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4.

Distributed Loads

2142111 Statics,
S i 2011/2

Department of Mechanical
Engineering Chulalongkorn University
Engineering,

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Objectives Students must be able to #1
Course Objective
I l d di
Include distributed
t ib t d loads
l d into
i t equilibrium
ilib i analyses
l
Chapter Objectives
Describe the characteristics and determine the centroids,
centers of mass and centers of gravity by integration and
composite body methods
Apply the Pappus Theorems for surface and volume of
revolution
Describe the characteristics and determine the first moment of
area, second moment off area and polar moment off inertia by
integration, parallel-axis theorem and perpendicular-axis
theorem
Determine the resultant of loads (force/couple) with line, area
and volume distribution by integration and area/volume analogy
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2
Objectives Students must be able to #2
Analyze bodies/structures with distributed loads for unknown
loads/reactions by appropriate FBDs

For fluid statics


Describe the characteristics and determine hydrostatic and
aerostatic pressures as distributed loads
Determine the resultant of fluid statics by integration
integration, volume
analogy and block-of-fluid methods
Describe and determine the buoyancy and stability of floating
bodies
Analyze bodies/structures with fluid statics for unknown
loads/reactions byy appropriate
pp p FBDs

3
Objectives Students must be able to #3
For flexible cables
St t the
State th assumptions
ti andd geometrical
t i l definitions
d fi iti off flexible
fl ibl
cables
Appropriately
pp p y approximate
pp real-life cables into p parabolic or
catenary cables by load distribution
Prove and apply profile, length and tension formula for
parabolic & catenary cables
Identify and utilize techniques for obtaining numerical solutions
of parabolic & catenary cables

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Contents
Centroid, Center of Mass and Center of Gravity
Pappus Theorems
First Moment of Area, Moment of Inertia, Polar Moment of
Inertia
Distributed Loads
Fluid Statics
Flexible Cables

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Center

Centers of Gravity High School


F

x1
x2
x3
x4

G
x1 + x2 + x3 + x 4
x x=
4
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Center

Centers of Gravity, CG
Weight of a body can be represented by an equivalent force
acting at its center of gravity G.
Assume a uniform and parallel force field due to gravitational
attraction for most problems
Weight W = mg where m is the mass of the body and g is the
magnitude of gravitational acceleration.
The center of gravity of is a unique point which is a function of
weight distribution only.

8
Center

CG Principle of Moments

N x dWi i
M y = x i dWi = xW x= i =1

i =1 W

If dWi 0 : x=
x dW
,y=
y dW
W W

9
Center

CG Composite Bodies #1

W = W1 + W2
Wx = W1x1 + W2 x 2
Wyy = W1y1 + W2 y 2

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Center

CG Composite Bodies #2

W = W1 W2
Wx = W1x1 W2 x 2
y = W1y1 W2 y 2
Wy

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Center

Centers of Mass, CM
An objects distribution of mass can be represented by an
equivalent mass acting at its center of mass.
The center of mass of is a unique point which is a function
solely of mass distribution
distribution.
Centers of mass coincides with G as long as the gravity
field is treated as uniform and parallel.

x=
x dm
m

y=
y dm
m
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Center

Centroids
If the density is constant and and gravity field is uniform
parallel, G and center of mass coincide with the
and parallel
centroid of the body.
The centroid C is the geometrical center or the weighted
average position of an object.
Locating the centroid by averaging the moments of
elements of objects about axes.
axes
The centroid lies on the axis of symmetry.
Geometry of the body is the only factor that influence the
position of the centroid.

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Center

Centroids Formula
For a line of length L x=
x dL
,y=
y dL
, ...
L L

For a surface with area A x=


x dA
, y=
y dA
, ...
A A

For a body of volume V x=


x dV ,y=
y dV , ...
V V

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Center

Centroids Symmetry
If a body has an axis of symmetry, its centroid lies on this axis.

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Center

Example Centroids 1 #1
Find centroid C of area A

x
x = cy 2 y = ( )1/ 2
c
2 a
at x = a, y = b a = cb , c = 2
b

x
dA = y dx = ( )1/ 2 dx
c
a x 2 a3 / 2 2
A = dA = ( ) dx =
1/ 2
1/ 2
= ab
A 0 c 3c 3

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Center

Example
p Centroids 1 #2
Find y by moment of area about x axis
a y
Ay = y dA =
( y dx )
A 0 2

1 a 2 1 a
Ay = y dx = x dx
2 0 2c 0

a a
1 x2 b2 1 2 ab 2
Ay =
A = x =
2c 2 0 2a 2 0 4
ab 2 ab 2 3 3b
y= = = Ans
4A 4 2ab 8

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Center

Example
p Centroids 1 #3
Find x by moment of area about y axis
a x
Ax = x dA = x ( )1/2 dx
A 0 c
1 a 2 a
Ax = 1/ 2 x 3 / 2 dx = 1/ 2 x 5 / 2
c 0 5c 0

