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Cable-stayed Bridge - History, Facts and

Types

Cable-stayed bridge is a bridge similar to suspended bridge in that it


has towers and a deck that is held by cables, but its cables hold the
deck by connecting it directly to the towers instead via suspender
cables. It usually carries pedestrians, bicycles, automobiles, trucks,
and light rail. It is used in places where spans need to be longer
than cantilever bridge can achieve (because of its weight), but the
span is short enough so a suspension bridge is not practical there
economically.
Venetian inventor Fausto Veranzio was the first to design cable
stayed bridges (he was also the first to design modern suspended
bridge). He published his works in 1595 in his book Machinae
Novae. First built cable-stayed bridges appeared in the 19th century
and many early suspension bridges were cable-stayed
like footbridge Dryburgh Abbey Bridge, James Dredge's Victoria
Bridge, in Bath, England (Built in 1836), Albert Bridge (built in 1872)
and Brooklyn Bridge (1883). Other early cable-stayed bridges in the
United States were Barton Creek Bridge between Huckabay, Texas
and Gordon, Texas (built in 1889), bridge over Bluff Dale, Texas, (built
in 1890a and it still largely stands).
Constraction of this type of bridge continued into the 20th century
when where built Cassagnes bridge (designed by A. Gisclard), le
Coq's bridge at Lzardrieux in Brittany, France (designed by G.
Leinekugel and built in 1924), and aqueduct at Tempul in 1926.
Concrete-decked cable-stayed bridge over the Donzre-Mondragon
canal at Pierrelatte was designed by Albert Caquot in 1952 and was
one of the first the modern cable-stayed bridges but no other that
came after, looked up to it. Strmsund Bridge designed by Franz
Dischinger in 1955 had more influence on the design of the later
bridges and is more often mentioned as the first modern. Fabrizio de
Miranda, Riccardo Morandi and Fritz Leonhardt are the design
pioneers of the modern cable-stayed bridge and their designs had
very few stay cables which was modern but resulted in higher erection
costs. Later designs have much more cables which is more economic
in the terms of building.

A cable-stayed bridge can be built in different variations:


A side-spar cable-stayed bridge has only one tower and is
supported only on one side. One bridge built on this principle is
bridge in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada and is made to carry
pedestrians. Other is Jerusalem Chords Bridge which is also made
to be curved which this design allows for.
Cantilever-spar cable-stayed bridge has a single cantilever
spar on one side of the span. Its spar is made to resist the bending
caused by the cables because cable forces of this bridge are not
balanced by opposing cables and bridge applies large overturning
force on its foundation. Puente de la Mujer (2001), Sundial Bridge
(2004) and Chords Bridge (2008), all in Spain, are bridges of this
type.
Multiple-span cable-stayed bridge is a cable-stayed bridge
with more than 3 spans. It is a more complex bridge because the
loads from the main spans are not anchored back near the end
abutments. This also makes structure less stiff so additional design
solutions (like cross-bracing stays and stiff multi-legged frame
towers) have to be applied.
Extradosed bridge has stiffer and stronger deck and its cables
are connected to the deck further from the towers which are also
lower than those of standard cable-stayed bridges.
Cable-stayed cradle-system Bridge is one of the newest
variants. It has so called cradle system which carries the strands
within the stays from bridge deck to bridge deck. These cables are
continuous which means that this bridge has no anchorages in the
pylons and its cables can be removed, inspected and replaced
individually.