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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS


Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)

Thailand's National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) were


created by the Science and Technology Development Act of 1991 and officially
commenced its operations in 1992. It vision is to perform research and development
to strengthen Thailand's sustainable competitiveness, complemented by technology
transfer and the development of human resources and science and technology
infrastructure, with outcomes that have positive impacts on society and the economy.
The agency initially brought together three national technology centers which is the
National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC), formed in
1983, the National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) and the National
Electronics and Computer Technology Center (NECTEC), both formed in 1986. In
2003 NSTDA established the National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), and in
2005 the Technology Management Center (TMC) was established as the fifth center
under the NSTDA umbrella. NSTDA was founded with the explicit aim to conduct,
support, coordinate, and promote efforts in scientific and technological development
between the public and the private sectors towards maximizing benefit for national
development. NSTDA has served as a major base where leading scientists and
experts can meet and work on scientific and technological issues of immediate
concern to both the national and international communities. NSTDA is located at the
world-class research facilities at the Thailand Science Park just north of Bangkok.

Figure 1: Technology Center in NSTDA

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

1.2 National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC)

In order to attain sustainable development in materials engineering research and


education in Thailand, the National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC)
has been established under the Ministry of science and Technology on September
19th, 1986. It mission is to support research and development in metals and
materials, which are instrumental in the growth of the industrial sector and the
overall development of Thailand. MTEC was merged into the National Science and
Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) on December 29th, 1991 in the Ministry
of Science and Technology. It is one of the new public establishments set up with a
view to providing flexibility in operation. MTEC has set its operational plan for the
fiscal period 2006-2010 to correspond with the NSTDA’s strategic plan. MTEC
consist of many division and research unit. Each of any one of them play different
role in order to achieve MTEC vision.

• Research Development Division


• HRD & Infrastructure Development for Material
Technology Division
• Internal Infrastructure Management Division
• General Administration Management Division
• Organization Strategy Division
• Computer-Aded Technology Research Unit
• Design and Engineering Research Unit
• Ceramic Technology Research Unit
• Polymers Research Unit
• Biomedical Engineeering Research Unit
• Materials for Energy Research Unit
• Materials Reliability Research Unit
• Environment Research Unit
• Analytical and Testing Research Unit

Figure 2: Division and Research Unit in MTEC

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Materials for
Energy Research
Unit

Electrochemical
Bioenergy Materials and
Laboratory System
Laboratory

Automotive and
Biofuels Testing
Alternative Fuel
Laboratory
Laboratory

Figure 3: Materials for Energy Research Unit Laboratory

1.3 Bioenergy Laboratory

There are two main laboratories that attach to Material for Energy Research Unit at
MTEC which is Electrochemical Materials and System Laboratory and Bioenergy
Laboratory. Electrochemical Materials and System Laboratory mainly focus on the
development of materials and systems related to electrochemical energy. Solid Oxide
Fuel Cells and Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell are presently under
development. Bioenergy Laboratory mainly focuses on renewable source of fuels
such as biodiesel and bio oil. Under Bioenergy Laboratory, it has another two sub
laboratories which is Automotive and Alternative Fuel Laboratory and Biofuel
Testing Laboratory. Automotive and Alternative Fuel Laboratory conduct research
and development of alternative fuels for automobiles. The lab specializes in a wide
range of areas, including the effects of biofuels on engine performance, fuel
combustions, emissions, degradation of engine parts, and lubricant properties of
additives. Furthermore, the lab also offers technical consulting, testing and analysing
services. The Biofuels Testing Laboratories offers several aspects of technical
assistance and problem solving for both government and private sectors. It also
provides a complete-cycle service for biofuels testing and analysis including
determination of physical and chemical properties, efficiency and engine impact.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

1.4 Objective of the Industrial Internship Programme

Apart from UTP course outline requirement, the main purpose of the industrial
internship is to give opportunity for UTP students to experience the real working
environment beside to apply all theoretical skills in industrial level. During the
period of internship programme, the students will also develop skills in safety
practices, work ethics, communication, management and discipline. Furthermore,
with internship programme, this will open a new gateway not just UTP students but
for UTP as well to establish a good relationship between industries. The industrial
internship programme will provide opportunity to UTP’s students to build a solid
understanding of the fundamentals of business and organization performance such as
economic models of business, competitive positioning and strategy execution. The
32 weeks Industrial Internship programme is aligned with the university’s objective
to produce well-rounded graduates who are technically competent, have good
interpersonal skills, lifetime learning capability, an entrepreneur spirit, critical
thinking capability, practical aptitude and the ability to synthesize solutions.

Among the main objectives of internship programme are:

o To further improve basic skills such as communication, team work and


management.
o To apply theoretical knowledge in real working environment.
o To train students to become more responsible with the task and assignment
that being assign to them as part of internship programme.

o To give opportunity to students to work with industrial expertise by


understanding their role in the industry.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

1.5 Scope of Work, Task and Project

The actual scope of work during the author’s internship period is mainly focuses on
fractionation and stabilization of biooil in order to enhance its storage stability. But,
due to unavoidable circumstances, the task cannot be done and a new scope of work
had been given to the author from his supervisor. The new scope of work mainly
focuses on biodiesel production. During internship period, there are several tasks that
the author supervisor had assigned to him. Some of the task that the author has done
is literature survey in biodiesel production. He also had been given a task to
measured physical properties of biodiesel and bio oil according to American
Standard Testing Method (ASTM). With this task, the author have the opportunity to
learn and to use some equipment in order to determine properties of bio oil and
biodiesel such as viscometer, oil test centrifuge, oxidation stability, Karl Fisher
Coulometer, automatic titration, bomb calorimeter and density meter. Although the
new task is quite different from the original task, but the author manage to learn and
to complete the entire task that being assigned to me without any major problems.

In term of project, he has been given a project which is to study and to compare
biodiesel production of biodiesel using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst.

The objective of this project is to determine which catalyst is better to use for
biodiesel production in term of cost, materials and energy factor. In this project, the
author also has to design equipments use in biodiesel production such as evaporator,
batch reactor and mixer.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

2.0 MAIN ACTIVITIES

Basically, there are several activities that the author has done during his internship at
MTEC. All of these activities play important role because it can act as a basic
knowledge before going further into main project. Below are some of activities that
he has done during his internship at MTEC:

No Activities
1 Literature Review
2 Equipment Analysis
3 Weekly Meeting

Table 1: List of Activities

2.1 Literature Review

One of the important part in conducting a research or study is to do literature review.