2a5 / 2 2a 2 b
Ax = 1/ 2 =
5c 5
2a 2 b 2a 2 b 3 3a
x= = = Ans
5A 5 2ab 5

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Center

Example Centroids 2 #1
Find centroid C of line L, given a = b = 100 mm

dx
x = cy 2 = 2cy
dy

dL = dx 2 + dy 2
= (dx / dy )2 + 1 dy
b
L = dL = 1 + (dx dy )2 d
d /d dy
L 0
b
= 1 + (2cy )2 dy
0

= 147.9 mm
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Center

Example Centroids 2 #2

Find y by taking moment of line about x axis


b
Ly = y dL = y 1 + (2cy )2 dy
L 0

Ly = 8483.6 mm2 y = 57.4 mm Ans


Find x by taking moment of line about y axis
b
Lx = x dL = cy 2 1 + (2cy )2 dy
L 0

Lx = 6063.4 mm2 x = 41.0 mm Ans


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Center Formula

Example Centroids 2 #3

1
x 2 a 2 dx = x x 2 a 2 a 2 ln( x + x 2 a 2 )
2
1 2 3

2 2 2
x x a dx = ( x a )
3
1 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2
x x a dx = x ( x a ) a x x a
4 8
1
= a 4 ln( x + x 2 a 2 )
8

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Center

Example Centroids 3 #1
Find centroid C of arc L

By symmetry, C lies on x axis.

length of arc L = 2r

Lx = x (dL ) = r cos (r d )
L

2r x = 2r cos d = 2r 2 sin
2

r sin
x= Ans

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Center

Example Centroids 4 #1
Built around 2560 BC, the Great
Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) is one
of the Seven Wonders of the
Ancient World. It was 481 ft high;g ;
the horizontal cross section of the
pyramid is square at any level, with
each side measuring 751 ft at the
base. By discounting any
irregularities, find the position of
Pharaohs
Pharaoh s burial chamber
chamber, which is
located at the heart [centroid] of the
pyramid.

(http://ce.eng.usf.edu/pharos/wonders/pyramid.html)
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Center

Example Centroids 4 #2
By symmetry about x and y axes,
C lies on z axis.
At x = 0, z = h and x = a, z = 0
h0 h
z = mx + C = x+h= x+h
0a a
a a
x = ( z h ) = (h z )
h h 4a 2 h
4a 2 Vz = z dV = 2 z(h z )2 dz
dV = dz = 2 (h z )2 dz V h 0
h
4a 2 1 4 a 2h 2
h 4a 2h = 2 ( h )=
V = dV = (2 x ) dz =
2
h 12 3
V 0 3 h
z = = 120.25 ft Ans
4
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Center

Example Centroids 5 #1
Find centroid C of the body.

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Center

Example Centroids 5 #2
Comp V (mm3 ) x (mm) y (mm) z (mm)
B
Box 8 08 106
8.08 0 0 0
Cylinder 2.26 106 185 0 0
Rod 17 67 103
17.67 0 175 0
Sphere 0.524 106 0 275 0
Total 0 88 106
10.88

x =
V x x = 38.5 mm
i i

V i


y =
V y
i i
y = 13.52 mm

V i


z =
V z
i i
z = 0 mm Ans
V i
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Pappus Theorem I

Pappus Theorems Formula #1


The area of a surface of revolution equals the product of
the length of the generating curve and the distance
traveled by the centroid of the curve in generating the
surface area.

For surface area generated by


complete revolution
S = (2 )( x )L

S = 2 xL
L
For incomplete revolution
S = xL

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Pappus Theorem II

Pappus Theorems Formula #2


The volume of a body of revolution equals the product of
the generating area and the distance traveled by the
centroid of the area in generating the volume.

For volumn generated by


complete revolution
V = (2 )( x )A

V = 2 xA
For incomplete revolution
V = xA
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Pappus

Pappus Theorems Misc


Also called the Pappus - Guldinus Theorem
The theorem require that the generating curves and areas
do not cross the axis about which they rotates.

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Pappus

Example Pappus Theorems 1 #1


Find centroid C of a quarter circular area with radius r.

symmetry x = y
By symmetry,
Quarter-circular area A = r 2 4
Volume of hemisphere V = 2 r 3 3

From Pappus 2nd theorem


[V = 2 xA] 2 r 3 3 = 2 x ( r 2 4)
4r
x=y = Ans
3

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Summary
Centroid, CM and CG are centers of geometry, mass and gravity.
Centroid and CM coincide if the density is constant.

CM and CG coincide if g is constant.

