Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice

actice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

GEOSS SEMINAR 2014


on PILE LOAD TESTS IN SINGAPORE Outline of Presentation
1. Introduction
Presentation on
2. Theory Concept and Basic Features of
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Rapid Load test
Practice in Singapore 3. Interpretation of Rapid Load Test
4. Practices -- Case study of Rapid load test
By
in Singapore and Malaysia
Dr. Chew Soon Hoe 5.Correlation of Rapid Load Test with SLT
Assistant Professor
National University of Singapore 6.CONCLUSION - Peroductivity
ceecsh@nus.edu.sg Improvement using Rapid Load test
1 2

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

1. Introduction TraditionalPileloadtest StaticMaintainedLoad


TestusingKentledgeblocksorsteelplates
Pile Load Tests are needed to

1. Determine the bearing capacity of piles Morerecently,inMalaysiaandSingapore,dueto


2. Determine the settlement of pile when it is rapiddevelopment,thereisadriveandneedto
subjected to n times working load condition improvetheproductivityofconstructionindustry
3. Verify the soil parameters used in pile design
(i.e. unit skin friction and unit end bearing particularly,toreducethetimeneededto
capacity) verifythesoilparametersusedinpiledesign,and
4. Check the quality of pile construction Proof
Load Test.
speeduptheprocessoftheproofloadtestsfor
manyhundredsofpilesperproject..
3 4
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

2. Theory -- Concept and


Basic Features of Rapid Pile
Load Testing

F=m.a

5 6

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Patrick Bermingham
Statnamic
Longduration
load,quasistatic
pileandsoil
behavior

Acceleratingamassandgeneratingapushloadon
thepileheadiscalledtheStatnamic method
7 8
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Peter Middendorp StatRapid


a=~ 20g
mRLT =1/20mSLT
Longduration
load,quasistatic
pileandsoil
Decelerationofamass behavior
fromadropmassontoa m.a=F
springsystemtoprolong
loadingtime,andgenerate
apushloadonthepile Pile
headiscalledtheStatRapid
STRmethod.

9 10

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Modular and adjustable spring system

11 12
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

In Europe, there is a growing awareness that in Dynamics


Test the pile capacities is determined by signal matching
techniques which is heavily depend on the assumptions
made by the person analyzing the test results and yield a
wide range of results, especially for cast in situ piles (i.e.
cross-section area non-uniform).
This is one of the reasons that in 2010 the Dutch CUR
commission adopted the Rapid Load Testing technique
(over the Dynamic testing method) as the results are
consistent and virtually independent of the person
analyzing the test data.
In Japan, The statnamic Pile testing method is
accepted in Japanese Code since 2002.

13 14

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Comparison between Static, Rapid


In 2008 This method is officially accepted as ASTM
Standard Method -- ASTM D7383-08 & Dynamic Pile Load Tests

Static Rapid Dynamic


Unit Cost - For
Marine Piles, $/Ton
Loading
1 week 100 - 120 ms 10 - 20 ms
Duration
Reaction mass
100% 5% 1 - 1.5%
(% test load)
Total test days to 1 week 1 -2 days
>1 Month
Duration
Very Complex
Interpretation V.Easy Easy
(many uncertainty)

15 16
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Load Test STATIC


Dead weight 100 %
Methods Load
Displacement 3. Interpretation and Analysis
DYNAMIC TESTING
of Rapid Load Test Results
RAPID LOAD TESTING
Drop mass STATNAMIC STATRAPID
1-2 %

Reaction
mass
Drop mass
5-10% 5-10%
Strain High
pressure Soft
Acceleration gas cushioning
Load Load
Displacement Displacement

Signal matching

Unloading Point Method (UPM)


18

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Analysis of Rapid Load Test Equation of motion -- single d.o.f model

In Rapid load test (e.g. Statnamic and


StatRapid), the loading duration is many times
longer than the pile length such that the stress-
waves effect can be ignored, hence the analysis
of a Rapid Load Test is greatly simplified in where
m = mass of pile,
comparison to a Dynamic Load Test. c = damping coefficient,
stat F (t)
k = spring constant,
Although stress-waves may be ignored, the a(t) = acceleration at time t,
v(t) = velocity at time t,
dynamic effects of INERTIA, as well as
u(t) = displacement at time t,
DAMPING part of soil respond CANNOT! FRLT(t) = applied Rapid Load Test force.
20
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Converting RAPID (STATNAMIC) to STATIC ..


