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Distributed Loads

2142111 Statics,

S i 2011/2

Department of Mechanical

Engineering Chulalongkorn University

Engineering,

1

Objectives Students must be able to #1

Course Objective

I l d di

Include distributed

t ib t d loads

l d into

i t equilibrium

ilib i analyses

l

Chapter Objectives

Describe the characteristics and determine the centroids,

centers of mass and centers of gravity by integration and

composite body methods

Apply the Pappus Theorems for surface and volume of

revolution

Describe the characteristics and determine the first moment of

area, second moment off area and polar moment off inertia by

integration, parallel-axis theorem and perpendicular-axis

theorem

Determine the resultant of loads (force/couple) with line, area

and volume distribution by integration and area/volume analogy

2

2

Objectives Students must be able to #2

Analyze bodies/structures with distributed loads for unknown

loads/reactions by appropriate FBDs

Describe the characteristics and determine hydrostatic and

aerostatic pressures as distributed loads

Determine the resultant of fluid statics by integration

integration, volume

analogy and block-of-fluid methods

Describe and determine the buoyancy and stability of floating

bodies

Analyze bodies/structures with fluid statics for unknown

loads/reactions byy appropriate

pp p FBDs

3

Objectives Students must be able to #3

For flexible cables

St t the

State th assumptions

ti andd geometrical

t i l definitions

d fi iti off flexible

fl ibl

cables

Appropriately

pp p y approximate

pp real-life cables into p parabolic or

catenary cables by load distribution

Prove and apply profile, length and tension formula for

parabolic & catenary cables

Identify and utilize techniques for obtaining numerical solutions

of parabolic & catenary cables

4

Contents

Centroid, Center of Mass and Center of Gravity

Pappus Theorems

First Moment of Area, Moment of Inertia, Polar Moment of

Inertia

Distributed Loads

Fluid Statics

Flexible Cables

5

Software Helps

3M Software

Maple Computer Center

Mathematica

Maple

Select

S l t Maple

M l iin th

the St

Startt M

Menu

Type in commands, then Enter

Use Help

Help Menu

Menu for command templates

6

Center

F

x1

x2

x3

x4

G

x1 + x2 + x3 + x 4

x x=

4

7

7

Center

Centers of Gravity, CG

Weight of a body can be represented by an equivalent force

acting at its center of gravity G.

Assume a uniform and parallel force field due to gravitational

attraction for most problems

Weight W = mg where m is the mass of the body and g is the

magnitude of gravitational acceleration.

The center of gravity of is a unique point which is a function of

weight distribution only.

8

Center

CG Principle of Moments

N x dWi i

M y = x i dWi = xW x= i =1

i =1 W

If dWi 0 : x=

x dW

,y=

y dW

W W

9

Center

CG Composite Bodies #1

W = W1 + W2

Wx = W1x1 + W2 x 2

Wyy = W1y1 + W2 y 2

10

10

Center

CG Composite Bodies #2

W = W1 W2

Wx = W1x1 W2 x 2

y = W1y1 W2 y 2

Wy

11

11

Center

Centers of Mass, CM

An objects distribution of mass can be represented by an

equivalent mass acting at its center of mass.

The center of mass of is a unique point which is a function

solely of mass distribution

distribution.

Centers of mass coincides with G as long as the gravity

field is treated as uniform and parallel.

x=

x dm

m

y=

y dm

m

12

12

Center

Centroids

If the density is constant and and gravity field is uniform

parallel, G and center of mass coincide with the

and parallel

centroid of the body.

The centroid C is the geometrical center or the weighted

average position of an object.

Locating the centroid by averaging the moments of

elements of objects about axes.

axes

The centroid lies on the axis of symmetry.

Geometry of the body is the only factor that influence the

position of the centroid.

13

13

Center

Centroids Formula

For a line of length L x=

x dL

,y=

y dL

, ...

L L

x dA

, y=

y dA

, ...

A A

x dV ,y=

y dV , ...

V V

14

14

Center

Centroids Symmetry

If a body has an axis of symmetry, its centroid lies on this axis.