Calculation by moment
Integration

Composite body

P
Pappus th
theorems ffor bodies
b di generated
t dbby revolutions
l ti

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Moments

Moment of

moment of force F about z axis = rF


moment of line L about z axis = rL
moment of area A about z axis = rA
moment of volume V about z axis = rV

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Moments

First Moment of Area Qx & Qy


The first moment of area Q
The first moment of area with

respect to x axes

Qx = y dA = yA
A

The first moment of area with


respect to y axes

Qy = x dA = xA
A

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Moments

Second Moment of Area Ixx & Iyy


The second moment of area or
the area moment of inertia I
The second moment of area

with respect to x axes

I xx = y 2 dA

The second moment of area


with respect to y axes

I yy = x 2 dA

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Moments

Polar Moment of Inertia J

J = r 2 dA = ( x 2 + y 2 ) dA
A A

= I xx + I yy

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Moments

Ix & Iy vs Iz Parallel
Parallel-Axis
Axis Theorem

I xx = ( y + d y )2 dA
A

= ( y )2 dA + 2d y y dA + d y2 dA
A A A

= I xx + 0 + Ad y2

I xx = I xx + Ad y2
I yy = I y y + Ad x2
J = I xx + I yy

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Moments

Example Second Moment of Area 1 #1


Find the second moments of area
and p
polar moment of inertia about
axes passing though the center

I xx = y 2 dA = y 2 2 x dy
A A

a4
I xx = y (2 a y ) dy =
2 2 2
A 4

By symmetry
a4
I yy = I xx =
4
a4
J = I xx + I yy =
2 37

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Moments

Example Second Moment of Area 1 #2


Find the second moments of area
and polar moment of inertia about
axes xc y c

a4 5 a 4
2
I xc xc = I xx + Ad =
y + a a =
2 2

yc 4 4
a4 5 a 4
I yc y c = I yy + Ad x = 2
+ a a =
2 2

xc 4 4
5 a 4
J = I x c xc + I y c y c =
2

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Moments

Table Centroid and Moment of Inertia #1


Area ( x, y ) I xx I yy

bh3 hb3
bh (0,0)
12 12

D2 D4 D4
(0,0)
4 64 64

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Moments

Table Centroid and Moment of Inertia #2


Area ( x, y ) I xx I yy

bh h bh3 hb3
(0 )
(0,
2 3 36 48

ab (0,0) ab3 ba3


4 4

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Moments

Example Hibbeler 66-68


68 Mech of Mat #1
Find the second moment of area with respect to the neutral
axis (the horizontal axis which passes through the centroid of
the area)

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Moments

Example Hibbeler 66-68


68 Mech of Mat #2

Find the centroid location


C = C( y , z )
Byy symmetry,
y y, z = 0
y1 = (10 + 0.5) in.
A1 = (6 in.)(1 in.)
y 2 = 5 in.
A2 = (1 in.)(10 in.)

y=
y Ai i
=
y1A1 + y 2 A2
A i A1 + A2
y = 7.0625
7 0625 in
in.

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Moments

Example Hibbeler 66-68


68 Mech of Mat #3

Find I with respect


p to ((wrt)) horizontal
axis passing through C

Izc zc = Izz1 + ( Ad y2 )1 + Izz 2 + ( Ad y2 )2


1
Izc zc = (6 in.)(1 in.)3 +
12
Izc zc = (6 in.2 )(10.5 in. 7.0625 in.)2 +
1
Izc zc = (1 in.)(10 in.)3 +
12
Izc zc = (10 in.2 )(7.0625 in. 5 in.)2
Izc zc = 197.2708 in.4 = 197 in.4
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Distributed Loads

Loads Concentration vs. Distribution


Concentrated Load
acts at a point,

does not exist in the exact sense,

acceptable
t bl approximation
i ti whenh contact
t t area iis small.
ll

Distributed Loads
distributed over line, area, volume.

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Distributed Loads

Loads Hand Tools

Blacksmith Hammer Wood Chisel

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Distributed Loads

Loads Distribution Types


Line Distribution
Intensity w (N/m) = force per unit length

Area Distribution
Intensity (N/m or Pa) = force per unit area
2

Action of fluid force pressure

Internal
I t l intensity
i t it off force
f in
i solid
lid stress
t

Volume Distribution
Intensity (N/m ) = body force per unit volume
3

Specific weight g is the intensity of gravitational

attraction.
tt ti

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Distributed Loads

Loads Resultant Force System


Distributed loads can be represented by an equivalent
force-couple system
system, consisting of
Resultant force FR

Magnitude

Direction

Line of action

Resultant couple MR

Magnitude

Direction

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Distributed Loads

Line Distribution Descriptions


The distributed loads may be described by functions of
positions.
positions

Let w = (0.012 x 2 ) MN/m (x in m)


