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A paragraph about each of the middle east countries.

Syria
In this chapter, we provide an overview of Syrias overall social, political and ethnic
background. Syria, located in a geographically critical location, is home to people different
ethnic background such as Arabic, Kurdish, and Turkmen. Having gone through political
instability, Syria was under the influences of colonial forces. With the rise of Arab Spring in
2010, civil unrest began in Syria in 2011 and Syria has been in a civil war since then. We,
then describe specific approaches to education and policies attached to social and political
developments in Syria. Specifically, the chapter first introduces Syrias political history and
current situation and its effect on education. Then, it examines English language education
policies and its social, economic, and political impact on society. Additionally, English
language policy is discussed within the realm of historical, political, and social context.
Abstract
In this chapter, we provide an overview of Syrias overall social, political and ethnic
background and then describe specific approaches to education and policies attached to it.
Specifically, the chapter first introduces Syrias political history and current situation and its
effect on education. Then, it examines English language education policies and its social, economic, and
political impact on society. Examples of English curriculum and teaching
practices, as well as insights from language educators and students are also included in the
chapter. Language education policies and the level of English between Turkey and Syria are compared in the
last section of the chapter.
SYRIA INTRO
Syria has been at the center of foreign concerns after its independence such as civil war and this has had an
impact on education in the country. Although there have been educational improvements, Syrias education and
language policies have been mainly affected by political influences. Since the last reform in 2002, English has
been taught in schools starting from grade 1. Presently, the Syrian Ministry of Education has the authority over
the curricula and textbook. Partly due to the contrast in Arabic and English language, there is also an emphasis
to teach pronunciation, listening and phonetics in classrooms. Language learning is a critical tool for
communication amidst the global world and proficiency in English promises a better education, career and life.
With policy makers support, teachers should have vital responsibilities to implement the curricula and also be
given opportunities to stay current with the latest teaching methods. Teachers should be adequately competent
in order to implement the policies into classroom practice. For the future of education in Syria, it is hopeful that
the government will be concerned with putting forth funding for education and providing resources in planning
the new education policies.
Within the general education Syrias education and language policies have been mainly affected by political
influences before and after its independence.
Then the last reform in the education was enacted in 2002 to mandate schooling for pupils ages 6-15 years old.
After the latest education policy, English has been taught starting from grade 1.
The Syrian Ministry of Education has been in charge of the curricula and textbooks. there is an emphasis to
teach phonetics, listening and pronunciation. This is partly due to the differences in Arabic and English
language.
Education plays the most essential role in the success of a country. Within the general education, language
learning is also a critical tool for communication within the global world.
Language policy of English language has some implications for planning. Although the Syrian Ministry of
Education strictly controls the curricula and the textbooks, foreign language teachers have crucial
responsibilities to implement the curricula. They should be well-trained and professionally competent in order
to match the policy rhetoric into classroom practice. With the support of the policy makers, the teachers should
be given opportunities to stay up-to- date with the latest teaching methods. Once Syria as a country starts
revitalizing, it is our hope that in planning the new education policies the government will be concerned with
putting forth the effort providing ample resources and funding for education.
After the 2002 education reform, English language started to be taught from 1 st grade. English is taught as a
major subject and is provided seven hours a week by non-native language teachers. The 2002 education reform
indicates that Syrias foreign language education policy is modified to emphasize English language and English
language is situated at the center of the language policy. The language education curricula are not flexible to be
modified by institutions or individuals because the Ministry of Education designed the language education
curricula. The Syrian curriculum is strictly homogeneous and controlled by the government, therefore there
is a lot of reliance on the textbooks by the teachers. In Syria, textbooks are considered as primary instruments
for carrying out the English lessons (Raddatz & Hasan, 2008).
Proficiency in English promises a better education, career and life.

Egypt
English has been taught in Egyptian schools since the 1860s. For about a hundred and
fifty years, the status of English in Egyptian schools has changed from an optional
subject to a compulsory one. This chapter highlights the English education policy at
the pre-university stages in Egypt. The chapter starts with providing an overview of
the historical place of English education in Egyptian schools. It also reviews the
policy reforms of English education in Egypt in the last few decades, including
establishing schools with intensive English instruction, introducing English education
to primary graders, adopting new policies in English language teacher recruitment and
education, and curricular reforms. The factors influencing these policy reforms are
discussed. The chapter ends with offering some future perspectives of English
education policy in Egypt.