15

15

Center

Example Centroids 1 #1

Find centroid C of area A

x

x = cy 2 y = ( )1/ 2

c

2 a

at x = a, y = b a = cb , c = 2

b

x

dA = y dx = ( )1/ 2 dx

c

a x 2 a3 / 2 2

A = dA = ( ) dx =

1/ 2

1/ 2

= ab

A 0 c 3c 3

16

16

Center

Example

p Centroids 1 #2

Find y by moment of area about x axis

a y

Ay = y dA =

( y dx )

A 0 2

1 a 2 1 a

Ay = y dx = x dx

2 0 2c 0

a a

1 x2 b2 1 2 ab 2

Ay =

A = x =

2c 2 0 2a 2 0 4

ab 2 ab 2 3 3b

y= = = Ans

4A 4 2ab 8

17

17

Center

Example

p Centroids 1 #3

Find x by moment of area about y axis

a x

Ax = x dA = x ( )1/2 dx

A 0 c

1 a 2 a

Ax = 1/ 2 x 3 / 2 dx = 1/ 2 x 5 / 2

c 0 5c 0

2a5 / 2 2a 2 b

Ax = 1/ 2 =

5c 5

2a 2 b 2a 2 b 3 3a

x= = = Ans

5A 5 2ab 5

18

18

Center

Example Centroids 2 #1

Find centroid C of line L, given a = b = 100 mm

dx

x = cy 2 = 2cy

dy

dL = dx 2 + dy 2

= (dx / dy )2 + 1 dy

b

L = dL = 1 + (dx dy )2 d

d /d dy

L 0

b

= 1 + (2cy )2 dy

0

= 147.9 mm

19

19

Center

Example Centroids 2 #2

b

Ly = y dL = y 1 + (2cy )2 dy

L 0

Find x by taking moment of line about y axis

b

Lx = x dL = cy 2 1 + (2cy )2 dy

L 0

20

20

Center Formula

Example Centroids 2 #3

1

x 2 a 2 dx = x x 2 a 2 a 2 ln( x + x 2 a 2 )

2

1 2 3

2 2 2

x x a dx = ( x a )

3

1 1 2

2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2

x x a dx = x ( x a ) a x x a

4 8

1

= a 4 ln( x + x 2 a 2 )

8

21

21

Center

Example Centroids 3 #1

Find centroid C of arc L

length of arc L = 2r

Lx = x (dL ) = r cos (r d )

L

2r x = 2r cos d = 2r 2 sin

2

r sin

x= Ans

22

22

Center

Example Centroids 4 #1

Built around 2560 BC, the Great

Pyramid of Khufu (Cheops) is one

of the Seven Wonders of the

Ancient World. It was 481 ft high;g ;

the horizontal cross section of the

pyramid is square at any level, with

each side measuring 751 ft at the

base. By discounting any

irregularities, find the position of

Pharaohs

Pharaoh s burial chamber

chamber, which is

located at the heart [centroid] of the

pyramid.

(http://ce.eng.usf.edu/pharos/wonders/pyramid.html)

23

23

Center

Example Centroids 4 #2

By symmetry about x and y axes,

C lies on z axis.

At x = 0, z = h and x = a, z = 0

h0 h

z = mx + C = x+h= x+h

0a a

a a

x = ( z h ) = (h z )

h h 4a 2 h

4a 2 Vz = z dV = 2 z(h z )2 dz

dV = dz = 2 (h z )2 dz V h 0

h

4a 2 1 4 a 2h 2

h 4a 2h = 2 ( h )=

V = dV = (2 x ) dz =

2

h 12 3

V 0 3 h

z = = 120.25 ft Ans

4

24

24

Center

Example Centroids 5 #1

Find centroid C of the body.

25

25

Center

Example Centroids 5 #2

Comp V (mm3 ) x (mm) y (mm) z (mm)

B

Box 8 08 106

8.08 0 0 0

Cylinder 2.26 106 185 0 0

Rod 17 67 103

17.67 0 175 0

Sphere 0.524 106 0 275 0

Total 0 88 106

10.88

x =

V x x = 38.5 mm

i i

V i

y =

V y

i i

y = 13.52 mm

V i

z =

V z

i i

z = 0 mm Ans

V i

26

26

Pappus Theorem I

The area of a surface of revolution equals the product of

the length of the generating curve and the distance

traveled by the centroid of the curve in generating the

surface area.

complete revolution

S = (2 )( x )L

S = 2 xL

L

For incomplete revolution

S = xL

27

27

Pappus Theorem II

The volume of a body of revolution equals the product of

the generating area and the distance traveled by the

centroid of the area in generating the volume.

complete revolution

V = (2 )( x )A

V = 2 xA

For incomplete revolution

V = xA

28

28

Pappus

Also called the Pappus - Guldinus Theorem

The theorem require that the generating curves and areas

do not cross the axis about which they rotates.