A literature review is designed to identify related research, to set the current research
project within a conceptual and theoretical context. Literature reviews can be either
a part of a larger report of a research project, a thesis or a bibliographic essay that is
published separately in a scholarly journal. The reason for doing so is that to
demonstrate how much you can understand regarding the topic that you wish to
study.

In my literature review, the author was assigned to find papers that explain overview
of biodiesel. Basically this activity is to give a basic knowledge regarding biodiesel.
Below are the summary of his literature review regarding overview of biodiesel.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

1, 2, 3
2.1.1 Overview of Biodiesel

Biodiesel is defined as the mono alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from
renewable lipid sources. Biodiesel is widely recognized in the alternative fuels
industry as well as by the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA) and the American Society of Testing and Materials
(ASTM). This definition has been the topic of some discussion, however, as other
materials (tree oil derivatives, other woody products, or even biological slurries)
have sometimes been referred to as “biodiesel.” Although these other materials are
biological in nature, and are a substitute for diesel fuel, they are not deemed biodiesel
as accepted by the NBB, DOE, ASTM, or diesel engine manufacturers. Biodiesel is
typically produced through the reaction of a vegetable oil or animal fat with
methanol in the presence of a catalyst to yield glycerine and methyl esters. Virtually
all of the biodiesel used and produced has been made by this process.

Triglyceride Methanol Glycerol FAME


(oil or fat) (Biodiesel)

Figure 4: Equation for Biodiesel Production

Biodiesel has many advantages compare to fossil fuel. The main advantage is that by
using biodiesel, it can help to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Besides that, it can
also reduce the dependence on foreign petroleum as well. The interesting part is that
one gallon of biodiesel provides the same benefits used neat (100%) or used in
blends, such as B20 (20% biodiesel with 80% diesel fuel). It also non-toxic and
biodegradable fuels which is very environment friendly.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

2.2 Equipment Analysis

Equipment analysis is basically to learn how to operate the equipment that available
in the laboratory. All of this equipment is use to obtain physical properties of a liquid
substance such as biodiesel, bio oil, crude palm oil and many more. Some of this
equipment use standard method and compare the result using American Society for
Testing and Materials (ASTM). All of this equipment has their own specification
and accuracy to determine the properties that we want to measure. Below are some
lists of equipment that the author manage to learn during his internship at MTEC.

a) Viscometer

Viscometer is use to measure viscosity of a liquid. For high viscous liquid,


viscometer tube number 250 is use and for low viscous liquid, viscometer tube
number 250 is use. Silicon oil is use as a heating medium to the liquid sample. Water
is not suitable for heating medium because water can easily evaporate. Here,
viscometer uses a standard ASTM method which is ASTM D445.

b) Oil Test Centrifuge

The main purpose of this equipment is to separate all the sediment contain in the
sample. It also can be use to separate water layer (soluble and insoluble). The result
from this equipment that can be observed is that all the sediment will settle at the
bottom of the tube we call cone tube. This equipment use ASTM D2709, which
require no heating to the sample. Usually, the experiment is run using speed below
1500rpm.

g) Density Meter

Density meter is use to measure density of the sample. The equipment can also
calculate the specific gravity of the sample. It can measure many types of liquid
density. It usually operates at temperature 2 C.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

c) Oxidation Stability

The main purpose of this equipment is to measure conductivity of the sample such as
vegetable oil or bio diesel because both of them has ester group, contains oxygen. In
this method, the sample is allowed to oxide using air that is bubbled through the
sample. Then the sample will evaporate and the evaporate gas is then will be channel
to deionised water. This type of water has no ion in it and temperature is high in
order to reduce time taken for maximum oxidation occurs. The evaporate gas is then
will enter to deionised water and then it will be transfer to electrode. Electrode then
will detect the evaporate gas and then the conductivity of the sample can be
determine using computer that are connected to the equipment.

e) Automatic Titration

The main purpose of this equipment is to determine acid value of the sample. Small
amount of sample size is use if the acidity of the sample is high. Higher sample size
is use for sample that has low water content. Potassium hydroxide is use to determine
acid value of the sample. Solution of phenolphthalein can be use to check the result
of the equipment.

f) Bomb Calorimeter

Bomb calorimeter is use to estimate heating value of the sample. In this equipment,
the sample will be burn. The equipment will be added with excess of oxygen to help
the combustion of the sample. The heat produce from the combustion of the sample
will be transfer to the deionise water as a medium. Then the temperature sensor will
sense the temperature change and calculate the heat produce from the combustions of
the sample.

d) Karl Fisher Coulometer

The purpose of using this equipment is to know water content of the sample. Karl
Fisher Coulometer is use for sample that has low amount of water and Karl Fisher
Volumetric is use for sample that has high water contain. Karl Fisher solution is use
as a medium to determine the water content of the sample. Karl Fisher solution
contains iodide which letter will be converted to iodine. Then iodine will react with
water to produce complex compound.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

2.3 Weekly Meeting

During internship at MTEC, the author and his supervisor will sit down once a week
to discuss regarding the progress of task and the project that had been given to him.
During this activity, the author will explain the progress that he has done so far and
his supervisor will comment and point out some error or recommendation regarding
the task that he has done.

3.0 MAIN PROJECTS

The main project that the author had done during his internship is basically to
analysis production of biodiesel. In order to do the analysis, a suitable method for
biodiesel production is selected and some factors are taking into account for the
analysis. The diagram below shows sequences of task that need to be done in order to
obtain result of analysis.

Factors to
Prefered Method Process Diagram
Analyze

Project Project Result Equipment


Recommendation & Discussion Modeling

Figure 5: Task Sequence in Main Project

3.1 Preferred Method to Produce Biodiesel

In this task, the author has to do a literature review on how biodiesel is produce.
Basically there are many ways to produce biodiesel. This task is important because
later on the author need to select the suitable method to apply in the main project.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

4
i) Production of Biodiesel using Supercritical Methanol

Transesterification process of vegetable oil using supercritical methanol are carry out
without using catalyst. Methyl ester of vegetable oil or biodiesel has several
outstanding advantages among other new-renewable engine fuel and can be use in
any diesel engine without any modification. Supercritical methanol has a high
potential for both transesterification process of triglycerides and methyl esterification
of free fatty acids to methyl ester for diesel fuel substitute. By using supercritical
methanol, it can achieve 95% conversion of vegetable oil in 10 minutes and reduce
viscosity as well as flash point of biodiesel. It also can increase density of biodiesel
up to 885kg/m3, which meets ASTM standard value.