Israel
The English language education policy in Israel is shaped by the varying social meanings of the language
throughout the countrys history. The chapter begins with a brief historical sketch that tracks the formation of
these social meanings, from the British Mandate of Palestine, which imposed English as an official language
(alongside Arabic and Hebrew), through the rise of Zionism and the establishment of the State of Israel, where
English was excluded and regarded as the language of British imperialism, to the current state of affairs, in
which American influence is strong and English is regarded an asset in a globalized world. Implications of the
prolonged Israeli-Arab conflict on the status of English in Israel are also considered. Following the historical
sketch, aspects of the English language in Israeli society and education are discussed, including issues of social
and economic inequality, exposure to English in the mass media, and minority populations with particular needs
and difficulties such as Israeli Palestinian (Arab) students, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and immigrants. We conclude
the chapter by discussing ways in which the Israeli educational system can address the multiple social
meanings, uses, and manifestations of the language, as well as the specific needs and capabilities of different
types of learners.
The present chapter describes the role that English plays in Israeli education and society, as well as the
challenges it faces. Due to the ethnic, linguistic, and religious diversity of Israeli society, English seems to be
dominant in a wide variety of social contexts and rather latent in others (Shohamy, 2014). A brief historical
discussion will help to clarify how the complex language situation of Israel has evolved, and will set the scene
for a discussion of current trends and challenges. Then, the current role of English will be discussed, with
special focus on social gaps among different groups.
ISRAEL INTRO
English influence in Israel can be traced back to varying social meanings of the language throughout Israels
history. From the British Mandate of Palestine which imposed English as an official language, to the State of
Israel where English was excluded, and now to the current state of affairs in which American influence is
strong, consequently English is now influencing local culture and is regarded an asset in a globalized world
(Shohamy, 2014). Despite the prevalence of English in Israeli society and education, there seem to be growing
gaps of achieving the level of proficiency in English among society. Issues such as minority populations with
particular difficulties and needs such as Israeli Palestinian (Arab) students, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and
immigrants where it may be hard for them to achieve the same level of English proficiency. The English
curriculum in Israeli education must consider the immense diversity of needs, interests, and contexts in which
English is used and taught. The Israel chapter introduces some components that are needed to recognize
students full potential and to bridge the current barriers and achieve a higher standard of English in Israel.
2.25 Israel

In Israel English is widely used and almost a neccessity for success in business and career. However, sections of
the society have concerns about its threat to culture. Ultra-Orthodox Jewish men(but not women), are often less
proficent in English than their countrymen due to an emphasis on religious subjects during their schooling and
Iair and Shohamy write that Many Haredi men discover years after finishing school
that they need to know English, and then take courses in order to catch up with their
secular peers(this volume).
discourses and activists with a common cause.

issues of social and economic inequality, exposure to English in the mass media, and minority populations with
particular needs and difficulties such as Israeli Palestinian (Arab) students, ultra-Orthodox Jews, and
immigrants
there seem to be growing gaps in access to the English language, English language resources, education, and
levels of proficiency
ABC it may be hard for them to achieve the same level of English proficiency. Additionally, variables such as
socio-ecomonic status, proximity to the wealthy center of Israel, country of origin, and even TV viewing
preferences may play a crucial role in creating tremendous gaps in English proficiency between different cities,
schools, and students. we believe that an English curriculum should take into account the immense variety of
needs, interests, and contexts in which English is taught and used. Moreover, language education in Israel
should acknowledge the fact that for some of the learners, English is not their first foreign (or second) language,
but their third, fourth, or nth language. Therefore, it seems that some mechanisms are badly needed for
recognizing students full linguistic repertoire and their ability to use it.
1. a brief historical sketch, from the British Mandate of Palestine, which imposed English as an official
language, the rise of Zionism and the establishment of the State of Israel where English was excluded, to
the current state of affairs, in which American influence is strong and English is regarded an asset in a
globalized world
2. Implications of the prolonged Israeli-Arab conflict on the status of English in Israel are also considered.
3. a discussion of current trends and challenges. aspects of the English language in Israeli society and
education are discussed, including issues of social and economic inequality, exposure to English in the
mass media
4. discussing ways in which the Israeli educational system can address the multiple social meanings, uses,
and manifestations of the language, as well as the specific needs and capabilities of different types of
learners.

