means
The benefits of bilingualism
'increases'. Physiological studies have f o u n d that
Q8 Only o n e of these words can be speaking t w o or m o r e languages
followed by at. is a (0) A asset to the cognitive
process. The brains of bilingual
people oprate differently to those
EXPERT LANGUAGE o f (1) language speakers,
Find t w o exam pies of prefixes that and these differences offer several
indcate n u m b e r in the text. mental benefits.
Speaking a foreign language
is t h o u g h t to improve the
functionality o f t h e brain because it
(2) for both recognition
of and c o m m u n i c a t i o n in different
language systems. This then
(3) an ndividual's ability
to negotiate meaning in other p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g tasks as well. Indeed,
students w h o study foreign languages (4) a tendency to d o
better than their monolingual (5) in tests of maths t o o .
Rather like a muscle, the brain (6) well to being used.
Learning a language involves m e m o r i s i n g rules and vocabulary and this
helps to i m p r o v e other (7) of m e m o r y , w h i c h explains w h y
mltiple language speakers are often better at r e m e m b e r i n g ames or
s h o p p i n g lists. Finally, given that multilingual people are (8)
at switching between t w o systems of speech, w r i t i n g and structure, they
also make g o o d multi-taskers in a variety of other contexts.

0 A great B deep C wide D heavy


1 A solitary B lone C sol D single
2 A forces B calis C demands D requires
3 Alifts B pumps C boosts D pushes
4 A have B bring Cget D make
5 Aequals B peers C matches D fellows
6 A replies B answers C responds D accepts
7 A aspects B tems C objects D angles
8 Aaccustomed B capable C adapted Dskilled
Module 6
G e t t i n g y o u r message across

Words that are easily confused


tage development 1
3 Choose the correct answers.
1 l'm positive that m y team w o n ' t lose / lose again
rules this week.
w

2 I don't think l'll c o m e - l'm quiet / quite tired.


:rr.pete t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f 3 H o w does the news effect / affect our chances?
a -.vords i n b r a c k e t s . 4 I think w e j u s t have t o except / accept the decisin.
jess s quite tidy but her brother is even 5 l'm sure you'll get better at this - it'll just take a bit
m o r e practise / practice.
1 " - f e nave been quite a few (crash) o n 6 Can y o u insure / ensure that the delivery will arrive
T s road recently. o n time?
H - -. e y o u (lay) the table for dinner yet? 7 That was a c o m p l e t e waste / waist o f time.
[ 4 She noticed there were a lot of 8 Are w e aloud / allowed t o cross here?
~ i n u l t o ) around. 9 l'm going weather / whether y o u w a n t m e t o or not.
: : - : that the same college your sister once 10 I past I passed h i m o n the street.
(study) at?
f - i smiled (cheerful) w h e n he saw me. Hyphens
e s a very (rely) worker.
A d d h y p h e n s w h e r e necessary. T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t
~ ~ e city gets (visit) from all over the world.
sentences.

i s that are difficult to spell 1 He had to have a three hour operation the other day.
2 James is quite a thoughtful person at times.
: d a n d c o r r e c t 12 s p e l l i n g m i s t a k e s i n t h e e m a i l 3 His son is b r o w n eyed and dark haired.
racts. 4 That's m y ex girlfriend over there.
5 He's o u t o f w o r k at the m o m e n t .
6 D o y o u get o n well w i t h y o u r coworkers?
7 There are over 4 0 0 Indo European languages.
8 I think y o u should f o l l o w up y o u r p h o n e cali w i t h
an email.
<e -nally made the desicion to join the liesure 9 Have y o u been to that n e w d e p a r t m e n t store?
and enrol for the gym because I am worried 10 The hotel had a 15 metre pool, a g y m and a
my lack of fitness. Of course, there is children's play rea.
tarantee l'll get healthier but at my age it's
sary to do something because I love deserts
want to carry on eating them without feeling
guilty!

CheckAII <p Reply > Forward

I .vent to return those jeans I bought last week.


rtunatly, I didn't have the reciept so I had to
a credit note rather than get my money back.
a long arguement with the manager - and
Bt. I definately won't be shopping there again!

Inbox
CheckAII <=> Reply c> Forward

Z~ approximmately six or seven seprate ocassions


I .e had my phone taken off me at school for
:=: ng during lessons. It's embarassing but I
cmildn't care less, really, because the teacher just
-=:_irns it at the end o f t h e lesson, anyway.
6A
Module 6
G e t t i n g y o u r message across

(Paper 1 Part 2)

Open cloze 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t a n d t h i n k a b o u t w h a t y o u are g o i n g t o r e a :

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 R e a d t h e t e x t a g a i n c a r e f u l l y a n d t h i n k a b o u t t h e t y p e o f w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p .

4 D o t h e task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it me
c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
> Q2 You need a relative p r o n o u n For questions 7-8, read the text below and think ofthe word which best
fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the
here.
beginning (0).
> Q4 W h i c h preposition indicates
change f r o m o n e thing t o
T h e first e m a i l e r
another?
O n e evening in 1 9 7 1 , (0) when Raymond S T o m l i n s o n was w o r k i n g
> Q5 Read ahead in the sentence
late in a laboratory in Massachusetts, he witnessed a fhdge-sized
to find the w o r d this gap
c o m p u t e r receiving a line of text he had typed into a similarly bulky
connects to.
machine positioned a metre away. He can't r e m e m b e r (1)
the message was, or the exact date o n (2) it was sent, but
EXPERT LANGUAGE the 2 9 - y e a r - o l d had just sent the first ever email.

Find an example o f t h e future in the T o m l i n s o n designed his p r o g r a m m e (3) a tool for users
past in the text. to c o m m u n i c a t e o n Arpanet, the US militan/ network that 20 years
later was to evolve (4) the internet. The email address he
created for himself, Tomlinson@bbn-tenexa, incorporated his ame,
the operating system, his location and the 'at' sign, w h i c h was recently
d e e m e d (5) iconic of the c o m p u t e r age that it was acquired
by N e w York's M u s e u m of M o d e r n Art. (6) to T o m l i n s o n ,
he chose it because it was
the only preposition o n
the keyboard.

What's ( 7 ) ,
email wasn't Tomlinson's
only c o n t r i b u t i o n to
the history of electronic
c o m m u n i c a t i o n . He
w e n t (8)
to help develop global
positioning systems,
supercomputers and
video conferencing
software.
Module 6
G e t t i n g y o u r message across

iStening (Paper 3 Part 1)

Mltiple choice 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s a n d t h e c o n t e x t sentences i n t h e t a s k a n d


answer the questions.
1 H o w many extracts are y o u g o i n g to hear?
2 W h a t is each extract about?

N o w read the context sentence and questions for Extract One. H o w


m u c h d o y o u find o u t a b o u t t h e t o p i c a n d t h e speakers?

07
Q D o t h e task.

PERT STRATEGY 1 You wili hear three different


(A, B or C) which fits best according
extracts. For questions 7 - 6 , choose the
to what you hear. There are two
answer

m e m b e r that y o u will often be


fcning for the o p i n i o n s o f the pillllllllll^^
Bfcers, not just facts about the topic
Extract O n e

Y o u hear t w o language teachers talking a b o u t language learning.

Listen t p the end o f the man's 1 W h a t does the man appreciate most a b o u t his current j o b ?
turn to find the answer. A He gets the chance to use his full range o f languages.
Listen for w h a t she says a b o u t B He's been able to change the way that languages are taught.
her school. C He finds the approach to language learning matches his o w n .
Be careful: the answer comes 2 W h a t does the w o m a n suggest a b o u t her experience of learning
before y o u hear the w o r d faculty. English?
A It made her d o u b t the w i s d o m o f o n e particular m e t h o d .

R T LANGUAGE 1 B
C
It made her determined to b e c o m e a linguist.
It made her a m o r e independent person.
question is a b o u t the
ns o f b o t h speakers? Extract T w o

1
Y o u hear t w o academics discussing t h e issue o f university courses in
o t h e r European countries being taught in English.
RT W O R D CHECK
3 The w o m a n feels that the d e m a n d for courses taught in English
breed democratise A is artificially created by the universities.
lify ethos full mmersion B reflects the ambitions o f the staff w h o teach o n t h e m .
franca overwhetming relie C results f r o m a need t o attract students f r o m a w i d e range
l software applications of countries.

4 H o w has the man's faculty sought to help international students?


A by allowing t h e m to make recordings of the teachers
B by providing language support d u r i n g tutorials
C by making lectures available as podcasts

Extract Three

Y o u hear part o f a discussion p r o g r a m m e a b o u t t e c h n o l o g y in t h e


workplace.
5 W h a t is the man doing?
A arguing in favour o f a rethink in attitudes
B suggesting that traditional distinctions are b e c o m i n g rrelevant
C c o m p l a i n i n g that the needs o f business are not being met
by suppliers

6 The speakers agree that the pace of change is being driven by


A the increasing demands being faced by workers.
B the activities of certain leading software companies.
C the d e v e l o p m e n t o f m o r e ntegrated operating systems.
(Paper 1 Part 6)

Cross-text mltiple matching R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t , w h i c h is a film t i t l e . H a v e y o u seen t h e filr


W h a t w a s it about?

R e a d t h e t a s k a n d m a r k w h i c h b l o g g e r is b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o i n e a c h
question. T h e n m a r k the k e y w o r d s i n each question.

R e a d a l l t h e r e v i e w s q u i c k l y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t t h e b l o g g e r s are
s a y i n g a b o u t t h e film.

D o t h e task.

EXPERT STRATEGY You are going to read four reviews by bloggers ofafim called T h e Sixth
Sense. For questions 7 - 4 , choose from the bloggers A-D. The bloggers ma\
Use a highlighter t o mark up the
be chosen more than once.
references in the text relevant to
each question. Use a different c o l o u r
W h i c h blogger:
for each question.
doesn't share Blogger A's view regarding the film's
deeper meaning?
HELP
> Ql Look for an expression w h i c h expresses a different view t o Blogger B regarding h o w
means 'makes y o u think.' w o r t h w h i l e it is t o watch the film m o r e than once? 2
> Q 2 Find the w o r d repeatedly in
shares Blogger C's view regarding the attention t o detail
section B. Look for other ways 3
in t h e film's storyline?
of expressing this idea.
> Q 4 Look for different w o r d s and has a different view f r o m t h e others regarding the initial
impact of the film's final scene? 4
expressions that refer to the e n d
of the film.

Vocabulary
EXPERT LANGUAGE
Find t w o examples of adverbs used t o 5a M a t c h 1-6 w i t h ( a - f ) t o m a k e c o m m o n e x p r e s s i o n s . T h e n find t h e
make adjectives stronger in review C. expressions i n the text.
1 ticks a thetail
2 get under b scrutiny
EXPERT W O R D CHECK 3 twist in c the p o i n t
4 miss d yourskin
genre hype imagery instil
5 glued t o e the box
nuances poignantly scrutiny
6 stands up t o f your seat
sentimentality shortcomings

M a t c h t h e e x p r e s s i o n s i n Exercise 6a w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g s .
1 fu If i Is all the criteria
2 is correct in all its details
3 fail t o recognise w h a t is i m p o r t a n t
4 have an e m o t i o n a l effect o n s o m e o n e
5 a surphse e n d i n g
6 absorbed by a performance
Module 6
A sixth sense

f * * Jt

Q On first seeing The S/xfh Sense years ago, it exceeded This is an incredibly powerful film, awash with emotion
my expectations in almost every respect. I believe that but never stooping to sentimentality. It really gets under
great movie is one that helps the viewer perceive life 35 your skin and makes you reconsider your o w n existence
and the world differently. The Sixth Sense is one of those in ways y o u ' d never expect. This is the story of one
ecraordinary movies which ticks that box for me. The frightened little boy that you'll never forget. All your worst
r d i n g carne as such a bolt out of the blue on that first childhood nightmares are here and then some. Still, to
.ewing that I felt compelled to rewind and watch it all anyone w h o complains that they figured out the secret
'ough once more, in an effort to w o r k out w h y I hadn't 4o halfway through, I have this to say: you may be smarter
seen it coming. During that second viewing, I carne than me but that doesn't make this a bad movie. Suffice
o it from a completely different perspective and yet to say that for most of us the twist in the tale is just
~ . enjoyment w a s hardly diminished at all. Like many shockingly delightful. The forc o f t h e denouement is
*iewers, coming back to it years later, I've tried to detect very m u c h lost on a second viewing, of course, but it's
5.~ortcomings in the plot but failed to pinpoint any at all. 45 nonetheless intriguing trying to spot any clues planted
.'.hat makes this film so wonderful to watch isn't simply along the way. Even if the idea of that doesn't enthral you,
~ e acting, or the terror it instils, or even the plot itself; it's l'd say don't miss the chance to see this movie again,
: - e way in which the director carefully crafts a tale that simply because it's an almost perfect example of its genre.
zompletely absorbs the viewer.
0 There can be no denying that the unfolding of the plot
(T) The Sixth Sense enjoys being playful with our so n The Sixth Sense is particularly clever but to my mind,
-nagination. Having said that, I don't consider it heavily the hype about the surprise ending actually distraets
znilosophical or particularly thought-provoking. It's one people's attention from the film's finer qualities. I have
that I've gone back to repeatedly, though, and it repays some sympathy when people say that a plot twist doesn't
:ne effort because every time I watch it, I pick up on little make a film but surely, they are missing the point about
" j a n e e s I haven't spotted before. It is a brilliant film, plain 55 this one. The director's skill here is the way he both
and simple. It is unique in that it relies on imagination and keeps you glued to your seat and makes you reflect on
osychology to scare you. The director did a fabulous s o m e eternal questions. Maybe I read too m u c h into this
p b constructing the imagery of the film and I genuinely very wonderful film but few touch on these subjects so
didn't suspect the final plot twist until it w a s revealed. poignantly and so well. Coming back to this film after so
" h e Sixth Sense goes in my book as the single greatest 6o many years, I can see that it has been widely imitated and
osychological horror film I've ever seen. It stands up that lessens the impact. For that reason alone, you might
to the closest possible scrutiny. You w o n ' t find any prefer to resist the temptation to sit through it again.
nconsistencies in the way the story unfolds, no matter
now many times you watch it.
Module 6
A sixth sense

_____ 3 M a t c h t h e e x p r e s s i o n s i n italics i n Exercise 2


Vocabulary development 2 w i t h their meanings. W r i t e the infinitive of the
expressions.
> CB r; -
1 cause a fuss
Emotional reactions: idiomatic expressions 2 make s o m e o n e very, very angry
3 be unable t o control yourself because
1 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n s f r o m t h e
y o u are very angry, w o r r i e d , etc.
box.
4 manage t o control y o u r anger
down in (x3) off on out over 5 be very, very excited
6 suddenly b e c o m e very angry
1 W h e n I heard a b o u t m y son's new j o b , I was 7 startcrying
cloud nine. 8 stop being e m o t i o n a l
2 Wewere t w o minds a b o u t w h a t t o 9 run o u t
d o next. 10 a n n o y s o m e o n e
3 It was a beautiful day and w e were very
high spirits. 4 Choose the correct answers.

4 You seem a little of sorts today - are 1 If y o u are seething, y o u are angry / disappointed.
y o u OK? 2 If s o m e t h i n g winds y o u up, it annoys / worries y o u .
5 He hardly spoke all evening - he was 3 If y o u are scared stiff, y o u are livid / terrified.
such a rage. 4 I f y o u couldn't care less a b o u t something, y o u are
6 M y father w e n t t h e deep e n d w h e n I distracted / indifferent.
t o l d h i m a b o u t the accident. 5 I f y o u well up, it's because y o u find s o m e t h i n g
7 He's always a bit in t h e d u m p s o n moving / annoying.
Mondays. 6 I f y o u are sick and tired o f something, y o u feel
8 She was the m o o n a b o u t t h e news. /'// / bored.
1 I f y o u are o n edge, y o u are angry I nervous.
Emotional reactions: collocations a n d 8 If y o u snap at someone, y o u say / do s o m e t h i n g
everyday expressions angrily.

2 Choose the correct answer (A, B o r C). 5 C o m p l e t e t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n s w i t h w o r d s o r phrases


f r o m E x e r c i s e 4.
1 OK, I must try t o my temper and be polite.
1
A keep B maintain C hold
A: You look rather angry.
2 He needs t o himself together and stay
B: l'm absolutely (1) w i t h rage, actually.
calm. A: What's (2) y o u up so much?
A take B pul Cthrow B: O h , l'm just (3) of m y boss.
3 l'm afraid situations like that me mad. A: O h dear! I've never seen y o u so agitated.
B: It's true. I even (4) at o n e o f m y
Adrive B push Cturn
colleagues earlier.
4 W h e n the restaurant g o t the bil w r o n g , m y m o t h e r
A: That's unlike y o u .
a scene, as usual.
A did B had C made
5 M y patience is thin w i t h m y children at A: What's up?
the m o m e n t . B: l'm a bit o n (5) a b o u t this presentatic
Awearing B feel ing C going I have t o d o .

6 Until my d o g eventually turned up, I was A: Really? You said earlier that y o u couldn't

myself with worry. (6) less a b o u t it.