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Distributed Loads

Line Distribution Resultants

FR = w dx magnitude of F

M = wx dx = FR x location of F

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49
Distributed Loads

Example
p Line Resultant 1 #1

Consider right half the load


w = (0.012 x 2 ) 106 N/m (x in m)
0.01 m
FR = w dx = 10 6
(0 01 m)2 x 2 dx
(0.01
0
0.01
= 10 0.012 x ( x 3 3)
6
=2 3 N
0
0.01
M = wx dx = 106 (0.012 x 2 )x dx
0
0.01
06 (0
= 10 0 2 x 2 2)) ( x 4 4))
(0.01
0

= 2.5 10 3 N m
M = xFR x = 3.75 mm

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Distributed Loads

Line Distribution Area Analogy

If y = w
FR = w dx area A

x = xw dx
d FR
centroid of A

The single equivalent force FR exerted


by the line distributed load is equal to
the area A and acts through the
centroid of A between the loading curve
and the x axis.
axis

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Distributed Loads

Example Area Analogy 1 #1


Determine the reactions at A and C.

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Distributed Loads

Example Area Analogy 1 #2

F1 = (200 N/ )(5 m)) = 1000 N


N/m)(5
F2 = (100 N/m)(6 m) = 600 N
F3 = 0.5(100
0 5(100 N/m)(6 m) = 300 N

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Distributed Loads

Example Area Analogy 1 #3

Fx = 0
F1 + Ax = 0
Ax = 1000 N Ans
M A = 0 +
(2 5 m) F3 (2 m)
F1(2.5
F2 (3 m) + Cy (6 m) = 0
Cy = 16.667 N Ans
Fy = 0
Ay + Cy F2 F3 = 0
Ay = 916.67 N Ans
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Distributed Loads

Example Area Analogy 2 #1


If the cable can sustain tension of up to 600 N, determine
the maximum w. w

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Distributed Loads

Example Area Analogy 2 #2

MC = 0 +
(15w N)(7
N)(7.55 m) (7 5w N)(20 m) + T (15 m) + T sin30(30 m) = 0
(7.5
w = 30T 262.5 N/m
Given Tmax = 600 N, thus w max = 30Tmax 262.5 N/m
w max = 68.57 N/m Ans
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Distributed Loads

Example Area Analogy 3 #1


Find support reactions

1m
F = dA = ( x )1/ 2dx
A 0
1m
2( x )3 / 2 2
= = kN
3 0 3

1m
xF = x ( x )1/ 2dx
0
1m
2( x )5 / 2
= = 0.4 kN m
5 0
x = 0.6
06m

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Distributed Loads

Example Area Analogy 3 #2

Consider FBD of beam


Fx = 0
Cx = 0 Ans
Fy = 0
Cy + 2 / 3 kN = 0
Cy = 0.667 kN Ans
MC = 0 +
M + (0.6 m)(2 / 3 kN) = 0
M = 0.4 kN m Ans

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Distributed Loads

Area Distribution Resultants

FR = p dA
M = xp dA = FR x

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Distributed Loads

Example
p Hibbeler 9-121 #1

Find the equivalent


concentrated load

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Distributed Loads

Example
p Hibbeler 9-121 #2
p
P1 40 lb/ft2 General equation of a plane
P4 ax + by + cp + d = 0 (1)
P2 FR
30 lb/ft2
20 lb/ft2 P1(0 ft,0 ft,40 lb/ft 2 )
x y 40c + d = 0
y P3
P2 (5 ft,0 ft,30 lb/ft 2 )
x 5 ft
10 ft 10 lb/ft2 5a + 30c + d = 0
P3 (5 ft,10 ft,10 lb/ft 2 )
a = 2c, b = 2c, d = 40c 5a + 10b + 10c + d = 0
Subst into (1) P4 (0 ft,10 ft,20 lb/ft 2 )
2cx + 2cy + cp 40c = 0 10b + 20c + d = 0
2 x + 2y + p 40 = 0
p = 2 x 2y + 40 lb/ft 2
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Distributed Loads

Example
p Hibbeler 9-121 #3

p
40 lb/ft2

FR
20 lb/ft2
30 lb/ft2

x y
y

x 5 ft
10 ft 10 lb/ft2

dFR = p dA = ( 2 x 2y + 40) dx dy
5 10
FR = ( 2 x 2y + 40) dydx = 1250 lb Ans
0 0

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Distributed Loads

Example
p Hibbeler 9-121 #4

p
40 lb/ft2

30 lb/ft2
FR
20 lb/ft2
x=

FR
x dFR
= 2.33
2 33 ft
FR
x y
y
5 ft y=

FR
y dFR
= 4.33
4 33 ft Ans
x
10 ft 10 lb/ft2 FR

5 10
FR
x dFR =
0
0
( 2 x 2y + 40)x dydx = 2916.67 lb ft
5 10
FR
y dFR =
0
0
( 2 x 2y + 40)y dydx = 5416.67 lb ft
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Distributed Loads

Area Distribution Volume Analogy

If z = p
F = p dA volume V

x = xp dA F centroid of V
y = yp dA F

The single equivalent force F exerted by


q
the area distributed load is equal to the
volume V and acts through the
centroid of V
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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics
Required in studies and designs of pressure vessels,
piping ships
piping, ships, dams and off-shore structures
structures, etc
etc.