29

29

Pappus

Find centroid C of a quarter circular area with radius r.

symmetry x = y

By symmetry,

Quarter-circular area A = r 2 4

Volume of hemisphere V = 2 r 3 3

[V = 2 xA] 2 r 3 3 = 2 x ( r 2 4)

4r

x=y = Ans

3

30

30

Summary

Centroid, CM and CG are centers of geometry, mass and gravity.

Centroid and CM coincide if the density is constant.

Calculation by moment

Integration

Composite body

P

Pappus th

theorems ffor bodies

b di generated

t dbby revolutions

l ti

31

31

Moments

Moment of

moment of line L about z axis = rL

moment of area A about z axis = rA

moment of volume V about z axis = rV

32

32

Moments

The first moment of area Q

The first moment of area with

respect to x axes

Qx = y dA = yA

A

respect to y axes

Qy = x dA = xA

A

33

33

Moments

The second moment of area or

the area moment of inertia I

The second moment of area

I xx = y 2 dA

with respect to y axes

I yy = x 2 dA

34

34

Moments

J = r 2 dA = ( x 2 + y 2 ) dA

A A

= I xx + I yy

35

35

Moments

Ix & Iy vs Iz Parallel

Parallel-Axis

Axis Theorem

I xx = ( y + d y )2 dA

A

= ( y )2 dA + 2d y y dA + d y2 dA

A A A

= I xx + 0 + Ad y2

I xx = I xx + Ad y2

I yy = I y y + Ad x2

J = I xx + I yy

36

36

Moments

Find the second moments of area

and p

polar moment of inertia about

axes passing though the center

I xx = y 2 dA = y 2 2 x dy

A A

a4

I xx = y (2 a y ) dy =

2 2 2

A 4

By symmetry

a4

I yy = I xx =

4

a4

J = I xx + I yy =

2 37

37

Moments

Find the second moments of area

and polar moment of inertia about

axes xc y c

a4 5 a 4

2

I xc xc = I xx + Ad =

y + a a =

2 2

yc 4 4

a4 5 a 4

I yc y c = I yy + Ad x = 2

+ a a =

2 2

xc 4 4

5 a 4

J = I x c xc + I y c y c =

2

38

38

Moments

Area ( x, y ) I xx I yy

bh3 hb3

bh (0,0)

12 12

D2 D4 D4

(0,0)

4 64 64

39

39

Moments

Area ( x, y ) I xx I yy

bh h bh3 hb3

(0 )

(0,

2 3 36 48

4 4

40

40

Moments

68 Mech of Mat #1

Find the second moment of area with respect to the neutral

axis (the horizontal axis which passes through the centroid of

the area)

41

41

Moments

68 Mech of Mat #2

C = C( y , z )

Byy symmetry,

y y, z = 0

y1 = (10 + 0.5) in.

A1 = (6 in.)(1 in.)

y 2 = 5 in.

A2 = (1 in.)(10 in.)

y=

y Ai i

=

y1A1 + y 2 A2

A i A1 + A2

y = 7.0625

7 0625 in

in.

42

42

Moments

68 Mech of Mat #3

p to ((wrt)) horizontal

axis passing through C

1

Izc zc = (6 in.)(1 in.)3 +

12

Izc zc = (6 in.2 )(10.5 in. 7.0625 in.)2 +

1

Izc zc = (1 in.)(10 in.)3 +

12

Izc zc = (10 in.2 )(7.0625 in. 5 in.)2

Izc zc = 197.2708 in.4 = 197 in.4

43

43

Distributed Loads

Concentrated Load

acts at a point,

acceptable

t bl approximation

i ti whenh contact

t t area iis small.

ll

Distributed Loads

distributed over line, area, volume.

44

44

Distributed Loads

45

45

Distributed Loads

Line Distribution

Intensity w (N/m) = force per unit length

Area Distribution

Intensity (N/m or Pa) = force per unit area

2

Internal

I t l intensity

i t it off force

f in

i solid

lid stress

t

Volume Distribution

Intensity (N/m ) = body force per unit volume

3

attraction.

tt ti

46

46

Distributed Loads

Distributed loads can be represented by an equivalent

force-couple system

system, consisting of

Resultant force FR

Magnitude

Direction

Line of action

Resultant couple MR

Magnitude

Direction

47

47

Distributed Loads

The distributed loads may be described by functions of

positions.