B: I think I was trying t o convince myself.
A over B up C beside
A: Look, you're (7) up just talking a b o u t
7 I felt so e m o t i o n a l that I into tears. You p o o r thing.
A burst Bfell C spilled B: Yes, l'm actually (8) stiff a b o u t it.
8 I was thrilled to w i t h the news.
A scraps B bits C slice
9 / into a rage w i t h the m a n a g e r .
A ran B leapt C flew
10 It really gets on my w h e n trains are
cancelled for n o apparent reason.
A nerves B mind C brains
6B
Module 6
A sixth sense

Verb + -ing form/infinitive with a change of


tanguage development 2 meaning
l a EG p. 182
3 Choose the correct answers.

fcrb + -ing or infinitive with to? 1 I forgot turning off / to turn off the oven, so m y
pizza burned.
1 Complete the text w i t h the correct f o r m o f the 2 This t i m e I r e m e m b e r e d to take / taking m y keys
verbs i n b r a c k e t s . w i t h me. Here they are!
3 l'm late h o m e because I stopped doing / to do
some shopping.
Are you a super-taster? 4 I stopped to run / running after I twisted m y ankle.
5 l'll never forget to meet/ meeting y o u all those
fou avoid (1) (eat) broccoli and other
years ago.
vegetables because y o u find t h e m t o o bitter? D o
6 She w e n t o n to be / being the first w o m a n t o w i n
struggle (2) (finish) rich desserts or
the Booker Prize twice in a row.
e (3) (drink) coffee because y o u find it
7 I regret informing / to inform y o u that the train
: and? If so, y o u may be a m o n g the 25 percent of
terminates at this stop.
: Dpulation w h o sensory perception scientists refer
8 I regret leaving / to leave school before d o i n g
i super-tasters. my exams.
9 He w e n t o n spending / to spend m o n e y even w h e n
- or sensitivity can actually be scientifically
he knew he shouldn't.
: : f d : the basic laboratory assessment involves
10 We've decided t o try to live / living in Spain for a
-i (taste) a d r u g c o m m o n l y k n o w n as
while - we'll see h o w it goes.
2?. I f y o u find it very bitter, it means you're a super-
r
ir.- . I volunteered (5) (do) the test and 4 T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t sentences. C o r r e c t t h e
: the d r u g very bitter. I also agreed (6) m i s t a k e s i n t h e w r o n g ones.
esearchers (7) (try) another test o n
1 l'd better to get back to w o r k soon or l'll be fired.
.nich meant (8) (count) the n u m b e r of
2 I meant buying y o u a present b u t it w e n t o u t of
T. - = form papillae (which house y o u r taste receptors) my m i n d .
our tongue. Over 30 means you're a super-taster, 3 I r e m e m b e r putting the m o n e y in that drawer, so
a r e I got 35. where is it?
4 They invited m e j o i n i n g their b o o k g r o u p but I
. chefs are super-tasters, but i f y o u are considering
didn't faney it.
(p) (become) a chef, you're advised
5 D o y o u really think he'll keep t o go for another
"0) (not bother). Apparently, being a
eight kilometres?
: . : e ' - t a s t e r is as m u c h a disadvantage as an advantage.
6 I had a go at h e l p i n g j o d o i n g her maths h o m e w o r k .
7 I tried to stop the protest but just couldn't manage it.
rb + object + infinitive/-ig 8 I've just noticed Mike d o the gardening. That makes
a change!
C o m p l e t e t h e sentences u s i n g t h e w o r d s i n
brackets. A d d p r o n o u n s w h e r e necessary.
1 They missed the last bus but their parents arranged
for (a taxi / b r i n g / home).
2 M y father is ratty w i t h my sister for scratching his
car w h e n he told (not / drive).
3 I've been waiting for m y friends for ages. I was
expecting (arrive / an hour ago).
4 I really wanted to see that band but my parents
(not let / go).
5 The sun was really hot - I could feel
(burn / the back of my neck).
6 l'm n o t sure a b o u t those chillis. M y friends warned
(not eat).
7 She didn't want t o go hang-gliding but her
boyfriend made (do).
8 W e looked everywhere for m y earring and
eventually f o u n d (lie / in the long grass).
Module 6
A sixth sense

e Of E n g l i s h (Paper 1 Part 3)

Word formation 11 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t . W h a t is the s i x t h sense? D o y o u b e l i e v e


i t exists?

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read the text again carefully and think about the f o r m o f the w o r d
n e e d e d t o fit i n e a c h gap.

4 D o t h e task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
> Q2 You need a plural n o u n here. For questions 7-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitais at
> Q4 You need t o add b o t h a prefix the end ofsome ofthe Unes to form a word thatfits in the gap in the same
and a suffix to this w o r d . Une. There is an example at the beginning (0).

> Q6 A d d a suffix to crate a w o r d


that means 'many m o r e times'.

EXPERT L A N G U A G E
Find one example o f each of the
f o l l o w i n g in the text:
1 a phrasal verb
2 a verb + preposition collocation

D o y o u h a v e a sixth s e n s e ?
If you've ever felt that s o m e o n e was w a t c h i n g y o u ,
it might not have been just your (0) imaqination . IMAGINE
Scientists have f o u n d evidence to suggest that people
d o experience a prickling (1) w h e n they are SENSE
being watched.
A team of (2) carried o u t t w o experiments RESEARCH
and believe they have finally proved the (3) EXIST
of a sixth sense. In o n e experiment, a volunteer in
a sealed r o o m concentrated o n making a second
volunteer outside the r o o m feel (4) or COMFORT
relaxed, even t h o u g h he was only visible via CCTV and
the second volunteer was (5) of the CCTV AWARENESS
c o n n e c t i o n . Electrodes then measured the 'prickle
effect' o n the second volunteer's skin. The electronic
m o n i t o r proved (6) that this 'direct mental REPEAT
interaction' was possible.
Other scientists remain (7) , however. SCEPTIC
Professor Richard Wiseman of Hertfordshire University
said: 'The n u m b e r of times y o u turn around and find
s o m e o n e not looking at y o u far (8) the NUMBER
times w h e n y o u do, but y o u only remember the times
y o u turned r o u n d to see someone looking.'
Module 6
A sixth sense

b M a t c h t h e sentences i n E x e r c i s e 2a w i t h t h e
I^riting aper 2 Part 1: E s s a y ) o p i n i o n s i n t h e task. D o e s e a c h sentence agree o r
O : '00, EWpp. 191-192 disagree w i t h t h e o p i n i n ?

c M a t c h the supporting points and examples (a-g)


B P E R T STRATEGY 1 w i t h t h e t o p i c sentences ( 1 - 3 ) i n E x e r c i s e 2a.

,ure: a Keeping in contact is so m u c h m o r e


a c h pparagraph develops coherently, using linking convenient than it once was.
b This is certainly true for the very y o u n g
anguage is the appropriate level of formality. orold.
c M a n y accidents are caused by people using
their mobiles w h e n they are driving.
L.ysing the task
d It could be argued that this is quite a creative
I Read the task a n d m a r k t h e f o l l o w i n g : use o f language.
e It is invaluable for parents checking up o n
i 1 w h o y o u are w r i t i n g for
their y o u n g people.
2 what y o u need to inciude.
f Some linguists think it has helped y o u n g
people t o express themselves better.
r
fou class has attended a discussion on the impact of g People w h o are shy find this f o r m o f contact
MKGe phones on modern society. You have made the m u c h easier.
mxssbeiow.
U s e these l i n k i n g e x p r e s s i o n s t o c o n n e c t t h e t o p i c
I ~~e i m p a c t o f m o b i l e p h o n e s o n m o d e r n s o c i e t y sentences i n Exercise 2a w i t h the s u p p o r t i n g p o i n t s i n
zmmunication Exercise 2c. M o r e t h a n o n e a n s w e r m a y be possible.
I - nealth and safety Strangely enough / Surprisingly,...
anguage skills The reason for this is that / This is probably because...
... particularly in the case of...
In f a c t / After all,...
Some o p i n i o n s expressed in t h e discussion:
For example,...
mink they're responsible for w h y people don't talk
In addition,...
each other as m u c h as they did once.'
O n the other hand / However / Despite this,...
made a huge difference to many people's lives,
can n o w get help w h e n they need it.' Using appropriate language
"^ple don't bother to spell properly any more.'
4 L o o k at s o m e ideas f o r e a c h p a r a g r a p h a n d c h o o s e
an essay for your tutor discussing two of the the m o s t a p p r o p r i a t e phrase (A or B) from each pair.
in the notes. You should expiain which point
Para 1: i n t r o d u c t i o n
think is more important, giving reasons in
A It is often claimed that m o b i l e phones have had a
rt ofyour answer. You may, ifyou wish, make
negative effect o n ...
ofthe opinions expressed in the discussion, but you
B Lots o f people reckon that mobiles have been a bad
Id use your own words as far as possible.
thing for...
your essay in 220-260 words.
Para 2
A Something that loads o f people c o m p l a i n a b o u t is...
-ucturing paragraphs B One o f t h e objections to the use of mobile phones is...

Read s o m e t o p i c sentences a s t u d e n t w r o t e f o r t h e Para 3


m a i n b o d y o f t h e i r essay. W h i c h o f t h e t h r e e n o t e s A O n the positive side, they are perceived as being...
i n t h e task is e a c h s e n t e n c e a b o u t ? B W h a t people say they like about t h e m is that they're...
1 There has been a l o t of publicity a b o u t how Para 4: c o n c l u s i n
speaking on mobile p h o n e s f o r t o o long can be A If pushed t o make a choice, l'd c o m e d o w n o n the
bad f o r you. For me, t h i s a r g u m e n t is o u t w e i g h e d side o f m o b i l e phones.
by t h e huge b e n e f i t s t h a t t h e e l d e r l y in particular B O n balance, I believe that the advantages o f using
have gained f r o m using them. m o b i l e phones o u t w e i g h the disadvantages.

2 It is t r u e t h a t p e o p l e use special t e x t language,


Writing task
but it's n o t because t h e y can't w r i t e well.
3 I think t h a t p e o p l e actually g e t in t o u c h with 5 N o w d o t h e t a s k i n Exercise 1.
each o t h e r m o r e than t h e y used t o , even if t h e y
might n o t actually speak.
7 Vales

Words that are easily confused


Vocabulary development 1
3 Choose the correct answers.
> CB
1 There are only a restricted / limited a m o u n t o f ticke
Word formation available for sale o n the day.
2 After m o n t h s o f intensive / intense fighting, the t w c
1 Complete the text with words formed f r o m the sides agreed t o have talks.
w o r d s i n brackets. 3 O u r opinions differ / differentiate in so many ways.
4 l'm amused by her childlike / childish enthusiasm.
5 There was a very strange occurrence / incident o n 1
Some ( 1 ) ( p s y c h o l o g y ) believe that
road o n the w a y here.
people's ( 2 ) (behave) often changes w h e n
6 The information is offered / provided in the brochur'
they return home to visit their parents. T h e y m i g h t ,
7 I agree w i t h the principal / principie o f wearing a
for example, have a strong ( 3 ) (react) to
u n i f o r m while o n duty.
something that their parents say to t h e m , however
8 I think l'm g o i n g to lay / lie d o w n before w e go o c
innocently the c o m m e n t was intended. A s a result,
their attitude m a y be quite ( 4 ) (defend) or
even come across as open ( 5 ) ( d e f y ) . This Living at home
can seem a rather ( 6 ) (character) w a y f o r
4 Complete the text w i t h the correct f o r m of the
the person to behave and friends and relatives m a y be
w o r d s a n d phrases i n t h e b o x .
very surprised b y the strength o f their response. I t often
happens w i t h o u t any conscious ( 7 ) (aware) deposit do your own thing downside likelihood
on the person's part and i n most cases the feelings outbursts pointless regard spark off stone's throw
they have are totally ( 8 ) (relevance) to the take for granted
present time. However, since the feelings probably l i n k
back to c h i l d h o o d ( 9 ) (occur), k n o w i n g
what triggers them m a y be able to free people f r o m the T h e n e w family
(10) ( l i m i t ) imposed by the past.

Official figures show that the number of y o u n g adults


Home and family: expressions and idioms living w i t h their parents has risen by 25 percent in the
last 2 0 years, m a i n l y because of g r o w i n g unemployment
2 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f and rising house prices. So w h a t are the pros and cons?
t h e phrases i n t h e b o x . Tom, 2 2
at home (x2) come home (x2) hit home 1 d i d rent a fat for a bit, b u t you soon miss all the things
home from home home in out ofhouse and home y o u (1) such as f i n d i n g m i l k in the fridge
and hot water for the showers. O n the (2) ,
1 W h e n my fn'end made that c o m m e n t a b o u t me, it though, it's quite hard to just (3) as y o u can
really because I knew it was true. w h e n you're independent. M y parents get ratty w h e n I
2 As soon as l'd unpacked all m y belongings, leave lights o n a n d so o n - that usually (4)
I mmediately felt there. a row/

3 The interviewer o n the fact that l'd left Tom's mother


my previous j o b after only a few months. I n many ways, it's lovely having h i m back. A n d it's a
4 I go o n a b o u t switching lights off until the cows bit (5) h i m paying a lot of m o n e y to rent
but n o b o d y takes any notice whatsoever. a fat w h e n w e live only a (6) away, and
5 I love having visitors b u t I spend m y life refillingthe he c o u l d be saving up for a (7) o n a fat to
buy. However, I d o a d m i t to having (8) from
fridge; they're eating me .
time to time w i t h h i m , mainly about things like using up
6 They lost, although they were playing .
all the hot water or not keeping the house tidy. I think
7 W h e n is it g o i n g t o to y o u that this
he (9) the place as his student house rather
relationship is over?
than o u r h o m e . A l t h o u g h in all (10) he'll be
8 The hotel was a real w e couldn't have
here for some t i m e unless the e c o n o m y picks up.'
felt m o r e c o m f o r t a b l e and relaxed.
7A
Module 7
H o m e matters

Use of (Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 Read the text again carefully a n d t h i n k about the t y p e o f w o r d that w i l l fit


i n each gap. C a n y o u p r e d i c t the a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
You need a w o r d that means
D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
'chance'.
Q7 Read ahead in the sentence -
S h o u l d w e stay at h o m e ?
y o u need to choose the o p t i o n
that makes the contrast. Travel can yield many benefits.
There is the challenge of
Q8 Only o n e of these verbs can be
:
having to (0) with novel
followed by the preposition up.
and unexpected situations,
learning a b o u t the w o r l d and
EXPERT LANGUAGE (1) to different

Ihich three questions test phrasal customs. It is s o m e t h i n g that is

fcerbs? meant to forge our character


and make us m o r e flexible
individuis, c o n f r o n t i n g our
prejudices along the way.
Of course, travel isn't
(2) to d o any
such thing. It might, in reality,
crate expense and discomfort
whilst merely reinforcing our
existing (3) of the
w o r l d . W h a t is meant to be
quality time w i t h the family
can (4) to be m o r e
stressful than life at h o m e and instead o f taking every (5)
to learn a b o u t local customs, we may end up hanging out w i t h our
compatriots.
Although there remains a lingering feeling that an unwillingness to travel
might (6) a lack of curiosity a b o u t the w o r l d , some people
still feel that w h a t drives their curiosity is closer to h o m e .
(7) f r o m being a p r o b l e m , this can be an advantage if
it means w h a t thrills and stimulates t h e m is cheaper and doesn't
(8) up the world's finite resources.

0 Adeal B survive C manage Dface


1 A accommodatinj B adapting C familiarising D accepting
2 A promised B assured C pledged D guaranteed
3 Abelief B view C sight D thought
4 A turn out B come about C show up D keep o n
5 Aconvenience B possibility C opportunity D prospect
6 A indcate B hmt C point D disclose
7 A Contrary B Far C Rather D Despite

8 Awaste B exploit C spoil D use

73
7A
Module 7
H o m e matters

Emphasis with it + be
Language development 1
3 C o m p l e t e t h e responses u s i n g it a n d t h e w o r d s i n
> CB p 109, EG p. 183
brackets.
A: I heard you'd m o v e d t o the States.
Cleft sentences: emphasis with what, the thing,
B: N o , (1)
the reason, the place, all...
(my brother / m o v e / there)
1 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h w o r d s a n d phrases A: Didn't y o u use t o play tennis w i t h Lucy?
from the box. B: N o , (2)
(squash / play / w i t h her)
all the job the month the one thing the person
A: A n d y o u must have left the c o m p a n y w h e n I did,
the place the reason what
in 2005?
B: N o , (3)
1 that used t o drive m e m a d was his
(notuntil 2009/leave)
loud music.
A: I hear y o u a n d y o u r wife m e t in N e w York.
2 that w e ask o u r son t o pay us rent is
B: N o , (4)
because it teaches h i m t o be responsible.
(Philadelphia / meet)
3 we'll have t o talk t o about it is your nele.
A: So, are y o u g o i n g t o m o v e back t o Manchester?
4 I get most fed up w i t h is s h o p p i n g for
B: N o , (5)
f o o d and i ron ing.
(my parents / w a n t / m o v e back here)
5 w e usually g o off t o w h e n the kids are
A: A n d will they m o v e here straightaway?
having friends r o u n d is t h e cinema.
B: N o , (6)
6 I ask in life is f o r m y family t o be happy
(only by selling their other house / be able t o /
and healthy.
afford / move)
7 he'd love t o apply for w o u l d involve
m o v i n g t o Australia. 4 R e w r i t e t h e sentences so t h a t t h e e m p h a s i s is o n
8 they're expecting t o m o v e o u t is M a r c h . t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n italics.

2 R e w r i t e t h e sentences. 1 W e only realised she wasn't w i t h us when we were


nearly home.
1 I p h o n e d Joe and then drove r o u n d t o see h i m .
It was
W h a t I did .
2 A frieno! ofmine suggested w e called t h e plice.
2 The car in f r o n t o f m e stopped suddenly and I w e n t
It was
into it.
3 The council w o n ' t d o anything a b o u t the roads un7
W h a t happened .
the end of the year.
3 l'd really love t o visit Venice o n e day.
It w o n ' t be -
The place .
4 I love lots o f things a b o u t this country b u t the thing
4 W e asked t h e m t o leave in the end because it was
I love most is the weather.
t o o m u c h w o r k for us.
It's .
The reason .
5 I was finally able t o hand in the w o r k on Wednesday
5 You'll find t h e most suitable university course for
It wasn't
y o u is at York.
6 Unt/7 / saw her, I didn't realise h o w bad she was.
The place .
It was
6 l'd really love t o g o hang-gliding just once in my life.
What : .
7 She wishes she'd f o u n d a j o b nearer h o m e .
W h a t she wishes she .
8 M y a m b i t i o n has always been t o w o r k w i t h
endangered species.
All .

74
7A
Module 7
H o m e matters

;e Of English (Paper 1 Part 2)

Open cloze 1 R e a d the t i t l e o f t h e t e x t a n d t h i n k a b o u t w h a t y o u are g o i n g t o r e a d .

2 R e a d the w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 R e a d t h e t e x t a g a i n c a r e f u l l y a n d t h i n k a b o u t the t y p e o f w o r d t h a t
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p .