Topics
Definitions

Fluid pressure

Hydrostatic pressure on submerged surfaces

Buoyancy

Air pressure
p

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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics Definitions


Fluid is any continuous substance which, when at rest, is
unable to support shear force
force.
Fluid Statics studies pressure of fluid at rest.
Hydrostatics stationary liquid

Aerostatics stationary gas

Pascals Law: the pressure at any given point in a fluid is


the same in all directions.
directions
Pressure p in fluid at rest is a function of vertical
dimension and its density .
Resultant force on a body from pressure acts at the center
of pressure P.

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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics Fluid Pressure #1

Consider forces on control volume in x direction


Fx = 0 ( p )dA + w g (dAdx ) ( p + dp )dA = 0
dp = w g (dx )
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Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics Fluid Pressure #2


In x direction only
d = w g d
dp dx
p x
p0
dp = w g dx
0

p = p0 + w gx

p0 = pressure att x = 0

F = p dA
A

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Fluid Statics

Pressure Submerged Surfaces #1


Find the resultant force and
its position on the submerged
face AB. It is given that the
width of the plate is b and the
fluid has a constant density .

Methods
Integration

Volume analogy

Equilibrium of block of fluid *new*

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Fluid Statics
Fluid Block
Pressure Submerged Surfaces #2
Consider equilibrium of
the block of fluid above
the plate:
F x = 0, F
y = 0, M
O =0

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Fluid Statics

Example Fluid Statics 1 #1


Find the resultant force and its position on the dam with 1
m width.
width The density of water is 1000 kg/m3.

1m
p1

y
x
F
2.5 m 2.5 m
P
L
p2

1m
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Fluid Statics
Integration
Example Fluid Statics 1 #2
x
y= +1 1
2.5 Fx = p dAy = g
gx ((1dy
y)
A 0

p1 0 gx
= (dx )
y
2.5 2.5
0
x g x 2

F Fx = = 12250 N
2.5 2 2.5
2.5 m
Fy 2.5
P
L
Fy = p dAx = gx (1dx )
A 0
p2 2.5
x2
= g = 30625
3062 N
2 0
1m F 2 = Fx2 + Fy2
F = 32984 N = 33.0 kN Ans
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72
Fluid Statics
Integration
Example Fluid Statics 1 #3
x 1
y= +1 Fx y = py dAy = gxy (1dy )
2.5 A 0

0 gx x
p1 = ( + 1) dx
2.5 2.5 2.5
y 25
2.5
g x3
x = = 4083.3 N m
F Fx 2.52 3 0
2.5 m y = 0.33333
0 33333 m
Fy
P
L 2.5
p2 Fy x = px dAx = gx 2 (1dx )
A 0
25
2.5
x3
= g = 51042 N m
1m 3 0
x = 1.6667
1 6667 m
P ( x , y ) = (1.67,0.333) m Ans
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Fluid Statics
Volume Analogy
Example Fluid Statics 1 #4
At x = 0, p1 = 0
p1 x = 2.5 m, p2 = 2.5 g N
1
y F = ( p1 + p2 )LW
2
x
F 1
= 2.5 1000 9.8 2.52 + 12 1
2.5 m 2
P F = 32.98 kN Ans
L
p2 2 1
P ( x, y ) = ( 2 2.5,
5 1)
3 3
P ( x , y ) = (1.67,0.333) m Ans
1m

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Fluid Statics
Fluid Block
Example Fluid Statics 1 #5
1m
p1 2.5 m
2.5 m
y y
2.5/3 m
x x
G F
F1 F
P
L
p2
W
2.5/3 m

1m
1
W = gV = 1000 9.8 2.5 1 = 12250 N
2
1 1
F1 = ghH = 1000 9.8 2.5 2.5 = 30625 N
2 2 75

75
Fluid Statics
Fluid Block
Example Fluid Statics 1 #6
1m
2.5 m 2/3 m
y
Fx = 0
2.5/3 m W Fx = 0
x
G
Fx = 12250 N
F1 Fy
Fy = 0
P
W F
F1 Fy = 0
Fx
2.5/3 m Fy = 30625 N
F 2 = Fx2 + Fy2
F = 32984 N = 33.0 kN Ans

76

76
Fluid Statics
Fluid Block
Example Fluid Statics 1 #7
1m

2.5 m 2/3 m
O
MO = 0 +
y
2.5/3 m 1 2.5 2
x
G L Fy x + Fx y W + F1 =0
3 3
F1 Fy 2 2.52 1
+ y 2.5 x
3 3
P
W
Fx F x x
From y = + 1, y = +1
2.5/3 m 2.5 2.5

