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1100 Maintenance

Abstract
This section discusses the general considerations and philosophy of maintenance for
tanks. Included are procedures for shutdown planning, tank cleaning, replacement
and repair of major components, in-service repairs, rerating and retiring corroded
tanks, and the application of coatings and paint. A tank shutdown checklist is also
attached.

Contents Page
1110 Tank Cleaning 1100-3
1111 Tank Entry Precautions
1112 Company and Industry Documents
1113 Operating Methods to Minimize Sediment
1114 Estimating Sludge Quantity
1115 Determining Sludge Content
1116 Sediment Types and Removal Procedures
1117 Separating Salvable from Non-salvable Material in Sludge
1118 Final Cleaning
1119 Levels of Cleaning Required
1120 Gas Freeing 1100-13
1121 Vapor Freeing Methods
1122 Vapor Freeing Equipment
1123 Safe Vapor Freeing Operations
1124 API 2015
1125 Degassing Operations
1126 Degassing Regulations
1127 Degassing Technologies
1128 Factors Affecting Degassing Time
1129 Degassing Safety

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

1130 In-Service Repairs 1100-32


1140 Resources 1100-40
1150 Tank Shutdown Checklist 1100-40

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1110 Tank Cleaning


Tanks are cleaned for various reasons:
Slop tanks which accumulate heavy sediment need to be cleaned periodically in
order to continue efficient operation.
Gasoline or jet fuel tanks sometimes must be cleaned in order to meet the
product specifications.
Tanks coming out of service for maintenance must be cleaned and gas freed
before they can be entered.
To change to a cleaner or non-compatible service
This section gives general guidance on both in-service and out-of-service tank
cleaning and refers to various other Company and industry documents on this
subject. It is intended to be used as a guidehowever, local conditions and
experience influence the actual procedures used.

1111 Tank Entry Precautions


Both OSHAs confined space entry rules codified in 29 CFR 1910.146, as well as
API Standard 2015, apply to all tank entry conditions. Since these are standards
only, detailed checklists such as pre-planning checklists, isolation and tagging
procedures, work plans, equipment for listing and monitoring must be worked out in
the planning phases of the job.

1112 Company and Industry Documents


Different Company organizations have prepared guidelines for venting and cleaning
tanks, some of which are listed below. Copies of Company publications are
available through each department; the API publication may be obtained directly
from API (their address is given in Section 100).
1. API RP 2015, Cleaning Petroleum Storage Tanks.
2. Fire Prevention Manual, Fire Protection Through Inspection and
Maintenance.
3. Manufacturing Department, Chevron U.S.A.
a. ES-666, Cleaning and Repair of Tanks (El Segundo Refinery)
b. Operating Standard AR-9240, Cleaning Tanks (Richmond Refinery)
c. Operating Standard AR-9241, Cleaning and Repairing Leaded Gasoline
Tanks (Richmond Refinery)
4. Marketing Department, Chevron U.S.A., Operations Standard, Section IX,
Part D, Tank Cleaning Instructions.
5. Pipe Line Department, Chevron U.S.A., Safe Practice Regulations, 5.011.2
Tank Cleaning.

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1113 Operating Methods to Minimize Sediment


This section discusses equipment and procedures to use while the tank is in
operation to reduce the amount of sludge to be removed.

Variable Angle Mixers


Variable angle (or swivel) mixers have been used for cleaning gas oil, heavy oil, and
crude tanks. The flow patterns created by these mixers significantly reduce oily
waste disposal problems. The changing patterns reduce the areas of sediment
buildup and keep the sediments in suspension with the stored fluid or with a flush
fluid. They are then removed by pumping the mixture out of the tank. When
compared to conventional manual cleaning, this method may be faster and more
economical.
A variable angle mixer has a ball-type stuffing box mounted in a special manway
cover that allows angular movement. Figure 1100-1 shows the variable angle mixer,
which has 60-degree angular adjustment. The flow patterns established by the
normal fixed angle mixer allow sediment accumulations in dead spots
(Figure 1100-2). The variable angle mixer can direct flow patterns to almost any
area of the tank and eliminates most dead spots. (Small-diameter tanks may not
need a variable angle mixer). The advantages of using the variable angle mixer are:

Fig. 1100-1 Variable Angle Mixer with 60-degree Angular Adjustment Courtesy of Jensen
Mixers

1. Valuable oil is recovered from oily solids and is easily transported to the
refining units.
2. Tank capacity is increased because solid waste does not accumulate in the tank.
3. Tank downtime is reduced.
4. Very little solid waste must be disposed of.
5. Overall cleaning costs are reduced.

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Fig. 1100-2 Sludge Buildup for Fixed Angle Mixer Compared to Variable Angle Mixer Cour-
tesy of Jensen Mixers

Area of Severe Sludge Buildup


Fixed Angle Mixer Variable Angle Mixer

6. Cleaning operation is essentially all done from outside the tank.


7. Exposure of people to the tanks atmosphere can be minimized or eliminated.
8. Recovered oil may pay for the cleanup costs, such as: mixer cost, labor costs, etc.
9. The costs for variable angle and fixed angle mixers are very competitive.
Variable angle mixers are often used during normal operation to minimize sludge
buildup. These mixers can be purchased with a motor drive to change the mixer
position on a continuous cycle, eliminating the need for manual adjustment. Section
780 discusses the sizing requirements for mixers.

Procedure for Using a Variable Angle Mixer to Clean a Tank


The following is a general procedure for the use of a variable angle mixer prior to
taking a tank out of service. This procedure is being used less frequently for two
reasons: a large amount of solvent is required; and the oil/solids separation systems
are much improved.
1. Determine the composition of the sediment. This analysis is the basis for
selecting the solvent for cleaning.
2. Add the solvent to the tank to at least 6 feet above the mixer. This is the
minimum level of liquid during operation of the mixer to avoid cavitation of the
fluid while mixing.
3. The mixers are run from 5 to 15 days in positions ranging from 30 degrees right
to 30 degrees left. Manufacturers recommend that the position be changed
every 24 hours (Company practice has frequently been to change the position
every 8 hours).

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4. The spent solvent is pumped out of the tank and may be refined. More than one
cleaning cycle may be required to thoroughly clean a tank.
5. If the tank is not satisfactorily cleaned, then sediment may need to be removed
mechanically.
Figure 1100-3 shows typical mixer arrangements for different size tanks.
Arrangements will vary depending on the type of tank bottom, tank volume, stock
properties, maintenance access and power available. Experience suggests a 50-hp
mixer normally has the capacity to clean a tank up to 150-foot diameter. For tanks
of 150-foot diameter and larger, consider using two or more mixers. Small tanks
would require a mixer of about 25 hp, depending on the stored fluid.
Mixers used for both cleaning and blending service usually require more
horsepower than those required for cleaning only. Mixer size and numbers should be
verified by analysis of the sludge to be removed and consultation with the
manufacturer.

Hydraulic Jet Nozzles


Hydraulic jet nozzles can be installed inside a tank to perform the same function as
the variable angle mixer. These nozzles require both pumping pressure and volume.
Both the jet nozzles and the mixers perform the same function, injecting energy into
the tank to remove sediment from the bottom and suspend it temporarily in the
liquid. Section 780 discusses mixing nozzles in more detail.

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Fig. 1100-3 Typical Mixer Arrangement for Different Size Tanks Courtesy of Jensen Mixers

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1114 Estimating Sludge Quantity


After as much stock is drained from the tank as possible, a mixture of oil, water, and
solids remains. This mixture is referred to as sludge or sediment. You must have a
good understanding of the type and quantity of sludge to be removed from the tank
to make sound decisions regarding:
Sludge removal procedures
The cost of the job
Waste disposal requirements
This section discusses the methods for estimating the quantity of sludge.

Gauging Sludge Depth


Two special tips which replace the plumb bob on the typical operator's reel gauge
can be fabricated and used to measure the sediment level. The tip to determine the
distance from the gauging point to the tank bottom is a long, sharp-ended probe
weighing 5 to 8 pounds. Its weight combined with the reduced friction area is used
to penetrate the sludge. The second tip should weigh about to 1 pound and have a
wide disc at the bottom. This tip is designed to sink through the stock but to be too
light to rapidly sink into the bottom sludge. Take several readings of the bottom and
sludge levels in different locations to obtain an accurate profile. These readings can
be taken through the gauge well, roof hatches, and roof legs, if necessary, using
proper safety procedures. Caution should be given using this procedure, due to
potential to damage of bottom coating.

Visual Survey Through Open Shell Manway


After the tank is pumped out and the shell manway is opened, use natural sunlight
and a large mirror, or a strong spotlight, to visually inspect the sediment. Using
internal appurtenances of known height, such as portions of the roof drain fixed
pipe, bottom supports for swing lines, or fixed roof column supports, estimate
sludge depth. If necessary, the depth can be closely estimated by use of a survey
level (with allowance for the bottom slope). As many readings should be made as
reasonable, at different locations.
From the readings, use a simple volume calculation to estimate the quantity of
sludge to be removed.
Caution sludge rarely builds up evenly over the entire bottom.