4 D o t h e task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

For questions 1-8, read the text below and think ofthe word which best
W h i c h w o r d completes this
fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the
expression meaning l i k e ?
beginning (0).
You need a quantifier here.
W h i c h modal verb fits best here?
N o place like h o m e

K P E R T LANGUAGE 1 In my first few weeks


(0) as a university
B d three c o m p o u n d nouns
student, living alone in
ed w i t h education in the text.
a strange city, I horrified
o n e n e w - f o u n d friend
by saying I was 'going
home', referring to the
student residence in
(1) w e were
living. (2)
c o m m o n w i t h many
of my classmates, she
was g o i n g t h r o u g h the
pain of homesickness
and the institutional
residence bore very

(3)
resemblance to the
h o m e she was missing.
Meanwhile, o n a nearby
street, I spotted a sticker
o n the wi n d o w of a V W cam per van that read Home is where you park it. Th is
minimalist slogan appealed to me, suggesting that grand mansions or chic
apartments were all very well, but all y o u actually needed in (4)
to feel at h o m e was a little van and the few possessions it (5)
a c c o m m o d a t e . In some sense, h o m e has always been s o m e w h a t portable
for me. (6) said that, it was only (7) 20 years of
adult life that I finally lived in a house that provided me (8)
anything like the w a r m t h of my parental h o m e .
Module 7
H o m e matters

(Paper 3 Part 2)

Sentence completion 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e task. W h o is g o i n g t o b e speaking?


W h a t w i l l t h a t p e r s o n b e s p e a k i n g about?

EXPERT STRATEGY 2 R e a d t h e sentences i n t h e task. H o w m u c h d o y o u find o u t a b o u t


Remember that y o u w o n ' t hear the topic?
exactly the same w o r d s and phrases
3 T r y t o p r e d i c t t h e t y p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t y o u n e e d t o l i s t e n for i n
as y o u read in the sentences -
each gap.
but y o u will hear the same ideas
expressed in a different way. 4 Q o D o t h e task.

HELP You will hear a radio presenter callea Ruby Eversden talking about an
> Q2 Listen for a n u m b e r and another international hospitality network known as c o u c h s u r f i n g . For questions
w o r d for countries. 1-8, complete the sentences with a word or short phrase.
> Q4 Listen for w h a t Ruby says is the
best policy. Couchsurfing
> Q6 Ruby talks a b o u t three
safeguards. Listen for the first one.

EXPERT LANGUAGE
Look back at the task. H o w did y o u
k n o w w h i c h answers were:
1 numbers?
2 nouns?

EXPERT W O R D CHECK
age bracket non-profit
off the beaten track
overstay your welcome plus points
resource-sharing safeguards
target user vouch for

Ruby explains that members d o not have to have a(n) (1)


order to offer a c c o m m o d a t i o n .

There are couchsurfing members in as many as (2) different


countries.

Ruby uses the term (3) to describe the wider category of


activities that couchsurfing belongs to.

Ruby stresses the need for (4) w h e n creating a couchsurfing


profile.

Groups of hosts can cooperate in p r o d u c i n g s o m e t h i n g called a(n)


(5) for the website.

Ruby points out that new members have to provide (6) before
they are allowed to sign up.

Ruby r e c o m m e n d s consulting w h a t are k n o w n as (7) before


making arrangements w i t h a member.

Ruby feels that (8) is essential w h e n y o u are a couchsurfing


guest.
7B
L o o k at y o u r a n s w e r s t o Exercise 2 a n d m a t c h
Vocabulary development 2 the phrasal verbs a n d collocations (1-8) w i t h their
> CB I \ meanings (a-h).
a d o a lot in a limited time
Travel b develop as a result of s o m e t h i n g
c very pleasantly surprised
I Complete the text w i t h words f r o m the box.
d take responsibility for oneself
challenge danger nowhere rough self-reliant e have a bad o u t c o m e
spur stranded trlcky f be in a situation where there's a possibility
that s o m e t h i n g bad will happen
g enjoy s o m e t h i n g as m u c h as possible
hen I left university, I w e n t backpacking around h accept and deal w i t h s o m e t h i n g difficult
xth A m e r i c a f o r a year. M y f a m i l y and friends
ought I was m a d because I wanted to do it o n Travel and transport: idioms
A n and they said i t w o u l d be fraught w i t h
i . B u t I wanted to be able to get r i g h t 4 Choose the correct answer (A, B or C).
_. f r o m everything I k n e w f o r a w h i l e . 1 If I were y o u , I w o u l d n ' t all m y boats
md m y s e l f i n m a n y ( 2 ) situations. F o r just yet. You may want to c o m e back.
m p l e , once w h e n I was o n the road i n B r a z i l , a A abandon B burn C destroy
--distance bus I was o n broke d o w n i n the m i d d l e o f 2 l'm a bit w o r r i e d a b o u t Kay's daughter. She seems t o
i and w e were completely ( 4 ) be g o i n g off the n o w she's left school.
Kl it got f i x e d . We d i d a l l sleep ( 5 ) that
A rails B track C road
zht. but it was fine - w e rose to the ( 6 )
3 I wish I could say next term w o u l d be plain
:c >ur\i ved to tell the tale!
but I think it's g o i n g t o be even tougher.
. p taught me m a n y things. I became m u c h
Asailing Bdriving Cflying
- ") and better at d o i n g things o n the
o f the m o m e n t . A n d I made lots o f 4 I think w e should the boat o u t and have
Is along the way. a lovely meal o u t tonight.
A send B sail C push

vel: collocations and phrasal verbs 5 A m a n d a likes t o sail cise t o t h e and


hand her w o r k in at the last m o m e n t .
Z: pete t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f
Ashore Bwind C coast
e verbs i n the b o x .
6 OK, shall w e hit the ? It's late.
r :.v face fend go pack run soak stem
A path B highway C road
1 G o i n g o n my travels was the first time I've really had 7 You were supposed t o apply last m o n t h . I think
to for myself. you've missed t h e .
i . as a bit nervous beforehand b u t that largely A train B boat C plae
from m y lack o f experience. 8 She off the handle and accused m e o f
3 I knew I w o u l d the risk o f failing b u t lying t o her.
that's all part and parcel o f t h e experience.
A flew B drove C sailed
=s away by some o f the places I
visited.
5 did have t o up to certain difficult
situations.
: -anagedto _ in a lot o f activities in a
short time.
7 Some things did wrong.
: e~ : .ed having time to up the
atmosphere.
Module 7
Seeingthe world

Reading (Paper 1 Part 7)

Gapped text 1 Read the title of the text a n d the i n t r o d u c t o r y sentence. W h a t do y o u


t h i n k the text w i l l be about?

2 Read the m a i n text quickly and answer the questions.


1 H o w does the writer travel?
2 W h a t d o w e learn a b o u t the place where he is staying?
3 W h y is this place popular w i t h celebrities?
4 Find the ames of t w o aircraft.

3a R e a d t h e t a s k a n d t h e p a r a g r a p h b e f o r e g a p 1. W h a t d o y o u t h i n k the
w r i t e r is w a i t i n g for? W h a t d o y o u t h i n k t h e r e d d o t is?

b N o w r e a d t h e p a r a g r a p h after g a p 1. W h a t d o y o u t h i n k my taxi refers


to? R e a d t h e w h o l e p a r a g r a p h t o b e sure. R e a d t h e o p t i o n s a n d d e c i d e
w h i c h fits i n this g a p . W h a t tells y o u t h a t e a c h o f t h e o t h e r o p t i o n s
d o e s n ' t fit i n t h i s gap?

4 D o t h e rest o f t h e task.

EXPERT STRATEGY
Underline the links as y o u choose
1 You are going to read a newspaper
from the article. Choose from the paragraphs
article. Six paragraphs have been
A-G the one which fits
removed
each
gap (1-6). There is one extra paragraph which you do not need to use.
an answer so that y o u can go back
and d o u b l e check. Keep reading all
A 'Hey, don't panic,' says Paul. 'We fly y o u to the t o p . Easy! From
the options even i f y o u think you've
there, y o u hike for a couple of hours to the edge of the rock face,
fitted o n e into an earlier gap. You
where w e c o m e and pick y o u up again, t w o by t w o . Deal?'
may w a n t to go back and change
your m i n d . B It grows, its buzzing b e c o m i n g audible as it veers left and right
f o l l o w i n g the curves o f t h e Chitina river, until, after several minutes,
HELP a shiny red De Havilland Otter swoops d o w n and lands before m e

> Q 2 In the text before gap 2, John o n the gravel.

was frustrated. W h i c h o p t i o n C Meanwhile, other family members are c o o k i n g dinner, a large


includes s o m e t h i n g w h i c h salmn caught locally by o n e o f t h e team. As she chops vegetables
changed that? f r o m the garden, Ellie tells m e that as well as flying planes here, her
> Q3 The text before the gap talks husband Ben is also a helicopter pilot.
a b o u t the land in the past.
D Planes are central to the activities o n offer for guests t o o , providing
W h i c h o p t i o n contains a
an easy way to reach the best locations for walking, ski ing, wildlife-
reference to w h a t has happened spotting, sightseeing or simply having a picnic. There are five in all,
to it m o r e recently? ranging f r o m the nine-seater Otter, to a three-seater Piper Super-
> D Look at the w o r d too in the first cub that weighs less than 450 kg.
line o f this o p t i o n . W h a t is it
E Since then, five t w o - b e d r o o m cabins a c c o m m o d a t i n g a m x i m u m
referring to?
o f 12 guests have been constructed o n it, and the w h o l e family is
involved w i t h the business. Paul's daughters Ellie, Logan, son Jay and
EXPERT LANGUAGE s o n - i n - l a w Ben all w o r k at the lodge. Like their grandfather, n o w
5
Look back at the main text. Find retired and living in Anchorage, all are skilled bush pilots.
sentences that begin w i t h a t i m e F Then he learnt to fly and f o u n d the doors to the wilderness
reference - a w o r d or phrase related suddenly t h r o w n o p e n . He c o n t i n u e d teaching but used his spare
to time. t i m e to explore by air, landing o n plains and river sandbars where
no o n e had t o u c h e d d o w n before.

G W h e n he spots a g o o d piece o f grass, Paul circles and prepares to


EXPERT W O R D C H E C K
land the tiny aircraft. Then, after only a few b u m p y metres o n its
aviator featherweight mossy ground gigantic rubber tyres, the plae comes to a halt. 'Out y o u get,' he
nimble propeller rendezvous says. Tve got other guests to pick u p ! '
rock face sandbars skims ow
soars upwards stake a claim veers
Module 7
Seeingthe world

Flight-seeing in

f
-the wilds of America s largest national park,
ti>e b e s t way to g e t around is by plae.
W h e n the lodge runs o u t o f supplies, o n e of the f a m i l y
v . -endezvous w i t h the w i l d e r n e s s is set for 6 p . m . , o n hops into a p l a e a n d flies o u t to get t h e m . 'Lots of
me edge of a r e m o t e A l a s k a n v i l l a g e w i t h a p o p u l a t i o n 25 celebrities like c o m i n g because they c a n be a b s o l u t e l y
c r just 1 5 0 . 'Park a l o n g s i d e the l o g c a b i n a n d w a i t , b u t sure that n o p a p a r a z z i can get up here,' says Paul, as
: A ay f r o m the stretch of g r o u n d beside the car the O t t e r passes m i l e s of m o u n t a i n o u s n o w h e r e . H e
r'v w e r e the instructions in the e m a i l . I've d r i v e n four tells m e a b o u t the t i m e he t o o k the actor Jim Carrey, a
- f r o m A n c h o r a g e t o get t o the v i l l a g e of C h i t i n a regular guest, o n an e m e r g e n c y f l i g h t to carry diesel to

-tand staring at the c l o u d y sky. In the distance, a red 3o s o m e stranded trekkers. T i l never forget their faces.'
::- appears.

' H o w d o y o u f a n c y a h i k e up the m o u n t a i n b e h i n d
taxi has a r r i v e d , w i t h Paul Claus at the w h e e l - the lodge t o m o r r o w , w e a t h e r p e r m i t t i n g ? ' asks Paul,
?. ator, adventurer a n d o w n e r of U l t i m a T h u l e , a lodge over d i n n e r o n t h e first night. I l o o k u p at the peak
miles f r o m the nearest r o a d , w h e r e I a m to stay apprehensively.
y the next three days. W e b o a r d the p l a e a n d leave
;isation far b e h i n d . Paul's father, John, w a s a teacher
Anchorage, eager to c l i m b in the A l a s k a n m o u n t a i n s
35 Flying in the Super-cub, as w e d o this t i m e , turns o u t
frustrated by h o w hard it was t o access t h e m .
to be an e x p e r i e n c e in itself. It has no electric motor,
so the p r o p e l l e r has t o be m a n u a l l y spun t o start it.
O n c e a i r b o r n e , the f e a t h e r w e i g h t p l a e skims l o w

- i staked a c l a i m to a patch o f l a n d beside the C h i t i n a across the river a n d t h e n soars u p w a r d s , as n i m b l e as

river, a n d w a s granted f i v e acres, w h e r e he a n d his w i f e 4o a b u z z i n g bee.


sanor set a b o u t b u i l d i n g a modest w o o d e n c a b i n a n d
:: ng strip. Decades later, w h e n the W r a n g e l l - S t Elias
onal Park was established, the Claus f a m i l y w e r e
W h i l e he flies off to fetch t h e m , I stand w a i t i n g beside
i o w e d to keep their l a n d , o n e of o n l y a h a n d f u l o f
m y g u i d e , e n j o y i n g the silence. A r o u n d us there is
z\ate properties w i t h i n a park the size of S w i t z e r l a n d .
n o t h i n g but w i l d A l a s k a n nature; s n o w y peaks a n d
glaciers disappear into the far d i s t a n c e . W e w a l k
45 for several hours over mossy g r o u n d , w i t h n o trees,
o c c a s i o n a l l y snow, a f e w w i l d sheep a n d , a c c o r d i n g
to the g u i d e , a b r o w n bear in the distance. 8
7B
Module 7
Seeingthe world

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Other expressions


Language development 2
3 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f
> CB p 114, EG p 183
the verbs i n the b o x .

Past tenses for hypothetical meanings: be cry give leave not cribase see start s::r
wish/if only
1 l'd m u c h rather y o u me a chance to
1 Choose the correct answers. expiain before losing y o u r t e m p e r like that.
1 I wish I worked / would work somewhere 2 It's a b o u t t i m e y o u t o fend for
ess stressful. yourselves a bit m o r e at your age.
f only I didn't eat / hadn't eaten those prawns 3 l'd m u c h prefer it if the teacher us al
ast night. the t i m e - she's never happy w i t h anything w e d e .
3 I wish I would go / were going to that gig w i t h y o u . 4 Supposing w e for lunch early, h o w
4 If only y o u had all stopped / would all stop talking w o u l d that sound?
and get o n w i t h your w o r k ! 5 He looked as if he . His eyes were red.
5 I wish the train wouldn't / couldn't always be late. 6 What ifwejust our Jobs? It w o u l d be
6 I wish m y sister didn't keep / wouldn't have kept great t o disappear f o r a while!
b o r r o w i n g m y make-up. 7 l'd sooner y o u the film than me. You
f only w e were having / had the party today w h e n wanted t o see it for ages.
t's so sunny, rather than t o m o r r o w . 8 Ken kept staring at me, as t h o u g h I
wish he left / had left a message if he knew he was a c o m p l e t e stranger.
g o i n g t o be late.
R e w r i t e t h e sentences u s i n g t h e w o r d s i n b r a c k e t s . j
2 W r i t e sentences u s i n g I wish o r Ifonly. M o r e t h a n M o r e than o n e answer m a y be possible.
one answer m a y be possible. 1 I've only been here f o r six m o n t h s b u t it feels like
1 l'd love t o g o backpacking r o u n d the w o r l d , b u t years.
I can't afford it. (as if)
I wish .
2 The builders have turned up the radio really loud 2 l'm thinking a b o u t inviting y o u r ex-girlfriend. H o w
and it's distracting m e f r o m m y work. w o u l d y o u feel a b o u t it?
Ifonly . (suppose)
3 Unfortunately, I haven't g o t m y purse w i t h me,
w h i c h is a nuisance. 3 Please don't ask m e t o drive all that way!
I wish . (rather)
4 l'd prefer t o be taller than I a m .
I wish . 4 W e really should leave n o w - it's after midnight.
5 I regret giving up maths at t h e first o p p o r t u n i t y . (time)
If only .
6 It's a pity I didn't see that documentary. 5 W h y didn't y o u ask m e f o r directions rather than
I wish . getting lost?
7 M y only criticism of h i m is that he leaves w e t (sooner)
towels everywhere.
If only . 6 It w o u l d be lovely t o stay in a hotel f o r once,
8 Sometimes I regret having a d o g because I can't go (prefer it)
away for long.
I sometimes wish . 7 W e could cali in and apologise t o her - w h a t d o
y o u think?
(what if)

8 Sometimes y o u behave in the same w a y as an od


man w o u l d .
(as though)
7B
Module 7
Seeingthe world

Of English (Paper 1 Part 4)

Key word transformations 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e t a s k a n d l o o k at t h e e x a m p l e . T h i n k


a b o u t h o w t h e t w o sentences are d i f f e r e n t a n d n o t i c e h o w t h e
meaning hasn't changed.

2 D o t h e task.

> ou need to use the verb decided. For questions 7 - 7 0 , complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the
You need t o use the causative
word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word
given. Here is an example (0).
You need to use the key w o r d
fflHHI
twkre in y o u r answer.
0 Drew is not happy w i t h my decisin.
APPROVE
LANGUAGE
\
Drew does not a^prove of my decisin.
:k at the questions. H o w la
1 Joas regrets his decisin to live in a student residence.
>t conditional structures? WISHES
s Joas to live in a student residence.

2 A local company cuts the grass while the family are away o n holiday.
GETS
The family a local c o m p a n y w h e n they are away
f o n holiday.

3 Francs had absolutely no idea that her brother had decided to


leave h o m e .
ABACK
Francs was her brother's decisin to leave h o m e .

4 O n l y students w i t h a valid ID card are allowed to use the library.


AS
3
Students may use the library possession o f a valid
ID card.

5 If the weather doesn't improve, the building is unlikely to be


c o m p l e t e d o n time.
LITTLE
Unless chance of the building being completed o n time.

6 If any delegates require parking, they should contact the


conference organiser.
TOUCH
A n y delegates w i t h the conference organiser.

7 If I could choose, l'd m u c h rather travel by train than by air.


FAR
Given travel by train than by air.

8 Sandra appears to be enjoying her first t e r m at university.


AS
It looks her first t e r m at university.

9 Glen thought that it w o u l d be better if Clare knew as little as possible.


LESS
B
Glen t h o u g h t that the better.
mm
10 In the end, Graeme spent a lot o f m o n e y o n taxi fares.
UP
Graeme deal of m o n e y o n taxi fares.