Typical response of a Rapid Load Test

Load
Corrected Static Equivalent curve Load F

time Dynamic effects

Disp

Load
Rate effects
Fmax

Peak Force Point Rapid Load (statnamic)


(Ppp, pp) Corrected Equivalent Static
Disp

(Correction for Damping and rate effect)

Unloading Point Displacement u


(Pup, up) Unloading point
21 22

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Unloading Point Method (UPM) Measurements Rapid Load Testing


Developed by Peter Middendorp and A : Load cells
Patrick Bermingham in 1989 B : Reflector Plate
Used for calculating the static bearing C : Acceleration sensor
D : Pile head
capacity of piles from rapid load tests
E : Loading Plate
Assumptions: F : Spring system plate
Long duration of the load in relation to the pile
length Load Cells -> F(t) (known)
Rigid Pile Acc.Sensor -> a(t) (known)
No wave phenomenon Laser/Optical reflector plate > u(t) (known)

23 24
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Unloading Point Method (UPM) Equilibrium:


F(t) F(t) = FSOIL(t) + Finertia(t)
F(t) = Applied force on the F(t) = Measured load on the pile head [N]
pile top FSOIL(t) = Force from the soil on the pile [N]
Finertia(t) = Internal force [N]

FSOIL(t) = Reaction force of a(t) = Measured acceleration [m/s2]


Finertia(t)

the soil on the pile. m = Mass of the pile [kg]


Shaft and toe. Finertia(t) = m a(t)
Finertia(t) = Reaction force of Therefore:
FSOIL(t)
the mass of the pile.
FSOIL(t) = F(t) - m a(t)
26
25

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

FSOIL : Fstatic-spring = F(t) - m x a(t) C x v(t)


FSOIL = Fstatic-spring + FV At t = twmax then v = 0
Fstatder FV Fstatic spring = F(twmax) - m x a(twmax)
k
c
F(t)
Fstatic-spring= Force dependent
F
on displacement (Plastic Example:
F(t) = 2.8 MN
spring) Static Resistance F m = 3619 kg w=max
a = -30 m/s2
k
-
Fstatic spring = 2.8 - 3619* 30/1e6
FV = Force dependent on U
Fstatic spring = 2.8 + 0,11 = 2.91MN
v=0
velocity (Linear damper) F
FV = C x v c w
V=0 a0
v Unloading point
Fstatic = FRLT M x a C x v
27 28
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Multiple Cyclic Testing


Determining C
C mean

29 30

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Sheffield Method (SHM) Sheffield Method (SHM)


Unloading Point Method is less aureate in Uses all data points of the measured signals
pure clay soils Analysis is performed numerically
Rate effects are large in clay soils FSTR is corrected with the inertia force FA
Therefore the Sheffield Method is developed. Then the force is corrected for rate effects with ,
Overview ofapplicabilityofavailableinterpretationmethods.
, depend on type of clay and pile velocity
Method Property Clay Silt Sand Rock
UPM Bearingcapacity + ++ ++ ++
Preferred practice : , determined from Lab. Tests
Initialstiffness ++ ++ ++ ++ But practical factors are available
SHM Bearingcapacity ++ +
Initialstiffness + + For calculating the static load displacement also a
++Verysuitable,+Suitable,+ Questionable, loading rate vstatic and a reference velocity vref is
Notreallysuitable, Notsuitable used.
31 32
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

RLT Test Criteria Load DLT RequirementsforRLT


RLT Time
Pile Tf
Inertia force < 20% of F(t) Time
L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
(in Singapore, most of time <5%)
Depth
L/c

10 < Tf / (L/cp) < 1000


Tf = Duration of the load [s]
L = Length of the pile [m] Tf = Load duration(s)
Cp = wave velocity in the pile [m/s] L = Pile lengthe (m)
c = stress wave velocity pile material (m/s).