Libya
This chapter discusses the impact of the political, cultural and social background of Libyan
society on the current quality of English education in the country. Libya has witnessed several
attempts to reform English education since the 1970s; however, these attempts were based on
introducing grammar-based curricula which were designed by non-native speakers of English,
few of whom were Libyans. In an effort to reform English education in the country, the Libyan
Ministry of Education developed new English curricula in 2000 based on CLT principles to be
used in Libyan primary and high schools in place of the previous curricula which aimed mainly
to teach grammar and reading. However, Libyan English teachers have not been able to help
their students of English to achieve the objectives of the new curricula because the teachers
predominantly use the Grammar Translation Method (GTM) and teacher-centred pedagogy.
Despite the governments intentions to innovate with communicative curricula, the teachers do
not actually use these curricula in primary and high school classrooms. The quality of English
language teacher education in Libya is underdeveloped and this situation can be seen as a result
of a greater issue; the Libyan governments accreditation procedures for universities, programs
and courses are not well-developed.

the governments intentions to adopt a Communicative Language Teaching (CLT)


approach in the country
In an effort to reform English education in the country, the Libyan Ministry of Education developed new
English curricula in 2000 based on CLT principles to be used in Libyan primary and high schools in place of
the previous curricula which aimed mainly to teach grammar and reading.
how English education is actually delivered by teachers and managed by the government in Libya.
The quality of English language teacher education in Libya is underdeveloped
Libya has witnessed several attempts to reform English education since the 1970s;
LIBYA INTRO
Impact on the current quality of English education in Libya is due to the political, cultural and social
background of Libyan society. Since the 1970s, Libya has witnessed several attempts to reform English
education yet the standard of English language teacher education in Libya is still rudimentary. As an innovation
for English teaching in Libya, the government introduced communicative curricula, Communicative Language
Teaching (CLT), in primary and high school classrooms. Despite several attempts to reform English education,
teachers do not actually use these curricula and instead us the Grammar Translation Method (GTM) and
teacher-centred pedagogy in classrooms. As English language teacher education in Libya is underdeveloped and
lacking in quality, there is a need to develop better foreign language education in general which can also be seen
as a result of a greater issue. The faculty of Agdabia provides an outline of the difficulties encountered in
introducing an alternative curriculum to Libyan teachers of English and learners.
Although Libya has witnessed several attempts to reform English education since the 1970s, the quality of
English language teacher education in Libya is still rudimentary
The impact of the political, cultural and social background of Libyan society on the current quality of English
education in the country. The quality of English language teacher education in Libya is underdeveloped. Libya
has witnessed several attempts to reform English education since the 1970s;
xCompared to other professions in Libya, the income for an average teacher in Libya is modest. This causes
them to feel unhappy about the profession and in turn, affects the teachers performance in the classroom. To
Help make the transition from a grammar translation method of teaching to a communicative curriculum,
support of classroom teachers needs to be adequately examined.
The case study research conducted at the
A systematic review of classroom resources and professional development is required if teachers are to be
helped to make the transition from a grammar translation to a communicative curriculum
to adequately consider what support classroom teachers will need,
The case study research conducted at the faculty of Agdabia provides a glimpse of the difficulties encountered
in introducing an alternative curriculum to Libyan learners and teachers of English.

Oman
the Oman chapter highlights varies aspects of Education in the Sultanate of Oman. It starts by
describing how English language is seen in Oman from governmental, the society views. It
discuss English in both the primary level and the tertiary level too. The chapter also highlights
some of challenges facing the Sultanate of Oman to prepare its youth for a better life and work.
The aspect of using only one Textbook for Government Schools is also discussed.
Aspects related to Teacher Training is also highlighted. This covers types of programmes
provided for teachers as an in-service training addressing the needs of teachers at each stage of
schooling: Cycle 1, Cycle 2 and Post-Basic Education.
The chapter end by addressing aspects lead to improvements showing a number of recent
researches developed which can help policy makers to make better choices for a better
development for English language Education in Oman.