Module 7
Seeing the world

W r i t i l l g (Paper 2 Part 2: Letter)


File Edit View Insert Format Table Help
> CB pp. EWp
Dear S i r / M a d a m ,
I a m w r i t i n g t o let you know about o u r organisation,
EXPERT STRATEGY 1 w h i c h I a m sure students atyour school or college
Make sure each paragraph has a clear focus.
will find interesting as many of them m a y w e l l be
Use a consistent linguistic style t h r o u g h o u t .
keen to do v o l u n t a r y w o r k overseas after completing
their studies. E v e r y year, volunteers are sent o n more
Analysing the task than 100 projects across 18 different countries. O u r
placements are ideal f o r gap years, short breaks and
1 Read the task a n d answer the questions.
short w o r k holidays.
1 W h o are y o u w r i t i n g to?
(1) A t y p i c a l day's w o r k c o u l d i n v o l v e
2 W h a t style o f language will y o u use?
helping local people to b u i l d a w e l l o r a school,
caring f o r disadvantaged c h i l d r e n o r c o l l e c t i n g data
You work for an overseas voluntan/ organisation and f r o m the rainforest. ( 2 ) F o r others you
have been asked to write to the prinicipals ofsecondary just need to be really enthusiastic and y o u also need
schools and universities to inform them about your to show you can put in a lot of effort.
programme and encourage young people to volunteer. (3) I n addition, it can be an invaluable time
Your letter should: to recharge batteries, b u i l d confidence, confront new
challenges and make new friends who w i l l last a lifetime.
summarise the type ofwork available
A n d o f course, w h a t w i l l never be forgotten is the
say what, ifany, experience is needed to do the wo
experience o f spending a longer time i n a new culture,
outline the benefits for participants.
perhaps learning a new language at the same t i m e .

Write your letter in 220-260 words. Ifyou need further i n f o r m a t i o n , feel free to get in
touch v i a o u r website.

Choosing what to inciude Yours f a i t h f u l l y ,


Caroline T u l l e y
2 L o o k at the notes a n d decide w h i c h o f the
i n f o r m a t i o n is n o t r e l e v a n t t o t h e task.
1 participants must pay own flights Using appropriate language
2 skills sometimes needed (e.g. t o teach languages
4 R e p l a c e t h e phrases i n italics i n t h e l e t t e r w i t h
or sports); not always necessary, and trainmg
available these m o r e f o r m a l ones.

3 voluntary work useful for CV/university applications 1 demnstrate a capacity f o r hard w o r k


4 accommodation usually shared rooms, basic 2 many o f w h o m
5 vanety of opportunities inciude teaching, 3 d o n o t hesitate t o contact us
healthcare, childcare, community projects, 4 is likely t o be o f interest t o students at y o u r school
conservation or college
6 proqramme helps personal development 5 interested in taking part in
(independence, teamwork, confidence) 6 should
7 assisting
Topic sentences 8 make y o u aware o f
9 little m o r e than a high level o f c o m m i t m e n t
3 Read a student's answer a n d complete it w i t h is required
these t o p i c sentences. I g n o r e t h e w o r d s i n italics a t 10 an extended period
t h i s stage.
a For some placements - for example, in t h e field o f Features of good writing
medicine o r construction - a degree o r a particular
skill set m a y be necessary. 5 F i n d an example o f the following structures i n
b Volunteering will change a student's life. Moreover, t h e letter.
it helps the average job-seeker o r university 1 impersonal/passive forms
applicant t o stand o u t f r o m the c r o w d . 2 emphasis/hypothesis
c There are a w i d e range o f opportunities, the most 3 relative clauses
c o m m o n o f w h i c h are teaching and education, 4 formal linking expressions
healthcare, animis and natural resources,
conservation and t h e environment, c o m m u n i t y a n d Writing task
social development.
6 N o w d o t h e task i n Exercise 1.

82
8 A r(:h life
8 A
... . . . :

Compounds
bulary development 1
4 C h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r (A, B o r C ) .
C B p . 122
1 The o f the big retail firm caused
Business: phrasal verbs shockwaves.
A take-up B takeover C takeout
1 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f a
2 The . f r o m m y customers was very
v e r b f r o m A a n d a p r e p o s i t i o n from B.
positive.
A B
A comeback B talkback C feedback
ay start take (x2) down off (x2) out 3 My last year was m o r e than l'd
urn wind over up
h o p e d for.
Aturnover B turn-out C turnround
1 As soon as M a r c o left school, he his
o w n stationery business. 4 W e were obviously affected by t h e in
2 Unfortunately, although he struggled for several the e c o n o m y .
years, the business never really .
A downfall B downturn C downgrade
3 Eventually, he had t o some o f his staff.
5 I've g o t a really heavy at the m o m e n t .
4 However, he then m e t s o m e o n e w h o wanted t o
his o w n business so that he Aworkload Bjobload C taskload
could retire. 6 It's really i m p o r t a n t f o r a business t o have a
5 He asked M a r c o if he w o u l d like t o it o f contacts.
as a g o i n g concern.
Agroupwork Bteamwork C network
6 Thegamble very well and he's n o w a
successful businessman.
Business
erb + noun collocations 5 Complete the text w i t h words from the box.

balance disaster disillusioned entrepreneurs let


2 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f
lucrative running sailing service stumbled
the v e r b s i n t h e b o x .

do give make (x2) play run take (x2)


Do you have what it takes
1 After being made redundant, A n n a decided t o
a g a m b l e and set up o n her o w n . to be art e n t r e p r e n e u r ?
2 She had never dreamed o f a company
before. Every year in t h e UK, m o r e than half a million
3 However, she decided t o it a try. people start u p a business. Some are clearly
4 At first, the c o m p a n y didn't _ _ any profit. natural (1) w h o have c o m e up w i t h or
5 However, she preferred t o _ it safe rather
(2) across a fantastic idea they turn into
than any risks.
a successful n e w p r o d u c t or a(n) (3)
6 It's n o w very w e l indeed, and
they can sell. Some are looking for greater flexibility
a lot o f money.
or a better work-life (4) . It can e n d
up being (5) i f y o u are fortnate, b u t
Business: prepositions
there are n o guarantees and it rarely turns o u t t o
Choose the correct answers. be plain ( 6 ) . Some ideas are a recipe

1 I've always w a n t e d to go in / into business w i t h Ben. for ( 7 ) a n d never really get u p a n d

2 We've just embarked in / on a n e w project together. (8) . Some businesspeople g o f r o m strength


3 Tony has g o n e away on / in business, l'm afraid. t o strength: far m o r e will eventually get ( 9 )
4 That's n o n e of I on y o u r business. and have t o (10) their dream go.
5 That firm has g o n e out / down o f business.
6 We're w o r k i n g very hard t o stay with / in business.
Module 8
M i x i n g business a n d pleasure

(Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 Read the text again carefully and think about the type of w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p . C a n y o u p r e d i c t t h e a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at
the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 Read t h r o u g h the text again, w i t h y o u r answers in place. Does it make


c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
Q 2 W h i c h w o r d completes this
D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
idiomatic expression w i t h hands?
Q5 You need to make a phrasal verb
The demise o f t h e bookstore
that means 'becomes extinct'.
As I was leaving the vast N e w York bookstore, feelings of guilt (0) -'
Q6 Read the t w o sentences before
in. l'd spent 45 minutes inside, treading the thick green carpets,
the gapped one. You need to
(1) the w o o d e n shelves but, as usual, l'd left e m p t y - h a n d e d .
make a contrast w i t h t h e m .
The only m o n e y to (2) hands was in the store's coffee shop,
where l'd (3) through a biography w h i c h l'd be d o w n l o a d i n g
EXPERT LANGUAGE later. l'd even taken a (4) p h o t o of the cover w i t h my
smartphone, to ensure I located the correct edition online.
Find t w o examples o f t h e future in
For me, a visit to a g o o d bookstore has long been one o f life's
the past in the text.
great pleasures and l'm desoate at the t h o u g h t that they might be
(5) out. Should m o r e be d o n e to save them?
(6) , did I w a n t the inconvenience of lugging the heavy t o m e
a r o u n d w i t h me all day? The sad fact is that in the age o f t h e digital
download, the bookstore is no longer a (7) business model -
its fate sealed long ago, w h e n the first Kindle (8) o n to the
market and consigned it to history.

0 A kicked B jumped C popped D slipped


1 A seeking B glancing C leafing D browsing

2 A move B change C swap Djoin

3 A skimmed B glimpsed C scrolled D gazed

4 A surreptitious B disguised C hidden D secluded

5 A ceasing B closing C dying D expiring

6 A What's m o r e B Indeed C There again D Consequently

7 A loyal B virtuous C sincere D viable


8 A appeared B carne C released D brought
M o d u l e 8 m
M i x i n g business a n d pleasure B g j

4 _ R e w r i t e t h e sentences b e g i n n i n g w i t h a w o r d o r
ge development 1 p h r a s e from t h e b o x .
> CB p. 125, EG pp. 184-185 little no sooner not only on no account only after
only now rarely under no circumstances
Emphasis using negative introductory
expressions 1 You should never have signed that contract.

1 T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t sentences. C o r r e c t t h e
2 I didn't realise h o w difficult the process w o u l d be.
m i s t a k e s i n t h e w r o n g ones.
1 Under any circumstances could I ever run 3 I will have t o write a business plan and talk t o the
a company. bank as well.
2 Rarely has a business o f this kind taken off
so quickly. 4 He'd already set off for t h e airport w h e n he
3 After only b o r r o w i n g f r o m m y family was I able r e m e m b e r e d he'd left his passport behind.
to achieve my dreams.
4 Under n o circumstances I ever w a n t t o w o r k 5 l'd only just arrived at the park w i t h the d o g w h e n it
that hard again! started t o rain.
5 N o t since was I a child had I been so afraid
o f something. 6 W e hardly ever eat o u t in places like this.
6 Never will I see such a fantastic place again.
7 Hardly had he, taken his coat off w h e n t h e 7 You mustn't o p e n the d o o r w h i l e we're out,
p h o n e went. whatever happens.
8 A t n o t i m e y o u must never t o u c h that switch.
8 W e are only just ready t o leave.
2 R e w r i t e t h e sentences i n Exercise 1 i n a n o n -
emphatic way.
1 Emphasis through fronting parts of the
2 sentence
3
5 R e w r i t e t h e sentences b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e w o r d s
4
in bold.
5
1 The film has been so p o p u l a r that we're g o i n g t o
6 have a repeat showing.
7
2 The scenery is even m o r e impressive t h a n t h e
8
w i l d life.
3 R e w r i t e t h e sentences b e g i n n i n g w i t h t h e w o r d s i n
brackets. 3 The sun carne o u t , just in t i m e for the picnic.
1 You must never try t o launch a business w i t h o u t
d o i n g market research. (Under n o circumstances) 4 It m a y be lovely, b u t it's also very expensive.

2 I w o u l d never have given up m y day j o b before 5 James drove up, just as w e were a b o u t t o leave.
being sure that the business w o u l d make money.
(Never) 6 He was a n n o y e d b u t he finished the talk.

3 Investors w o n ' t be nterested in putting m o n e y into 7 Her confidence in her ability was such that w e were
the business until they've seen a detailed business all amazed.
plan. ( N o t until)
8 A n od m a n in a dark coat was o u t s i d e t h e h o t e l .
4 You shouldn't assume that y o u will be given a loan
f r o m the bank. (At n o time)

5 M y website was only just up a n d running w h e n


enquies carne f l o o d i n g in. (Barely)

6 I have hardly ever felt m o r e relieved than w h e n I


began t o make some money. (Rarely)
8A
Module 8
M i x i n g business a n d pleasure

(Paper 1 Part 3)

Word formation 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t a n d t h i n k a b o u t w h a t y o u are g o i n g t o read.

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read the text again carefully and think about h o w to change the w o r c
t h a t w i l l fit i n e a c h gap.

4 D o t h e task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it make
c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
> Q1 A d d a suffix and check the For questions 7-8, read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at
the end ofsome of the Unes to form a word that fits in the gap in the same
spelling carefully.
Une. There is an example at the beginning (0).
> Q 2 A d d a prefix and a suffix to
change this w o r d into an
adjective.
> Q4 A d d a suffix and check whether
y o u need a singular or a plural
w o r d here.

EXPERT LANGUAGE
Find three examples o f c o m p o u n d
adjectives in the text.

The origin of plstic payment cards


In 1954, Stanley Dashew's c o m p a n y was facing serious
(0) difficulties. W i t h a large tax bil to pay FINANCE
and a (1) d e m a n d i n g immediate payment, SUPPLY
it looked (2) to meet its next payroll. LIKE
However, not only did the California-based Dashew
Business Machines survive its cash-flow crisis, it w e n t
o n to bring the w o r l d o n e o f t h e banking sector's most
(3) successful innovations: the embossed ENDURE
plstic card.
In those days, most everyday consumer (4) TRANSACT
were settled in cash, whilst larger payments involved
the use o f handwritten cheques. A l t h o u g h charge
cards were already in (5) these were EXIST
paper-based, and so (6) torn or defaced. EASY
At the time, Dashew Business Machines was making
d a t a - i m p r i n t i n g e q u i p m e n t for the US g o v e r n m e n t
and Stanley saw a possible new (7) of the APPLY
existing technology. He developed a machine that could
emboss a plstic bank card with the account holder's
ame and other details, a technological (8) BREAK
w h i c h was to lead directly to the d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e
world's first credit card.
Module 8
M i x i n g business a n d pleasure

(Paper 3 Part 4 )

I
Mltiple matching R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e tasks. H o w m a n y e x t r a c t s are y o u g o i n g
t o hear? W h a t are t h e speakers g o i n g t o t a l k a b o u t ?

ERT S T R A T E G Y 1 2a L o o k at T a s k O n e . W h a t are y o u l i s t e n i n g for? M a r k t h e k e y w o r d s i n


t h e o p t i o n s a n d t h i n k a b o u t t h e m i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e task.
en for the main ideas the people
expressing and think a b o u t their
N o w l o o k at T a s k T w o . W h a t are y o u l i s t e n i n g for? M a r k t h e k e y
des and opinions. The questions
w o r d s i n t h e o p t i o n s a n d t h i n k a b o u t t h e m i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e task.
testing your understanding o f
things, so don't be distracted ^ 0 9
D o t h e tasks. R e m e m b e r t h a t y o u m u s t c h o o s e o n e o p t i o n
vocabulary. f r o m e a c h task f o r e a c h speaker.

-
You will hear five short extracts in which businesspeople are talking about running a retal! shop.

TASK O N E TASK T W O
|M|i|ll|l|||M
z
or questions 7 - 5 , choose from the list (A-H) each For questions 6 - 7 0, choose from the list (A-H) how
speaker's main reason for starting a business. each speaker feels about the business now.

While you listen, you must complete both tasks.

A the encouragement of friends A disappointed w i t h performance so far

B a family tradition B cautious a b o u t the future

C having some funds to invest Speaker 1 C unwilling to accept defeat Speaker 1

D having a p r o d u c t to p r o m o t e Speaker 2 D frustrated by the attitude o f Speaker 2


suppliers
E a wish to change career Speaker 3 Speaker 3
E keen to learn f r o m mistakes
F a dislike o f being an e m p l o y e e Speaker 4 Speaker 4
F surprised by h o w d e m a n d i n g
G seeing others d o i n g well Speaker 5 Speaker 5 10
the w o r k is
H perceiving a gap in the market
G resentful of a competitor's
strategies

H grateful for support received

\> Q l Listen t o w h a t the speaker says a b o u t his children -


the answer comes soon afterwards.
> Q2 W h i c h o p t i o n talks a b o u t receiving some money?
i > Q7 Listen t o the end o f Speaker 2 t o get the answer.
> Q8 Listen to w h a t the speaker says a b o u t his f o r m e r
colleagues.

EXPERT L A N G U A G E 1
Look back at Task T w o . Find an adjective w i t h a negative
prefix used to express a positive dea.

PERT W O R D C H E C K
anding broker) even costume jewellery franchise
an make a go of it ndive niche market
avel accessories uphill struggle will (n)
e a n s t o a n e n d ?

(Paper 1 Part 5)

Mltiple choice 1 Read the title of the text a n d the i n t r o d u c t o r y sentence. W h a t do y o u


think the text w i l l be about? Can y o u predict the writer's attitude to
the topic?

2 R e a d t h e t e x t q u i c k l y t o see i f y o u w e r e right.

3 Read question 1 and m a r k the key words. T h e n read the text carefully
t o find t h e s e c t i o n w h i c h c o n t a i n s t h e a n s w e r .

4 C h o o s e the o p t i o n t h a t best answers t h e q u e s t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the text.

5 Repeat t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s .

EXPERT STRATEGY
In this task, y o u need to distinguish
1 You are going to read an anide
possessions and happiness.
about the relationship
For questions
between
1-6, choose the answer
material
(A, B, C or
D) which you think fits best according to the text.
between similar viewpoints or
reasons in the options. Read the
1 In the first paragraph, the writer is
question and study the text to find
A giving reasons w h y an accepted truth is so widely believed.
y o u r o w n answer before c o m p a r i n g
B exposing the weaknesses in a c o m m o n l y held assumption.
the options.
C p r o v i d i n g examples in support o f her personal viewpoint.
D questioning the logic o f a popularly accepted theory.
HELP
2 The writer gives the example of her smartphone to Ilstrate
> Ql You need to read the w h o l e
A h o w difficult it w o u l d be to live w i t h o u t certain key possessions.
paragraph to answer this
B h o w superficial is our feeling o f attachment to pieces of
question.
technolbgy.
> Q2 Look at the end of the
C h o w quickly w e b e c o m e accustomed t o the advantages of
paragraph to find the answer.
certain gadgets.
> Q4 Look in the previous sentence
D h o w the usefulness of consumer goods affects our view of their
to find the p o i n t of reference.
lasting valu.

EXPERT LANGUAGE 1 3 In the third paragraph, the writer suggests that fear of losing certain
material goods
Look back at the first paragraph. Find A is a natural reaction to their intrinsic valu.
the w o r d s and phrases the writer B is a reflection o f the cost o f having to replace t h e m .
uses to sequence the argument. C is a s y m p t o m o f placing t o o m u c h importance o n t h e m .
D is a logical response to our e m o t i o n a l attachment to t h e m .