positions

48

48

Distributed Loads

FR = w dx magnitude of F

M = wx dx = FR x location of F

49

49

Distributed Loads

Example

p Line Resultant 1 #1

w = (0.012 x 2 ) 106 N/m (x in m)

0.01 m

FR = w dx = 10 6

(0 01 m)2 x 2 dx

(0.01

0

0.01

= 10 0.012 x ( x 3 3)

6

=2 3 N

0

0.01

M = wx dx = 106 (0.012 x 2 )x dx

0

0.01

06 (0

= 10 0 2 x 2 2)) ( x 4 4))

(0.01

0

= 2.5 10 3 N m

M = xFR x = 3.75 mm

50

50

Distributed Loads

If y = w

FR = w dx area A

x = xw dx

d FR

centroid of A

by the line distributed load is equal to

the area A and acts through the

centroid of A between the loading curve

and the x axis.

axis

51

51

Distributed Loads

Determine the reactions at A and C.

52

52

Distributed Loads

N/m)(5

F2 = (100 N/m)(6 m) = 600 N

F3 = 0.5(100

0 5(100 N/m)(6 m) = 300 N

53

53

Distributed Loads

Fx = 0

F1 + Ax = 0

Ax = 1000 N Ans

M A = 0 +

(2 5 m) F3 (2 m)

F1(2.5

F2 (3 m) + Cy (6 m) = 0

Cy = 16.667 N Ans

Fy = 0

Ay + Cy F2 F3 = 0

Ay = 916.67 N Ans

54

54

Distributed Loads

If the cable can sustain tension of up to 600 N, determine

the maximum w. w

55

55

Distributed Loads

MC = 0 +

(15w N)(7

N)(7.55 m) (7 5w N)(20 m) + T (15 m) + T sin30(30 m) = 0

(7.5

w = 30T 262.5 N/m

Given Tmax = 600 N, thus w max = 30Tmax 262.5 N/m

w max = 68.57 N/m Ans

56

56

Distributed Loads

Find support reactions

1m

F = dA = ( x )1/ 2dx

A 0

1m

2( x )3 / 2 2

= = kN

3 0 3

1m

xF = x ( x )1/ 2dx

0

1m

2( x )5 / 2

= = 0.4 kN m

5 0

x = 0.6

06m

57

57

Distributed Loads

Fx = 0

Cx = 0 Ans

Fy = 0

Cy + 2 / 3 kN = 0

Cy = 0.667 kN Ans

MC = 0 +

M + (0.6 m)(2 / 3 kN) = 0

M = 0.4 kN m Ans

58

58

Distributed Loads

FR = p dA

M = xp dA = FR x

59

59

Distributed Loads

Example

p Hibbeler 9-121 #1

concentrated load

60

60

Distributed Loads

Example

p Hibbeler 9-121 #2

p

P1 40 lb/ft2 General equation of a plane

P4 ax + by + cp + d = 0 (1)

P2 FR

30 lb/ft2

20 lb/ft2 P1(0 ft,0 ft,40 lb/ft 2 )

x y 40c + d = 0

y P3

P2 (5 ft,0 ft,30 lb/ft 2 )

x 5 ft

10 ft 10 lb/ft2 5a + 30c + d = 0

P3 (5 ft,10 ft,10 lb/ft 2 )

a = 2c, b = 2c, d = 40c 5a + 10b + 10c + d = 0

Subst into (1) P4 (0 ft,10 ft,20 lb/ft 2 )

2cx + 2cy + cp 40c = 0 10b + 20c + d = 0

2 x + 2y + p 40 = 0

p = 2 x 2y + 40 lb/ft 2

61

61

Distributed Loads

Example

p Hibbeler 9-121 #3

p

40 lb/ft2

FR

20 lb/ft2

30 lb/ft2

x y

y

x 5 ft

10 ft 10 lb/ft2

dFR = p dA = ( 2 x 2y + 40) dx dy

5 10

FR = ( 2 x 2y + 40) dydx = 1250 lb Ans

0 0

62

62

Distributed Loads

Example

p Hibbeler 9-121 #4

p

40 lb/ft2

30 lb/ft2

FR

20 lb/ft2

x=

FR

x dFR

= 2.33

2 33 ft

FR

x y

y

5 ft y=

FR

y dFR

= 4.33

4 33 ft Ans

x

10 ft 10 lb/ft2 FR

5 10

FR

x dFR =

0

0

( 2 x 2y + 40)x dydx = 2916.67 lb ft

5 10

FR

y dFR =

0

0

( 2 x 2y + 40)y dydx = 5416.67 lb ft

63

63

Distributed Loads

If z = p

F = p dA volume V

x = xp dA F centroid of V

y = yp dA F

q

the area distributed load is equal to the

volume V and acts through the

centroid of V

64

64

Fluid Statics

Fluid Statics

Required in studies and designs of pressure vessels,

piping ships

piping, ships, dams and off-shore structures

structures, etc

etc.