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1115 Determining Sludge Content


We collect and test sludge samples to know which waste disposal requirements
apply and also what hazards personnel may be exposed to while ridding a tank of
sediment.

Tanks Unsafe to Enter


For tanks which are unsafe to enter, samples will have to be taken from the
manway(s). Each phase (solid, water and oil) will have to be sampled separately
according to the following instructions.
1. If the liquid layer is deep enough to collect a sample, collect a 1-quart sample
of each liquid phase (oil and water) from any one manway. Label the depth of
each liquid layer sampled. If the liquid layer is too shallow to get a sample (less
than 1 inch) ignore the liquid and sample only the solids.
2. Sample the solid phase from all available manways using the solids sampler.
Collect equal amounts of sample from each manway until gallon has been
collected. Include the depth of the solids layer on the tag.

Tanks Safe To Enter


For tanks where entry is possible, the solids and liquids should be sampled
according to the following procedure:
1. Collect a sample of each liquid layer as outlined in Step 1 above.
2. Estimate the number of barrels of solids remaining in the tank according to the
following formula:

Barrels left = 0.14 d2 h


(Eq. 1100-1)
where:
d = tank diameter (ft)
h = height of waste (ft)
3. Determine the number of sample points to be included in the composite sample
according to the following table.
Barrels Left No. of Sample Points
0-3000 3
3000-6000 4
6000-12,000 5
12,000-20,000 6

Collect the samples at the points shown in Figure 1100-4. If only three points are to
be sampled, sample at points 1, 2 and 3. Prepare a -gallon composite sample by
collecting equal amounts at each sample point.

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Fig. 1100-4 Sludge Sampling Locations

Testing Sludge Content


Consult with your local waste disposal organization to determine the specific tests
to run.

1116 Sediment Types and Removal Procedures


Most sediments are normally one of four types: pumpable sediment, non-pumpable
sediment, scale, and catalyst fines. However, there can be combinations of these
types to remove.

Pumpable Sediment
This sediment can be pumped out of the tank by use of a vacuum truck or, if
necessary, diaphragm pumps. Manual methods (squeegees) may be required to
move the sediment to the hose. Many crudes, gas-oils, etc., are typical of this class.
Sometimes steam lances can turn non-pumpable sediment into pumpable sediment.
Solvents and mixers or jet nozzles, and heat, are also potential methods.

Non-pumpable Sediment
Residual sediment that cannot be pumped but must be mined, scraped, or shoveled
is very expensive to remove. On larger tanks, entering the tank with mechanical
equipment (front-end loaders, or small bulldozers) may be more economical even
with the need for cutting a door sheet in the shell or roof. Asphalt, asphaltines, and
baked sediment (from tank heaters) are typical examples of non-pumpable sediment.

Scale
Scale corrosion product, mostly from the shell but also from the roof and bottom, is
the third category of sediment to be removed. This scale can contain trapped stock,
water, and possibly hazardous gases. Typical services that produce scale include
gasoline, thinners and solvents, jet fuels and pentane-hexanes. Until all scale has

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been removed, personnel should wear full-body protective equipment, and the tank
interior should be continuously tested for explosive gas, aromatics, and H2S.
Normally the scale can be moved by water (hydroblasting) and pumped out by
vacuum truck or diaphragm pump. Caution: if the scale is over 1 to 2 inches deep,
movement by water can release trapped gas causing an explosive mixture to form in
the vapor space. If water washing cannot be done, it may be necessary to remove the
majority of the scale by bucket and shovel after the tank is safe to enter.

Catalyst Fines
Refineries with catalytic crackers will usually have one or more tanks containing a
large amount of catalyst fines. Catalyst fines are usually too heavy for easy pumping
and too soft for mining. Mixers and regular cycling of the tank contents through a
solids extraction system while the tank is in service are recommended to keep the
catalyst fine level low. Normally tanks with catalyst fines are cleaned by shoveling
the fines into the suction of a vacuum truck or conveyor belt. Entering a tank with
fines can be hazardous. The fines trap cycle oil. Piles of fines can collapse causing a
hazardous flow of cycle oil and fines. Some contractors are able to remove catalyst
fines and centrifuge to help reduce the amount disposed.

Protection Against Spillage


Cleaning a tank can result in material being spilled on the ground outside of the tank
unless precautions are taken. This spillage can be avoided by doing the following:
Frequently Cleaned Tanks. For tanks which must be cleaned frequently (more
than once every 5 years), design the tank with facilities to impound any spills:
Flush-mounted cleanout connection(s) designed to API 650.
A concrete cleanout basin around each connection to contain any spillage.
Tanks Cleaned Less Often. For tanks which are only cleaned as part of their
scheduled maintenance shutdown, the above facilities are normally not justified.
Instead, the cleaning contractor should build a temporary dike around the
manway(s) used for cleanout and line the area with plastic to contain spills.

1117 Separating Salvable from Non-salvable Material in Sludge


Heavy hydrocarbons and sediment normally drop to the bottom of a tank. Simple
removal and disposal of this material is uneconomical. Our objective should be to
maximize oil recovery and minimize hazardous waste disposal.
As sludge material is removed from a tank, it can be processed through equipment
to separate the usable oil from the water and from the unusable solids. Several types
of equipment are available to do this work. Reputable companies furnishing the
equipment can test representative samples of the sediment removed from the tank
and determine the best system to use. They normally require a 1 to 5 gallon sample.
Care should be taken to obtain a true sample of the sediment and not the stock
above the sediment. Typical equipment used for separation includes: rockers,

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centrifuges, chemical treating tanks, shakers, settling tanks, presses, filters, and
heavy metal extraction units.
Procedures and equipment for separation and for hazardous waste management are
continually being updated. Vendor claims must be backed by proven results. We
strongly recommend that you discuss your particular requirements with other tank
maintenance groups. Sometimes distant contractors with proven technology may be
more economical to use than local contractors. You can also consult CRTCs tank
specialist for new technology on waste processing.

1118 Final Cleaning


After the sediment is removed, a final cleaning must often be performed before
maintenance work. The methods and equipment used in the final tank cleaning
process are determined by the type of contaminate and the degree of cleanliness
needed.

Non-oily Contaminate
This contaminate is primarily scale (corrosion product) with possibly some trapped
hydrocarbons, especially if the tank has had a change of service. Typical services
include gasoline, thinners, and some jet fuels. Usually the scale can be removed by
pressure washing (200 psi) or hydroblasting (6,000-10,000 psi). Very hard, tight and
active scale may require abrasive blasting or ultra high pressure (35,000-70,000 psi)
hydroblasting.

Oily Contaminate
This contaminate is primarily hydrocarbon and may be a tightly bonded asphalt-like
or greasy deposit. Typical services include crude oil, recovered oil, and gas oil.
Usually a pressure washer along with sprayed-on detergent will remove the contam-
inate. If scale is also present or the baked on material is too hard and well bonded,
hydroblasting may be necessary. Oily surfaces should never be cleaned by abra-
sive blasting. Oil can be embedded in the metal surface by abrasive blasting thereby
causing major problems with future coating application.

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1119 Levels of Cleaning Required


Figure 1100-5 gives required levels of cleaning.

Fig. 1100-5 Summary of Levels of Cleaning


Objectives Level of Cleaning
Change of service or remove Remove sludge. No final cleaning
sludge to improve tank operation required.
or product quality.
Tank out-of-service well before its Remove sludge. Remove scale if it
due date. Quick visual inspection impedes inspection.
requested; no repairs anticipated.
Tank out-of-service on normal Remove sludge. Remove scale for
maintenance interval (10 years). thorough inspection.
Detailed inspection needed.
Welding required in the tank. Remove sludge. Remove scale.
Clean oily film off of metal.
Coating required. Remove sludge. Clean oily film off
metal. Abrasive blast surface to
recommended finish.

1120 Gas Freeing


This section covers the general principles of vapor freeing and degassing. Vapor
freeing is the discharge of vapors in a tank to the atmosphere to allow maintenance
personnel to enter and service the tank safely. Vapor freeing is considered part of
normal tank operations. Degassing is usually performed in response to regulatory
requirements. When a tank is degassed, the fumes are treated or recovered before
being discharged to the atmosphere.

1121 Vapor Freeing Methods


Selecting an appropriate vapor freeing method is based on considerations such as
tank size, flammability, and toxicity. Vapor freeing can be accomplished by one of
the following methods:
mechanical ventilation
natural ventilation
steam ventilation
displacement by water or inert gases
These methods are described briefly below. Figure 1100-6 provides additional
guidance in selecting an appropriate method of vapor freeing.

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Fig. 1100-6 Selecting a Vapor Freeing Method From API 2015, Fig. 5.1. Courtesy of the Amer-
ican Petroleum Institute.