4 The w o r d it in line 47 refers to


EXPERT W O R D C H E C K A an i m p o r t a n t change.
aesthetically equMbrum existential B an everyday object.
fleeting hedonic homespun C a serious mistake.
pedigree underpin yin yang D a strong feeling.

5 In the fourth paragraph, the writer quotes f r o m Alexandre Dumas in


order to
A provide a contrast to the ideas of Plato.
B show h o w mistaken her uncle's words were.
C demnstrate w h y a popular folk theory is misguided.
D clarify a p o i n t of view w h i c h she only partially agrees w i t h .

In the final paragraph, the writer is encouraging us to


A guard against complacency in our attitudes to life.
B be prepared for b o t h g o o d times and hardships in life.
C strive to i m p r o v e both our o w n lives and those of others.
D accept the positive c o n t r i b u t i o n of consumer goods to our lives.
Module 8
A means t o a n end?

Is better off really


D o

r e a l l y better
m a t e r i a l

m a k e u
p o s s e s s i o n s

s h a p p y ?

'.: s a well-known fact that material possessions don't will inevitably feel a corresponding pain as we regain
._::mately make us happy There are a number of reasons eguilibrium; and if we feel pain, we will feel pleasure
for this. First of all, it is things such as connection with 50 when we are restored to normality One popular folk
people and meaningful activity that make a big difference theory to expiain this, often dignified by references to
: our well-being. Additionally, there are various factors that Taoism, is that the yin of happiness requires the yang
underpin the fleeting nature of the thrill that comes from of misery. 'He who has felt the deepest grief is best
\e~ing the stuff we crave. One is that the acquisition of able to experience supreme happiness,' as Alexandre
aterial goods is oen quickly followed by anxiety about 55 Dumas put it. From this principie many draw the same
.: sing or damaging them; think of the conclusin he did: that happiness and
bst scratch on a new car. Another is misery have a measure of relativity.
ftiat if something makes you happy 'There is neither happiness or
more of it won't necessarily make you misery in the world; there is only
ven happier. Then there is what's >o the comparison of one state with
known as hedonic adaptation: the fact another.' There is some truth in this,
Stat we simply get used to having the but good and bad cannot be defined
Ihings that make us feel good and so purely relative to expectation and
stop noticing their beneficial impact. experience. Many things or states
>5 of affairs really are better or worse
That's all true. And yet, I've come to than others. Poverty for example, is
hmk that the issue is slightly more terrible, even when people around
r.uanced. There seem to be certain things that continu to you are even poorer.
make a little bit of difference to daily life for a long time,
ta my case, the prime example is my smartphone, which Nothing has the power ofthe first time, so as we get
never ceases to amaze me. I don't live in fear of losing 7o used to good things, it is inevitable that many will
: r damaging it, or have I stopped noticing its benefits. have less impact. But familiarity need not make us
One distinction that can be made is whether the item is lose sight of their real valu. Remembering how lucky
tanctional and something we really grow to rely on, rather you are to eat well every day and how easily things
ftian just own. An expensive watch, for instance, wouldn't could be different, for instance, can lead to more,
ta itself necessarily make the same kind of difference. You 75 not less, satisfaction with life. The way to appreciate
:rJy really get a thrill when it's new. improvements in life is never to allow ourselves to get so
used to them that they are no longer noticed.
Another important point is whether we manage to keep
material goods in perspective and avoid giving them more
-le than they deserve. Apart from the fact that they can
often be replaced, we should aim to enjoy things in the
genuine understanding that they will not last forever or
will they give meaning to our life. If we do this, we
may be able to avert excessive fear of losing them.
It would be completely wrong to let our well-
being hang on an electronic device or to think
that it could bring about a deep existential
transformation. But there 's nothing wrong
with noticing and appreciating what it can
do for us, practicaUy and aesthetically.

And what is happiness, anyway? As my


nele always used to say, 'Laughing always
turns to crying.' He may not have known
that his homespun wisdom had a classical
pedigree. Plato thought that if we feel pleasure, we
Module 8
A means to an end?

Collocations
Vocabulary development 2
4 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h w o r d s f r o m t h e b o x .
> CB p. 128
bargain cause costs deal earth even regular
Phrasal verbs: money savings

1 M a t c h the sentence halves. 1 He doesn't earn a fortune b u t he has a(n)


1 A t the m o m e n t l'm s c r a p i n g income.
2 I g o t totally r i p p e d 2 W e usually have t o be careful w h a t w e spend at t h e
3 I've just t a k e n end o f t h e m o n t h b u t w e usually manage t o break
4 M o s t o f m y m o n e y is t i e d
5 I've p u t some m o n e y 3 That handbag she b o u g h t cost t h e even
6 I managed t o beat t h o u g h it was in the sale.
7 If I carne 4 In order t o c u t , we're g o i n g t o change
8 I would help you our p o w e r supplier.
5 Tony got a good at t h e currency
a o u t a subscription t o that n e w nature magazine.
exchange.
b i n t o a fortune, l'd start a business.
6 I love spotting a a n d saving myself
c b y o n very little m o n e y as it's t h e end o f term.
money.
d o u t financially if I c o u l d , b u t l'm broke again.
7 I a m happy t o d n a t e a m o n t h l y sum t o a w o r t h y
e h i m d o w n in t h e end b u t I had t o haggle for ages.
f o f f at that n e w restaurant I w e n t t o last week.
8 She'll never be well-off because she can't resist
g u p in investments.
d i p p i n g into her .
h b y for an emergency.
5 Choose the correct answers.
2 M a t c h t h e p h r a s a l v e r b s i n b o l d i n Exercise 1 w i t h
their meanings.
T i p s for managing m o n e y
1 be unavailable for anything else
2 save m o n e y t o use later
S S a m : If we're staying in, we sometimes get an
3 have only just enough m o n e y t o live o n
Indian takeaway or something to (1) share/
4 persuade s o m e o n e t o reduce their price
divide. If we go out for a drink, w e usually just (2)
5 be charged t o o m u c h m o n e y
6 inherit split/cut the bil between us.
7 make a f i n a n d a l arrangement
8 give assistance O Emily: When you go out to a restaurant or a club,
sometimes get special (3) charges / rates
Prepositions if you're a student, s o look out for them. When
I go out with a friend, I prefer to pay my own
3 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h p r e p o s i t i o n s f r o m
(4) way /part.
the box.

beyond by for in into of on (x2) O V a n e s s a : When you rent a student fat, be careful
there are no hidden (5) additions / extras. And it's
1 Was there a discount o r d i d y o u have t o pay generally better to pay (6) upright/up front than
full?
on credit, a s long a s you get a receipt.
2 Most students at this college are a
grant.
Q J e s s e : I am much better at (7) dealing /handling
3 Are y o u allowed t o pay card at that
money than I w a s at the beginning of term. My tip
restaurant? is to (8) withdraw / extract only a certain amount
4 I've just paid m y salary m y account. every week from the bank - then you know where
5 Sarah is always short m o n e y at this t i m e you are.
ofthe month.
6 Unfortunately, this car is only loan while
mine's being repaired.
7 M y friend is often h a r d - u p because she tends t o live
her means.
8 I think that trip is excellent valu
money.

90
1V1UUU1U w
A means t o an end?

Other w a y s of making comparisons


ilopment 2
2 T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t sentences. C o r r e c t t h e
C B p . 130, EG p. 183
m i s t a k e s i n t h e w r o n g ones.
1 It was t o o h o t for us lylng o n the beach.
Modifying comparisons
2 l'm getting m o r e and m o r e w o r r i e d .
Complete each gap w i t h one w o r d o r phrase f r o m 3 She works like a waitress at weekends.
A a n d o n e f r o m B. 4 It was so successful c o m p a n y that it expanded all
A B over t h e w o r l d .
5 l'd prefer giving u p t h e business than risk losing all
about considerably as less more our money.
nothing like slightly the same
6 The little y o u know, the better.
7 He'd sooner be u n e m p l o y e d than w o r k w i t h that
c o m p a n y again.
Is it cheaper t o b e a w o m a n t h a n a man? 8 I wasn't quick enough applying for the j o b .
Y o u w o u l d expect that clothes f o r both sexes w o u l d
3 Choose the correct answers.
cost ( 1 ) i f t h e y ' r e identical b u t although
m i s is true i n some shops, others charge m e n
(2) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , w h i c h m a y seem unfair, given that
m e i r clothes often use m o r e material. O n l y a t i n y b i t , Ways to make money
true, but it's the p r i n c i p i e that counts.
from home
However, w o m e n over the year do spend (3)
o n clothes - nearly t w i c e the amount, i n fact. A n d Rather than d o extra hours at w o r k in these difficult
predictably, m e n spend (4) m u c h o n shoes times, it makes (1) a great deal /far more sense t o try
as their w i v e s o r girlfriends do - again, around h a l f the and get s o m e t h i n g for nothing. For example, y o u could
average sum. rent o u t y o u r driveway for s o m e o n e t o park o n d u r i n g
the day. (2) By far / Considerably t h e biggest d e m a n d is
for parking near an airport, a n d i f y o u act (3) as/like a
B taxi-driver a n d d r o p clients off at t h e airport, y o u w o u l d
a great deal less more earn even more.
easily somewhat the biggest
If that idea w o n ' t work, w h y n o t rent o u t a spare
room? There are (4) nowhere near / somewhat enough
affordable places to rent available for y o u n g people,
I t seems that hairdressers charge ( 5 ) for w h o will be grateful just for a r o o m . If you'd prefer
w o m e n ' s haircuts than men's - w o m e n are p a y i n g (5) to rent/rent to an overseas student, y o u can improve
almost double, unless they k n o w someone w h o w i l l your linguistic skills at the same time - many people
cut i t at h o m e . A n d o f course, the cost o f make-up find it (6) such a/so g o o d experience and make so
means that w o m e n are ( 6 ) spenders as many new friends that they say they w o u l d d o it w i t h o u t
regards spending o n appearance. H o w e v e r , w o m e n do being paid.
pay (7) f o r the same brands o f moisturiser,
If y o u r house isn't b i g e n o u g h ( 7 ) to accommodate /
w h i c h m a n y m e n have n o w started w e a r i n g .
accommodating s o m e b o d y else, y o u could sell y o u r
g o o d quality, rarely w o r n clothes online t o make
B money. The m o r e clothes y o u have, the ( 8 ) fewer /
less y o u wear t h e m , so clear some space and it will
anywhere near as much likely
(9) easily / decidedly be the best decisin y o u
far more just the same
have made!

<.. (10) Slightly /Barely m o r e preparation is required t o

W o m e n are (8) to compare prices a n d w a i t set up a car b o o t sale, b u t this w a y y o u can get rid o f all

before m a k i n g a purchase, whereas m e n tend j u s t t o the rubbish in y o u r house. Give it a go and watch the

buy o n impulse. m o n e y roll i n !

B u t m e n d o n ' t dnate ( 9 ) t o charity as


w o m e n , w h o are very generous. M e n and w o m e n
spend ( 1 0 ) o n entertainment. There is v e r y
little difference.
Module 8
A m e a n s t o a n end?


$e O f English (Paper 1 Part 4)

K e y word transformations 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e t a s k a n d l o o k at t h e e x a m p l e . T h i n k
a b o u t h o w t h e t w o sentences are d i f f e r e n t a n d n o t i c e h o w t h e
meaning hasn't changed.

2 D o t h e task.

HELP
> Q7 You need to use the verb made For questions 7 - 7 0 , complete the second sentence so that it has a similar
meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the
in y o u r answer.
word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word
> Q9 You need to use a n o u n in your
given. Here is an example (0).
answer; t is the opposite of
ncrease.
0 D o y o u think y o u could help m e Iift the table?
> Q10 Replace the verb use with a
HAND
phrase using the key w o r d .
W o u l d y o u m i n d qivinq me a hand to lift the table?
Be careful: y o u need to use
inversin in y o u r answer. 1 M y brother managed to get a place at a prestigious business college.
SUCCEEDED
M y brother at a prestigious business college.
EXPERT L A N G U A G E 1 2 Despite the p o o r e c o n o m i c climate, the c o m p a n y increased
Look back at your answers. Find
its sales.
three examples of verb + n o u n
MANAGED
collocations w i t h the verb make.
The c o m p a n y spite of the p o o r e c o n o m i c climate.

3 Dan didn't realise he'd forgotten his passport until he arrived at


the airport.
DID
Only w h e n Dan realise that he'd forgotten his passport.

4 Very few businesses are profitable in their first year.


MAKE
Hardly in their first year.

5 Ken's family persuaded him to ask for a salary ncrease.


TALKED
Ken was in salary by his family.

6 The end o f the film was completely unpredictable.


COULD
Nobody would end.

7 Very few club m e m b e r s bothered to attend the Annual General


Meeting.
EFFORT
Hardly to attend the Annual General Meeting.

8 A multinational c o r p o r a t i o n has recently acquired the local


company.
OVER
The local c o m p a n y by a multinational c o r p o r a t i o n .

9 M a n y fewer shoppers have been visiting the mal lately.


SHARP
There has been n u m b e r of shoppers visiting the
mal lately.

10 Students may not use the staff entrance under any circumstances.
MAKE
Under of the staff entrance.
8B
Module 8
A m e a n s t o an end?

Writing (Paper 2 Part 2: Review) One Day

0) Sellmg millions of copies worldwide,


> CBp 126, 132-133, EW p. 197
I thought it was somewhat overrated but there
1 was still no question of me missing the film versin
EXPERT STRATEGY when it carne out.
Make sure the o p e n i n g sentence catches the reader's
What I found most original about the book was
attention.
the way it was structured. Telling the story of the
Focus o n evaluating/giving critical c o m m e n t s /
cise friendship between Emma and Dexter, which
c o m p a r i n g and contrasting rather than just describing
started at university and continued over a penod
w h a t is being reviewed.
Use a w i d e range of descriptive vocabulary. of 20 years, we learn about the relationship by
Give a summary/final evaluation at the end. reading about what happened one day every year
in their lives. However, in my view, that doesn't
Planning your answer really come across as well in the film, partly
because it feels as if it is moving far too fast. After
1 R e a d t h e t a s k a n d t h e n l o o k at t w o p o s s i b l e
all, 20 years has to be crammed into two hours.
p a r a g r a p h p l a n s . W h i c h o n e d o y o u prefer? W h y ?
Despite this, the screenplay keeps pretty much to
the book and nothing too vital is left out.
You see this advertisement on a college website.
Perhaps more important was the lack of chemistry
Have y o u recently seen the film versin of a b o o k between the two mam characters in the film. I just
y o u have read? C o m p a r e the film and the book, didn't find Emma as convincmg as in the book, and
including your opinions o n h o w the main characters
not just because of the dodgy Yorkshire accent.
are portrayed and say w h i c h y o u preferred.
Oddly, though, it was Dexter who I didn't warm
Write your review in 220-260 words.
m to m the novel, whereas I much preferred his
character m the film; he carne over as altogether
more likeable. The rest of the cast were guite
strong, too, particularly Rafe Spall, who added a
para 1: i n t r o d u c t i o n touch of humour as lan. And of course, the ending
_ara 2: w h a t y o u liked/disliked a b o u t the film was just as heartbreaking as in the book.
para 3: w h a t y o u liked/disliked a b o u t the b o o k
(2) However, if you haven't read it yet,
r a r a 4: s u m m a r y and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n
you might like to give the novel a go.

B
para 1: i n t r o d u c t i o n
Using appropriate language
oara 2: c o m p a r e and contrast (e.g. story, structure)
3 F i n d examples in the review of language w h i c h :
oara 3: c o m p a r e and contrast (e.g. portrayal of
1 compares and contrasts.
characters)
2 balances an o p i n i n .
oara 4: s u m m a r y and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n
3 expresses p referen ees.
4 summarises.
troduction and conclusin
4 F i n d examples of descriptive language in the
R e a d a s t u d e n t ' s a n s w e r a n d c h o o s e t h e best r e v i e w t h a t m a t c h these m e a n i n g s .
s e n t e n c e ( A o r B) t o c o m p l e t e t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n a n d
1 not as g o o d as it was said to be
c o n c l u s i n . G i v e reasons f o r y o u r c h o i c e .
2 made to fit into s o m e t h i n g small
1 introduction 3 not very g o o d
A The m u c h - l o v e d novel One Day was written by 4 like
David Nicholls. 5 a bit o f fun
B I f y o u haven't read the runaway best-selling b o o k 6 verysad
One Day, you're in a minority! 7 didn't w o r k very well
2 conclusin 8 try
A All in all, after all the hype, I t h o u g h t it fell a bit
fat and I certainly w o u l d n ' t rush o u t and see it. Writing task
B The film is n o w available o n D V D and well w o r t h
a watch. 5 N o w d o t h e task i n E x e r c i s e 1.
The world of science
9 A

W a y s of seeing
elopment 1
3 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f
> CBp. 138
the words in the box.

Word formation: science gaze alance glimpse peer sight view

1 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h w o r d s f o r m e d f r o m 1 W e should get a great ofthe moon.


the w o r d s i n brackets. 2 I k n o w Liz by but I've never met her.
1 M y son s h o p i n g t o study (chemist) 3 She only got a quick of the singer as he
at university. was rushed into the car.
2 The (invent) of the internet is still a 4 Astonished, T o m just sat and . into space
relatively recent one. 5 I could see her . at the m e n , obviously
3 I've always been interested in the idea o f unable to see it very well w i t h o u t her glasses.
(astronomy) research. 6 I at her quickly but she didn't meet
4 They've set off o n an (explore) trip m y eyes.
into space.
5 To be a scientist, y o u need quite an Idioms with like
(analyse) brain.
6 I believe that (engineer) is a very 4 M a t c h the sentence halves.

popular subject these days. 1 It's hard to tell her daughters apart. They're _
7 They have said that (atmosphere) 2 Don't talk to Deb a b o u t her ex-husband. It's _
pressure is very high today. 3 I had n o t h i n g in c o m m o n w i t h anyone at
8 Before o u r child was b o r n , w e w e n t to speak to a the conference. I felt _
(genetics). 4 The teacher stressed to h i m h o w i m p o r t a n t
the h o m e w o r k was but it was _
Expressions connected to space 5 He never looks w h e r e he's going. He's _
6 Jo is determined to get w h a t he wants. He's _
2 Choose the correct answers.
a like a bull in a china shop.
1 I don't k n o w w h y you're having so many problems
b like a d o g w i t h a bone.
w i t h those instructions. Putting a blender together is
c like a fish o u t o f water,
not exactly space / rocket science!
d like a red rag to a bull.
2 M y daughter sometimes looks at me as t h o u g h l'm
e like t w o peas in a p o d .
f r o m another planet / star.
f like water off a duck's back.
3 W e only go to expensive restaurants once in a blue
sky I moon.
Prepositional phrases
4 Unless w e b o o k the flights soon, prices are g o i n g to
rocket / fly. 5 Choose the correct answers.
5 I did study some physics once but that's many
1 A small bright light appears l o w in the sky at/ from
suns I moons ago.
t i m e t o time.
6 I haven't slept well for a couple o f days, so l'm
2 For a small handful of people, that d o t on / at the
feeling a bit space I shuttled out.
horizon is a place called h o m e .
3 The spacecraft flies at/ in 17,500 m p h .
4 If y o u are there for a week or t w o , y o u are on / ata.
high the w h o l e time.
5 On / In time, people can perfect the skill o f flying
a r o u n d the spacecraft.
6 The faces from / on the other side o f t h e hatch are
always pleased to see y o u .
7 In / At orbit, things are weightless.
8 By I On the downside, many astronauts lose their
sense of smell and taste.
Module 9
Personal challenges

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 Read the text again carefully a n d t h i n k about the t y p e o f w o r d that w i l l fit


i n each gap. C a n y o u p r e d i c t the a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
For questions 7-8, read the text below and decide which answer (A, B, C or
> Q 2 You need a phrasal verb that
D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
means happened.
> Q3 Read the w h o l e sentence
carefully. Only o n e of these The search for extra-terrestrial intelligence
linking words fits grammatically.
> Q4 O n l y o n e o f these w o r d s can be
followed by to.