5 1
x= ,y=
3 3
P ( x , y ) = (5 / 3
3,1/
1/ 3) m A
Ans

77

77
Fluid Statics

Example Fluid Statics 2 #1


Cross section of a long
channel is shown
shown. Each of
the bottom plates, hinged at
B, has a mass of 250 kg
per meter of channel
length. Find force per meter
of channel length acting on
09m
0.9 each plate at B.
B The
density of water is 1000
1.2 m 1.2 m kg/m3 .
B

A 09m
0.9 C

78

78
Fluid Statics

Example Fluid Statics 2 #2


At B, p1 = 0.9 g N
A A,
At p2 = 1 8g N
1.8
Width of channel = w
Symmetry of forces at B: By = 0
p1 By By p1

B Bx Bx B
p2 p2
0.9 m 0.9 m

0.6 m y 0.6 m
1.2 m 1.2 m
Ax x Cx
A mg = 250gw mg = 250gw C
Ay C
79
y

79
Fluid Statics
Volume Analogy
Example Fluid Statics 2 #3
p1
B Bx
p2 F1
F2
y
0.9 m
x
Volume Analogy 1.2 m
Ax
F1 = p11.5w = 1.35 gw N A mg
g = 250g
gw
F2 = 0.5( p2 p1 )1.5w Ay
= 0.675 gw N
M A = 0 +
0.9Bx 250gw 0.6 1.35 gw 0.75 0.675 gw 0.5 = 0
0 9Bx = 1
0.9 00gw Bx = 1666
1500 1666.7gw kN
Force per meter acting at B = 1.67g = 16.3 kN/m Ans
80

80
Fluid Statics

Buoyancy Definition
The resultant force exerted on the surface of an object
immersed in a fluid:
is equal and opposite to the weight of displaced fluid,

pass through the center of buoyancy B (center of mass of the

displaced fluid).

FB = pA = ( w gh )A
= ( w hA)g
= wVf g
81

81
Fluid Statics

Buoyancy Stability

stable unstable
82

82
Cables

Flexible Cables
Found in suspension bridges, transmission lines, etc.
Topics
Assumptions of flexible cables

Types
yp of cable loadings g
Geometrical definition

Parabolic cables

Catenary
C t cables
bl

83

83
Cables

Flexible Cables Assumptions


Bear load only in tension
Negligible displacement due to stretching
Inextensible

Perfectly
y flexible
Negligible bending resistance

Tangential tension along the cable

84

84
Cables

Flexible Cables Concentrated Loads


Concentrated / discrete load
Weight of the cable is negligible
negligible.

85

85
Cables

Cables Geometrical Definitions


L

S = length (m) h
L = span (m)
h = sag, dip (m)
S

y T
w = load intensity (N/m)
= tangential angle at x (rad) T0
T = tension at x (N) x
w
T0 = tension at lowest point (N)
x

86

86
Cables

Parabolic Cables

Longest Suspension Bridge


Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Japan
3910 m total span
(http://www.hsba.go.jp/bridge/)

main cable

suspender

deck tower 87

87
Cables

Parabolic Cables Analysis


y T
w = uniform vertical load
T0 per unit of horizontal length
x
w
x

Fx = 0 T cos T0 = 0 T cos = T0 (1)


Fy = 0 T sin wx = 0 T sin = wx (2)
(2) w dy y x w
(1)
tan =
T0
x=
dx
0
dy =
0 T0
x dx

(2)2 + (1)2
1w 2 2
y= x , T = T02 + w 2 x 2
2 T0
88

88
Cables

Parabolic Cables Formula


y
l

h x

1w 2 1 2
y= x = ax , a = w / T0
2 T0 2
1w 2
T0 = l at x = l , y = h
2h
T = T0 2 + w 2 x 2 = T0 1 + a 2 x 2 Tmax = T0 1 + a 2 l 2 at x = l

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 s=
1
2
( )
1 1
x 1 + a 2 x 2 + ln((ax + 1 + a 2 x 2 )
2a
89

89
Cables

Example Parabolic Cables 1 #1


Find tension in the cable at A and the angle made by the
cable with the horizontal at B.
B

B
70 m

40 m

A 30 kg/m

90

90
Cables

Example Parabolic Cables 1 #2


At point A
l = 70 m
m, h = 40 m wx 2 wl 2
T0 = =
w = 30g N/m = 294.21 N/m 2y 2h
(294.21 N/m)(70 m)2
T0 =
y T 2(40 m)
s
l T0 = 18020.4 N = 18.02 kN Ans
B
T0 wx 2 dy wx
h y= = = tan
x
2T0 dx T0
A
w = 30g
g At p
point B
wx (294.21 N/m)(70 m)
tan = =
T0 18020.4 N
tan = 1.14286
= 48.8 Ans
91

91
Cables

Flexible Cables Catenary Cables

Vertical load is the


cables own weight.