Small Tank Size Large

Consider:
Mechanical Ventilation Use Mechanical
Natural Ventilation Ventilation
Steam Ventilation

Yes Does Air Mover Have No


(e.g., Fan) Moving Parts? (e.g., Eductor)

Will Vented Vapors Be Connect Suction or


No
Flammable? Discharge to Tank

Yes

Connect Suction Side Connect Suction or


Only to Tank Discharge to Tank

Mechanical Ventilation
Mechanical ventilation is the preferred method of vapor freeing for Company tanks.
Refer to API 2015, Appendix B, for a detailed description of, and application
guidelines for, mechanical ventilation.

Natural Ventilation
Natural ventilation is generally not applicable to tanks in flammable service because
rich fumes may be free to flow into a remote ignition source and flashback to the
tank. Natural ventilation has sometimes been used for small tanks when two
conditions are met: there is a manway near the bottom and the top of the tank; and
the contents are sufficiently volatile to rapidly dissipate from the tank interior. For
large tanks, air movers such as fans or eductors are necessary to develop sufficient
diluent air to accomplish the required reductions in concentrations of hydrocarbons.
Generally, use of natural ventilation for vapor freeing tanks is not recommended.

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Steam Ventilation
Steam nozzles produce significant potential for the generation of static charge,
which can be an ignition source. Also, because steam condenses it can cause the
pressure in the tank to drop enough to collapse if there is insufficient opening to
allow for make up air. Steam ventilation may be considered for very small tanks
storing materials in which the cleaning process is significantly facilitated by the
condensing steam. These would typically be small chemical tanks. Steam
ventilation should generally be avoided.

Inerting
Inert gases can displace hydrocarbon vapors and serve to vapor free or degas.
However, it creates new problems which are the disposal of the inert gas itself and
the high degree of health hazards associated with inert gases. Inerting has therefore
rarely been used and is not recommended.

1122 Vapor Freeing Equipment


Vapor freeing is most often accomplished by ventilation equipment using air as a
diluent. Air movers used for tank ventilation with the potential for flammable
vapors are generally air or stream driven and are either the eductor type or an axial
fan. Figure 1100-7 shows both of these types of equipment.
The eductor has no moving parts while the fans are driven by air motors which
reduce the chance of creating an ignition source. Electrically driven fans must be
suitable for NFPA 70 Class 1, Division 1 locations. When fan motors or eductors
use steam as the motive fluid, the steam discharge must be outside and away from
the tank because the static could serve as an ignition source. Fans or eductors driven
by compressed air are the recommended method for Company applications.
Figure 1100-8 shows a method for vapor freeing a fixed roof tank. The tank vapors
are withdrawn from a low point in the tank which maximizes both mixing of the
hydrocarbon vapors with air and withdrawal rate. When the roof manway is used to
expel the vapor-laden air, a drop tube is required to pull the vapors off of the bottom
to prevent channeling of air through the upper portion of the tank. Discharging the
air high off the ground substantially reduces risk of the vapors coming in contact
with a remote ignition source, causing a flashback to the tank.
Figure 1100-9 shows how to ventilate a floating roof tank. The main difference
between this scheme and the vapor freeing of a fixed roof tank (Figure 1100-8) is
that there is cross flow through the tank so that discharging through a shell manway
becomes much more acceptable. Notice, however, that the vapors should be routed
upward and discharged near the top rim of the tank to prevent flashback. When
discharging out of a roof manway, the space above the floating roof may be
flammable. When the air speed is low and the humidity and temperature are high, it
is safer to discharge through a shell manway using flexible ducting to route the
vapors upward where they can be disbursed.

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Fig. 1100-7 Tank Air Movers for Flammable Atmospheres Courtesy of the Coppus Portable
Ventilation Division of the Tuthill Corp.

Eductor

Fans

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Fig. 1100-8 Vapor Freeing a Fixed Roof Tank From API 2015, Fig. 5.6. Courtesy of the Amer-
ican Petroleum Institute.

Air Eductor
(Electrically bonded
to tank)

1123 Safe Vapor Freeing Operations


Once air moving equipment is shut down, several factors may allow toxic or
flammable vapors to quickly re-establish themselves in tank interiors. These factors
include, but are not limited to, the existence of sludge, pipe columns that retain
liquids, cracks in bottom plates that allow liquids or fumes from under the tank to
enter, foam log seals that are product-soaked and leaking pontoons. Ventilation
equipment and gas testing should be operating the entire time work is performed if
there is any doubt as to the ingress of hazardous fumes.
Whenever a tank is vapor freed and sealed up for any period of time, assume that its
atmosphere has become hazardous again unless testing shows otherwise.

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Fig. 1100-9 Vapor Freeing a Floating Roof Tank From API 2015, Fig. 5.5. Courtesy of the Amer-
ican Petroleum Institute.

Air mover

Air eductor

Bonding cable

1124 API 2015


Everyone responsible for tank cleaning, degassing or vapor freeing operations
should be thoroughly familiar with the requirements of API Standard 2015, 5th
edition, Safe Entry and Cleaning of Petroleum Storage Tanks. The principles
covered by API 2015 are outlined below.

Basic Requirements of API 2015


The standard provides useful guidance and requirements such as:
references from federal regulations that require personnel have specific training
how to work with contractors
what the nature of the qualifications should be for various job functions

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Figure 1100-10 is a flowchart covering the basic requirements of API 2015. The
flowchart follows the typical sequence of events for tank maintenance.

Fig. 1100-10 API 2015 Flowchart Derived from API 2015. Courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute.

Preplanning Tank
Work

Empty Tank

Isolate Tank
Notes:
1. Continuous ventilation may be
required.
Vapor Free Tank Note 1 2. Testing required in several places
throughout this flowchart.

Test Atmosphere Note 2

Determine Hazards:
Oxygen Concentration
Flammability
Toxicity
Physical

Entry with Entry with Entry without Entry Prohibited


Special Precautions: Restrictions: Restrictions: if Flammable Vapors
O2 19.5% or O 2 23.5% 19.5% < O 2 < 23.5% O2 = 20.9% > 10% LEL
Toxicity > Level that allows PEL/TLV < Toxicity No Flammable Vapors
self-rescue Toxics < PEL/TLV
engulfment No Lead

Determine Personal
Protective Equipment (PPE)

Entry Permit System


Hot Work Permit System

Tank Entry for


Repairs/Inspection

Recommission Tank

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Administrative Controls
The most important aspects of tank entry are the up-front, pre-planning and scoping
study processes. During these phases, consider the following administrative
controls:
written procedures
permitting systems
checklist development
pre-job discussions with employees and contractors
qualification standards for various key personnel
training
hazardous substance testing equipment methods and frequency requirement
the use of personal protective equipment and training
hazards assessment

Classification of Hazards
There are numerous combinations of hazard conditions encountered in tank entry
work. API 2015 categorizes these hazards to simplify the task of planning.
The standard recognizes four hazards when entering petroleum tanks:
1. fires and explosions
2. oxygen deficiency or enrichment
3. toxic substances
4. physical hazards
The hazards which are most difficult to assess deal with the nature of the vapors and
fumes in the tank. These particular hazards cannot be assessed without the use of
instrumentation. Therefore, the standard relies heavily on atmospheric testing.
To classify these hazards, the standard provides three degrees of entry conditions:
1. Entry with Special Precautions
2. Entry with Restriction
3. Entry without Restrictions
4. Prohibited Entry
Entry with Special Precautions. This is the most hazardous condition found inside
storage tanks and corresponds to OSHAs Permit Required Confined Space Entry
Rules. This entry condition applies in any one of the following circumstances:
The oxygen concentration outside is of the limits 19.5% to 23.5%.
The toxicity level is greater than a level that would allow for self rescue.
An engulfment or physical entrapment hazard exists.

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Entry With Restrictions. This intermediate entry condition applies if any of the
following conditions are met:
The oxygen concentration is 19.5% or 23.5%.
The toxic substance concentrations are above the PEL/TLV, but not so high as
to inhibit self rescue efforts.
Entry Without Restrictions. This condition allows tank entry without personal
protective equipment or other restrictions. A permit must still be issued. The
conditions allowing this classification are the simultaneous presence of:
Oxygen concentration at 20.9%.
Flammable vapors at 0% LEL.
Toxic substances at or below PEL/TLV.
Prohibited Entry. Entry is prohibited if flammable vapors are greater than 10%
LEL.
Note The most stringent hazard entry condition (Entry with Special Precautions)
applies to all tank entries unless it is proven otherwise by atmospheric testing. Any
tank that has been cleaned, reclosed and inactivated for any period of time must be
treated as though it requires Entry with Special Precautions, until retested.

Determining the Level of Hazard


The standard relies on atmospheric testing to assess the actual hazard and entry
conditions. To ensure that correct data are gathered on the hazardous nature of the
atmosphere the standard requires that:
intrinsically safe equipment be used (good for class I, division I, Group D)
each instrument must be calibrated and its calibration documented
the user must understand the limitations and behavior of all the instruments
the user must be qualified and trained in the proper use of the equipment
the tests must be run in the following sequence: oxygen, flammable, and then
toxic
redundant testing when ventilation equipment is stopped
redundant monitoring of the atmosphere inside the tank
A qualified person should determine the appropriate type of atmospheric testing and
how often the tests should be performed.