Topics

Definitions

Fluid pressure

Buoyancy

Air pressure

p

65

65

Fluid Statics

Fluid is any continuous substance which, when at rest, is

unable to support shear force

force.

Fluid Statics studies pressure of fluid at rest.

Hydrostatics stationary liquid

the same in all directions.

directions

Pressure p in fluid at rest is a function of vertical

dimension and its density .

Resultant force on a body from pressure acts at the center

of pressure P.

66

66

Fluid Statics

Fx = 0 ( p )dA + w g (dAdx ) ( p + dp )dA = 0

dp = w g (dx )

67

67

Fluid Statics

In x direction only

d = w g d

dp dx

p x

p0

dp = w g dx

0

p = p0 + w gx

p0 = pressure att x = 0

F = p dA

A

68

68

Fluid Statics

Find the resultant force and

its position on the submerged

face AB. It is given that the

width of the plate is b and the

fluid has a constant density .

Methods

Integration

Volume analogy

69

69

Fluid Statics

Fluid Block

Pressure Submerged Surfaces #2

Consider equilibrium of

the block of fluid above

the plate:

F x = 0, F

y = 0, M

O =0

70

70

Fluid Statics

Find the resultant force and its position on the dam with 1

m width.

width The density of water is 1000 kg/m3.

1m

p1

y

x

F

2.5 m 2.5 m

P

L

p2

1m

71

71

Fluid Statics

Integration

Example Fluid Statics 1 #2

x

y= +1 1

2.5 Fx = p dAy = g

gx ((1dy

y)

A 0

p1 0 gx

= (dx )

y

2.5 2.5

0

x g x 2

F Fx = = 12250 N

2.5 2 2.5

2.5 m

Fy 2.5

P

L

Fy = p dAx = gx (1dx )

A 0

p2 2.5

x2

= g = 30625

3062 N

2 0

1m F 2 = Fx2 + Fy2

F = 32984 N = 33.0 kN Ans

72

72

Fluid Statics

Integration

Example Fluid Statics 1 #3

x 1

y= +1 Fx y = py dAy = gxy (1dy )

2.5 A 0

0 gx x

p1 = ( + 1) dx

2.5 2.5 2.5

y 25

2.5

g x3

x = = 4083.3 N m

F Fx 2.52 3 0

2.5 m y = 0.33333

0 33333 m

Fy

P

L 2.5

p2 Fy x = px dAx = gx 2 (1dx )

A 0

25

2.5

x3

= g = 51042 N m

1m 3 0

x = 1.6667

1 6667 m

P ( x , y ) = (1.67,0.333) m Ans

73

73

Fluid Statics

Volume Analogy

Example Fluid Statics 1 #4

At x = 0, p1 = 0

p1 x = 2.5 m, p2 = 2.5 g N

1

y F = ( p1 + p2 )LW

2

x

F 1

= 2.5 1000 9.8 2.52 + 12 1

2.5 m 2

P F = 32.98 kN Ans

L

p2 2 1

P ( x, y ) = ( 2 2.5,

5 1)