EXPERT L A N G U A G E
Find an example o f an auxilian/ verb
used for emphasis in the text.

O n a misty April m o r n i n g in 1960, a y o u n g US astronomer called Frank


Drake (0) A. a radio telescope at a nearby star. He was listening for
signis f r o m any alien civilisation that might inhabit its planetary system.
O n this occasion, Drake (1) up a strong radio signal that he
t h o u g h t couldn't have c o m e f r o m a natural source. As it (2)
out, however, it actually emanated f r o m a secret terrestrial source: a
defence radar establishment.
(3) this disappointment, Drake w e n t o n to develop a w h o l e
new rea o f research called astrobiology, (4) to the task of
finding alien intelligence. Since then, although the a m o u n t o f data has
expanded immensely, the story (5) o n e o f radio silence,
punctuated by occasional (6) alarms. Yet, as a crop of new
books shows, this ( 7 ) of research has never been m o r e
active. Evidence is (8) that many stars in our galaxy have
planets o n w h i c h life might have originated, and advances in technology
are making it easier to detect alien life if it does exist. So it could just be a
matter of t i m e before s o m e t h i n g is discovered.

0 A pointed B steered C posed D shone


1 A spotted B caught C picked D brought
2 A showed B turned C worked D ended
3 A Whilst B Albeit C Although D Despite
4 A devoted B concentrated C specialised D focused
5 A persists B contines C remains D keeps
6 Afake B wrong C mistaken D false
7 A zone B province C scope D field
8 A enlarging B growing C swelling D expanding
9A
Module 9
Personal challenges

3 T i c k ( / ) t h e c o r r e c t sentences. C o r r e c t t h e
iguage development 1 m i s t a k e s i n t h e w r o n g ones.
> CB p. 141, EG p. 185 1 M y friend blamed m e for I lost her phone.
2 They refused t o leave unless I w e n t w i t h t h e m .
Review of reported speech 3 The assistant r e c o m m e n d e d me t o buy the
larger size.
1 Report the direct speech.
4 I c o m p l a i n e d t o the waiter a b o u t having t o w a : s:
1 'The w o r l d belongs t o you.' long for m y f o o d .
Frances's father told her 5 He advised me t o speak t o my teacher.
2 Tve always belleved that n o b o d y should have t o 6 Becky flatly denied t o break the j u g .
clean houses.' 7 W e insisted t o see the manager.
Francs said . 8 They explained her h o w t o get there.
3 T m g o i n g t o build a house t o help disabled people.'
Francs said . Impersonal report structures
4 'The house t o o k m e 40 years t o complete.'
Francs told us 4 Report the statements using an impersonal
5 'I have n o idea w h a t will eventually happen t o structure. Begin w i t h the w o r d s i n brackets.
the house.' 1 M a n y people expected that families w o u l d be go:n
Francs said to the m o o n o n holiday by now. (It)
6 ' W o u l d y o u like t o c o m e and see t h e house?'
Francs asked us 2 Some space travel companies have promised
7 ' D i d y o u k n o w I have been n o m i n a t e d as o n e o f t h e that by 2018, flights t o space will be available for
US' t o p inventors?' ordinary people. (It)
Francs asked us .
8 'I might spend m o r e time d o i n g sculptures.' 3 There is a belief that some rich people have paic
Francs told us excess o f $20 million t o go into space.
(Some rich people)
Patterns after reporting verbs
4 Some scientists have claimed that w e may soon be
2 Report the statements using the reporting verbs i n
able t o go t o w i t h i n lOOk o f t h e m o o n . (It)
the box.

accuse agree apologise invite offer regret 5 I have read a report w h i c h says that classes in
remind suggest space tourism are taking place in the US and Japar
(Classes in space tourism)
1 'Remember y o u have t o p h o n e the bank today.'Jo
told her husband. 6 Some people have alleged that there is a waiting lis
Jo . of people w a n t i n g t o make the first flight. (It)
2 Til get y o u a coffee,' my m o t h e r said.
My mother. 7 W e k n o w that some space tourists have also d o n e
3 'I wish we'd g o n e by train,' said m y husband. research w h i l e they were there.
M y husband (Some space tourists)
4 ' W h y don't w e visit the Science M u s e u m next week?'
said m y friend. 8 Environmentalists claim that space tourism is sure
M y friend . to accelerate global w a r m i n g . (It)
5 'You're always late,' my son told me.
M y son .
6 'You must c o m e and stay w i t h us next week,' they
said t o us.
They .
7 'Yes, it's true that the presentation wasn't very
interesting,' he said.
He .
8 T m really sorry I forgot a b o u t the meeting
yesterday,' I said.
Module 9
Personal challenges

(Paper 1 Part 3)

Word formation 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t a n d t h i n k a b o u t w h a t y o u are g o i n g t o r e a d .

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 R e a d t h e t e x t a g a i n c a r e f u l l y a n d t h i n k a b o u t h o w t o c h a n g e the w o r d
t h a t w i l l ft i n e a c h gap.

4 D o the task.

5 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

;lp
Ql A d d t w o suffixes t o make this For questions 1-8, read the text beiow. Use the word given in capitals at
the end ofsome of the Unes to form a word that fits in the gap in the same
n o u n into an adverb.
Une. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Q3 Read carefully to see whether
this w o r d should be singular
or plural.
Q 4 A d d b o t h a prefix and a suffix to
this w o r d .

EXPERT L A N G U A G E
[ f i n d an example of a passive
nfinitive in the text.

T h e c o l o u r of gold
It has long been possible to modify the (0) appearance APPEAR
of precious metis by adding a layer of another
material, such as an alloy, to the surface. For example,
w h a t is k n o w n as 'rose gold' is (1) made TRADITION
by a d d i n g copper. N a n o t e c h n o l o g y (2) at RESEARCH
S o u t h a m p t o n University have n o w discovered h o w to
p r o d u c e gold and silver in any colour y o u please, by
making microscopic (3) in the surface that ALTER
affect the way the material reflects light.
(4) , m u c h of the allure of a material such DOUBT
as gold lies in its (5) colouring, w h i c h has DISTINCT
led people to ask what is to be gained by the newly
discovered process. However, it seems there are quite
a n u m b e r o f possible applications for the technique,
w h e r e another c o l o u r w o u l d be (6) . For DESIRE
example, y o u could add c o l o u r e d branding to a piece
o f silver ( 7 ) or design a gold watch face o n JEWEL
w h i c h the hours are d e n o t e d in different colours. A n o t h e r
(8) application might be security tagging SIGNIFY
because the m o d i f i e d surfaces w o u l d be extremely hard
t o forge.
Module 9
Personal challenges

(Paper 3 Part 2)

Sentence completion 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the task. W h a t t y p e o f t e x t are y o u g o i n g


t o hear? W h a t w i l l i t b e about?

EXPERT STRATEGY 2 R e a d t h e sentences i n t h e task. H o w m u c h d o y o u find o u t a b o u t


Only write the missing words o n the topic?
your answer sheet. M o s t answers are
3 T r y t o predict the type o f i n f o r m a t i o n that y o u need t o listen for i n
single w o r d s or very short phrases -
each gap.
don't try t o write t o o m u c h .
;
4 D o t h e task.
HELP
> Q l You are listening for the exact You will hear a radio report about the Knee Defender, a controversia!
place the gadget was fixed t o . gadget used by some airline passengers. For questions 1-8, complete the
> Q 3 Listen for the ame that the sentences with a word or short phrase.
manufacturers gave t o this.
> Q 4 Listen for the expression the last
straw. The answer comes soon
afterwards.

EXPERT LANGUAGE i
W h i c h o f t h e questions targets a
number? H o w d o y o u know?

EXPERT W O R D C H E C K
bae ofsomeone's Ufe civil liberties
conflict of interests
deep-vein thrombosis godsend
ingenious reclining seats
remain upright stir up passions
trigger an alarm

The Knee Defender


The gadget was designed t o be attached t o a passenger's (1)
o n certain planes.

Users p o i n t e d t o the fact that the gadget was b o t h (2) and


easy t o use as key advantages.

The gadget was sold w i t h w h a t was called a (3) t o be given


to the passenger in front.

Moves t o ban the gadget arse after a flight was (4) followin
a violent conflict between t w o passengers.

A total o f (5) airline passengers t o o k part in an online survey


a b o u t the gadget.

Some supporters o f t h e gadget m e n t i o n e d the need t o d o


(6) o n long-haul flights.

Some o p p o n e n t s o f the gadget felt that airlines should issue a


(7) a b o u t the use of the gadget.

The c o m p a n y has also developed a gadget called a (8) ,


w h i c h passengers find useful d u r i n g airport security procedures.
Remembering and forgetting
cabulary development 2
4a C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h recall, remind o r
memorise.

Expressions with mind 1 I a m trying t o these French verbs f o r


m y test.
1 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f 2 Can y o u m e w h i c h episode w e saw
the v e r b s i n t h e b o x . last time?
3 Do you _ w h e r e she lives?
cross keep make put (x2) speak take wander

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h reminder, mind o r


1 I should have p h o n e d y o u . l'm so sorry - t never
memory.
my mind that you'd be w o r r y l n g .
1 D i d the reconstruction j o g y o u r at all?
2 l'm g o i n g t o g o o u t - it'll my mind off
2 W h a t I was just saying has completely slipped m y
the news.
3 That w o m a n appears t o be able to her
3 l'll keep that idea in for next time.
mind to almost anything.
4 That note will serve as a for w h e n y o u
4 Jessica always her mind at staff
need to take y o u r pills.
meetings. She's n o t afraid t o say exactly w h a t she
5 They say an elephant has a really l o n g
thinks a b o u t t h e situation.
like y o u !
5 I wish you'd up your mind - just choose
6 That day is etched in m y f o r ever.
one and let's g o !
6 My mind was - I couldn't concntrate.
7 You must _ it out ofyour mind - it's n o
Words connected to the mind or brain
use w o r r y i n g a b o u t s o m e t h i n g that m i g h t n o t
5 C o m p l e t e t h e t e x t w i t h w o r d s from t h e b o x .
happen.
8 I think w e should an open mind a b o u t able dense feet gifted half knowledgeable
the restructuring. loss precocious uptake witted

2 M a t c h the expressions i n Exercise 1 ( 1 - 8 ) w i t h


their meanings (a-h). Some o f m y o d classmates were unforgettable. F o r
a say w h a t y o u think example, I remember someone i n m y class called Fred.
b stop thinking a b o u t it H e was extremely q u i c k - ( l ) and made
c distract m e us a l l l a u g h a lot. H e m a y n o t have been the most
d wait until y o u k n o w the facts (2) _________ student b u t because he c o u l d t h i n k o n his
before making a decisin (3) and was never at a ( 4 ) for
e occur t o me w o r d s , he w o u l d always do w e l l . H e was v e r y popular.
f apply yourself T h e n there was Charlie. H e was n o t always very q u i c k
g n o t pay attention o n the (5) w i t h academic subjects and
h decide one o r t w o u n k i n d people called h i m ( 6 ) .
H o w e v e r , he was incredibly ( 7 ) at sports
3 M a t c h the sentence halves.
and w e a l l admired h i m .
1 I was o u t o f m y m i n d w i t h w o r r y
Elena must have been a b i t ( 8 ) because
2 It was a huge weight off m y m i n d
she was m u c h younger than the rest o f us and y e t very
3 I carried o n g o i n g o u t b u t at t h e
(9) about a l l sorts o f things. Some people
back o f m y m i n d
said she was t o o clever b y (10) but I
4 N o o n e in their right m i n d
l i k e d her.
5 M y m i n d tends t o go blank
6 M y car has a m i n d o f its o w n ;

a w o u l d d o s o m e t h i n g so stupid.
b w h e n I was t o l d l'd been accepted.
c it sometimes refuses to start f o r n o reason.
d w h e n there was an earthquake in m y
daughter's t o w n .
e whenever I a m asked a question.
f I knew I should be d o i n g m o r e studying.
Brain p o w e r

(Paper 1 Part 6)

Mltiple matching 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t a n d t h e i n t r o d u c t o r y s e n t e n c e . W h a t are y o u


g o i n g t o read?

2 Read the task and m a r k the key w o r d s i n each question.

3 R e a d all t h e s e c t i o n s q u i c k l y t o get a n i d e a o f w h a t t h e r e v i e w e r s are


saying about the book.

D o t h e task.

EXPERT STRATEGY You are going to read four reviews ofa book about how people organise
their Uves and possessions. For questions 1-4, choose from the reviews A-D.
There will be some reference t o the
ideas in the questions in each o f The reviews may be chosen more than once.

the sections. Underline these and


W h i c h reviewer:
keep reading t h e m together w i t h the
shares Reviewer C's view regarding the usefulness
question w o r d i n g until y o u find the
of complicated systems for storing things like those
correct match.
featured in the book?

HELP holds a different view to Reviewer B regarding the extent


t o w h i c h the b o o k makes the reader think?
> Ql Look for o n e other reviewer
w h o expresses the same idea as holds a similar view to Reviewer A regarding the ohginality
'aren't w o r t h the hassle in C. of some o f Levitin's advice?
> Q 3 Reviewer A says the ideas are
holds a different view t o the others regarding h o w well
n o t 'new and challenging'.
the b o o k is structured?
W h i c h other reviewer thinks
they are unoriginal?
> Q 4 Only o n e reviewer makes a
Vocabulary
positive c o m m e n t a b o u t this.
5a C h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t a n s w e r s . T h e n find t h e v e r b s i n t h e t e x t a n d check.
1 aspire to do / on doing s o m e t h i n g
EXPERT LANGUAGE
2 expand on I for s o m e t h i n g
Find an example o f a c o l o n and a
3 approve to / of s o m e t h i n g
semicolon in the text. W h y have
4 engage to / with s o m e t h i n g
these punctuation marks been used?
5 go a b o u t doing / to do s o m e t h i n g
6 j o t s o m e t h i n g over/ down

EXPERT W O R D C H E C K M a t c h t h e v e r b s i n E x e r c i s e 5a ( 1 - 6 ) w i t h t h e i r m e a n i n g s ( a - f ) .
a think that s o m e t h i n g is g o o d , right or suitable
a drag commonplace dabbles
b b e c o m e involved in and try to understand s o m e t h i n g -
hassle in triplcate losing the thread
c w a n t very m u c h to d o or achieve s o m e t h i n g
maxim multitasking take stock
d write s o m e t h i n g quickly so that y o u r e m e m b e r it
well-worn woefully
J e add m o r e details or i n f o r m a t i o n to s o m e t h i n g y o u have already said
f begin to d o or deal w i t h s o m e t h i n g

C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f t h e v e r b s i n
E x e r c i s e 5a.
1 His parents d i d n ' t . h i m leaving school but he did it anyway.
2 H a n g o n - let m e . Jill's n u m b e r so w e can cali her later.
3 H o w can w e _ solving this problem?
4 Could y o u o n y o u r last point, please? l'm not sure
understand.
5 As a child, she be a great artist - she w o u l d spend most of
her t i m e painting and drawing.
6 The b o o k helped me to the idea o f taking responsibility for
my o w n actions.
9B
Module 9
Brain p o w e r

Daniel Levitin's book The Organzed Mind'is great on fact,


but keeps returning to universal themes and deas so that the
reader begins to build up a clear picture of the issues. Along

Organzed
the way, we learn a great deal about different ways of organising
35 things, and some handy techniques are described in enough
detail for you to adopt them if you wish. The book is a bit light
on insight, however, and seems to miss the valid point that too

MIND
much organisation is also a trap. Instead of getting rid of things
we don't need, we buy more stuff in order to organise the stuff we
40
already have. Most of the complex filing solutions which Levitin
advocates aren't worth the hassle. They are a poor fit for the rich
mess that is reality.

Four reviewers comment @ T h e challenge of 'getting organised' is both commonplace and


oddly particular. How we go about organising our possessions
on Daniel Levitin's book. 45 can be practical to the point of banality, but it can also be
philosophically deep, something Levitin keeps reminding us of
in his thought-provoking book The Organzed Mind. Having said
that, it is his desire to be comprehensive that weighs on the book.
It is long and, while it does inciude a great deal to intrigue and
so entertain, the rather random parade of disparate topics makes
it less than the sum of its parts. Levitin offers sensible practical
In his book The Organzed Mind, Daniel Levitin's somewhat ideas, but these tend to be rather well-worn, such as: 'Why not
unfocussed discussion aspires to provide a comprehensive account carry a notebook to jot down ideas so that you don't forget them?'
of the way we think about organising everything that we regard And when he admiringly describes the way that Joni Mitchell has
as possessions, but I kept losing the thread of the argument. He 55 a customised drawer for Scotch Tape, another for masking tape,
offers plenty of psychological detail to make us reflect in new a third for string, we realise how woefully inadequate our own
and challenging ways about our mental categories, yet frequently arrangements would seem to him.
.abbles in dispensing practical tips that couldn't be described as
either new or challenging. Whilst agreeing with the maxim that
everything should have a place and be put back in that place, Levitin
expands on that, seeming to approve of devising overly complex
Drganisational systems for a complex world, even describing one in
which letters are printed in triplcate to allow fiIing chronologically,
according to topic and by correspondent. I would suggest we can
do without most of our paperwork; even love letters become a drag
' you hoard every single one.

