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ACI 330R-08

Guide for the Design and Construction


of Concrete Parking Lots
Reported by ACI Committee 330

V. Tim Cost Matthew A. Offenberg


Chair Secretary

David J. Akers Douglas W. Deno Frank Lennox David N. Richardson


Richard O. Albright Edwin H. Gebauer Robert V. Lopez David M. Suchorski
J. Howard Allred Nader Ghafoori John R. Love, III Scott M. Tarr
William L. Arent Omer Heracklis Richard E. Miller Diep T. Tu
Joseph P. Bergmaier Jerry A. Holland Jon I. Mullarky Robert L. Varner
Bryan M. Birdwell James W. Hoolehan Scott M. Palotta Don J. Wade
Michael W. Cook Kenneth G. Kazanis Nigel Parkes Richard L. Warren
Norbert J. Delatte Frank A. Kozeliski

Concrete parking lots serve many kinds of public facilities, commercial Chapter 2Notation and definitions, p. 330R-3
developments, businesses, and multifamily housing projects. They primarily 2.1Notation
accommodate parked vehicles, but may also provide maneuvering areas 2.2Definitions
and access for delivery vehicles. The design and construction of concrete
slabs for parking lots and outside storage areas share many similarities
with the design and construction of streets and highways, but they also Chapter 3Pavement design, p. 330R-4
have some very distinct differences. A full appreciation of the differences 3.1Introduction
and the modification of design and construction procedures to take these 3.2Pavement stresses
differences into account can result in economical concrete parking lots that 3.3Traffic loads
will provide satisfactory service for many years with little maintenance. 3.4Subgrade support
This guide includes information on site investigation, thickness determi-
nation, design of joints and other details, durability considerations, paving
3.5Concrete properties
operations, and quality-assurance procedures during construction. 3.6Thickness design
Maintenance and repair are also discussed. 3.7Jointing
3.8Steel reinforcement in parking lot pavements
Keywords: concrete pavement; curing; dowels; finishing; joints; load 3.9Joint filling and sealing
transfer; parking lot; subgrade; thickness; traffic loads. 3.10Pavement grades
3.11Other design features
CONTENTS
Chapter 1Introduction and scope, p. 330R-2
1.1Introduction Chapter 4Materials, p. 330R-12
4.1Introduction
1.2Scope
4.2Strength
1.3Background
4.3Durability
4.4Economy
ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Manuals, Standard 4.5Workability
Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in 4.6Material specifications
planning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction.
This document is intended for the use of individuals who are
competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its Chapter 5Construction, p. 330R-13
content and recommendations and who will accept 5.1Introduction
responsibility for the application of the material it contains. 5.2Subgrade preparation
The American Concrete Institute disclaims any and all
responsibility for the stated principles. The Institute shall not
be liable for any loss or damage arising therefrom.
Reference to this document shall not be made in contract ACI 330R-08 supersedes ACI 330R-01 and was adopted and published June 2008.
documents. If items found in this document are desired by the Copyright 2008, American Concrete Institute.
All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any
Architect/Engineer to be a part of the contract documents, they means, including the making of copies by any photo process, or by electronic or
shall be restated in mandatory language for incorporation by mechanical device, printed, written, or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction
the Architect/Engineer. or for use in any knowledge or retrieval system or device, unless permission in writing
is obtained from the copyright proprietors.

330R-1
330R-2 ACI COMMITTEE REPORT

5.3Layout for construction generally accepted procedures for concrete pavements as


5.4Paving equipment outlined in this guide. Load-bearing capacity, drainage, crack
5.5Placing, finishing, and texturing control, life-cycle cost, constructibility, and maintainability are
5.6Curing and protection other characteristics that are important in the design and
5.7Jointing construction of concrete pavements, including parking lots.
5.8Pavement markings Typically, concrete parking lots do not serve the same broad
5.9Opening to traffic spectrum of traffic loading, from light vehicles to heavy
trucks, as highways and arterial streets. Facilities designed to
Chapter 6Inspection and testing, p. 330R-16 accommodate both light vehicles and heavier delivery trucks
6.1Introduction may employ traffic controls to separate and channel the
6.2Subgrade preparation heavier trucks away from areas designed for automobiles and
6.3Concrete quality light trucks. Facilities designed for heavier vehicles are likely
6.4Construction operations those facilities where relatively accurate predictions of vehicle
sizes and numbers are possible. Facilities intended to serve
Chapter 7Maintenance and repair, p. 330R-17 only light vehicles may have concrete parking lot slabs with
7.1Introduction thicknesses influenced by the practical limitations of the
7.2Surface sealing material and environmental effects rather than by the pavement
7.3Joint and crack sealing stress created by vehicle loads. Durability-related distress is
7.4Full-depth repair often the most critical maintenance concern for lightly loaded
7.5Undersealing and leveling concrete parking lot pavements, which are subject to the
7.6Overlays effects of fuels and lubricants leaked from vehicles as well as
7.7Parking lot cleaning environmental influences. Vehicles in parking areas usually
travel at low speeds, diminishing the importance of smoothness
Chapter 8References, p. 330R-20 tolerances. Because parking lots must also accommodate
8.1Referenced standards and reports pedestrians, designs and geometrics should reflect pedestrian
8.2Cited references safety considerations including crosswalks, a slip-resistant
surface texture, and nighttime illumination.
Appendix AProcedures for concrete pavement Concrete parking lots range in size from small, such as at
design, p. 330R-24 corner convenience stores, to medium, such as at multi-unit
A.1Pavement stress determination and fatigue housing projects, to large, such as those for shopping centers
consumption and office or commercial developments. Most parking areas
A.2Source of thickness tables include driveways, some of which need to accommodate
A.3AASHTO procedure relatively heavy loads. Special consideration may be needed
if access to dumpsters is to be included. Accordingly,
Appendix BSubgrade, p. 330R-29 concrete parking lots are constructed with a wide variety of
B.1Introduction
construction equipment, ranging from hand tools and vibratory
B.2Soil classification
screeds to large highway paving equipment or laser screeds.
B.3Problem soils
Because of the relatively high stiffness of concrete
B.4Expansive soils
pavements, loads are spread over larger areas of the subgrade
B.5Frost action
compared with asphaltic pavements. As a result, thinner
B.6Mud-pumping
concrete pavements can be used for the same subgrade material.
B.7Support uniformity Additional benefits of using concrete to construct parking
lots include the following:
Appendix CSuggested details, p. 330R-31 Concrete surfaces resist deformation from maneuvering
C.1Pavement jointing and design feature details
vehicles;
Concrete surfaces drain well with only minimal slopes;
Appendix DParking lot geometrics, p. 330R-34
D.1Parking requirements Concrete has relatively simple maintenance requirements;
D.2Entrances and exits Traffic lane and parking stall markings can be incorpo-
D.3Truck-parking facilities rated into the jointing pattern;
D.4Additional information Concrete is minimally affected by leaking petroleum
products;
CHAPTER 1INTRODUCTION AND SCOPE The light-reflective surface of concrete can be efficiently
1.1Introduction illuminated with minimal energy requirements; and
Concrete parking lots have many similarities to other types Concrete parking lots reduce the impacts of the urban
of concrete pavement. On the other hand, parking lots differ heat island effect relative to those of asphalt parking
from other pavements in that most of the area is intended for lots by producing lower surface temperatures, thus
storage of vehicles and other goods rather than for movement providing a cooler urban environment and reducing
of vehicles. The design of concrete parking lots should follow ozone production.