3 3

P ( x , y ) = (1.67,0.333) m Ans

1m

74

74

Fluid Statics

Fluid Block

Example Fluid Statics 1 #5

1m

p1 2.5 m

2.5 m

y y

2.5/3 m

x x

G F

F1 F

P

L

p2

W

2.5/3 m

1m

1

W = gV = 1000 9.8 2.5 1 = 12250 N

2

1 1

F1 = ghH = 1000 9.8 2.5 2.5 = 30625 N

2 2 75

75

Fluid Statics

Fluid Block

Example Fluid Statics 1 #6

1m

2.5 m 2/3 m

y

Fx = 0

2.5/3 m W Fx = 0

x

G

Fx = 12250 N

F1 Fy

Fy = 0

P

W F

F1 Fy = 0

Fx

2.5/3 m Fy = 30625 N

F 2 = Fx2 + Fy2

F = 32984 N = 33.0 kN Ans

76

76

Fluid Statics

Fluid Block

Example Fluid Statics 1 #7

1m

2.5 m 2/3 m

O

MO = 0 +

y

2.5/3 m 1 2.5 2

x

G L Fy x + Fx y W + F1 =0

3 3

F1 Fy 2 2.52 1

+ y 2.5 x

3 3

P

W

Fx F x x

From y = + 1, y = +1

2.5/3 m 2.5 2.5

5 1

x= ,y=

3 3

P ( x , y ) = (5 / 3

3,1/

1/ 3) m A

Ans

77

77

Fluid Statics

Cross section of a long

channel is shown

shown. Each of

the bottom plates, hinged at

B, has a mass of 250 kg

per meter of channel

length. Find force per meter

of channel length acting on

09m

0.9 each plate at B.

B The

density of water is 1000

1.2 m 1.2 m kg/m3 .

B

A 09m

0.9 C

78

78

Fluid Statics

At B, p1 = 0.9 g N

A A,

At p2 = 1 8g N

1.8

Width of channel = w

Symmetry of forces at B: By = 0

p1 By By p1

B Bx Bx B

p2 p2

0.9 m 0.9 m

0.6 m y 0.6 m

1.2 m 1.2 m

Ax x Cx

A mg = 250gw mg = 250gw C

Ay C

79

y

79

Fluid Statics

Volume Analogy

Example Fluid Statics 2 #3

p1

B Bx

p2 F1

F2

y

0.9 m

x

Volume Analogy 1.2 m

Ax

F1 = p11.5w = 1.35 gw N A mg

g = 250g

gw

F2 = 0.5( p2 p1 )1.5w Ay

= 0.675 gw N

M A = 0 +

0.9Bx 250gw 0.6 1.35 gw 0.75 0.675 gw 0.5 = 0

0 9Bx = 1

0.9 00gw Bx = 1666

1500 1666.7gw kN

Force per meter acting at B = 1.67g = 16.3 kN/m Ans

80

80

Fluid Statics

Buoyancy Definition

The resultant force exerted on the surface of an object

immersed in a fluid:

is equal and opposite to the weight of displaced fluid,

displaced fluid).

FB = pA = ( w gh )A

= ( w hA)g

= wVf g

81

81

Fluid Statics

Buoyancy Stability

stable unstable

82

82

Cables

Flexible Cables

Found in suspension bridges, transmission lines, etc.

Topics

Assumptions of flexible cables

Types

yp of cable loadings g

Geometrical definition

Parabolic cables

Catenary

C t cables

bl

83

83

Cables

Bear load only in tension

Negligible displacement due to stretching

Inextensible

Perfectly

y flexible

Negligible bending resistance

84

84

Cables

Concentrated / discrete load

Weight of the cable is negligible

negligible.

85

85

Cables

L

S = length (m) h

L = span (m)

h = sag, dip (m)

S

y T

w = load intensity (N/m)

= tangential angle at x (rad) T0

T = tension at x (N) x

w

T0 = tension at lowest point (N)

x

86

86

Cables

Parabolic Cables

Akashi Kaikyo Bridge, Japan

3910 m total span

(http://www.hsba.go.jp/bridge/)

main cable

suspender

deck tower 87

87

Cables

y T

w = uniform vertical load

T0 per unit of horizontal length

x

w

x

Fy = 0 T sin wx = 0 T sin = wx (2)

(2) w dy y x w

(1)

tan =

T0

x=

dx

0

dy =

0 T0

x dx

(2)2 + (1)2

1w 2 2

y= x , T = T02 + w 2 x 2

2 T0

88

88

Cables

y

l

h x

1w 2 1 2

y= x = ax , a = w / T0

2 T0 2

1w 2

T0 = l at x = l , y = h

2h

T = T0 2 + w 2 x 2 = T0 1 + a 2 x 2 Tmax = T0 1 + a 2 l 2 at x = l

ds 2 = dx 2 + dy 2 s=

1

2

( )

1 1

x 1 + a 2 x 2 + ln((ax + 1 + a 2 x 2 )

2a

89

89

Cables

Find tension in the cable at A and the angle made by the

cable with the horizontal at B.

B

B

70 m

40 m

A 30 kg/m

90

90

Cables

At point A

l = 70 m

m, h = 40 m wx 2 wl 2

T0 = =

w = 30g N/m = 294.21 N/m 2y 2h

(294.21 N/m)(70 m)2

T0 =

y T 2(40 m)

s

l T0 = 18020.4 N = 18.02 kN Ans

B

T0 wx 2 dy wx

h y= = = tan

x

2T0 dx T0

A

w = 30g

g At p

point B

wx (294.21 N/m)(70 m)

tan = =

T0 18020.4 N

tan = 1.14286

= 48.8 Ans

91

91

Cables

cables own weight.