Preparing The Tank For Entry


In addition to hazard assessment and testing requirements, the standard specifies
conditions for performing the actual work itself including:
Emptying the tank

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Isolation: all lines must be blinded off or separated from the tank so that there is
no possibility of leakage into the tank. Cathodic protection systems should be
turned off, electrical systems locked/tagged out and all cleaning equipment
grounded to the tank. Specifications for electrically bonding the tank are given.
Control of Ignition Sources: specifications for electrical equipment used in the
work are given in addition to grounding and bonding requirements. The
standard requires that all work cease if an electrical storm is in progress or
imminent.

1125 Degassing Operations


Degassing requirements apply to most crude oil storage tanks and to tanks that have
been used to store motor fuels, aviation gasoline or other stocks (such as naphthas)
that meet certain vapor pressure qualification rules. Degassing is not required for
stocks such as lube oils, diesels and jet fuels because their vapor pressures are too
low. Other stocks that usually require degassing are alcohols, oxygenates, alcholates
and reformate streams. Spheres used to store propane also need to be degassed.
Although degassing may be required by regulations it is sometimes used volun-
tarily. Examples of voluntary degassing include: venting or blowing down pipe-
lines; venting tanks which have odors in a residentially sensitive area; and when
toxic or harmful fumes might otherwise be released. Degassing is used frequently
on underground storage tanks and sometimes on the treatment of vapors removed
from contaminated ground/groundwater media under remediation.
Degassing, if required, should be the first task performed, followed by continuous
ventilation or vapor freeing. Degassing may be accomplished by one of the
following methods:
Air or steam ventilation
Thermal oxidation of the fumes
Recovery of vapors by refrigeration
Removal of fumes by carbon adsorption

1126 Degassing Regulations


The aim of degassing regulations is to prohibit the release of hydrocarbon vapors to
the atmosphere from aboveground tanks being taken out of service. Since it is
generally recognized that API 653 requires periodic out-of-service tank inspections,
new regulations will likely seek to reduce the emissions associated with tank shut
downs.
Although the rules have general principles and requirements, a technology specific
permit is assigned to contractors/vendors whose equipment is required to perform
under the provisions of the permit. In many cases the permit requirements are more
stringent than in the legislated rules.
Many states and local jurisdictions have enacted degassing regulations. The South
Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) and Bay Area Air Quality

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Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Management District (BAAQMD) have enacted degassing regulations. Other


authorities have either enacted or are considering enacting degassing regulations.
Refer to your local air quality regulations.

Comparison of AQMD Regulations


Various districts degassing rules are generally similar, however, they may vary in
the following key requirements parameters. Examples of how they may differ
include:
Exemptions - Tank Size and Vapor Pressure. Tanks below a certain size are
exempted from the rules. The range of the size for tanks which contain
hydrocarbons but that are not regulated varies from about 5,000 to 40,000 gallons.
The rules also do not apply if the vapor pressure of the organic liquid is sufficiently
low (e.g., diesel).
Hydrocarbon endpoint concentration. Degassing must continue until some
concentration (e.g., 10000 ppmv) is reached. However, the SCAQMD uses an
endpoint that depends on the volume of displaced vapor being equal to 2.3 times the
volume of the tank. This requirement would normally be very easy to meet and be
one of the most lax degassing standards. However, in permit applications, the
SCAQMD generally includes a permit provision requiring degassing to levels with
an endpoint concentration of 700 ppmv. This provisions is one of the most stringent
in the state.

1127 Degassing Technologies


Degassing regulations provide two methods for removing the hydrocarbon vapors
from a tank:
Liquid or Water Balancing: either water or a relatively non volatile stock, such
as diesel, is used to displace the hydrocarbon vapors. This technique can be
used to displace vapors prior to opening a tank or when a tank floating roof is
landed.
Emission Control Devices: the basic degassing requirements as applied to
devices which either destroy or recover vapors are specified in terms of
efficiency of vapor removal or destruction. Technologies such as thermal
oxidation, activated carbon, refrigeration and condensation, scrubbing, etc. can
be used to meet these specifications.
Figure 1100-11 provides a general comparison of the various degassing
technologies.

Chevron Corporation 1100-23 July 2000


Fig. 1100-11 Comparison of Degassing Methods From API 2015, Fig. 5.13. Courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute.
Chevron Corporation

Tank Manual
Degassing Method Applicability and Characteristics Performance Safety Considerations
Thermal Flame Units Large or small tanks primarily Quick and efficient. Can be ignition source.
hydrocarbon. Meets all of the most stringent air Safety of oxidizer design is critical.
Relatively simple operation. district requirements.
Burner controls interlocked for
safety, but can be overridden by
operator.
Engine Units Lower flow rate causes longer Not as efficient as flame unit. Same hazards as flame unit except
downtime. that an engine backfire is possible.
Unit depends on flame arrestor to
prevent a flashback to tank; the
design of the flame arrestor and
piping must be exacting to prevent
incident.
Refrigeration Large or small tanks. Slower than thermal, may not meet
1100-24

Complex unit, subject to meticu- most stringent requirements.


lous maintenance and operation
requirements.
Activated Carbon Small tanks or as air cleaning unit Excellent. Can be an ignition source, espe-
on tank breathing and displace- Spent carbon must be disposed of cially when flow through unit is
ment air. or regenerated making this imprac- variable or stops.
tical for large tanks Probability of hot spots greatest
when chemically activated
carbons are used.
Water Balancing Useful primarily for stock changes Variable results, depends on Relatively safe.
in tanks or when liquid level contents of tank, sludge contents
brought below landed roof position and the displacement liquid used.

1100 Maintenance
and to meet air jurisdiction require-
ments.
Not applicable for general tank
July 2000

entry or cleaning operations.


Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Thermal Oxidation Methods


This section covers basic thermal oxidation degassing methods.
Flame Oxidation Method. This process uses a flame to oxidize the hydrocarbon
fumes in a tank and is typically a contracted specialty service provided by tank
degassing contractors. Since vacuum trucks are usually operating at the same time
as degassing units, the vapors from the vacuum truck can be discharged back to the
tank space or into the degassing unit. A portable trailer unit that contains the
oxidizing furnace, blowers, piping and controls, and a portable propane fuel supply
are brought to the site and connected to the tank. Figure 1100-12 shows a typical
flame degassing operation schematic flow diagram.

Fig. 1100-12 Thermal Oxidation Degassing - Flame Oxidation Method From API 2015, Fig. 5.8. Courtesy of the Amer-
ican Petroleum Institute.

A flexible line made of plastic pipe or flexible ducting is connected from a tank
manway to the thermal oxidizer. It is important for other manways on the tank to be
open to allow airflow into the tank or the blower that draws tank fumes into the
oxidizer. Without sufficient airflow, vacuum could result and collapse the tank.
Some tank degassing contractors use a vacuum breaker which allows air to flow into
the degassing unit suction line should the pressure drop too low. The tank fumes
pass through a flame and detonation arresting device so that a flame cannot
propagate from the oxidizer through the ducting and into the tank.
Sufficient volume (residence time) must be provided to allow oxidation of the
fumes to meet required regulations. Some regulations require at least 0.5 seconds of
residence time. In addition the temperature must also be high enough, usually
1400F to 1500F. Degassing tanks over 150 feet in diameter can take anywhere
from 8 to 36 hours, or more, depending on the product and amount of solids. The

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

typical flow rate for currently available degassing services is from 1000 to 3000
scfm. The process should not be stopped until the vapor space of the tank drops well
below 10 percent of the LEL. The tank may then be ventilated by forcing air
through the tank unless the local regulations prohibit this.
Internal Combustion (IC) Engine Method. Instead of using a flame to oxidize
the hydrocarbon fumes, an internal combustion engine can be used as shown in
Figure 1100-13. Application of this technology was originally started for degassing
of small underground storage tanks (less than about 5000 gallons) in the Los
Angeles basin. The following description of an internal combustion engine
degassing method is generic.

Fig. 1100-13 Thermal Oxidation Degassing - Internal Combustion Engine Method From API
2015, Fig. 5.9. Courtesy of the American Petroleum Institute.