5
ii) Production of Biodiesel using Pyrolysis Process

Pyrolysis or thermal cracking of triglyceride materials can act as an alternative


method to produce biodiesel and other substance for chemical application. This
option is especially promising in areas where the hydroprocessing industry is well
established because the technology is very similar to that of conventional petroleum
refining. There are significant advantages of this type of technology over
transesterification including lower processing costs, compatibility with infrastructure,
engines and fuel standards, and feed stock flexibility. More importantly, the final
products are similar to diesel fuel in composition. The pyrolysis process of
triglycerides can be divided into two category process which is catalytic and non-
catalytic processes.

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iii) Production of Biodiesel using Catalyzed Transesterification

In catalyzed transesterification, sodium hydroxide and potassium hydroxide are


commonly employed as homogenous catalysts. For heterogeneous catalyst, calcium
oxide is use. Using catalyst is the most popular process for biodiesel production, but
it requires strict feedstock specification. Only highly refined vegetable oils should be
used as feedstock to produce biodiesel by this method.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Furthermore, the water and free fatty acid (FFA) contents in the reaction system
should be less than 0.1 and 0.5%, respectively. At high water contents, hydrolysis
will become the dominant reaction and leads to a decline in biodiesel yields. In
addition, the use of oils with higher FFA contents in alkalicatalyzed
transesterification results in the formation of soaps and causes difficulties in the
purification of biodiesel, thereby increasing the overall production cost.

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iv) Production of Biodiesel using Enzyme/Acid Catalyzed Hybrid Process

As we know, besides using vegetable oil such as crude palm oil to produce biodiesel,
we also can use waste cooking oil. This is because using crude palm oil will be costly
due price and quantity of crude palm oil needed as a feedstock. But with waste
cooking oil, not only it is cheap but it is also easy to obtain. There are several
setbacks when using waste cooking oil as our feedstock. The main setback is due to
high acid number of waste cooking oil. But recent study shows that even with high
acid value, waste cooking oil can produce good quality biodiesel using Enzyme/Acid
Catalyzed Hybrid Process. This process can be applied with oils that have high Free
Fatty Acids (FFA) contents. Therefore, unrefined oils with high FFA contents can be
used as feedstock to produce biodiesel. Also, the enzymatic/acidcatalyzed hybrid
process uses milder reaction conditions. Finally, the enzymatic/acid catalyzed hybrid
process can avoid inactivation of the immobilized enzyme by polar compounds and
increase biodiesel yields.

After analysing all the four methods, the author decided to select biodiesel
production using catalyzed transesterification due to the reason that:

- Production of biodiesel using catalyst is much more convenient because it can


be conduct in laboratory and don’t need additional equipment such as
compressor or reactor.
- Catalyst can be divided into two types which is homogeneous and
heterogeneous catalyst. Both catalyst can be use to produce biodiesel and
both have their own advantages.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

- The substance use for this process is easy to get and cheap. For example
potassium hydroxide for homogeneous catalyst and calcium oxide for
heterogeneous catalyst is quite cheap compare to other process.
- The process using catalyst is much easier and less equipment is needed.

Since catalyst can be divided into two types which is homogeneous and
heterogeneous catalyst, it is important to analyse both of them since both can be use
to produce biodiesel. By analysing both of catalysts, comparison of homogeneous
and heterogeneous catalyst can be made. The result of this project also can determine
which catalyst is better to use for biodiesel production under certain condition.

3.2 Factors to Analyze

Three factors have been selected in this project which is cost, energy and materials.
The reasons why these factors are selected are because:

- They contribute the most in determining which catalyst is the best. This is
because if process A require less heat consumption, low total cost production
and produce high quality of biodiesel compare to process B, then process A is
much better than process B. Same goes if process B is better in all the factors.
These factors not just determine which catalyst is better but they also can act
as a reference in term of business and economic point of view.
- All factors can be related to each other. For example high energy
consumption of biodiesel process would cause increase in cost of biodiesel
production. This is because high energy consumption will leads to high use of
electricity.
- Some of the factor will change with time for example price of crude palm oil.
The price for crude palm oil varies with time depends on stock market.
- Energy and materials affect towards environment. According to law of
energy, energy cannot be destroyed or created. When a system receives
energy, some of energy will be rejected to environment. This rejected energy
is important to analyze because it can increase surrounding temperature.
Same goes with materials. Unwanted materials must be treated first before it
can be release to environment.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

3.3 Process Diagram

In order to produce biodiesel, several processes are needed to convert vegetable oil to
quality biodiesel. The process for biodiesel production is quite different when using
homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst. Process diagram for biodiesel production
using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalyst are describe in the next section.

3.3.1 Biodiesel Production Using Homogeneous Catalyst

Figure 6: Biodiesel production Process Using Homogeneous Catalyst

Figure above show the process diagram for biodiesel production using homogeneous
catalyst. This process is based on small scale batch process. In this process, treated
palm oil is use as feedstock of the system. Treated palm oil is use because it has low
water content. This can reduce production of soap due to saponification reaction in
tranesterification process. First the treated palm oil is heated up until 0 C. This
process is called preheating process and purpose of this process is to heat up the
feedstock. When feedstock is at high temperature, it can easily react and produce
high reaction rate. After preheating process takes place, mixing process is next. The
purpose of mixing process is to mix methanol and potassium hydroxide according to
specific ratio. The ratio of methanol use is 6:1 mol ratio of feedstock use while ratio
of potassium hydroxide use is 1 100 g ratio of feedstock use. Potassium hydroxide is
use as homogeneous catalyst. In the mixing process methanol is allowed to mix with
potassium hydroxide for 30 minutes and maintain the operating temperature at 0 C.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