92

92

Cables

y T = uniform vertical load

T0 s per unit of cable length

x

x

Fy = 0 T sin s = 0 T sin = s (2)

2

(2) dy d 2 y ds dy

tan = s = = = 1+

((1)) T0 dx dx 2 T0 dx T0 dx

93

93

Cables

dy

Let = = tan , a =

dx T0

dy

At x = 0 : y = 0, = =0

dx

2

d 2y dy

y

= 1 + dx

dx 2 T0

d d

= a 1+ 2 = a dx

dx 1+ 2

d x

0

1+ 2

= a dx

0

94

94

Cables

y

Let a = / T0

l 1

y= ( cosh(ax ) 1)

a

h dy

x = tan = as

dx

s 1

s = sinh(ax )

a

As T cos = T0 , dx = ds cos

T = T0 cosh(ax )

T0 ds

hyp + sin sinh( x ) T = = T0

cos dx

hyp + cos cosh( x ) Tmax = T0 cosh(al ) at x = l

http://mathworld.wolfram.com/topics/HyperbolicFunctions.html 95

95

Cables

e x e x

sinh( x ) =

2

e x + e x

cosh( x ) =

2

sinh( x )

tanh( x ) =

cosh( x )

d

sinh( x ) = cosh( x )

dx

d

cosh( x ) = sinh( x )

dx

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyperbolic_function

96

96

Cables

Find the length of the cable.

400 m

B

A 100 m

y h = 100 m, l = 200 m

B h

A

l 97

97

Cables

1

From y= (cosh ax 1)

a

At A : x = 200 m

1

100 = ( cosh(200a ) 1)

a

100a = cosh(200a ) 1 (1)

Solve (1), a = 4.6541 10 3 m-1 How to solve

1 100a = cosh(200a ) 1

From s= sinh ax

a

sinh(4.6541 103 200)

s=

4.6541 10 3

s = 230.158 m

Total length S = 2s = 460.3 m Ans 98

98

Cables 100a = cosh(200a ) 1 Graphical

3.0

2.5

f = 100x

2.0 g = cosh(200x) 1

function

1.5

1.0

05

0.5

100a = cosh(200a ) 1

0.0

0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010

-1

f ( x ) = 100 x x (m )

g ( x ) = cosh(200 x ) 1

f = g at x = 0.004654 m1 Ans

99

99

Cables 100a = cosh(200a ) 1 Newton-Raphson

f ( xk )

q

For an equation f ( x ) = 0: xk +1 = xk

f ( xk )

f ( x ) = 100 x cosh(200

( x ) + 1,, f ( x ) = 100 200 sinh(200

( x)

Guess x0 = 0.01, f ( x0 ) = 1.7622, f ( x0 ) = 625.37

x1 = x0 f ( x0 ) / f ( x0 ) = 0.0071822

x2 = x1 f ( x1 ) / f ( x1 ) = 0.0054857

x3 = x2 f ( x2 ) / f ( x2 ) = 0.0047868 See file

p _ y_

chap4_catenary_1.xls

x 4 = x3 f ( x3 ) / f ( x3 ) = 0.0046

0 0046584

x5 = x4 f ( x4 ) / f ( x4 ) = 0.0046541

x6 = x5 f ( x5 ) / f ( x5 ) = 0

0.0046541

0046541 Ans

100

100

Cables 100a = cosh(200a ) 1 Newton-Raphson

0.5 f(x0)/f'(x0)

x1 x0

00

0.0

ction f

-0.5

func

-1.0 f = 100x

-1.5

-2.0

0.000 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008 0.010

-1

x (m )

101

Cables

Find the length of the cable.