33

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Loading duration requirement in ASTM D7838 Video showing the modelling of Dynamic vs Rapid load
test From Mr. Martijn van Delft, Allnamics Internation Ltd

36
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Comparison of Load Tests


4. Practices Case Study of RLT

-- A. Examples of projects using


RAPID LOAD TEST

-- where and why it was used


effectively?

37 38

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

3000 Tons Test at Jn P. Ramlee & Mont Kiara, Kuala Lumpur


500 Tons Tests at
Jurong Port & Penang
Port

39 40
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Test in Progress Kuala Lumpur 1400 Tons Test at Jalan Cheras Upgrading

Video

41 42

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

1600 Tons Test at Quay West, Melbourne 600 Tons Test in Kobe, Japan

43 44
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

3000 Tons Test at Second Link, Johor Singapore Practices - STATNAMIC

Tuas West Extension : LTA C1687 & C1688


Barrette piles of up to 4,750 tonnes
45 46

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Singapore Practices - STATNAMIC Singapore Practices - STATRAPID

Tuas West Extension : C1687 & C1688 HDB Yishun and Bukit Merah
Barrette piles of up to 4,750 tonnes
47 48
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Other StatRapid Photos - STATRAPID

4. Practices Case Study of RLT

-- B. Case Study of projects using


RAPID LOAD TEST

-- real number!!

49 50

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Static & Statnamic Load Test


Case Study 1
Calibration of Statnamics Test
via Static load test
at Punggol East Contract 40

16th Aug 2012

51 52
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

UTP 5 - 1st & 2nd Cycle Load Transfer Curve


Static Load Test UTP 5
Pile ref. : UTP 5
Pile Diameter : 900 mm
Pile Length : 56.80 m
Ref. Borehole : BH-9
Pile installed : 2nd Dec
2011
Test : 17th Dec
commenced 2011
Test completed : 24th Dec
2011
Working Load : 492.0 tons

1st Cycle 2nd Cycle

*T1&T2 Telltales
53 54

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

UTP 5 Load vs Settlement Curve (Dial Statnamic Test UTP 3


Gauge)
Pileref. : UTP3
PileDiameter : 900mm
PileLength : 55.20m
Ref.Borehole : ABH9
3.0 WL Testcompleted : 12th Mar2012
1.0 WL WorkingLoad : 477.0tons
Permanentsettlement=4.1mm

16mm

55 56
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

UTP 3 Statnamic Load Transfer Curve


UTP 3 - Statnamic Pile Top & Toe Displacement vs Time Plot

57 58

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

UTP 3 Statnamic Load vs Settlement Plot Static & Statnamic Test Results Comparison
Pileref.No. UTP3 UTP5 UTP6 UTP7
LoadTestmethod Statnamic Static Statnamic Static
1.0 WL 3.0 WL PileDiameter 900mm 900mm 700mm 700mm
PileLength 55.200m 56.800m 41.505m 46.098m
Ref.Borehole ABH9 BH9 ABH16 ABH20
DesignWL(tons) 477.0 492.0 288.0 295.0
Max.loadapplied 1,506.0 1,446.0 966.0 871.0
(tons) (3.15xWL) (2.94xWL) (3.35xWL) (2.95xWL)
Max.staticLoad 1,498.0 Sameasabove 949.0 Sameasabove
(tons)tested (3.14xWL) (3.29xWL)
Max.Displacementat 19.00mm 15.13mm 16.50mm 11.25mm
19mm 3.0xWL
Max.Displacementat ~4.5mm ~4.24.5 ~3mm ~3mm
1.0xWL
mm
Permanent 3.74mm 4.50mm 2.74mm 3.20mm
Settlement
59 60
Contribution from Mr Foo H K of
RESOURCE PILING PTE LTD