After 30 minutes had pass, solution of methoxide is produce and being channel to
transesterification process. This is the most important process because it converts
feedstock to FAME (biodiesel) and glycerol. In this process, feedstock which is
treated palm oil is allowed to react with potassium methoxide for 1 hour at constant
operating temperature which is at 0 C. The reason for using operating temperature
at 0 C and duration of 1 hr is because this parameter is the optimal parameter for
transesterification process 8 . The outputs of this process are FAME, glycerol,
excess methanol and excess potassium hydroxide. Next is the separation process.
This process allowed the substances to settle using gravitational force and the main
function of this process is to remove glycerol. After that methanol removal process
takes place. This process will remove methanol and the remove methanol will be
recycle to mixing process. In this process the mixture is heated up to 0 C and will
cause methanol to evaporate from the mixture. The remaining mixture is then sent to
purification process. In this process, water is use to remove remaining potassium
hydroxide from transesterification process. Potassium hydroxide has higher tendency
to dissolve in water rather than in FAME. The last process is drying process. When
water is use to remove potassium hydroxide, some of water dissolve in FAME.
Although amount of water dissolve in FAME is not significant, but it is important to
remove it in order to produce high quality biodiesel.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

3.3.2 Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Catalyst

Figure 7: Biodiesel Production Using Heterogeneous Catalyst

Basically, the processes that involve using heterogeneous catalyst are quite the same
with homogeneous catalyst. Calcium oxide is use as heterogeneous catalyst. The
different is that with heterogeneous catalyst, there is no purification and drying
process but additional process is added to the system which is filtration and
decomposes process. The ratio of catalyst use is the same but ratio of methanol use is
different. The ratio of methanol use is 15:1 mol ratio of feedstock use while ratio of
potassium hydroxide use is 10:100 g ratio of feedstock use. When transesterification
process is done in heterogeneous catalyst, instead of channel the mixture to
separation process, the mixture is first been filtered. The filtration process is use to
remove all excess calcium oxide. The filtered calcium oxide is then sent to mixing
process. Another difference in heterogeneous catalyst is the decompose process.
Decompose process is use to convert calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. This
process operates at 00 C for 3 hour.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

3.4 Equipment Modelling

In order to analysis in term of cost, materials and energy, equipment modelling need
to be done for each of the process involve. Some equipment can be applied for both
catalysts. Assumptions are made in each of equipment to simplify the calculation.
Below are the equipment that is use to represent each process. The filtration process
will not be consider in the equipment modelling because this process doesn’t involve
any heat needed or wasted to the system and amount of calcium oxide coming in this
process is the same with amount of calcium oxide been filtered.

Process Equipment
Preheating Heating Tank
Decompose Oven
Mixing Mixer Tank
Transesterification Batch Reactor
Glycerol Separation Gravity Settler
Methanol Removal Heating Tank
Purification Purification Tank
Drying Dryer
Table 2: Equipment Use in Each Process

There are several term that will be use in equipment modelling. Thus it is important
to describe this term before going further in the equipment modelling. The term that
will mostly use in the equipment modelling is energy and symbol term. All of this
term can be repetition.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Symbol Term

Q required total is total heat required for system or equipment (J)

Q wasted total is total heat release from the system or equipment (J)

m is amount of mass of substances. (Kg)

k is thermal conductivity of the oven (0.03 W/m K)

h air is heat transfer coefficient of air (50 W/m2 K)

T air is the ambient temperature (3 C)

T equipment is the temperature of operating temperature C)

Ti is initial temperature of substance in equipment C)

Tf is final temperature operating temperature C)

A is area of the equipment (m2)

n is number of moles of substances present

Cp is the specific heat capacity substances (J/mol K)

H of @ 25C is heat of formation of substance at 2 C (J/mol)

H of @ Tout is heat of formation of substances at operating

temperature (J/mol K)

Total time is the time for a process (minutes or hour)

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Type of Heat Involve

Heat to raise temperature (Q raise)


This heat is required to increase temperature of the system to operating temperature
and is define as

In mass basics

Qraisemi C p i (T f T i)

In mole basic

Qraiseni C p i (T f T i)

Heat Released by conduction or by convection (Q out conduction / Q out convection)


This heat occurs when there is temperature different between equipment and
surrounding.

Qout hair Aequipment(T equipmentT air)


convection

(T equipmentT air)
Q out  [k equipmentA equipment ]
( x1 x 2 )
conduction

Heat Release by temperature drop (Q drop)


This heat is due to cooling down substance before going to next process.

In mass basics

Qdropmi C p i (T f T i)

In mole basic

Qdropni C p i (T f T i)

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Heat of reaction (Q reaction)


This heat occurs due to chemical reaction from two or more substances. There are
two type heat of reaction which is exothermic and endothermic heat of reaction.
Exothermic heat of reaction will release heat from the system to environment and for
endothermic reaction will require heat for reaction to take place.

Qrxn  H of @ 25C  H @T out

H of @ 25C   (ni H ofi ) product (ni H ofi ) reac tan t

H @T out  (ni C pi) prod(T T @ 25C)  (ni C pi)reac tan t (T T @ 25C)

Heat to maintain temperature (Q maintains)


This heat is required for the system to maintain its operating temperature for period
of time until the process is done.

For exothermic reaction

Q ma int ain Qout convection Q rxn

For endothermic reaction

Q ma int ain Q out convection Q rxn

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20
Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

i) Heating Tank

The main function of heating tank is to heat feedstock which in this case is treated
palm oil up to 0 C. The reason by doing this is because at high temperature,
molecule substance has higher kinetic energy thus can result a high reaction rate. The
model and process diagram for heating tank is describe as below.

Heat Input Output


In
Feed in
Q
Temp
Vegetable Inital
Oil
Temp Feed
final out

Figure 8: Process and Model Diagram for Heating Tank

Direct heating methods is applied in this equipment. Only heat required to raise
temperature (Q raise) of the feedstock is needed for the process to take place. Below
are the assumptions that were use to design this equipment.

Assumption:

- There is no heat loss from the system to surrounding when heating process
take place.
- No substance will be evaporating in this process.
- Duration for the process doesn’t take into account in order to calculating heat
required.
- Total amount of vegetable oil is the same at initial and final process.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Calculation of Total Heat Required for the Equipment (Heating Tank)

Qrequired total Qraise

Qrequired total mveg oil Cp veg oil (T f T i)

ii) Oven

ven is use to convert calcium carbonate to calcium oxide. ere there are 2 process
involve which is decompose and cooling process. Cooling process take place when
decompose process is complete. hen calcium carbonate decomposes at 00 C for 3
hour, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide are produce.