Daniel Levitin's book The Organzed Min'has both its strengths


and weaknesses. There are tens of thousands of words on topics
:hat are perfectly interesting in isolation, and yet they do not seem
to fit together and you keep wondering where it's all leading. Levitin
5 strongest when he's making us take stock of why we do what
we do. Organising my study is a different problem to organising a
ibrary and Levitin torced me to engage with that truth. Where the
oook falls down, however, is in its desire to suggest intricate ways
:
: organising things to its readers. Levitin's approach to computers
lstrales this. He makes the familiar argument that multitasking is
i distracting problem, but he goes for a novel solution. He suggests
zuying several computers, each with a single purpose: one is for
: rk, one for domestic tasks, one for social networking, etc. Whilst
ne's apologetic about the cost, one wonders if many people will try
out this simple fix.
Module 9
Brain p o w e r

2 Choose the correct answers.


ivelopment 2 1 The success o f t h e project depends o n everyone
> C B p 1 4 6 , EG p. 186 work I to work / working together.
2 W e insisted on giving / giving / to give h i m a lift
Verbs + prepositions h o m e at the end o f the evening.
3 W h e n n o b o d y t o o k any notice of him, he resorted
1 Complete the text w i t h prepositions f r o m the box.
to shouting / to shout / shouting at t h e m .
against at by for from (x2) of on (x5) 4 He couldn't prevent that \ go I me from going / me
to with to go o n the trip.
5 W e are relying o n A n n a she reminds / to reminding /
to remind us.
6 M y friends tried to discourage me entering / me
M e n a n d w o m e n ' s b r a i n s : from entering / that I enter the c o m p e t i t i o n .

h o w a r e t h e y ^
Adjectives + prepositions
______ ___ _______ _________ ____ 1
e r 3 Replace t h e w o r d s i n b o l d w i t h a p r e p o s i t i o n a n d
a n -ing f o r m . M a k e a n y changes necessary.
1 Clare was really upset n o t t o get an invitation to
the w e d d i n g .
2 He p h o n e d to say he was sorry he had t a k e n my
car w i t h o u t asking.
3 She had started to feel afraid t o g o out alone
at night.
4 He's really excited t h a t he's w o n the match.
5 I k n o w she's really p r o u d t h a t she carne first in
the c o m p e t i t i o n .
6 I hadn't d o n e anything like it before, so I was really
w o r r i e d l'd m a k e mistakes.
7 She was angry t h a t she had to wait for an hour to
O n the w h o l e , scientists tend to agree (1)
see a doctor.
each other (2) the biological differences
8 I was thankful t h a t l'd f o u n d a place to stay.
between men and w o m e n ' s brains. There is general
consensus, for example, that connections are w i r e d
differntly between and w i t h i n each side o f t h e brain. Nouns + prepositions

However, w h a t they can't always agree (3) 4 Choose the correct answers.
is the extent t o w h i c h this might expiain the differences 1 The prospect of I at w o r k i n g overtime didn't fill me
in behaviour and skills w h i c h are often seen in men w i t h great enthusiasm.
and w o m e n . M e n often blame w o m e n (4) 2 The delay of I in the arrival o f t h e M a d r i d train was
their lack of spatial awareness and w o m e n accuse caused by a tree o n the line.
m e n (5) not r e m e m b e r i n g faces or 3 I t h o u g h t Guy's belief in / with h u m a n nature was
paying attention to detail. Perhaps w e should blame it really t o u c h i n g .
(6) the way our brains are structured instead. 4 Their insistence on / of leaving early was really very
unusual for t h e m .
Some scientists, however, are keen t o discourage
people (7) t h i n k i n g that biology is the 5 There is absolutely no point of I in w o r r y i n g a b o u t
it now.
only answer. They object (8) the emphasis
being put o n connections in the brain, believing that 6 I think our surprise in / at w h a t they had achieved
pleased t h e m .
any differences w h i c h result (9) this are
7 The effect of I on w h a t had happened on / in the
tiny. For these'scientists, behavioural differences are
w h o l e family was devastating.
primarily influenced (10) the different
expectations of society, w h i c h is still based largely 8 I have recently developed a fascination of I for
m o d e r n art.
(11) traditional stereotyping. For this
reason, they advise parents (12) giving
dolls to girls, for example, as they may feel they have
to keep (13) taking u p j o b s in the caring
professions, w h i c h are traditionally lower paid, instea
of going for careers in reas m o r e traditionally aimed
(14) boys, such as engineering or physics
Module 9
Brain p o w e r 9B
| J V |

(Paper 1 Part 2)

Open cloze 1 Read the title of the text and t h i n k about w h a t you're going to read.

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read the text again carefully and think about the type of w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h gap.

4 D o t h e task.

5 Read through the text again, w i t h y o u r answers i n place. Does it m a k e


c o m p l e t e sense?

IELP
You need a w o r d that means For questions 7-8, read the text below and think ofthe word which best
Ql
fits each gap. Use only one word in each gap. There is an example at the
'having the ability or qualities for
beginning (0).
something'.
Q5 You need a preposition to
c o m p l e t e this m u l t i - w o r d verb. Clean jeans
Q 7 The w o r d unobtrusive helps y o u that wash away
to k n o w what is needed here.
pollution
An unusual collaboration
EXPERT L A N G U A G E (0) between chemists

Find an example of a c o m p o u n d and fashion experts has

djective in the text. produced pollution-


busting clothes, w h i c h are
(1) of cleaning
up urban air as people walk
a r o u n d . The researchers
produced p r o t o t y p e jeans
in (2) the d e n i m
was laden w i t h nanoparticles of
titanium dioxide. These particles catalyse
the destruction of nitrogen oxides, the main cause of low level urban
p o l l u t i o n . The technology is not new, but the application is.
Catalytic clothing, (3) it's k n o w n , was first exhibited at
science and fashion shows, w i t h the particles sprayed o n t o the d e n i m .
In (4) to bring the idea to a mass market, scientists carne
(5) w i t h a laundry additive to add the titanium in a
domestic washing machine. This means that there's n o w a g o o d chance
of (6) a real difference to air quality. Clothes need only
be washed once w i t h the laundry p r o d u c t because the unobtrusive
nanoparticles grip tightly o n to fabric fibres ( 7 ) affecting the
look or feel o f t h e clothing. (8) best suited to d e n i m and
other cottons, they also w o r k w i t h other materials.
Module 9
Brain p o w e r

B
Writing (Paper 2 Part 1: E s s a y )
> CBpp. 148-149, EWpp. 191-192 It is beyond doubt that there are many issues which need
scientific mput these days if our planet is t o survive, (5) due
t o / because the ever-increasing demands we make on the
EXPERT STRATEGY I : world's resources. Future scientists will face huge challenges, (6)
Make sure: whether / if it is developing new Communications systems (7) and

y o u have ncluded a range o f vocabulary a n d / or contnbuting towards making the world a better place.
structures.
your deas are linked together w i t h discourse
markers such as adverbials.
y o u are w i t h i n the r e c o m m e n d e d w o r d limit. (s) in ciddton / As weLL to bevug klghly employable, It has
bee^ skow^that suelte graduates au n^ore tlteely to acheve
qreater rewards v^ mo^etarij terms. it Is c o m m o i ^ tei/vowledge
Structuring paragraphs that chtw.strty a\Ad physics graduates earv^ well above the
average salarij a\Ad () wkcct's, more/dLtkout^k thctt Is \ADt
la R e a d t h e task a n d t h r e e p a r a g r a p h s f r o m
the oiA,Ly reason to study these subjects, It Is wltkiout doubt
s t u d e n t s ' essays. M a t c h e a c h p a r a g r a p h w i t h
a strovu?) l^cetve. (o) Conseq^untiij / Ne^ertkeess, oi/ve
o n e o f t h e reasons f o r s t u d y i n g science g i v e n
would expect science to gav^ IIA, popularlty.
i n t h e task. I g n o r e t h e w o r d s i n italics i n t h e
* *^.iJHiinW.""|.#Mi
p a r a g r a p h s a t this stage.
b N o w m a t c h each paragraph w i t h one o f the opinions
Your class has attended a discussion on the i n t h e task. D o e s e a c h s t u d e n t agree o r disagree w i t h
reasons for studying science at university. You each opinin? Have they used the same w o r d i n g /
have made the notes below. expressions as i n t h e task?

Reasons f o r s t u d y i n g science a t university 2 Underline the topic sentence i n each paragraph.

nteresting and relevant 3 C h o o s e t h e c o r r e c t l i n k i n g w o r d s o r phrases i n t h e


career prospects paragraphs i n Exercise 1.
mportance t o society
Introduction
S o m e o p i n i o n s expressed in t h e discussion:
4 I n the introduction, the language is usually impersonal.
'These days scientists have a particularly vital R e w r i t e these sentences t o m a k e t h e m less personal.
role t o play in society.' 1 People generally agree that science is a g o o d subject t o
'Science graduates find it easier t o get high-paying study at university.
Jobs.' Science
'It is m o r e f u n t o study subjects such as 2 People used t o feel that careers in science a n d maths
languages o r the humanities.' w o u l d be m o r e suitable for boys.
It used :

Write an essay for your tutor discussing two of the 3 M a n y schools have claimed that science is where the
reasons in your notes. You should expiain which future is.
reason you think is more important, giving It
reasons in support ofyour answer. You may, ifyou 4 Students often assume that science is t o o difficult.
wish, make use ofthe opinions expressed in the Science
discussion, but you should use your own words as
far as possible. Write your essay in 220-260 words. Conclusin

C o m p l e t e these c o n c l u d i n g phrases w i t h w o r d s f r o m
the box.

(1) Whilst/ Because science subjects have a reputation all in on (x2) overall up

for being dnj and syecialised, this is not necessarily the


case. ( 2 ) Nevertheless/Infact, the knowledge and
I 1 To sum , ... 4 balance, I feel...
2 conclusin,... 5 things considered,
skills acauired, (3) such as /just like problem. solving, 3 the w h o l e ... 6 , I believe that...
arefascinating and anvlkable to amj yrofession, ( 4 )for
ejcample /not onhy'science-relatedjobs. Writing task

6 N o w d o t h e task i n E x e r c i s e 1.
10 A positive outlook
10A
Prepositional phrases
elopment 1
3 Choose the correct answers.
> CB p.154
1 Most sportspeople probably feel in / under pressure
Word formation: fitness m u c h o f t h e time.
2 W e have varied and interesting lives, but it's at/ n
1 C o m p l e t e t h e t e x t w i t h w o r d s f o r m e d from t h e the expense of o u r personal relationships.
w o r d s in brackets. 3 In order t o be on / by t o p f o r m , w e have to train
every day.

A day in the life of a footballer 4 W e have a fitness coach who's in I at charge o f o u r


programmes.
After-getting up at a b o u t six, I d o a bit of yoga, w h i c h 5 On /To an extent, his reputation was based o n his
is essential t o (1) (sure) m y b o d y is public image.
w a r m and flexible. M y breakfast is usually the same: 6 It's i m p o r t a n t to keep y o u r e m o t i o n s at / in check
I (2) (vary) have porridge w i t h fruit. Then while performing.
I drive t o work, drinking the first of m y five daily bottles 7 On I In terms of nutrition, the i m p o r t a n t t h i n g is a
o f water o n the way - it's really i m p o r t a n t to avoid healthy diet.
(3) (hydrate). 8 It's i m p o r t a n t to be with / in g o o d hands, so choose
O n the way t o the football g r o u n d , I just switch off and the best coach y o u can find.
listen t o music. M y (4) (fit) p r o g r a m m e
begins as soon as I get to the g r o u n d . This will involve Sport metaphors
exercises to build up core (5) (strong), as
well as a lot of (6) (resist) w o r k in the g y m , 4 M a t c h the sentence halves.
w h i c h focuses ( 7 ) (specify) o n different 1 A n t o n i a is always o n
groups o f muscles at a time. W e then m o v e o n to 2 I heard that y o u r favourite sports players in
football training. All o f t h i s w o r k (8) (able) 3 Because they m o v e d
us to have the stamina to go o n and play matches 4 As expected, A d a m sailed
w i t h o u t getting injured or exhausted. It's a huge 5 W h e n he speaks to me, he tends to skate
(9) ( c o m m i t ) but I love every minute. 6 You t o o k the w i n d o u t o f his
At lunchtime I will eat protein such as chicken, lots o f 7 He made the decisin o n the spur of
vegetables and some carbs - bread and potatoes - and 8 W e have all had to rein in
will then have a rest. Sleep is very i m p o r t a n t w i t h all
a the goalposts w i t h o u t i n f o r m i n g me, am
the training w e do. In fact, it is fairly ( 1 0 )
behind w i t h my work.
(exception) if I go to bed later than 9.30. N o t very
b the m o m e n t , taking us all by surprise.
glamorous, but it keeps me fit and well.
c t h r o u g h the rugby triis w i t h flying colours.
d the ball, so I let her deal w i t h all the complaints
Verb + noun collocations at work.
e our spending habits d u r i n g the recession.
2 C o m p l e t e t h e sentences w i t h t h e c o r r e c t f o r m o f
f sails by aecusing h i m outright like that.
the verbs in the box.
g the running for another award this year.
burn caten come hold make h a r o u n d the topics that he doesn't w a n t t o discuss.

1 A l t h o u g h sportspeople a lot of calories,


they still have to watch their diet.
2 Being an athlete involves a lifelong
commitment.
3 It must be hard to to terms w i t h injury
w h e n it means giving up y o u r career.
4 Jessica Ennis my attention at the 2012
Olympics. I hadn't heard o f her before.
5 Usain Bolt currently the record for the
100-metre sprint.
10A
M o d u l e 10
Teamwork

(Paper 1 Part 1)

Multiple-choice cloze 1 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

2 R e a d the t e x t a g a i n c a r e f u l l y a n d t h i n k a b o u t t h e t y p e o f w o r d t h a t
w i l l fit i n e a c h gap. C a n y o u p r e d i c t t h e a n s w e r w i t h o u t l o o k i n g at
the options?

3 D o t h e task.

4 R e a d t h r o u g h t h e t e x t a g a i n , w i t h y o u r a n s w e r s i n p l a c e . D o e s it m a k e
c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
For questions 7-8, read the text beiow and decide which answer (A, B, C or
> Q1 You need a w o r d that means
D) best fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0).
'official ame'.
> Q2 You need to crate a phrasal
verb w i t h up.
> Q3 Only o n e o f these w o r d s can be
followed by to.

EXPERT LANGUAGE 1
Find three examples of relative
clauses in the text.

l'm one of 580 team members whose j o b it is to (0) A that our


Formula O n e cars are as competitive as possible. M y j o b (1) is
D e v e l o p m e n t Driver, a role w h i c h involves b o t h helping to (2)
the cars up for races and testing new parts o n a simulator. I drive a m o c k -
up car, under an egg-shaped d o m e , surrounded by 3 D c o m p u t e r screens,
w h i c h are (3) to a team of engineers sitting behind a glass
partition. I can (4) up 100 laps a day, at up to 300 kilometres
an hour, in an e n v i r o n m e n t of total secrecy at the team f a c t o r / : W h a t
the engineers w a n t is the most precise description of h o w the car is
p e r f o r m i n g o n the track, (5) they can convert that i n f o r m a t i o n
into faster laptime. At a Grand Prix, I always have my headset o n , listening
to the ( 6 ) f r o m the drivers. If they have any ( 7 )
w i t h the way the car is handling, the engineers can make suggestions
(8) o n the techniques we've tried in the simulator.

0 Aensure B enable C enforce D encourage


1 Aheading B title C topic D subject
2 A set B make Cget D put
3 A observed B shared C connected D monitored
4 A record B sum C count D dock
5 A apart f r o m B in order to C so that D as well as
6 A backlog B setback C backup D feedback
7 A issues B matters C bothers D questions
8 A according B based C following D related
10A
M o d u l e 10
Teamwork

5 J o i n the sentences using participle clauses. M a k e


Language development 1 a n y changes necessary.
> CBp. 157, EGp. 183 1 l'm a m e m b e r o f t h e club. That's w h y I get priority
b o o k i n g for h o m e matches.
Participle clauses
2 She needs t o be given a lot o f support. If this
1 C h o o s e the correct answers. Sometimes both
happens, she could be a really g o o d player.
options are possible.
1 As soon as / When she walked into t h e r o o m , she 3 I ran o u t o f t h e office. I then hailed a taxi a n d
saw w h a t had happened. j u m p e d in.
2 Because / Ifshe had trained really hard, she was
disappointed n o t t o be chosen for t h e team. 4 l'm a bit lazy. Because o f that, l'd never make a
3 People who / when arrlve early are m o r e likely t o get world-class tennis player.
a place.
4 Since / As w e left the theatre later than w e expected, 5 I quickly realised my team weren't g o i n g t o w i n . I
w e missed the last train. decided t o leave.
5 I knew it was g o i n g t o be really icy o n the roads,
so I because I refused t o let m y daughter drive. 6 I knew he w a n t e d t o see the game. I b o u g h t tickets
6 f /When it is eaten hot, it tastes even m o r e for both o f us.
delicious.