Compare Statnamic Pile Load Test Result


Against Punggol
Kentledge Load Test Result C40

PILESIZE TESTDATE SETTLEMENT(mm)


NEARESTBOREHOLE
UTP-3&6: Statnamic UTP DATECAST
REFERENCE
(mm) FROM TO 1xWL 2xWL 3xWL
UTP-1,2,4,5,7&8: Kentledge
1 700 5/12/2011 4/1/2012 11/1/2012 3.50 8.00 13.50 ABH2

Compare UTP-2 vs. UTP-3


2 900 7/12/2011 23/12/2011 29/12/2011 4.88 10.25 18.00 BH07
Compare UTP-6 vs. UTP-7
3 900 1/3/2012 12/3/2012 12/3/2012 4.58 10.55 19.05 ABH09 Stn
4 700 9/12/2011 28/12/2011 3/1/2012 3.50 8.00 13.13 BH10

5 900 2/12/2011 17/12/2011 24/12/2011 4.75 9.25 16.75 BH09

6 700 2/3/2012 20/3/2012 20/3/2012 3.24 8.08 17.12 ABH16


Stn
7 700 30/11/2011 9/12/2011 15/12/2011 3.50 7.63 13.38 ABH20

8 900 12/12/2011 7/1/2012 16/1/2012 4.25 7.79 14.75 BH16


UTP-2 UTP-7

UTP-6

UTP-3 UTP-6

0.00 2000.00 4000.00 6000.00 8000.00 10000.00 12000.00 14000.00 16000.00 0.00 2000.00 4000.00 6000.00 8000.00 10000.00
0.00 0.00

-5.00
-5.00

-10.00
-10.00
UTP-3
-15.00
-15.00

-20.00

-20.00

-25.00

-25.00
-30.00

UTP-7
-35.00 -30.00

UTP-6
-40.00
-35.00

UTP-2
-45.00
-40.00

-50.00

-45.00

-55.00
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Summary

Statnamic test works very well as


compared with static load test in this site!

70

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Project 1 Geylang HDB project C18


Totalnoofpileonthissite=714
Case Study 2
Calibration of StatRapid Test
via Static load test
at Punggol waterway C36 and
At Geylang C16 Project

May-June 2013 Additional


StstRapidTest 72
doneonthis
71
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

StatRapid Setup at test Site

73 74

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Video of StatRapid Test in Singapore

75 76
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

77 78

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

N
NearBH3and
BH6 0
0

0
2
18
37
78
80

80

100
79 80
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Additional Comparing with Static Load Test Results


StstRapidTest
doneonthis

Settlement Settlement Settlement


@2.0WL=9.2mm @2.0WL=11.0mm @2.0WL=7.0mm
@2.5WL=11.2mm @2.3WL=12.3mm @2.3WL=8.6mm

81 82

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Settlement using Scale Rule

P=3.7MN,d=4.5mm
StatRapidResults
P=7.4MN,d=9.0mm

83 84
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Settlement Rate Correlation of Statnamic


Issue
vs Static test Recent
Malaysia Case

9.6 mm 10.0 mm

85 86

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

1. Pile and Testing Details Testing conducted on 18 July 2014

Pile Pile Pile Working Test Test Date


ID Dia. Length Load Load Method
(m) (m) (kN) (kN)
TP1 1.0 34.50 9,000 22,500 Statnamic 18th July
2014
TP2 1.2 29.10 12,900 32,250 Static 2nd to 6th
(Kent- July 2014
ledge)

87 88
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

N-Values of Boreholes near to test piles Summary Result for TP 1 and TP2

Pile Cut-off level

89 90

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

1. Load Settlement Respond Specific Settlement 2. Normalised Load Settlement Respond of Static
at Specific Load Test Pile (TP 1) and Statnamic Test Pile (TP 2)

91 92
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

In summary, the overall load-settlement respond 3. Load Transfer Curves


of static equivalent from statnamic compares TP 1 TP 2
very well with the conventional static load test
results.