CaCO 3 Heat
 CaO  CO 2
Calcium Calcium Carbon
carbonat Oxide dioxide
e

The process and model diagram for oven can be describe as figure below.

Heat Release Heat Release


by Conduction by temperature
drop

CaCO3

Qrxn

Heat to Heat to
maintain raise
temperature temperature

Figure 9: Process Diagram for Oven

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Operating temperature
Qrxn
Outside temperature
Area Oven
Qneeded
Thermal Conductivity Oven

Heating Time
CO2 produce
Thickness Oven’s Wall

Amount CaO recover CaCO3 need

Total CaO needed Remaining


CaO
needed

Figure 10: Model Diagram for Oven

Assumption use in this equipment modelling is:

- Heat loss from the system occurs by conduction only.


- Oven thickness is the same for all side.
- 100% conversion of Calcium carbonate to Calcium oxide.
- eat release by convection takes place when the system heat 00 C for 3 hr.
- Heat release by reaction can be use to maintain operating temperature system.
- Calculation of heat loss from conduction mode is multiply with 6 because
oven has 6 surfaces.
- Calcium oxide produce must be cooled down from 00 C to 3 C before
feeding it back to mixer.

Calculation of Total Heat Required for the Equipment (Oven)

Q required total Q raiseQout conduction Q reaction

(T ovenT air)
Q required  [n CaCO3 C PCaCO 3 ](T f T i)  [(k oven A oven )  total time  6]
( x1  x 2 )
total

 (H of @ 25C  H @T out)

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Calculation of Total Heat Wasted from the Equipment (Oven)

Q wasted total  (Q out conduction  total time) Q drop

(T ovenT air)
Q wasted  [k ovenA oven  total time  6] n CaO C pCaO (T f T i)
( x1  x 2 )
total

iii) Mixer tank

Mixer tank is use to mix methanol and catalyst and produce methoxide solutions. In
mixing process, the temperature is maintained at 0 C for 30 minutes. The catalyst
and methanol are reacting according to the chemical equation below

Homogeneous catalyst chemical reaction (endothermic)

Potassium Methanol Potassium Water


Hydroxide Methoxide

Heterogeneous catalyst chemical reaction (exothermic)

Calcium Methanol Calcium Calcium


Oxide Methoxide Hydroxide

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Figure 11: Process Diagram for Mixer Tank

Mass MeOH Need


Mass Veg Oil In
Mass KOH/CaO Need
Temp In Heat of Mixing

Q rxn
Temp Out
Qout by convection
Area
Q in

Figure 12: Model Diagram for Mixer Tank

Assumptions that being used in mixer tank are:

- Heat loss from the equipment occurs by convection only.


- There is no enthalpy of mixing or enthalpy of solution when mixing
potassium hydroxide or calcium oxide in methanol (ideal mixing).
- Heat release by convection takes place when the mixture is at 0 C.
- Heat release by reaction can be use to maintain operating temperature.
- The tank is assumed to be in cylindrical shape.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Calculation of Total Heat Wasted from the Equipment (Mixer Tank) for
Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyst.

Q wasted total  [hair Amixer (T mixerT air)]  total time

Calculation of Total Heat Required for Equipment (Mixer Tank) using


Homogeneous Catalyst.

Since the reaction of methanol and potassium hydroxide is endothermic, heat of


reaction must be included in the total heat required for the equipment.

Qrequired total QraiseQma int ain

Qrequired total QraiseQout convection Qreaction

Q required total  [n CH 3OH C PCH 3OH n KOH C P KOH ](T f T i)  [h air Amixer (T mixer T air)]  time
 (H of @ 25C  H @T out )

Calculation of Total Heat Required for Equipment (Mixer Tank) using


Heterogeneous Catalyst.

Since the reaction of methanol and calcium oxide is exothermic, the heat release by
the reaction process can be use as heat to maintain system temperature.

Qrequired total QraiseQma int ain

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Qrequired total QraiseQout convection Qreaction

Q required total  [n CH 3OH C PCH 3OH n CaO C P CaO](T f T i)  [h air A mixer (T mixer T air)]  time
 (H of @ 25C  H @T out )

iv) Batch Reactor


A batch reactor is use for transesterification process. This is the “heart” of the overall
process since FAME is produce during tranesterification process. The purpose of
batch reactor is to convert vegetable oil and liquid methoxide to FAME and glycerol.
The reactants are allowed to stay in the reactor for approximate 1 hr to complete the
reaction. The temperature of reactants enter to reactor is 0 C.

Chemical equation in batch reactor for homogeneous catalyst (exothermic)

Feedstock Biodiesel Excess


Methanol

Chemical equation in batch reactor for homogeneous catalyst (exothermic)

Feedstock Methanol Biodiesel Excess


Methanol

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Figure 13: Process Diagram for Batch Reactor

Figure 14: Model Diagram for Batch Reactor

Assumptions that being used in batch reactor are:


- Heat loss from the system occurs by convection only.
- There is no enthalpy of mixing potassium methoxide or calcium methoxide
with vegetable oil (ideal mixing).
- Heat release by reaction can be use to maintain temperature of the system at
0 C.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

- 100% conversion is achieved.


- The tank is assumed to be in cylindrical shape.
- Ambient temperature air is taken as 3 C
- 60% methanol goes in FAME, 40% methanol goes in glycerol.

Calculation of Total Heat Wasted from Equipment (Reactor Tank) for


Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyst.

Heat release from reactor using homogeneous and heterogeneous is the same using
convection mode.

Q wasted total  [hair Areactor (T reactorT air)]  total time

Calculation of Total Heat Required for Equipment (Reactor Tank) using


Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyst.