92

92
Cables

Catenary Cables Analysis #1


y T = uniform vertical load
T0 s per unit of cable length

x

x

Fx = 0 T cos T0 = 0 T cos = T0 (1)


Fy = 0 T sin s = 0 T sin = s (2)
2
(2) dy d 2 y ds dy
tan = s = = = 1+
((1)) T0 dx dx 2 T0 dx T0 dx

93

93
Cables

Catenary Cables Analysis #2

dy
Let = = tan , a =
dx T0
dy
At x = 0 : y = 0, = =0
dx
2
d 2y dy
y
= 1 + dx
dx 2 T0
d d
= a 1+ 2 = a dx
dx 1+ 2

d x

0
1+ 2
= a dx
0

94

94
Cables

Catenary Cables Formula


y
Let a = / T0
l 1
y= ( cosh(ax ) 1)
a
h dy
x = tan = as
dx
s 1
s = sinh(ax )
a
As T cos = T0 , dx = ds cos
T = T0 cosh(ax )
T0 ds
hyp + sin sinh( x ) T = = T0
cos dx
hyp + cos cosh( x ) Tmax = T0 cosh(al ) at x = l

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/HyperbolicFunctions.html 95

95
Cables

Catenary Cables Hyperbolic Functions

e x e x
sinh( x ) =
2
e x + e x
cosh( x ) =
2
sinh( x )
tanh( x ) =
cosh( x )
d
sinh( x ) = cosh( x )
dx
d
cosh( x ) = sinh( x )
dx

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbolic_function
96

96
Cables

Example Catenary Cables 1 #1


Find the length of the cable.

400 m
B
A 100 m

y h = 100 m, l = 200 m

B h
A

l 97

97
Cables

Example Catenary Cables 1 #2


1
From y= (cosh ax 1)
a
At A : x = 200 m
1
100 = ( cosh(200a ) 1)
a
100a = cosh(200a ) 1 (1)
Solve (1), a = 4.6541 10 3 m-1 How to solve
1 100a = cosh(200a ) 1
From s= sinh ax
a
sinh(4.6541 103 200)
s=
4.6541 10 3
s = 230.158 m
Total length S = 2s = 460.3 m Ans 98

98
Cables 100a = cosh(200a ) 1 Graphical

Example Catenary Cables 1 #3


3.0

2.5
f = 100x
2.0 g = cosh(200x) 1

function
1.5

1.0

05
0.5
100a = cosh(200a ) 1
0.0
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010
-1
f ( x ) = 100 x x (m )
g ( x ) = cosh(200 x ) 1

f = g at x = 0.004654 m1 Ans
99

99
Cables 100a = cosh(200a ) 1 Newton-Raphson

Example Catenary Cables 1 #4


f ( xk )
q
For an equation f ( x ) = 0: xk +1 = xk
f ( xk )

f ( x ) = 100 x cosh(200
( x ) + 1,, f ( x ) = 100 200 sinh(200
( x)
Guess x0 = 0.01, f ( x0 ) = 1.7622, f ( x0 ) = 625.37
x1 = x0 f ( x0 ) / f ( x0 ) = 0.0071822
x2 = x1 f ( x1 ) / f ( x1 ) = 0.0054857
x3 = x2 f ( x2 ) / f ( x2 ) = 0.0047868 See file
p _ y_
chap4_catenary_1.xls
x 4 = x3 f ( x3 ) / f ( x3 ) = 0.0046
0 0046584
x5 = x4 f ( x4 ) / f ( x4 ) = 0.0046541
x6 = x5 f ( x5 ) / f ( x5 ) = 0
0.0046541
0046541 Ans

100

100
Cables 100a = cosh(200a ) 1 Newton-Raphson

Example Catenary Cables 1 #5

0.5 f(x0)/f'(x0)
x1 x0
00
0.0
ction f

-0.5
func

-1.0 f = 100x

-1.5

-2.0
0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010
-1
x (m )

Numerical Methods in Engineering by Prof. Pramote Dechaumphai 101

101
Cables

Example Catenary Cables 2 #1


Find the length of the cable.