The Sultanate of Oman is facing the challenge of preparing its youth in life and work for the
modern global economy. There is a need to prepare them with a high level of awareness and
skills in Maths, Science, Technology and Languages to deal with the changes in social and
life style, technology and international business (Ministry of Education, 2010). This also
helps to develop a smooth interaction with the rest of the world and show a high degree of
adaptation to take their place in the world with strong confidence in religion, culture and their
own beliefs. The need to observe the changes in educational philosophy; the role of English in society (tourism,
business, etc.), students and parents expectations; the educational technology and the workplace expectations,
all require a clear reflection of plans across the social and educational context.
English is taught in government schools from Grade One, while it is taught from Kindergarten in private
schools. English has also become the medium of teaching and training in all private and public higher
education/post secondary institutions throughout the
Sultanate (Al-Issa, 2005).
OMAN
To help prepare its youth in life and work, the Sultanate of Oman is facing the challenge of equipping them with
a high level of skills and awareness in many aspects including languages. A clear reflection of plans needs to be
observed for Oman to show a high degree of adaptability, as well as to develop global interactions.
As developmental preparation, English is taught from Kindergarten in private schools, while it is taught from
Grade One in government schools. In all private and public higher education/post secondary institutions
throughout the Sultanate, English has also become the medium (Al-Issa, 2005). Political and economic support
is also received from the government to help improve English Language instruction (Al-Issa, 2002). There are
still issues that need to be reviewed such as teacher training, English language curriculum, as well as the aspect
of only one text book for Government Schools all over the country. Regarding ELT issues, a short term
evaluation is observed within the Curriculum Evaluation department in Oman by means of a report that is
distributed at the end of each academic year. Al-Jardani gives attention to the way forward, to better
development for English language Education in Oman.
, addressing aspects lead to improvements showing a number of recent
researches developed which can help policy makers to make better choices for a better
development for English language Education in Oman.

It starts by describing how English language is seen in Oman from governmental, the society views
1. It discuss English in both the primary level and the tertiary level too.some of challenges facing the
Sultanate of Oman to prepare its youth for a better life and work
2. The aspect of using only one Textbook for Government Schools is also discussed/ teacher training
3. addressing aspects lead to improvements showing a number of recent
researches developed which can help policy makers to make better choices for a better
development for English language Education in Oman.

Abstract
English has been taught in Egyptian schools since the 1860s. For about a hundred and
fifty years, the status of English in Egyptian schools has changed from an optional
subject to a compulsory one. This chapter highlights English education policy at the
pre-university stages in Egypt. The chapter starts with providing an overview of the
historical place of English education in Egyptian schools. It also reviews the policy
reforms of English education in Egypt in the last few decades, including establishing
schools providing intensive English instruction, introducing English education to
primary graders, adopting new policies in English language teacher recruitment and
education, and curricular reforms. The factors influencing these policy reforms are
discussed. The chapter ends with offering some future perspectives of English education policy in Egypt.

English was first introduced in Egyptian schools in the 19th century as an optional subject and was viewed as a
necessary evil during the British occupation (Imhoof, 1977, p. 3). Fast forward two decades, Egyptians
attitudes towards English have changed significantly with a remarkable increase in the numbers of Egyptians
learning English, as well as the change from learning English as an optional subject, it has changed to a
compulsory subject in the last a hundred and fifty years.
To foster the quality of English education, policy reforms in Egypt have been reviewed by the MOE, from
establishing schools that provide intensive English instruction, introducing English education to primary level,
adopting new policies in English language teacher recruitment and education, providing intensive English
instruction, to English curricular reforms. These policy reforms are influence by the need to improve English
education in Egyptian public or governmental schools. The Egypt chapter gives further descriptions of the
policy reforms and shows how they have brought about the desired changes