Since the reaction for potassium and calcium methoxide with vegetable oil is
exothermic, thus calculation of heat required total is defined as:

Q required total Q ma int ain

Q required total Q out convection Q reaction

Qrequired total  hair Areactor (T reactorT air)  total time  [H of @ 25C  H @T out]

v) Gravity Settler
Gravity settler is use in separation process. The purpose of gravity settler is to
remove glycerol from FAME. In this process, the product will enter gravity setter
and let it settle for a period of time. Glycerol will be separated by using gravitational
force since it is denser. There also a fraction of methanol in FAME and in glycerol
due to transesterification process.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Homogeneous Catalyst Heterogeneous Catalyst

Figure 15: Process diagram for Gravity Settler

Homogeneous Catalyst

Heterogeneous Catalyst

Figure 16: Model Diagram for Gravity Settler

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

As the process diagram shows that the only heat involve in this system is heat loss
due to cooling down the substance.

The assumption that is use in this model is:


- Heat loss from the system to environment.
- The mode of heat loss to environment is not taking into account.
- Heat loss from the system will be calculated using direct heat loss method.
- 100% glycerol separation is achieved.

Calculation of Total Heat Wasted from Equipment (Gravity Settler) for


Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyst.

For Homogeneous Catalyst

Q wasted total Qdrop substan ce

Qwasted total QMeOH Q FAME QGlycerol Q KOH

Q wasted total 
 (n MeOH C p MeOH )  (n FAME C p FAME )  (n gly C p gly )  (n KOH C p KOH 
)  (T f T i )

For Heterogeneous Catalyst

Q wasted total Qdrop substan ce

Qwasted total QMeOH Q FAME QGlycerol

Q wasted total 
 (n MeOH C p MeOH )  (n FAME C p FAME )  (n gly C p gly 
)  (T f T i)

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

vi) Heating Tank (Methanol Removal Process)

In order to remove methanol that contain in FA E heating tank is use. It same like
tank use in preheating process but instead of heating to 0 C, the mixture will be
heat until 0 C. The reason for doing this is because to evaporate methanol in the
mixture (highly volatile substance). We can see that model and process diagram is
different due to present of potassium hydroxide.

Figure 17: Process and Model Diagram for Homogeneous Catalyst in Heating Tank
Equipment

Figure 18: Process and Model Diagram for Heterogeneous Catalyst in Heating Tank
Equipment

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Direct heating methods is applied in this equipment. Only heat required to raise
temperature of the mixture is needed for the process to take place. Below are the
assumptions that were use to design this equipment:

- Use direct heat method to evaporate methanol.


- No others substance will be evaporate except methanol.
- Assume 100% methanol evaporation.
- No heat loss occurs during evaporation process.

Calculation of Total Heat Required for Equipment (Heating Tank) using


Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Catalyst.

The energy calculation in this process is divided into three types. The first Q1 is
energy to increase temperature of the mixture to boiling point of methanol. Second is
Q2 and it is vaporization enthalpy of methanol. The last one which is Q3 is energy to
increase temperature of mixture to operating temperature.

Figure 19: Profile Diagram for Heat Required

Q required total Q raise 1 Q vaporization methanol Q raise 3

Q required total n MeOH C pMeOH (T f T i) n MeOH H vaporizationn MeOH C pMeOH (T f T i)

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

vii) Purification Tank

Purification tank only apply for biodiesel production using homogeneous catalyst.
This is due to present of potassium hydroxide. The purpose of using purification
process is to remove KOH from FAME. Water is use as medium to remove KOH.
KOH will tense to dissolve in water rather than in FAME when water is added to the
mixture.

Figure 20: Process Diagram for Purification Tank

Figure 21: Model Diagram for Purification Tank

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Assumption that is use in this model is:

- No heat loss from the system to environment.


- Amount of potassium hydroxide that enters in reactor will be the same
entering methanol removal process.
- 99% of water will be use to dissolve potassium hydroxide.
- 1 % of water will be dissolve in FAME.
- Amount of heat transfer from FAME will be the same for heat absorb from
water.
- Final temperature of product is calculated when the system reach thermal
equilibrium.
- Specific heat of mixture is use since the mixture is miscible (KOH and
FAME).

There is no energy calculation involve since the assumption that is use stated that all
heat release from the mixture is absorb by water. The only calculation that involve in
this process is to determine final temperature of the product, which is define as:

mH 2O C p H 2O (T f T i ) mmix C p
H 2O mix (Ti mix T f )

Here, the final temperature refers to as final temperature of the product and water
coming out from the equipment.

viii) Dryer

Dryer is use in order to remove water than dissolve in FAME when removal process
take place. It’s basically same like heating tank. ere when mixture of FA E and
water enter the system, the mixture will be heated up until 120 C. This is to make
sure all the water is evaporated.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Figure 22: Process Diagram for Dryer

Figure 23: Model Diagram for Dryer

Assumption that is use in this equipment modelling is:

- No heat loss occurs when drying process take place.


- Using a direct heating method.
- No other substance will be evaporating except for water.
- 100% water removal process.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Calculation of Total Heat Required for Equipment (Dryer) using Homogeneous


Catalyst.

The energy calculation in this process is divided into three types same like
calculation in heating tank for methanol removal process. The first Q1 is energy to
increase temperature of the mixture to boiling point of water. Second is Q2 and it is
vaporization enthalpy of water. The last one which is Q3 is energy to increase
temperature of mixture to operating temperature.

Figure 24: Profile Diagram for Heat Required

Qrequired total Qraise 1Qvaporization water Qraise 3

Q required total n H 2O C p H 2O (T f T i) n H 2O H vaporizationn H 2O C p H 2O (T f T i)

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

vix) Heat Recovered System

Total Heat Recovered Calculation

Figure 25: Profile Diagram for Heat Recovered Stream

Qmethanol released Qdrop 1Qcondensation methanol Qdrop 3

Q methanol released n MeOH C pMeOH (T f T i) n MeOH H vaporizationn MeOH C pMeOH (T f T i)

Since, we specify final temperature of methanol after recovered process, thus


we simplify how long for hot methanol must be in contact with water so that
our final temperature that we want can be achieve. Thus,