Note that the two piles TP1 and TP2 do not have
the same length, not the same diameter, and not
exactly the same soil profile, yet their
normalised load-settlement performance are
very rational and very close to one another.

93 94

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Comparison of Load Transfer Curves from Comparison of Load Transfer Curves from
Static and Statnamic Non-dimensional Static and Statnamic with Normalized Depth

Debonded

95 96
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

4. Mobilised Shaft Friction for TP 1 Mobilised Shaft Friction for TP 2 (Static test )
(Statnamic test )

97 98

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Mobilized End Bearing for TP1 and TP 2 1. The load-settlement behavior of the test piles subjected to
Static test and Statnamics test was very similar.

2. Correlation between the two was found to be excellent in


terms of (a) specific settlement values at specific load, as
well as (b) non-dimensional load settlement respond, where
settlement is normalized by pile diameter, and load is
normalized by working load.

3. d. The load-transfer curves of the two test piles are very


much the same in nature and again, correlation between the
two test methods (Statnamic and static) were excellent.

4. The mobilized unit shaft friction and unit end bearing


mobilized were found to be very consistent between results
of static test and Statnamic test.
99 100
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

5. Correlation --

In conclusion, Statnamic Test was well Summary of correlation tests conducted


correlated with the Static Test conducted between Rapid Load tests and Static
at this particular site. load tests in Singapore/Malaysia soils

101 102

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

A. Test sequence HDB Punggol C36 Pile 7C47/1 (STATIC -> STATRAPID)
Four (4) possible arrangements of Correlation
Tests
Same Pile : StatRapid load test -> Static load test
Same Pile : Static load test -> StatRapid load test
Different nearby piles (with same diameter) with similar
soil profile
Different nearby piles (with different diameters) with
similar soil profile. Simplified Soil Profile
B. Soil Profiles 15m of loose silty sand
3m of firm clay (Kallang Formation)
Typical ..Kallang, OA 3m of dense silty sand
Kallang, Jurong Formation 3m of stiff sandy organic clay (Kallang Formation)
27m of dense to very dense silty sand (OA)
Residual Soils, Jurong Formation
103 104
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

HDB Punggol C36 Pile 7C47/1 (STATIC -> STATRAPID) HDB Punggol C36 Pile G74/5 (STATRAPID -> STATIC)

74/5 Simplified Soil Profile


12m of soft to firm sandy silt (Kallang Formation)
12m of sandy clay (Kallang Formation)
22.2m of medium to very dense silty sand (OA)

105 106

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

HDB Punggol C36 Pile G74/5 (STATRAPID -> STATIC)

Very good correlation for piles socketed in


OA even with thick layer of loose silt on
top!

Noted that there was very little permanent


settlement in both piles during virgin load
cycles by StatRapid or Static Test.

107 108
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

95 Marine Parade (STATRAPID -> STATIC (2 weeks later)


95 Marine Parade (STATRAPID -> STATIC (2 weeks later)

Simplified Soil Profile


3m of sandy silt (fill)
3m of silty sand
9m of marine clay (Kallang Formation)
24m of sandy clay (Kallang Formation)
16.5m of sandy silt (OA)
109 110

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Bukit Merah
Very good correlation for the pile
socketed in OA even with thick layer
of marine clay

Care is required for correlation as


permanent settlement from virgin
load by quasi-static test need to be
accounted for. This is also true vice
versa Simplified Soil Profile

4m of sandy clay Residual soil - fill)


16.18m of hard silt (Jurong Formation)
111 112
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Bukit Merah
Very good correlation for the pile socketed in
Jurong Formation after accounting for
permanent settlement.

Care is required for correlation as permanent


settlement from virgin load by static test
need to be accounted for. This is also true
vice versa.