1. Vapor Inlet 4. Filter 7. Silencer


2. Separator Drum 5. Flame Arrestor 8. Load Blower
3. Mixing Valve 6. Engine 9. Vapor Blower

A typical aboveground degassing setup includes at least one trailer unit containing
two 460 cubic inch V-8 Ford engines operating at about 150 horsepower each on a
continuous basis.
The vapors pass through a knock-out pot to drop liquids and water out. A system of
mixing valves is used to obtain the proper air-fuel ratio by introducing make up air
when the tank vapors are rich. Just prior to entering the engine, propane may be
introduced to maintain the proper air fuel ratio when the tank vapors are below the
LEL. A filter removes particulates and dust. Then the clean, ready-to-burn air-vapor
mixture is passed through an isolating flame arrestor and into one or more internal
combustion engines.
Although the blowers that draw air from the tanks are powered by the engines to
conserve energy, there is a net excess of energy created by this process. The engines
must deal with this extra energy. Most often, the engines are connected to a blower
which has no function other than to consume energy by taking atmospheric air,
compressing it in a lobbed vane blower and expanding it back to atmosphere. The
amount of vapors processed is proportional to the amount of energy consumed by
the engines.
Typical vapor processing rates are less than the flame oxidation units as they can

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Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

only process about 400 cfm per engine. Two to five trailers with two or more engines
can be manifolded together to develop adequate flow for degassing large tanks.
The IC engine method, unlike the flame thermal oxidation method, requires
precautions to protect the equipment are required if the tank vapors are laden with
H2S or thiols (mercaptans). These vapors will quickly corrode the engines and the
instrumentation causing it to break down while in operation or to shorten its useful
life. Most suppliers of IC degassing technologies require that the sulfur compounds
be reduced to less than 10 ppm by placement of a wet caustic scrubber or activated
carbon upstream of the unit. Review the local AQMDs rules regarding NOx and SOx
when degassing tank vapors with significant levels of ammonia, H2S or mercaptans.
Refrigeration. Just as in thermal oxidation, the refrigeration method requires that
vapors are withdrawn from the tank. The refrigeration lowers the vapor stream
sufficiently to drop out a significant amount of volatile organic compounds by
condensation. The remaining air and vapors are recirculated to the tank.
The refrigeration system recovers the liquid in the vapor. Usually, several stages of
cooling are required. The water vapor must first be removed by cooling the vapor
stream to about 35F so that additional stages of cooling do not cause it to freeze.
Once the water is removed, the temperature may be further dropped to about -40F
to -100F. The cooling is achieved by using either special low temperature refrigera-
tion units or by liquid nitrogen. Figure 1100-14 shows an example of a refrigeration
system (which is characterized by its complexity).
Carbon Adsorption. In this method, the vapor stream is fed into an activated
carbon unit as shown in Figure 1100-15. While activated carbon does an excellent
job in reducing the levels of hydrocarbon vapors, the activated carbon is consumed
in the process. Typically, portable canisters are valved in parallel and switched to
fresh sources as they are used. Once spent, the carbon must either be regenerated or
disposed of. In either case, the cost is too high for practical applications.

Balancing Methods
This section covers balancing methods for degassing.
Water Balancing. In this method, either water or a relatively non-volatile stock
such as diesel is used to displace the vapors that would otherwise accumulate when
a floating roof tank is landed. This method is not useful for emptying tanks for
personnel entry for inspection or repairs of the tank. Figure 1100-16 depicts the
water balancing method.
Inert Gas Balancing. The specific gravity of a gas is proportional to its molecular
weight. Most light hydrocarbons filling the vapor space of tanks, vessels and barges
have a specific gravity that is less than carbon dioxide (molecular weight 44). This
means that carbon dioxide may be used to displace the hydrocarbon fumes from
enclosed spaces. This method has not been proven for practical use on aboveground
storage tanks. It may have good potential for tanks with very specific conditions and
requirements.

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

Fig. 1100-14 Thermal Oxidation Degassing - Refrigeration Method From API 2015, Fig. 5.11. Courtesy of the American
Petroleum Institute.

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Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Fig. 1100-15 Thermal Oxidation Degassing - Carbon Adsorption Method From API 2015, Fig. 5.12. Courtesy of the
American Petroleum Institute.

Fig. 1100-16 Water Balancing Method From API 2015, Fig. 6.2. Courtesy of the American
Petroleum Institute.

Product out to
temporary
storage or
treatment Hot Tap
facilities Above Ground
Internal Floating Roof

Storage tank
being degassed

Clean water supply

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

1128 Factors Affecting Degassing Time


One of the most important considerations in selecting potential contractors is the
time required for degassing. The concentration of the tank vapors decays in a
logarithmic mode. The rate of decay is proportional to the ratio of the flow rate of
exiting vapors divided by the volume of the tank. The higher the ventilation rate the
quicker the concentration of fumes decays.
Other important considerations include:
The initial cleanliness of the tank being degassed. If there are large amounts of
liquid/sludge left in the tank then the degassing time (and costs) increases
dramatically.
Vaporization rates of hydrocarbons from both remaining sludge or liquids in the
tank as well as the gross volumetric thermal expansion. Heat from solar
radiation can cause significant amounts of vapor and air expansion, as well as
increased evaporation. If the withdrawal rate of the vapor freeing or degassing
operation is too low, the net expansion of the air inside the tank combined with
the increased evaporation can exceed the flow rate of the vapors being
withdrawn to the degassing unit.
The heat flux into a tank is a diurnal phenomenon; therefore, the starting and
ending time of the degassing operation can have a significant effect on the total
degassing time required. If the degassing is started in the morning, the
operation will have to fight the thermal effects of expansion and evaporation. If
it is started in the evening when solar radiation becomes insignificant, it is
likely the degassing will be complete sometime during the night.
A reduction in barometric pressure can cause the tank vapors to expand,
causing increased loading on the degassing unit. As with thermal effects, this
increased loading will tend to reduce the effectiveness of the degassing opera-
tion. Degassing conducted during cold weather usually proceeds quickly and
efficiently. On very hot days, however, it may not be possible to degas a tank to
within requirements.
A simple rule of thumb for sizing a degassing unit holds that the minimum rated
flow of the degassing unit, after stoichiometric conditions are reached, should not be
less than the tank volume divided by 600.

Recommendations for Degassing Technologies


Only the flame and IC thermal degassing processes be used on Chevron
facilities. Not only are these the lowest cost and quickest tank degassing
processes but the hazards are understood.
Schedule most degassing to be done during cold weather if possible, as this will
reduce degassing time and costs.
Initiate degassing operations in the evening and attempt to complete prior to
sunrise the next morning.

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Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Do not remove PV valves prior to or during degassing. Instead, ensure they are
working properly prior to degassing.
Ensure that vendors bid proposals consider a degassing unit sized to flow at
least at the tank volume divided by 600 in standard cubic feet per minute
of flow.

1129 Degassing Safety


General Precautions
All of the safety principles discussed above under the sections on vapor freeing,
including the provisions of API 2015, are applicable to degassing. However,
because degassing connects a process to the exiting tank vapors instead of
discharging them directly to the atmosphere, there are additional process-related
hazards. These hazards are discussed in this section. Only the safety hazards
associated with thermal oxidation processes are covered.
Although hazards exist throughout the degassing operation it is important to
understand where the risks are highest and during what phases they pose the greatest
threat. These hazards may be broken into three phases. Figure 1100-17 describes
each of these phases.

Fig. 1100-17 3 Phases of Degassing Hazards

Concentration

UFL

100% LFL

0% LFL
Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3
Hazard Hazard Hazard

Phase 1 Hazards Rich hydrocarbon vapors released when


opening manways, from leaks in temporary
manway covers, phyrophonic deposits.

Phase 2 Hazards Tank interior within explosive regime, potential


flashback from degassing unit, static electri-
city, severity of incident during this phase is
very high, risk of phyrophonic ignition.

Phase 3 Hazards Tank can move back into flammable range with
changes in ambient condition, hazards to
personnel entering tank.

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

Recommendations to Avoid Phase 1, 2 and 3 Hazards


All temporary manway covers should be gasketed or caulked against the
manway flange and checked for hydrocarbon leakage using atmospheric
monitoring equipment.
Treat the area in front of any working or serviced manways as though
flammable vapors are present. Under no circumstances should the degassing
unit be set up within the secondary containment area in front of these manways.
Review the contractors procedure to check continuity of bonding wires and
grounding. Ensure that each connection has little or no resistance.

1130 In-Service Repairs


Because it is costly to remove tanks from service and clean them for entry, it is often
necessary to work on tanks while they are in service. This section discusses in-
service repairs and the safety guidelines for completing these repairs.

1131 Safety Guidelines for In-service Work on Tanks


All work should be in accordance with the latest edition of API Standard 2015.

Gas Testing
Before the start of repair work, test the vapor space in the tank and the surrounding
area for combustible gases, aromatics, hydrogen sulfide, and any other anticipated
hazardous gases. A tag which shows the date, time, gas concentrations, and other
pertinent information must be attached to the tank.
Gas tests must be taken at intervals as required to ensure safety during progress of
the work, and as a minimum should be taken at the following times:
Before work is started each day
At least hourly or when conditions change
Just before work is resumed, if work has been interrupted for a period of
1 hour or more
Just before work is resumed after any stock movements in or out of the tank
After removal of a portion of the seal assembly and injection of inert gas and
before work on the seal system begins
At any other time when, in the opinion of the Company or Contractor, it is
necessary to ensure safety
No work will be permitted without fresh air breathing equipment in areas where the
hydrogen sulfide concentration exceeds ten (10) parts per million or the aromatics
concentration exceeds one (1) part per million.