Qmethanol release Q absorb water

Qmethanol release h H 2O AMeOH pipe (T waterT MeOH)  total time

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

3.5 Project Result and Discussion

Both homogeneous heterogeneous catalysts have their own advantage and


disadvantage. From this project, although homogeneous shows positive result
compare to heterogeneous catalyst, it also has some limitations. Production using
homogeneous catalyst requires additional equipment such as washing and drying
process in order to produce high quality biodiesel. This somehow will reflect high
production cost due to additional equipment. Although both catalysts can achieve a
high conversion of vegetable oil to biodiesel, but when using homogeneous catalyst,
the catalyst cannot be recycle and thus the process will need to use a fresh catalyst
for every process. For heterogeneous catalyst, the efficiency of the catalyst can be
sustained because it can be recycle and reuse for next transesterification process.
This is one of the advantages using heterogeneous catalyst. Using heterogeneous
catalyst in biodiesel production also has some limitations. High amount of substance
are needed like catalyst itself and methanol due the ratio use. This somehow will
have a big impact on biodiesel production cost, because price of methanol and
catalyst is quite expensive. It also requires a filtration process so that the catalyst can
be reuse. Additional equipment also needed for decompose process if calcium
carbonate is use instead of calcium oxide. Although homogeneous catalyst have low
production cost compare to heterogeneous catalyst due to low ratio of methanol and
catalyst use, but there is some advantage using heterogeneous catalyst at certain
condition. The result obtain from this study shows that the biodiesel production cost
for heterogeneous catalyst is cheaper compare to homogeneous catalyst when the
process is running between 11 to 14 batches. This is because, heterogeneous catalyst
can be recycled and reuse for the next process. This somehow will reduce total
production cost. Different situation can be observed for homogeneous catalyst. The
production cost will keep on increasing due to cost of fresh catalyst need to be supply
to the process. This shows that heterogeneous catalyst also has its own advantage in
biodiesel production.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

3.6 Project Recommendation

For recommendation of this project, additional factors must be study for both
catalysts such as labour cost, capital cost and much more. This is because these
additional factors will contribute and helps to determine which catalyst is better for
biodiesel production. Another important factor that must take into account is kinetic
factor. Kinetic study must be done in biodiesel production so that we can know
which catalyst reacts better with feedstock and optimal parameter needed for the
process. Kinetic study also helps to give better understanding especially in
mechanism of transesterification process. In term of calculation, a specific
calculation must be applied in order to obtain more accurate result. For example,
chemical thermodynamic calculation can be applied in liquid-liquid separation
process (water removal process).

4.0 LESSON LEARN AND EXPERIENCE GAIN

There are lots of valuable experiences that the author has learned during his eight
month internship periods at MTEC. These experiences really helps the author as a
student to understand more on working experience and can act as basic preparation
before going to real working life.

4.1 Leadership, Team Work and Individual Activities

Leadership is one important element that must have in every student. This is
because leadership will reflect how your personality and criteria as a person.
Basically the author didn’t learn much in leadership because being a trainee he was
at the bottom of the organizational ladder, had no subordinates and therefore, had
nobody to lead. Nevertheless, he did learn by observing how his managers handle
their subordinates in order to make sure that all work are completed on time and
reliable especially my supervisor.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

Based on the observation during the internship, there are some abilities that must
be possessed by the project leaders such as:

 Be Prepared and Motivation

The leader must have many knowledge especially in given projects. This is
because a leader must have the ability to explained to his or her subordinates
if they doing any mistake in the projects. The leader also must know how to
motivate his or her subordinates so that the projects can be complete
successfully.

 Listening skill

Listening is the most important part when working with team. A good leader
must have good listening skills. This is because, through listening, a leader
can heard and understand his or her subordinates problems and ideas
regarding the project given.

 Facing mistakes, complaint and criticism

The leader must be able to create an environment where people are open to
receive advice or constructive criticism. Leader also should accept their
mistakes and willing to face any criticism from subordinate.

In completing the tasks and project given, teamwork is key element to


complete the tasks and project successfully. In equipment analysis activity,
assistance from lab technician is needed so that the author can learn and understand
fully how to operate and conduct the equipment in the lab. In term of project,
teamwork plays important part because some of the author colleague also involve in
the project. This helps him to discuss with them the part that he don’t understand and
respect them as well.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

4.2 Work Ethics, Management Skills and Valuable Experiences

A work ethic is defined as group of moral principles, standards of behavior,


or set of values regarding proper conduct in the workplace. During the author
internship period at MTEC, he learned that a good work ethics is important
especially when you working with people that come from different background.
Work ethics is not just toward responsible to our work, but also contains ethics
towards our manager, ethics towards our co-workers and other employees as well.
At MTEC, many of the workers are not fluent in speaking English but with a good
work ethics, it teach the author how to respect his colleague, how to mingle with the
workers that much older than him and communicate with them. He also gained many
valuable advices from them as well.

It is important to complete the task given in time. This is because it can show
how responsible you are when completing the task given. Thus, management skills
are very important especially when working in a project. Every task that been given
must be completed according to the time required. During the author internship
period, most part in the project must be complete as soon as possible. It is also
important to check all of the result that obtains from each part in the project so that it
won’t affect any future task.

Internship at MTEC has though the author to come close to learn Thailand
culture. He manages to explore wonderful places in Thailand such as the famous Phi
Phi and Phuket Island. He also learned how to speak Thai language and get to taste
variety of Thai food. Foremost, Thailand is really a great country and being here is a
privilege and wonderful experience.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

4.3 Safety Training and Values of Practical Experiences

Safety is the most important element when conducting experiment in laboratory.


When doing experiment in Bioenergy Testing Laboratory at MTEC, the author must
obey the entire rule to avoid unwanted accident. This is because, all the experiment
that he done involve highly flammable and volatile materials. Before doing
experiment, a short briefing regarding safety and risk in conducting the equipment
were done by lab technician. This is to ensure that the student really understand how
to operate the equipments correctly. When doing experiment, it is important to wear
lab coat, safety shoes, rubber glove and mask. The author also manages to experience
fire training during my internship at MTEC. This training mainly to make sure that
we are aware if unwanted situation occur during working and what to do when such
things happen.

4.4 Problems and Challenged Faced

During internship period, there are several problems and challenges that the author
has to face. The problems faced have taught him to understand how hard life is and
train him to be more discipline in life. Below are several problems or challenges that
he has to face during the period of internship.

4.4.1 Language Barrier

any of Siamese didn’t know how to speak English and the author found that
it’s really hard for him to adapt especially when he started his internship here.
In order to solve the problems, the author took an initiative to learn how to
speak Thai language and it really helps him a lot especially when to buy some
things like grocery and food.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

4.4.2 Adapting to a new environment

Coming to Thailand really makes the author learn how to adjust himself to
the new environment. The major problem that he has to face is regarding
food. As notices most of Thailand people are Buddhism and it’s really hard
to find halal food around. At first it’s really difficult time, but luckily there
are several Muslim students near the author workplace. They really friendly
and they help a lot during the author stay in Thailand.