113 114

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Yishun N5C6 Yishun N5C6 4 StatRapid vs 4 Static test on different nearby piles
Pile - Pile Working Settlement @ Load
Testing Dia., D Load Cycle (Settlement/pile diameter, %) Soil Profile
Method (mm) WL (MN) 1.0 x WL 2.0 x WL
P9 1st 5.04 mm (0.56%) -
G41-1 900 4.7 6m of sandy silt
Static 2nd - 10.41 mm (1.16%) 6m of hard sandy
silt
P10 1st 3.90 mm (0.39%) - 11.3m of silty sand
G14-2 1000 5.75 4.91m of silty sand
StatRapid 2nd - 9.60 mm (0.96%)

StatRapid % - Static % -0.17% -0.20%


12m firm sandy silt
1st 4.36 mm (0.55%) -
P11 3m of very stiff
G50-6 800 3.7 sandy silt
Static 2nd - 8.48 mm (1.06%) 15.07m of dense
silty sand
6m of sandy silt
P12 1st 3.80 mm (0.42%) -
6m of sandy clay
G3-2 900 4.7
15.03m of silty
StatRapid 2nd - 9.80 mm (1.09%)
sand
StatRapid % - Static % -0.13% 0.03%
115 116
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Yishun N5C6 4 StatRapid vs 4 Static test CONCLUSIONS


on different neighbouring piles
RapidLoadTest(RLT)isaworldwideacceptedpiletestingmethod,
whichiscoveredbymanynationalandinternationalcodes,
STR vs
ST regulationsandguidelines.

STR
Smaller
Statnamic(STN)andStatRapid(STR)areRapidLoadTests(RLT)and
generatesimilarpiletestingresults.
STR
Larger RLTincombinationwiththeUPManalysismethod,yieldsconsistent
anduserindependentpileloadtestresultscomparablewithstatic
loadtests.Creepphenomenahoweverarenotconsidered.
STR
Larger

WiththedevelopmentofStatRapid(STR)asafe,productiveandeasy
STR
tousedevicehasbecomeavailable,whichallowstoperformseveral
Larger
piletestperdayeconomicallyandreliably.
118

Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

CONCLUSION ON CORELLECTION PRODUCTIVITY IMPROVEMENT


WITH STATIC TEST CASE STUDY OF STATRAPID TEST @PUNGGOL C36
Activity Kentledge Load Test StatRapid Load
- Excellent correlation were obtained between Rapid Method Test Method
Load test vs static test for various type of correlation Construction of kentledge base
1. Kentledge base 1 day -
sequence, and at typical Singapore soils (KF, OA, Mob / Setup
FJ). 1. Test beam and leg setting up 1 set / 0.5 day NA
2. Concrete block setting up 360 Ton / day NA
- Care need to taken for same pile correlation test 3. Equipment setting up NA 1.5 day
conducted for virgin load-settlement cycle vs 4. Testing Duration
Demob / Removal
4days 1 day

Unloaded-reloaded cycles. 1. Test beam and leg removal 1 set / 0.5 day NA
- Rate effect is negligible for Singapore / Malaysia 2. Concrete block removal
3. Equipment removal
360 Ton / day
NA
NA
1 day
piling practices as most of the piles design are well Trailer Trips ~40tonnespertrailer, Fourtrailertrips

socketed into stiff soil/weathered rock. NO pile ESTIMATED DURATION FOR 2,000 ton
~Hundredsoftripseachway
~16days
eachway
3.5days
embedded in stiff clay (floating friction pile).
- Productivity increase. 119
PRODUCTIVITYINCREASEOF~400%! 120
Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS) Rapid Load Test from Theory to Practice in Singapore Dr S H Chew (NUS)

Punggol East Contract 36 & Common Green


Original Piling Contract Duration:
6.5 months
(March Mid-October)

Conventional Load Test (Est. Duration) Thank You !!


14 Nos of SLT
7 Nos of SLT were replaced with
STATRAPID
(Selection of SLTs on the critical path)

PROJECT COMPLETION DATE:


All SLTs completed by end August

Project completed 1.5


months ahead of schedule!!
Productivity gain !!
121