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Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Hot Work Precautions


No work will be permitted in areas where the concentration of combustible gases
exceeds 0.05 on the J-W (or other approved) combustible gas indicator. Hot work
must be immediately stopped and all personnel must immediately leave the tank
when the combustible gas concentration exceeds this limit.
Stock must not be transferred to or from the tank while work is being performed. To
avoid accidental pumping into or out of the tank, valves must be closed and locked
out/tagged out by the operator. These valves must not be touched during the repair
work.
No hot work is allowed on any roof in service. Hot work on the shell, such as hot
tapping nozzles, clips, brackets, attachments, etc., requires that the liquid level be a
minimum of 3 feet above the highest weld point. A liquid level is necessary to keep
the shell cool and to prevent possible hot surface ignition of the tank vapor space.
Work above this level on the shell must be performed cold. Hot work on shell
spiral stairways (but not on the shell) must be enclosed with a non-porous material
and continuously tested for concentrations of combustible gases. Section 1133
contains a detailed hot tap procedure.

Floating Roof Entry Precautions


In all cases when it is necessary for personnel to go onto the roof, a safety watch
must stand by at the top of the stairway. If the person on the roof is overcome with
gas, the safety watch must immediately summon help.
When the top of the floating roof is more than 4 feet below the top of the shell, the
top of the roof is defined as an enclosed space. Two (2) safety watches must be
present, one at the top of the stairway to the tank and the other on the floating roof,
and they must continuously test for combustible and hazardous gases. The safety
watch at the top of the stairway must not descend into the tank but will summon
help by radio if necessary.
When workers are using fresh air breathing equipment, there must be a safety watch
with a Scott Air Pack on the gauger's platform. A second safety watch must be on
the ground monitoring the breathing air (compressor or air bottles). Tank emergency
egress must be provided. This can be a crane or a portable hoist mounted on the rim.
When working on the floating roof seal assembly, no more than 25% of the vapor
space must be exposed at any one time.

1132 In-service Shell Repairs


Leaks in in-service shells can be repaired in the following ways.
Single holes can be temporarily repaired by inserting a screwed plug and
applying epoxy around the plug to seal and hold it. The tank should be taken
out of service immediately to complete a permanent repair.
Rivet and seam leaks can be repaired by peening the metal around a leak to seal
off the leaking area. Care must be taken to avoid applying too much force.

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

Epoxy seam sealers also can be used, but the tank level must be lower than
the leak during application of the seam sealer.

1133 Hot Tapping of Tanks in Service


General
Occasionally there is a need to install a new nozzle or other appurtenance on a tank
shell without taking the tank out of service. This work can be accomplished safely
by hot tapping, if proper procedures and precautions are used.
An alternative which should not be overlooked is the possibility of installing the
required new nozzle on a manway cover. The advantages, if operationally feasible,
are the ability to remove the manway cover to the shop where the quality of the
alteration work can be tested, and the elimination of hazardous work in the
tank area. This, however, requires taking the tank out of service.
API 653 section 7 lists requirements to be followed when performing installation of
radial hot tap connections. The shell material must not have been required to be
postweld head treated when originally constructed. The size of connection that may
be installed is limited by the minimum shell thickness at the connection weld
location and shell material toughness. See API 653 latest edition and addenda for
the limitations and requirements. Hot tap procedures must include API 2201
practices. See API 2201.
Consideration should be given to the effects of welding on shells less than " thick
when the heat of welding can potentially decompose the liquid in the tank. Some
fluids, such as caustic solutions, may cause stress corrosion cracking. Other fluids
become very aggressive when heated above a certain temperature and can cause
localized corrosion of the tank shell.

Safety Precautions
Hot tapping is a useful method of making in-service repairs, but it involves hazards
which must be recognized and weighed against alternative solutions.
Since welding done on a hot tapping job cannot be inspected or tested thoroughly,
this work should be done only by skilled welders under competent supervision.
Welding requires that the area be completely gas free and that J-W readings be taken
continuously during the welding process to assure no vapor accumulates. All
sources of vapor in and adjoining the area should be properly controlled, and the
timing of the work should correspond to the in-breathing (emptying) of tanks which
might contribute vapor to the area.
The liquid level should be at least 3 feet above the level where welding work is
being done. Consult the local operating management for any requirements
specific to your plant.
The gas testing and hot work precautions listed in Section 1131 should be used
during a hot tap.

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Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Equipment
Several makes of hot tap machines can be purchased or rented. Although they were
developed primarily for use on pipe lines, they are also suitable for use on tank
shells. The size of the machine needed depends on the size of hole. Some machines
can make cuts up to 18 inches in diameter. Note that hot tap cutters usually cut a
hole somewhat smaller than the nozzle inside diameter. This must be considered if
appurtenances are to go through the hole. Maximum nozzle size allowed by API
653 is 18-inch diameter. Chevron limit is 12 inches. See Limitations in this section.

Pre-work Inspection
Before a hot tap is made, UT scan the tank shell at the location of the hot tap for any
possible deficiencies and review recent records of interior inspection of the tank.
Every effort should be made to determine the soundness of the shell plate. If there is
reason to suspect shell plate deficiencies, hot tapping should be avoided.

Nozzle Location and Hot Tapping Procedure


The new nozzle should be kept clear of existing seams and other nearby nozzles.
API 653 Section 7.14 requires certain minimum weld spacing (Toe-to-Toe) from the
hot tap nozzle and reinforcing plate (if any) and existing tank shell welds. All
welding to the tank shell must be done with low hydrogen electrodes. Pipe, flanges,
reinforcing plate and details should conform to API 650 (Section 3.7.6) nozzle
details. Only the method of welding the nozzle to the tank should differ from API
650. Since the interior backup weld for the nozzle obviously cannot be made with
the tank in service, it must be altered as indicated in the following procedure for
pipe connections over 2 inches. All other welds should follow API 650
requirements.
Small connections up to 2 inches. Install a weld boss per Standard Drawing
GC-C1043 Rev. 2 (see Pressure Vessel Manual).
Pipe connections over 2 inches. These nozzles require a reinforcing plate. Install
nozzle and reinforcing plate in accordance with Figures 1100-18 and 1100-19 and
the following procedure:
1. Bevel nozzle end 37 degrees with 1/16-inch lip edge.
2. Tack to shell with 1/16-inch lip edge spacing.
3. Apply full penetration weld with full fusion to pipe and shell. Leave no
undercut on pipe and remove all slag and weld splatter from shell and pipe. See
Figure 1100-18.
If pipe connection is 10" or larger, back grind the nozzle-to-shell weld if the
shell thickness is 3/8 inch or less. Back gouging may be used on shells having
thickness greater than 3/8 inch. Clean metal and back weld to assure full pene-
tration and fusion throughout thickness of nozzle-to-shell weld.
4. Hydrostatic test the nozzle to 1.5 times the hydrostatic head pressure of the
tank.

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

Fig. 1100-18 Hot-tap Welding DetailsNozzle-to-Shell From API 653, Fig. 7.7. Courtesy of the
American Petroleum Institute.

5. Roll reinforcing plate to fit snugly to shell. Trim inside diameter of opening to
fit toe of pipe weld leaving appropriate lip edge space and groove dimensions
for the diameter of hole and thickness to be welded. See Figure 1100-19.
6. Press pad firmly against shell and tack outside diameter of pad.
7. Weld inside diameter of pad being sure to get good fusion to shell.
8. Finish weld with smooth fillet from top of pad to nozzle surface. Leave no
porosity or undercuts.
9. Complete the weld on the periphery of the pad per API 650.
10. Test reinforcing plate with air pressure between 5-15 psi.
11. Prior to cutting a hole in the shell, test the completed nozzle assembly to 1.5
times the static head pressure at the nozzle location.
Limitations
Hot tapping of tanks should not be done if the nozzle diameter is over 12 inches. If a
larger nozzle is necessary, the tank should be taken out of service and the nozzle

July 2000 1100-36 Chevron Corporation


Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Fig. 1100-19 Hot-tap Welding DetailsReinforcing Plates From API 653, Fig. 7.7. Courtesy of
the American Petroleum Institute

assembly shop-welded and stress-relieved. See section on shells in Specification


TAM-EG-967.

1134 Fixed Roof Repairs


Fixed roof repairs can be made in the following ways.
Deck plate holes. Holes in the deck plate can be cold patched. A patch plate to
cover the area is prepared with holes drilled along the edge. After applying a
sealant/adhesive to the deck plate where the edge of the patch plate will be, the
patch plate is then set in place and fastened with sheet metal screws.
Thin roof deck. The thin roof deck can be repaired by applying a laminate coating.
Holes are first covered with light sheet metal patches held in place with sealant/
adhesive or sheet metal screws. See the Coatings Manual for more details on
laminate coatings. The deck must be marked to prevent access after the repairs are
performed.
Appurtenances. You can install appurtances using the following methods:
1. Existing pipes can be cut off, threaded, and a threaded flange installed with the
new appurtenance bolted on. If no lifting force will be applied when the
appurtenance is used (such as the funnel on a sample hatch), the attachment can
also be made by gluing the flange to the pipe. In this case, tack welds on the
inside of the slip-on flange made in the shop can hold it in place before gluing.
2. A surface-mounted appurtenance can be installed on the roof deck by welding a
reinforcing pad on the appurtenance in the shop, cutting an opening in the roof
deck, and then attaching the appurtenance to the roof deck in the same manner
as a large patch.