40 m

A

8m

14 m

B

y

l2

A

h1 B h1 = 6 m

h2

l1 h2 = 14 m

x1

x2 l1 + l 2 = 40 m

s2

s1

102

102

Cables

y

l2

A

h1 B h1 = 6 m

h2

l1 h2 = 14 m

x1

x2 l1 + l 2 = 40 m

s2

s1

1

From y=

(cosh ax 1)

a

1

At B : 6 = (cosh al1 1) (1)

a

1 1

At A : 14 = (cosh al 2 1) = cosh ( a(40 l1 ) ) 1 (2)

a a

Solve (1) and (2): a = 0.04453 m-1, l1 = 16.07 m 103

103

Cables

y

l2

A

h1 B h1 = 6 m

h2

l1 h2 = 14 m

x1

x2 l1 + l 2 = 40 m

s2

s1

1

s = sinh

i h ax

a

1

s1 = sinh(0.04453 16.07) = 17.477 m

0.04453

1

s2 = sinh ( 0.04453(40 16.07) ) = 28.723 m

0.04453

104

Cables Newton-Raphson

f ( xk )

For an equation f ( x ) = 0: xk +1 = xk

f ( xk )

f ( xk , y k ) x f ( xk , y k ) y xk +1 f ( xk , y k )

g ( x , y ) x g ( x , y ) y y = g( x , y )

k k k k k +1 k k

xk +1 = xk + xk +1 and y k +1 = y k + y k +1

105

Cables Newton-Raphson

let x = a, y = l1 : f ( x, y ) = cosh xy 6 x 1 = 0

g ( x, y ) = cosh ( x (40 y ) ) 14 x 1 = 0

f ( x, y ) x = y sinh xy 6

f ( x, y ) y = x sinh xy

g ( x, y ) x = (40 y ) sinh ( x (40 y ) ) 14

g ( x, y ) y = x sinh ( x (40 y ) )

106

106

Cables Newton-Raphson

Guess x0 = 1.0, y 0 = 20 :

f ( x0 , y 0 ) = 2.4258 108 , g( x0 , y 0 ) = 2.4258 108 ,

f / x = 4.8517 109 , f / y = 2.4258 108 ,

g / x = 4.8517 109 , g / y = 2.4258 108.

f ( xk , y k ) x f ( xk , y k ) y xk +1 f ( xk , y k )

g ( x , y ) x g ( x , y ) y y = g ( x , y )

k k k k k +1 k k

8 = 8

4

4.8517

8517 10 9

2.4258

2 4258 10 y

2 2.4258

2 4258 10

x1 = 5.0000 102 , y1 = 1.5665 108

x1 = x0 + x1 = 1.0 0.5,

y1 = y 0 + y1 = 20.0 1.566 10 8 = 20.0

107

107

Cables Newton-Raphson

See file chap4_catenary_2.xls

Example Catenary Cables 2 #8

k x y Dx Dy

0 1.00000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -1.5665E-08

1 0.95000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -4.3288E-08

2 0.90000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -1.1835E-07

3 0.85000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -3.2214E-07

4 0 80000

0.80000 20 000

20.000 -5

5.0000E

0000E-02

02 -8

8.7523E

7523E-07

07

5 0.75000 20.000 -5.0000E-02 -2.3757E-06

6 0.70000 20.000 -4.9999E-02 -6.4449E-06

7 0.65000 20.000 -4.9998E-02 -1.7475E-05

20 0.06097 18.110 -1.1950E-02 -1.0926E+00

21 0 04902

0.04902 17 018

17.018 -3.9691E-03

3 9691E 03 -7.6840E-01

7 6840E 01

22 0.04505 16.249 -5.1462E-04 -1.7321E-01

23 0.04454 16.076 -1.0609E-05 -4.8138E-03

24 0.04453 16.071 -5.6995E-09 -2.7864E-06

25 0.04453 16.071 -1.7810E-15 -8.7017E-13

108

108

Review

Concepts #1

Centroid, center of mass and center of gravity

respectively represent the centers of geometry, mass

and weight.

and volume of revolutions.

moments. The first moment of area is a property of cross

section that is used to predict its resistance to shear

stress. The moment of inertia quantifies the rotational

inertia of a body. The polar moment of inertia is a

property of cross section that is used to predict its

resistance to torsion.

109

109

Review

Concepts

p #2

The equivalent resultant of the distributed loads can be used

in the analyses instead of the distributed loads

loads. The area and

volume analogies help visualized the line and surface

distributed loads on bodies.

Th fluid

The t ti deal

fl id statics d l with

ith th

the effects

ff t off fluid

fl id att rest.

t

The pressure, exerted by the fluid in the perpendicular

direction with respect to the surface in contact with the fluid,

varies linearly with depth.

The block of fluid is an addition method to determine

resultants.

Flexible cables can support tension only.

Parabolic cables are loaded with uniform force per unit

span length

l th.

Catenary cables are loaded with uniform force per unit of

110

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