40 m
A
8m
14 m
B

y
l2
A
h1 B h1 = 6 m
h2
l1 h2 = 14 m
x1
x2 l1 + l 2 = 40 m
s2
s1
102

102
Cables

Example Catenary Cables 2 #2


y
l2
A
h1 B h1 = 6 m
h2
l1 h2 = 14 m
x1
x2 l1 + l 2 = 40 m
s2
s1

1
From y=
(cosh ax 1)
a
1
At B : 6 = (cosh al1 1) (1)
a
1 1
At A : 14 = (cosh al 2 1) = cosh ( a(40 l1 ) ) 1 (2)
a a
Solve (1) and (2): a = 0.04453 m-1, l1 = 16.07 m 103

103
Cables

Example Catenary Cables 2 #3


y
l2
A
h1 B h1 = 6 m
h2
l1 h2 = 14 m
x1
x2 l1 + l 2 = 40 m
s2
s1
1
s = sinh
i h ax
a
1
s1 = sinh(0.04453 16.07) = 17.477 m
0.04453
1
s2 = sinh ( 0.04453(40 16.07) ) = 28.723 m
0.04453

Total cable length S = s1 + s2 = 46.2 m Ans 104

104
Cables Newton-Raphson

Example Catenary Cables 2 #4

f ( xk )
For an equation f ( x ) = 0: xk +1 = xk
f ( xk )

For equations f ( x, y ) = 0 and g ( x, y ) = 0,


f ( xk , y k ) x f ( xk , y k ) y xk +1 f ( xk , y k )

g ( x , y ) x g ( x , y ) y y = g( x , y )
k k k k k +1 k k

xk +1 = xk + xk +1 and y k +1 = y k + y k +1

Numerical Methods in Engineering by Prof. Pramote Dechaumphai 105

105
Cables Newton-Raphson

Example Catenary Cables 2 #5


let x = a, y = l1 : f ( x, y ) = cosh xy 6 x 1 = 0
g ( x, y ) = cosh ( x (40 y ) ) 14 x 1 = 0
f ( x, y ) x = y sinh xy 6
f ( x, y ) y = x sinh xy
g ( x, y ) x = (40 y ) sinh ( x (40 y ) ) 14
g ( x, y ) y = x sinh ( x (40 y ) )

106

106
Cables Newton-Raphson

Example Catenary Cables 2 #7


Guess x0 = 1.0, y 0 = 20 :
f ( x0 , y 0 ) = 2.4258 108 , g( x0 , y 0 ) = 2.4258 108 ,
f / x = 4.8517 109 , f / y = 2.4258 108 ,
g / x = 4.8517 109 , g / y = 2.4258 108.
f ( xk , y k ) x f ( xk , y k ) y xk +1 f ( xk , y k )
g ( x , y ) x g ( x , y ) y y = g ( x , y )
k k k k k +1 k k

4.8517 109 2.4258 108 x2 2.4258 108



8 = 8
4
4.8517
8517 10 9
2.4258
2 4258 10 y
2 2.4258
2 4258 10
x1 = 5.0000 102 , y1 = 1.5665 108
x1 = x0 + x1 = 1.0 0.5,
y1 = y 0 + y1 = 20.0 1.566 10 8 = 20.0
107

107
Cables Newton-Raphson
See file chap4_catenary_2.xls
Example Catenary Cables 2 #8
k x y Dx Dy
0 1.00000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -1.5665E-08
1 0.95000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -4.3288E-08
2 0.90000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -1.1835E-07
3 0.85000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -3.2214E-07
4 0 80000
0.80000 20 000
20.000 -5
5.0000E
0000E-02
02 -8
8.7523E
7523E-07
07
5 0.75000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -2.3757E-06
6 0.70000 20.000 -4.9999E-02 -6.4449E-06
7 0.65000 20.000 -4.9998E-02 -1.7475E-05

19 0.08365 19.000 -2.2676E-02 -8.8940E-01


20 0.06097 18.110 -1.1950E-02 -1.0926E+00
21 0 04902
0.04902 17 018
17.018 -3.9691E-03
3 9691E 03 -7.6840E-01
7 6840E 01
22 0.04505 16.249 -5.1462E-04 -1.7321E-01
23 0.04454 16.076 -1.0609E-05 -4.8138E-03
24 0.04453 16.071 -5.6995E-09 -2.7864E-06
25 0.04453 16.071 -1.7810E-15 -8.7017E-13

108

108
Review

Concepts #1
Centroid, center of mass and center of gravity
respectively represent the centers of geometry, mass
and weight.

Pappus theorems can be used to find the surface area


and volume of revolutions.

Apart from moments of forces, there are several kinds of


moments. The first moment of area is a property of cross
section that is used to predict its resistance to shear
stress. The moment of inertia quantifies the rotational
inertia of a body. The polar moment of inertia is a
property of cross section that is used to predict its
resistance to torsion.
109

109
Review

Concepts
p #2
The equivalent resultant of the distributed loads can be used
in the analyses instead of the distributed loads
loads. The area and
volume analogies help visualized the line and surface
distributed loads on bodies.
Th fluid
The t ti deal
fl id statics d l with
ith th
the effects
ff t off fluid
fl id att rest.
t
The pressure, exerted by the fluid in the perpendicular
direction with respect to the surface in contact with the fluid,
varies linearly with depth.
The block of fluid is an addition method to determine

resultants.
Flexible cables can support tension only.
Parabolic cables are loaded with uniform force per unit

span length
l th.
Catenary cables are loaded with uniform force per unit of

cable length. 110

110