13 Japan INTRODUCTION
Japan, while expending significant sums, publicly and privately, on English education, does not seem to be fully
rewarded with the fruits of this largesse.
As noted earlier in this introduction in 2006 the always conservative education ministry (MEXT) introduced a
listening component to the university entrance examination which has helped to moderate the grammar oriented
approach and add a communicative element to the exam. However the national exam is only one component
and students must then pass individual university exams, written as often as not, by educators with an academic
view of what is important about English language, and frequently involving translating obscure English texts
into Japanese.
From 1987 an ambitious project bringing assistant teachers from English speaking countries was introduced
with the aim of to expose Japanese youth to foreign cultures. This remains a noteworthy aspect of English
education in Japan but has limitations which are brought out in the chapter by Glasgow and Paller.
Building upon the notion of teachers agency as the heart of language policy reforms, the Japan chapter further
depicts various ideological and implementation clashes between the policies at the macro level and teachers
interpretation of the policies in practice. Ambivalent curriculum organization, incomprehensive and neglected
professional culture and teacher education, unresponsive teaching materials significantly weaken teachers
professional well-being, generate ineffective outcomes, as well as create multi-layered tensions between the
macro and micro levels of language policy reforms.
JAPAN EXAMPLE Abstract
Ever since 1989, there has been an intensification of efforts to reform
English Language Teaching (ELT) in Japan. Policy initiatives such as The Action
Plan to Cultivate Japanese with English Abilities launched in 2003, the implemen-
tation of Foreign Language Activities in elementary schools in 2011, the Global
30 Project in higher education to promote English-medium learning, and the 2013
implementation of the revised national senior high school foreign language curricu-
lum are all efforts initiated by the Japanese government to improve ELT practice
and increase international awareness among Japanese learners. In spite of these ini-
tiatives, however, a continued disconnect between policy declarations and the reali-
ties of pedagogical practice has resulted in stasis in terms of policy implementation.
We argue that the central agents of English language education policy in Japan the
teachers are often left to their own devices to interpret and deliver policy initia-
tives that themselves may have conflicting messages, and may not provide teachers with specific educational
tools to engage in meaningful, substantive pedagogical
change. This disconnect must be addressed systematically in order to further
empower teachers at the local level.

8 Bangladesh INTRODUCTION
The status of English language fluctuated after the golden time of the British colo-
nialism. English was for the most part rejected in Post-independence as Bangla was
a potent symbol of identity and national aspiration. However, since the 1970s and
80s until the present, the language has been strongly promoted for various historical
factors and national priorities, educational NGOs, and international development
agencies. English occupies a significant place in the Bangladesh curriculum, and is
a compulsory subject from grade 1, yet Hamid and Erling explain that results are
unimpressive countrywide and even worse in rural areas, with some studies (e.g.
Hamid & Baldauf, 2008 ) suggesting little progress in English skills even after 10 or
more years of schooling. Part of this can be explained by a lack of teacher training,
minimal resources and low expenditure on education. However, because of the lan-
guages prestige socially and in business those with the means send their children to
private English-medium schools which thrive in major cities like Dhaka.
This has led to a degree of social inequity where those who cannot afford the fees
are at a disadvantage in the severely competitive job market (see Erling, 2014 ).
According to the authors, sustainable and effective English language teaching must
be built on the examination of real roles of English, collective efforts of multiple
actors across disciplines in policy enactment and implementation, as well as effec-
tive professional development and evaluation systems.

Bangladesh Abstract
This chapter draws on critical perspectives on language policy and
planning and language-in-education policy implementation framework to provide
an overview of the history of English language education policies, policy imple-
mentation and their outcomes in Bangladesh. It traces the factors that have infl u-
enced the policies, their implementation and their rather dismal outcomes. The
chapter describes the socio-political and sociolinguistic contexts within which
Bangladeshi education is located, providing a historical overview of English in edu-
cation policy from British colonial rule to Pakistani rule to the post-independence
period. It then explores the status of English language education within the
Bangladeshi education system and describes the various actors that have shaped
English language teaching policy and practice within Bangladesh. The section that
follows explores policy outcomes and the complex set of factors which have hin-
dered the successful implementation of quality English language teaching in
Bangladesh. We draw our conclusion at the end, which also includes a set of recom-
mendations for policy implementation in the country.