2 M a t c h the sentences in E x e r c i s e 1 ( 1 - 6 ) with


o-infinitive clauses
the functions ( a - e ) . Y o u n e e d to u s e s o m e of the
functions m o r e than once. 6 J o i n the sentences using o-infinitive clauses to
a reason c relative clause e result replace the w o r d s in bold. M a k e a n y changes
b time d condition necessary.
1 M y personal trainer p h o n e d me. He wanted to
3 Rewrite the sentences in E x e r c i s e 1 using participle
arrange a session.
clauses.
1 2 I finally g o t t o the football ground. Then I discovered
2 that m y son hadn't been chosen for t h e team.
3
3 You s h o u l d see h i m play I f y o u d i d , you'd think he
4
was a professional.
5
6 4 I set off t o meet Richard at t h e cinema. O n l y then
did I realise l'd g o t t h e w r o n g date.
4 C o m p l e t e the sentences with the present or past
participle form of the verbs in the box.
5 I travel a l o t . I k n o w that delays are inevitable.
convlnce invite learn not be able realise rescue
want wear 6 I spent ages w r i t i n g a proposal. I had to present it
at t h e meeting.
1 m y boss for a barbecue, I then
r e m e m b e r e d that I was supposed t o be g o i n g t o a
concert the same evening.
2 that I w o u l d be really tired, Mark had
b o o k e d us a table at a lovely restaurant.
3 The family f r o m t h e rainforest last night
spoke o f their ordeal t o BBC News.
4 that l'd failed, I didn't even bother to
look at the results.
5 w i t h boots a n d a jacket, those jeans can
look quite elegant.
6 t o see m o r e o f t h e country, A n d y
extended his visa.
7 French at school, I decided l'd like t o
give Spanish a go next.
8 t o swim, Alex stayed by t h e shore a n d
watched us surfing.
10A
M o d u l e 10
Teamwork

(Paper 1 Part 2)

Open cloze 1 R e a d t h e t i t l e o f t h e t e x t a n d t h i n k a b o u t w h a t y o u are g o i n g t o r e a d .

2 R e a d t h e w h o l e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get t h e g e n e r a l m e a n i n g .

3 Read the text again carefully and think about the type of w o r d that
w i l l fit i n e a c h g a p .

4 D o t h e task.

5 Read through the text again, w i t h y o u r answers in place. Does it make


c o m p l e t e sense?

HELP
For questions 1-8, read the text below and thihTTofthe word which best
> Q1 You need a preposition here.
fits each gap. Use only one word in each space. There is an example at the
> Q5 W h i c h w o r d completes this
beginning (0). """"
fixed phrase that expresses
contrast?
> Q8 Is the answer a relative p r o n o u n E-health

or a conjunction? Read carefully W h a t is k n o w n (0) as e-health is o n e of the most interesting


to be sure. developments o f the electronic age. The t e r m is applied to a range of
devices designed t o help us manage our personal health. A g r o w i n g
n u m b e r of apps and wearable devices are n o w (1) the market,
EXPERT LANGUAGE allowing the individual to m o n i t o r (2) things as the b u r n i n g of
Look back at the text. Find three calories and frtility cycles. Yet scientists say that these wearable devices
examples o f adverbs used to barely scratch the surface of (3) will eventually be possible.
describe the extent or degree of They see m u c h greater potential (4) direct therapeutic
something. intervention as (5) to passive m o n i t o r i n g .
One hand-held device is already delivering treatment for migraine
headaches, t h r o u g h the use of electronic pulses (6) of drugs.
The device, w h i c h looks ( 7 ) an electric razor, is placed against
the neck, where it stimulates the vagus nerve. The electronic pulses help
c o n t r o l a substance called glutamine, (8) has been linked to
migraines. In o n e clinical trial, the device provided effective pain relief in
43 percent o f cases.

M o d u l e 10 T | J
Teamwork _________

(Paper 3 Part 3)

Mltiple choice 1 R e a d the instructions for the task a n d a n s w e r the questions.


1 H o w many speakers are y o u g o i n g to hear?
2 W h a t are they g o i n g to talk about?

L o o k at the questions a n d m a r k the k e y w o r d s in the stems


a n d options.

D o the task.

You will hear an interview with a skydiver called Jennie Parks, who recentty
took part in a record-breaking formation jump, and Paul Grimes, a
skydiving instructor. For questions 7 - 6 , choose the answer (A, B, C or D)
which fits best according to what you hear.

1 W h a t motivated Jennie t o take part in the record-breaking j u m p ?


A a desire to set herself new challenges
B a determination to prove s o m e b o d y w r o n g
C a feeling that she should support other female skydivers
D a sense of dissatisfaction w i t h her o w n skydiving performance

2 Paul disagrees w i t h Jennie's point that


A a skydiver's first j u m p is the hardest.
EXPERT STRATEGY B experience lessens the thrill o f skydiving.
Listen to the interviewer's questions C learning to turn in the air takes a lot of skill.
carefully they help y o u t o k n o w D w o m e n are better suited to skydiving than men.
w h i c h question y o u should be 3 W h a t does Paul suggest a b o u t the success of Jennie's r e c o r d -
looking at in the task. breakingjump?
A It reflected the thoroughness o f the planning.
HELP B The design o f the parachutes was the key factor.
> Q1 Listen to the end of Jennie's turn C The individual skydivers didn't need to be particularly skilled.
t o hear the answer. D Controlling the speed of the fall was the greatest achievement.

> Q2 You need to listen t o w h a t b o t h 4 W h a t does Jennie say a b o u t the record-breaking j u m p ?


Paul and Jennie say to find the A The international m a k e - u p o f t h e team caused c o m m u n i c a t i o n
answer. problems.
> Q4 Listen to what Jennie says a b o u t B C o o r d i n a t i n g the w o r k o f the pilots led to unexpected delays.
the approach the team a d o p t e d . C It was frustrating not to have succeeded at the first attempt.
D It was achieved in less time than had been anticipated.

EXPERT LANGUAGE 1 5
A
For Jennie personally, the hardest aspect o f t h e j u m p was
dealing w i t h unreliable radio e q u i p m e n t .
Find t w o adjecti\yes w i t h negative
B r e m e m b e r i n g the correct sequence of moves.
prefixes in the questions.
C f o l l o w i n g the lead o f the designated 'superfloater'.
D k n o w i n g w h i c h teammates to make physical contact w i t h .

EXPERT W O R D C H E C K 6 H o w did Jennie feel d u r i n g the second formation?


A concerned that she'd made a technical error
aptitude heightened incremental
B confused by some o f t h e leader's instructions
manual meticulous parachute
C aware of her individual responsibility to the g r o u p
prowess put time aside transcend
D w o r r i e d a b o u t the judges' attitude towards her g r o u p
waned
Mltiple matching Vocabulary

1 Read the title o f the text a n d the i n t r o d u c t o r y M a t c h t h e s e n t e n c e h a l v e s t o f o r m sentences w i t h


sentence. W h a t do y o u k n o w about orienteering? c o l l o c a t i o n s from t h e t e x t .
1 In the forest, it's easy to lose
2 Read the task a n d m a r k the key w o r d s i n each
2 I f y o u get into difficulties, y o u should raise
question.
3 I f y o u need help, ask the marshal t o give
3 R e a d t h e t e x t q u i c k l y t o get a n i d e a o f h o w i t is 4 If s o m e o n e goes missing, we'll send
s t r u c t u r e d a n d w h a t issues are d i s c u s s e d i n e a c h 5 The runners set off at
s e c t i o n . W h a t is t h e m a i n f o c u s o f e a c h section? 6 I f y o u get lost, try t o retrace
7 The checkpoint was tucked ~\
4 L o o k at q u e s t i o n 1 a n d find t h e s e c t i o n s o f t h e t e x t 8 As an orienteer, it's i m p o r t a n t t o pay ^ i

t h a t t a l k a b o u t t h e skills n e e d e d f o r t h e s p o r t . L o o k 9 If you're feeling confident, w h y not lay


f o r sentences a b o u t p e o p l e d o i n g t h e s p o r t f o r t h e
a o u t a search party.
first t i m e . W r i t e t h e q u e s t i o n n u m b e r n e x t t o these
b y o u r bearings.
sections so y o u c a n find t h e m a g a i n q u i c k l y . T h e n
c d o w n the gauntlet.
r e a d these s e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y a n d d e c i d e w h i c h
s e c t i o n m a t c h e s t h e e x a c t w o r d i n g o f q u e s t i o n 1. d y o u a few tips.
e yoursteps.
5 Repeat t h e p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n s . f attention to interesting paths.
g o u t o f view.
h regular intervals.
You are going to read an article about the sport of
i an alert.
orienteering. For questions 7 - 7 0 , choose from the
sections (A-D). The sections may be chosen more than
once. EXPERT STRATEGY 1
Be careful: similar ideas may be expressed in different
In w h i c h section does t h e w r i t e r m e n t i o n :
sections of the text. You need to look for the o n e that
the typical skills profile of a novice at
matches the w o r d i n g o f t h e question exactly.
the sport?

being advised of the best way t o avoid


HELP
getting lost?
Be careful: the words getting lost appear in Section C
a g r o w i n g awareness o f certain features > Q2 but this may not be the answer.

o f t h e landscape? Look for words describing hills, plants, etc. These are
> Q 3 all features o f t h e landscape.
the need t o bear an i m p o r t a n t safety
W h i c h section deals w i t h a situation w h e r e
requirement in mind?
> Q4 participants' safety becomes an issue?
p r o o f that her choice o f course had
been appropriate?
EXPERT LANGUAGE
seeking t o justify an error of j u d g e m e n t ?
Find a verb f o r m e d by a d d i n g a suffix to a n o u n in
another context t o give an dea o f the section C o f t h e text.
level of challenge n o n e course?

a way of measuring the aptitude o f


individuis for the activity? EXPERT W O R D C H E C K

seeing participants a d o p t i n g v e r y attuned checkpoints compass countdown beeps


different attitudes towards the activity? fan base hollow overshoot retrace my steps
shrubbery twiddle
being amused by the use of certain
terminology?
10B
M o d u l e 10
Feeling g o o d

The A R T of
the beginning. There go my vainglorious
hopes of beginners' triumph. But the sun
is shining, the woodland is beautiful and
I decide that going the long way around
is surely part of the fun. I work out the

orienteering
direction and distance to the next point.
Control 2 is only a few hundred metres
away, tucked out of view in a little natural
hollow off the path, but I find it pretty
quickly. My delight is childlike - I found the
treasure! I feel a deep sense of satisfaction.
Our reprter gets her first taste of the sport. I've never paid as much attention to
intersecting paths and changes of shrubbery
as today. My senses are attuned, the blood
The aim of orienteering is to navigate cross-country is flowing through the grey matter as much as it is through
between a series of points marked on a map in the fastest my legs. I spot fellow orienteering fans navigating their way
time possible, and it has a growing fan base. I attended a club through the woodland in different directions. It's a lovely
event which offers courses at a range of levis. The easiest is way to enjoy the countryside.
-imple to follow, safe for families with young children and has
As I 'dib' the finish, sweaty and triumphant, I see my
control points at every turn, whereas the most challenging
first stab at orienteering has taken just under 65 minutes.
is physically demanding and navigationally complex - think
Without that initial detour, Fd have been well inside my
military-level map skills. l'm competing on the 2.5-kilometre
one-hour target. The gauntlet is laid down: Fm hooked.
modrate 'orange' course and although the length is the direct
Finishing ahead of us are a family who took an hour to
distance between the nine control points, the distance you
walk the shorter white' course, stopping en route for a
actually travel might be considerably more. 'Most people
picnic in the woods; rushing up behind us is an lite runner
an run much quicker than they can map-read, at least when
who's completed the eight-kilometre 'brown' course with
they're starting out,' says Ian, one of the friendly marshals at
22 checkpoints in 50 minutes. Orienteering can be the
the registration tent. Tf you can do a kilometre in ten minutes,
adventure sport you want it to be. There s the thrill of the
vou know what you're doing.' Ian reckons the Orange should
treasure hunt, the physical challenge of heading out cross-
take newbies like me an hour.
country over unprepared ground. It exercises both mind
(f) The set-up for taking part in an orienteering event is and body, is both sociable and inexpensive and, i f my club
simple. I've brought my own compass, but hire an electronic is anything to go by, incredibly welcoming to newcomers.
'dibber' card that will record my arrival time at each control
point and the organisers provide the map. Because Fm a
beginner, Ian gives me a few tips on technique: 'Orintate
the map first, then move yourself and have an idea of what
distance you need to travel to the next feature - it's easy
to overshoot and lose your bearings. Always report back to
the start or finish, even if you don't complete the course.
Otherwise you'll raise a "missing-person" alert and the
organisers will send out a search party.' An orienteering map
isn't entirely intuitive. Woodland is marked as white unless it's
dense woodland, which is green. Fields are yellow, earthworks
are brown, green stripes mean 'undergrowth - slow run',
narrow green stripes are 'undergrowth - fight'. I like a map
legend with a sense of humour. There s no mass start in
orienteering. Competitors set off at timed intervals. I get ten
countdown beeps and set off. I align the map with north,
twiddle myself around and identify the path I need to follow
into the woods to get to Control 1, an orange and white flag.

There are two elements to getting lost: the first is realising,


the second is to work out where you actually are. Five minutes
later, when I fail to reach my first goal, I stop, check the
compass, make sure Fm not holding the map upside down
and scrutinise the terrain. I discover Fm closer to Control 7
than Control 1, so retrace my steps downhill, almost back to
10B M o d u l e 10
Feeling g o o d

Key word transformations 1 R e a d t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e t a s k a n d l o o k at t h e e x a m p l e . T h i n k


a b o u t h o w t h e t w o sentences are d i f f e r e n t a n d n o t i c e h o w t h e
meaning hasn't changed.

2 D o t h e task.

HELP
> Ql Change a n o u n in the first For questions 7 - 7 0 , complete the second sentence so that it has a similar

sentence into an adjective. meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the
word given. You must use between three and six words, including the word
> Q2 H o w is ought different to other
given. Here is an example (0).
m o d a l verbs?
> Q4 You need to use an impersonal
0 W e need to get a taxi or they will leave before w e get there.
passive structure here.
TIME
Unless w e get a taxi, they will have left by the time w e get there.
EXPERT L A N G U A G E I 1 By law, airlines are obliged to check each passenger's passport.
Look back at the task. Find t w o
1 UNDER
examples of c o m p o u n d nouns I Airlines are check each passenger's passport.
where t w o words are written as one.
2 'I think we'd better report the incident to the plice,' said Vincent.
OUGHT
Vincent said that the incident t o the plice.

3 A l m o s t e v e r y b o d y thinks that the couple will a n n o u n c e their


engagement shortly.
WIDELY
The couple are point of announcing their engagement.

4 There is a r u m o u r g o i n g r o u n d that the film star intends to sell


his house.
IS
The film star t o sell his house.

5 D o y o u m i n d if I ask y o u some questions a b o u t your free-time


activities?
OBJECTION
Would you answering some questions a b o u t your
free-time activities?

6 I don't think the proposal will meet w i t h widespread support.


U N LIKELY
In my meet w i t h widespread support.

7 It annoys me that Sandra is always checking for messages o n


her smartphone.
WISH
I keep checking for messages o n her smartphone.

8 From the look o n Tom's face, y o u can see the interview probably
hasn't g o n e well.
IF
From the look o n Tom's face, the interview hasn't
gone well.

9 I will only go fishing if the weather improves.


UNLESS
I is an i m p r o v e m e n t in the weather.

10 Harriet could r e m e m b e r very little a b o u t her c h i l d h o o d holiday


in Spain.
HARDLY
Harriet a b o u t her c h i l d h o o d holiday in Spain.
10B
M o d u l e 10
Feeling good

Organisation
ng (Paper 2 Part 2: Proposal)
3 D e c i d e h o w m a n y paragraphs y o u will h a v e a n d
> CBpp. 164-165, E W p . 196
w h a t the headings will be. U s e the task input to
help y o u organise this a n d r e m e m b e r to inciude all
EXPERT STRATEGY the information required.

Plan carefully. Remember t o inciude reasons a n d


suggestions in y o u r plan.
Using appropriate language
Invent y o u r o w n ideas a n d facts based o n the task. 4a W h i c h of these sentence openings are too informal
Decide o n the n u m b e r of paragraphs, headings, a title, for a n introduction?
introduction and conclusin. 1 l'm w r i t i n g this proposal because ...
Be consistent in your style of language. 2 The purpose o f this proposal is...
3 The aims o f this proposal are...
4 The p o i n t o f w r i t i n g this proposal is...
Planning content
5 W h y I decided t o write this proposal is...
1 W h i c h of these conventions is not important in 6 In this proposal, I w i l l / i n t e n d t o address issues
proposals? raised in ...

1 a formal/impersonal style W h i c h of these sentence openings for


2 a persuasive o p i n i o n / r e c o m m e n d a t i o n recommendations are too informal for a conclusin?
3 headings
1 I w o u l d suggest/ 5 Let's...
4 descriptive language
r e c o m m e n d that 6 It w o u l d be a g o o d
5 being concise and direct
I think it w o u l d dea to...
R e a d the task a n d then look at the points below. be great if... 7 It is d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r .
W h i c h ones should y o u not inciude in your proposal? W h y don't we...? 8 I strongly urge ...
H o w about...?

You work in the student sen/ices office at an


Being persuasive
international language college. In a client satisfaction
survey, severa! students have suggested running fitness 5 W h i c h of these final paragraphs is the most
classes during the lunch breaks. effective? W h y ?
You have decided to send a proposal to the principal
ofthe college, asking for permission to do this and for
practical assistance. Your proposal should inciude the My recommendations would be as follows:
following information:
t o employ a teacher t o come in three times a week t o
w h y y o u think such classes w o u l d be beneficial teach a class in yoga, Pilates and jazz dance
w h a t kind of activities could be held t o introduce a small fee (5) for each class, with the
what kind of help y o u w o u l d need f r o m the college. college making up the rest of the fee
classes t o take place in the hall
rite your proposal in 220-260 words.
twice a week, one of the teams t o lead a running group

I am confident that if these ideas were t o be implemented,


1 suggestions for other research y o u c o u l d d o
2 possible reasons as t o w h y students need fitness we would have a happier and healthier group of students.
classes at lunchtime (e.g. g y m t o o far away, n o t h i n g
to d o ) B
3 other alternatives t o fitness activities
IIA, kvctj view, we vieed to do som-ethliA-g to teeep our
4 a list o f possible fitness classes (e.g. Pilates, yoga,
students happy avuA i suggest that the best w a y is,
running club)
to -provide thevw with the classes they are astelcvg for.
5 permission t o hold fitness classes somewhere in
This could be a mixture of flti^ess classes, such as
the college
6 a suggestion for h o w m u c h students should pay
yoga, aiA-d outdoor exercise, litee rumtii/vg. I feel sure
7 ideas for activities w h i c h are run by other colleges
that students would be willi^g to p a y som.ethiiA,g
8 h o w t o publicise the classes towards the cost. Let's aste, them. nvid thei^perhaps
9 suggestions for healthy lunches after the classes the college could coittribute towards it as well.
10 a request for subsidy f r o m college t o pay fitness
teachers Writing task

6 N o w do the task in E x e r c i s e 1.
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