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1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

1135 Floating Roof Repairs


Floating roof repairs can be made in the following ways.
Temporary hole repair. Temporary repairs of holes in the deck plate can made with
steel plugs and sealant as done with shells.
Cold patches. Cold patches can be made in the same manner as with a fixed roof,
with the following additional steps:
1. The leak must be momentarily plugged using a plug and sealant.
2. The patch should be conical shaped so as not to displace the temporary plug
while the patch is being installed.
3. After installation of the patch, the area should be thoroughly cleaned of all oily
contaminate and an epoxy sealant installed over the patch after adequate
surface preparation.
A thin upper deck of pontoons can be repaired in the same manner as a fixed roof:
by sheet metal patching and laminate coating. The area must be marked to prevent
access.
Rolled or bent floating roof fixed low legs can be cut off internally (below the lower
roof deck) by use of an ultra-high pressure hydrocutter. The remainder of the roof
leg through the roof then becomes the guide sleeve for a temporary two-position
leg.

1136 Floating Roof Seal Systems


Rim-mounted primary shoe and toroidal seal systems can be removed, repaired, or
replaced. To minimize evaporation and potential hazard to the workers, no more
than one-fourth of the roof seal system should be out of the tank at one time.
Temporary spacers to keep the roof centered should be used during the repairs.
Primary seal systems mounted partly or fully below the bolting bar or top of the rim
usually cannot be reached to allow removal in service. In this case, in-service
repairs are restricted to replacement of the primary seal fabric.
Rim-mounted secondary seals are readily installed, repaired, or replaced with the
tank in service, as are shoe-mounted secondaries.

1137 Insulation
In-service repairs to insulation on the shell and fixed roof can be made by the
following methods.
Shell. Shell insulation can be installed, repaired, or replaced in service. A special
bar with studs for the laybar installation will be required to provide studs above a
level 3 feet below the stock level of the tank. Below that level, the bar will be
welded to the tank using the hot tap procedure described in Section 1133. (See
Figure 1100-20.)

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Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

Fig. 1100-20 Laybar InstallationIn-service Tank

Caution The roof should be inspected to ensure it has adequate thickness in the
area of the required repairs.
Fixed Roof. Roof insulation is normally impaled on studs welded to the roof. In-
service replacement of insulation is feasible as long as the impaling studs are not
damaged.
Where in-service installation is required without studs, one company, Thermacon,
has a design consisting of cables in tension across the roof which are attached cold
to the top angle. These cables hold the roof insulation in place.

1138 Appurtenances
Caution When an appurtenance is to be removed from a tank that is in service,
precautions may be required to prevent the uncontrolled release of vapor from the
tank.
Bolted-on appurtenances, such as valves, breathers, hatch covers, manway-mounted
mixers, and heaters, etc., and threaded appurtenances, such as hatch covers,
autogauge guides, etc., can be replaced in service. To install some appurtenances
will require that the tank level be pumped down. Some appurtenances which are
above the liquid level, such as sample hatch funnels on existing sample hatches of
floating roofs, and those fixed roof appurtenances mounted directly to the roof, can
be replaced in service.
In-service repairs can be made on stairways, platforms, and wind girders by bolting
instead of welding. Such attachments must be well sealed to prevent corrosion
product between the surfaces from breaking the bolts.
Rolling ladders can be removed from the tank and repaired, rebuilt, or replaced in
service.

Chevron Corporation 1100-39 July 2000


1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

1140 Resources
DeBeer, E. E., Foundation Problems of Petroleum Tanks, Annales de LInstitut
Belge du Petrole, No. 6, 1969, pp. 25-40
Malik, Z. Morton, J., and Ruiz, C., Ovalization of Cylindrical Tanks as a Result of
Foundation Settlement, Journal of Strain Analysis, Vol. 12, No. 4, 1977 pp. 339-
348.
Timoshenko, S., Theory of Plates and Shells, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New
York, N.Y., 1955
Sullivan, R. A., Nowicki, J. F., Settlement of Structures, Conference organized by
the British Geotechnical Society at The Lady Mitchell Hall, Cambridge held in
April 1974
Duncan, J.M., DOrazio, T. B., Stability of Steel oil Storage Tanks, Journal of
Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 110, No. 9, September, 1984
Duncan, J.M., DOrazio, T. B., Distortion of Steel Tanks Due to Settlement of their
Walls, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, Vol 115, No. 6, June, 1989
API 653, Appendix B.
Sullivan, R. A., and Nowicki, J. F. 1974, Differential Settlements of Cylindrical Oil
Tanks. Proceedings, Conference on Settlement of Structures, British
Geotechnical Society, Cambridge, pp402-424.
Marr, W. A., Ramos, J. A., and Lambe, T. W. Criteria For Settlement of Tanks,
Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division Proceedings of the American
Society of Civil Engineers, Vol. 108, No GT8, August, 1982.
DOrazio, T. B., Duncan, J. M. Differential Settlements in Steel Tanks, Journal of
Geotechnical Engineering, Vol. 113, No. 9, September, 1987.
Koczwara, F. A. Simple Method Calculates Tank Shell Distortion, Hydrocarbon
Processing, August 1980
EEMUA (The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association) Document
No 159 (Draft)
Duncan, J. M., DOrazio, T. B., and Myers, P. E., Settlement of Tanks on Clay,
presented at ASCE Settlement 94

1150 Tank Shutdown Checklist


Included in this section are examples of Tank Shutdown Checklists that have been
developed at various facilities. They each list the typical work done during a tank
shutdown and can be utilized by the engineer or Company Representative to help
plan work for each tank. For questions concerning the checklists, please contact a
representative from that particular facility. The checklist, which starts on the next
page, is a sample tank shutdown checklist from the Richmond Refinery. Other
samples follow.

July 2000 1100-40 Chevron Corporation


Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

CLEAN START DATE: ____TANK CHECKLIST CHECK. MEETING:


WORK START DATE: CLEAN CHG. # :
WORK END DATE: SERVICE: LOCATION: REPAIR CHG. # :
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
TECH REP: MAINT REP: OPR REP: ENGR REP: INSP REP:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
MOAN LIST: YES NO BLIND LIST: YES NO VALVE REPAIR LIST: YES NO EVACUATION PLAN: YES NO
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
INSP. RPT.: YES NO ER COPY: YES NO ENGR. BM'S/MTL. LIST: YES NO TANK CLEANED: YES NO
=======================================================================================================================
EWO/ WORK COMPLETED EXECUTION REF
620# ITEM DESCRIPTION OPER. MAINT. INSPECT. RESPONSIBIL. LOC
====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

I. PRELIMINARY ITEMS
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL BLINDS PER OPERATOR BLIND LIST XXXXXX TK GROUP PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
PULL TANK LEGS XXXXXX TK GROUP PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
OPEN ALL TANK MANWAYS XXXXXX XXXXXX TK GROUP PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CLEAN TANK FOR INSPECTION XXXXXX TK GROUP PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REMOVE FOAM LOG SEAL BEFORE REPAIR WORK BEGINS XXXXXX TK GROUP PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

II. TANK INTERNALS
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT BOTTOM & PULL __ COUPONS XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR/INSTALL NEW API BOTTOM W/ 3/8" ANNULAR RING XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
1) CK QUALITY OF MEMBRANE XXXXXX XXXXXX INSPECTION
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
2) VAC. TEST MEMBRANE XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
3) CUT GROOVES IN FIBERCRETE CONCRETE XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
4) SEND CONCRETE SAMPLE OUT TO LAB XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
5) INSTALL BACK-UP STRIP FOR ANNULAR RING XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR INTERNAL SHELL XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
MODIFY/REPAIR TANK NOZZLES & MANWAYS FOR NEW BOTTOM XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT,SLOT,REAM & REPAIR GAUGE WELL XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL/REPLACE GAUGE WELL SS STRICKER PLATE XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CHECK TANK GAUGE WELL CLEARANCE - 12" XXXXXX INSP/CONT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & INSTALL/REPAIR VORTEX BREAKER XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT,REPAIR/REPLACE & LUBE SWING LINE WINCH & SHEAVE XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSP,REPAIR/REPLACE SWING LINE: CABLE,PONTOONS & PIPE XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