4.4.3 Limited Skills, Experiences and Knowledge

As a trainee, it is normal to lack in skills, experience and knowledge. This is


the purpose of internship so that student will be able to learn and gain
experiences. This is one of the trainee’s problems when trainee was assigned
a task that requires a lot of skills and knowledge. Therefore, trainee needs to
do some additional work and research regarding the task that given. This can
helps the trainee to understand better and prepare them before doing the
actual tasks. Trainee also need to learn by asking and surveying how the other
trainee done their work. By doing this, they can discuss and can help each
other so that the task can be done efficiently.

4.4.4 Complete tasks within the timeline and meet the requirements

Time limitation is another major problem that the trainee has to face during
this internship programme. Every task in the projects required a lot of
calculation and simulation. This really a tedious process and it will cause
error in the whole calculation if one part of calculation is wrong. Thus careful
calculation must be done so that there is no mistake in the result and make
sure that the entire task is going according to schedule. If the project is behind
the schedule, the trainee should find the way to make sure the project is in
schedule for example do some overtime or complete the unfinished work at
home.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

5.0 DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Recommendation to Host Company

5.1.1 Attachment to different areas of expertise

Since the internship period is approximately 8 month, it is better if the host


company can relocate the trainee that doing their internship here with several
different departments. By doing this, trainee can learn and explore many
things and can gain many experience relate with their background. For
example, a chemical engineer trainee can enter department that related with
chemical such as polymer and environment research unit. This would give the
trainee more wider scope of knowledge during their training.

5.1.2 Hands on Task

Trainee should be given more hands on task rather than theoretical task. This
is because with hands on task, trainee should be able to apply all the
theoretical knowledge that they learn before this. Trainee also can learn more
by doing hands on task such as experiment, measurement, observation and
much more compare by doing theoretical tasks.

5.1.2 Proper Training Schedule

Trainee should be provided with proper training schedule when doing


internship. This is because, a proper training schedule can helps to organize
time and task given. Besides that, host company also should provide some
additional activities such as plant visit. This is because by just doing
calculation and simulation, trainee will not experience how biodiesel is
produce in real life. They just learn more on theoretically rather than
practically. This somehow will limit the knowledge and the experience that
the trainee will get during internship period.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

5.2 Recommendation to UTP

5.2.1 Internship form and log book

It is suggested that UTP should reconsider the internship form and log book.
This is because the form is too many, tedious and sometimes it is time
wasting especially to supervisor who has many others commitment. The
format of log book also maybe needs to be reconsidered. The proper
computer format should be use so that the form can be neater and organized.
By doing this, student can avoid any loss form by saving them in external
devices.

5.2.2 Alert with Trainee Situation and Problems

UTP should be more concern and alert with current situation of trainee
especially the one who doing their internship at overseas. Recently, Thailand
had been hit by several anti-government groups called the “red shirt”. This
incident had cause fatalities and serious damaged. As a trainee who doing
internship at Thailand, we also had to take extra precautions by undergo
curfew and be more aware with current situation. Although our workplace is
not badly affected by this situation, but UTP should ask or noticed if
everything is safe before anything bad happen to us. This shows that UTP is
concern about their student’s welfare and safety during internship period.

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Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

6.0 CONCLUSION

Doing industrial training at National Metal and Materials Technology Center


(MTEC) gives opportunity for me on how to implement all the theory that I have
learn for the past 3 years with practice. The tasks and projects that been given by my
plant supervisors, really help and trained me to become more responsible students.
Besides that, I had experience the true working environment and being expose to
more valuable knowledge especially in renewable energy area.

In addition, internship programme not just tough me in term of technical or


academic, but it also tough me how developed my other skills as well. During my
internship programme, I manage to sharpen my communication skills, implement a
good work ethics at work place, become more responsible with the tasks and project
given, learn how to adapt to new environment and most importantly I learned the
value of time.

Basically, industrial training at National Metal and Materials Technology


Center (MTEC) is one of the most valuable experiences that I ever had since I
become a student of University Teknologi PETR NAS UTP . It’s a privilege to be
part of MTEC workers for past eight month. The working environment exposed,
lesson learned and experiences gained are very useful for future career of the student.
Therefore in the future, University Technology Petronas (UTP) and host company
National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC) should continue their
efforts in giving the perfect learning experience for students.

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47
Muhamad Hazim Bin Azemi [11605]
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
Internship Final Report [Dec 2009-July 2010]

7.0 REFERENCES

1. Sheehan John, Camobreco Vince, Duffield James, Graboski Michael,


Shapouri Housein. (May 1988). An Overview of Biodiesel and Petroleum
Diesel Life Cycle, NREL/TP-580-24772.

2. Steven A. Howell, B.S.. Research Director; J. Alan Weber, M.S., Program


Director. (1997). US Biodiesel Overview.

3. Bacovsky, Dina, Körbitz, Werner, Mittelbach, Martin, Wörgetter, Manfred.


(July 2007). Biodiesel Production : Technologies and European Provider.

4. Ahyan Demirbas, Department of Chemical Engineering Selcuk University,


Campus, Konya, Turkey. (2005). Biodiesel Production from Vegetable Oils
by Supercritical Methanol. Scientific & Industrial Research, (64), 858-865.

5. Maher K.D., Bressler D.C, Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutritional


Sciences, University of Alberta (2007). Bioresource Technology 98, 2351–
2368.

6. H. West Alex, Dusko Posarac, and Naoko Ellis. (2007). Simulation, Case
Studies and Optimization of a Biodiesel Process with a Solid Acid Catalyst.
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. 5(A37).

7. N. Saifuddin, Raziah A Z., and Nor Farah H. (2009). Production of Biodiesel


from High Acid Value Waste Cooking Oil Using an Optimized Lipase
Enzyme/Acid-Catalyzed Hybrid Process. E-Journal of Chemistry, 6(S1),
S485-S495.

8. Gerpen Van J., Shanks B., Prusko R., Clements D., Knothe G. (July 2004).
Biodiesel Production Technology. NREL/SR-510-36244

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