Chevron Corporation 1100-41 July 2000


1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

=======================================================================================================================
EWO/ WORK COMPLETED EXECUTION REF
620# ITEM DESCRIPTION OPER. MAINT. INSPECT. RESPONSIBIL. LOC
====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====
INSPECT,REPAIR/REPLACE&HYDRO @ 45psi_SWING LINE PONTOON XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT,REPLACE & HYDRO @ 45psi _ SWING LINE STAY-TITES XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR FILL LINE DISPERSER XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CHECK/ADD BALLAST (450 THINNER) ON PONTOONS XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR ROOF LEGS XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL MOUSE HOLES ON ROOF LEGS XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL NEW COFLEXIP ROOF DRAIN XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
HYDRO ROOF DRAIN @ 45psi XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL CATHODIC PROTECTION XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
POWERWASH & SANDBLAST RIVET TANK FOR SEAM FIX XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SEAM FIX & COAT INTERNAL RIVETED SEAM AREA XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & COAT INTERNAL SHELL & ROOF XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & COAT BOTTOM XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & COAT 100% TANK INTERNAL XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL ROOF LEG WEAR PLATES XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

III TANK ROOF
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT TANK ROOF XXXXXX INSPECTION
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL/REPAIR NEW API CONE/FLOATING ROOF & APPURTANCES XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SERVICE/REPLACE/INST. _ SHAND&JURS ROOF BREATHER VALVES XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & SERVICE/REPLACE ROOF VENTS & VACUUM BREAKERS XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & SERVICE/REPLACE GAUGE HATCH XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & SERVICE ALL ROOF HATCHES XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CLEAN-OUT ROOF DRAIN XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
MODIFY ROOF DRAIN ON CONE ROOF TKS. XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR/REPLACE ROOF RIM ANGLE XXXXXX XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REMOVE OLD PRIMARY & SECONDARY ROOF SEAL XXXXXX CONTRACTOR PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR/REPLACE PRIMARY ROOF SEAL XXXXXX SEAL/CONT/TK
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

July 2000 1100-42 Chevron Corporation


Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

=======================================================================================================================
EWO/ WORK COMPLETED EXECUTION REF
620# ITEM DESCRIPTION OPER. MAINT. INSPECT. RESPONSIBIL. LOC
====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====
INSPECT & REPAIR/REPLACE SECONDARY ROOF SEAL WIPER XXXXXX SEAL/CONT/TK
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
DIESEL/FLOURESCENT DYE CHECK ROOF PONTOONS XXXXXX CONTRACTOR PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR ROOF PONTOONS XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPLACE/INSTALL 1/2" BRASS GAUGE WELL GUIDE PLATE XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
WELD REPAIR ON GAUGERS PLATFORM XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR/REPLACE ROLLING ROOF LADDER & SS PIN XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL LIGHTNING SHUNTS XXXXXX SEAL/CONT/TK
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR FIRE FOAM SYSTEM XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & SPOT PAINT/COAT TANK ROOF XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSULATE TANK ROOF XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

IV TANK EXTERNAL SHELL
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR TANK SHELL XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR TANK INSULATION & WEATHER JACKET AS NECESSARY XXXXXX INSUL/CONT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR TANK INSULATION BANDS AS NECESSARY XXXXXX INSUL/CONT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL RE-INFORCING PLATE WEEP HOLES XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR TANK STAIRWAY XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & SPOT PAINT/COAT TANK SHELL AND NUMBER TANK XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & SPOT PAINT/COAT TANK STAIRWAY XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & COAT TANK ACCESS PLATFORMS XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SANDBLAST & SPOT PAINT/COAT WINDGIRDER XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

Chevron Corporation 1100-43 July 2000


1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

=======================================================================================================================
EWO/ WORK COMPLETED EXECUTION REF
620# ITEM DESCRIPTION OPER. MAINT. INSPECT. RESPONSIBIL. LOC
====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====
V INSTRUMENTATION
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR ALL THERMOWELLS(TACK WELD IN PLACE) XXXXXX CONT/TK
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
DISCONNECT,INSPECT,RECALIBRATE,REINSTALL TANK AUTO GAGE XXXXXX XXXXXX B&S I&E
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CALIBRATE & REPAIR/REPLACE/INSTALL TEMPERATURE SENSOR XXXXXX XXXXXX TK/I&E
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT GAGING DATUM PLATE XXXXXX TK/I&E
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

VI MIXERS & PUMPS
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
OVERHAUL/REMOVE/INSTALL _ TANK MIXERS XXXXXX XXXXXX MACH. SHOP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
OVERHAUL/REMOVE/INSTALL _ TANK MIXER MOTORS XXXXXX XXXXXX MACH. SHOP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CONVERT/REPLACE _ PACKING SEAL MIXERS W/MECH. SEAL TYPE XXXXXX XXXXXX MACH. SHOP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPLACE SIDE SAMPLE PUMP & MOTOR XXXXXX XXXXXX MACH. SHOP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

VII TANK HEATER
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CLEAN,INSPECT & HYDRO _ HEATER COIL/BUNDLE XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPLACE/INSTALL _ HEATER COIL/BUNDLE XXXXXX BOIL. SHOP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR HEATER PIPING XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR/REPLACE/INSTALL HEATER PUMP XXXXXX XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
ATTACH HEATER SUPPORT RAIL TO SHELL XXXXXX
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

VIII TANK VALVES
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REMOVE & REPAIR/REPLACE _ VALVES PER OPR. XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR/REPLACE _ VALVES PER INSP. XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REMOVE,POP & RESET _ PSV'S PER OPR. TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPLACE/UPGRADE SAMPLE SYSTEM VALVES TO E-1 SPECS. XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

July 2000 1100-44 Chevron Corporation


Tank Manual 1100 Maintenance

=======================================================================================================================
EWO/ WORK COMPLETED EXECUTION REF
620# ITEM DESCRIPTION OPER. MAINT. INSPECT. RESPONSIBIL. LOC
====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====
IX PIPING
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR TANK PIPING XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
UPGRADE/INSTALL SUN RELIEF PIPING & VALVES TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
UPGRADE PIPING & VALVES TO E-1 PIPE SPECS. AS NECESSARY XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
UPGRADE/INSTALL SIDE SAMPLE SYSTEM TO E-1 PIPE SPECS. CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
MODIFY PIPING FOR NEW BOTTOM CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR/REPLACE/UPGRADE STEAM TRACE TUBING AS NECESSARY XXXXXX CONTRACTOR
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
REPAIR/REPLACE PIPE INSULATION AS NECESSARY XXXXXX CONT/ISULAT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR WATER DRAW XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====
X MISC.
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CLEAN TANK BASIN AREA XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CLEAN-OUT WATER DRAW BASIN AREA XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSPECT & REPAIR/REPLACE ACCESS PLATFORM XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL/REPAIR/REPLACE WALKWAYS XXXXXX CARP. ZONE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CLEAN & REPAIR GUNITE DRAIN GUTTER XXXXXX ZONE/2-DIT
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
DAYLIGHT PIPING XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

XI OPERATIONS
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
STENCIL SOH , HOD & LPO XXXXXX XXXXXX OPERATIONS PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
STENCIL TANK & THERMOWELL NUMBERS XXXXXX XXXXXX OPERATIONS PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
STENCIL SWING LINE DIAGRAM ON TANK XXXXXX XXXXXX OPERATIONS PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
PROVIDE EVACUATION PLANS XXXXXX OPERATIONS PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CLEAN-OUT TANK PIPE LINES XXXXXX OPERATIONS PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
ENGR. MEASURE & CALC. NEW STRAPPING CHART & SAFE OIL HEIGHT XXXXXX XXXXXX ENGR. PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== =========================================================== ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

Chevron Corporation 1100-45 July 2000


1100 Maintenance Tank Manual

=======================================================================================================================
EWO/ WORK COMPLETED EXECUTION REF
620# ITEM DESCRIPTION OPER. MAINT. INSPECT. RESPONSIBIL. LOC
====== ============================================================= ========= ========= ========= ============= =====
XII TANK HEAD-UP
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL/REPAIR/REPLACE WALKWAYS XXXXXX TK/ZONE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
RAISE FLOATING ROOF LEGS AFTER TANK FIRST FILL XXXXXX TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
HYDO TANK SHELL & ROOF XXXXXX XXXXXX CONT/TK PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== =========================================================== ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

XIII POST TANK WORK
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL RETAINING WALL AROUND TANK XXXXXX ZONE/2-DIST
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
GUNITE AREA AROUND TANK XXXXXX XXXXXX 2-DIST
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
GUNITE AREA UNDER PIPING XXXXXX XXXXXX 2-DIST
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL GUNITE DRAIN GUTTER XXXXXX 2-DIST
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
SEAL TANK SKETCH PLATE AREA TK GROUP
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
INSTALL LIGHTING PER ENGR. XXXXXX XXXXXX I&E ZONE
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------
CHECK SEAL FIT & COMPLIANCE XXXXXX INSPECTION PLAN
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

====== =========================================================== ========= ========= ========= ============= =====

XIV EXTRA TANK WORK
---------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --------------- --------------- ---------------- -------------------------- ---------

July 2000 1100-46 Chevron Corporation