Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 373
Fans & Ventilation A Practical Guide The practical reference book and guide to fans, ventilation and ancillary equipment with a comprehensive buyers’ guide to worldwide manufacturers and suppliers WT W (Bill) Cory First published 2005, ‘Tre information contained inthis publication has Seen derived from many sources ands beleved tobe accurate at the time of pablletion. Opinions exprosied aro these ofthe author and any recommendations contained herein donot recessarily reprscrt he only ‘methods or procedures appropiate fr the stuatons discussed, but are rather Intended to present consensis opmnions andpractces of tho fan ane air movomont nduaty which may be elpfal ar of interest to thoxe who design, test neta, operate o maintain far ayers. , ‘acy ef the information cortines in tis ubliestionand further dieeaim any liability Yor th ues or aus af thi information, he publishers a not guarantes erty or acouro ‘the performance of ay fan/alrmevement system designed, tested, stale, operated or maintained onthe Bess ofthe formation ‘contained within the publication by the publisher oF the author for any injury and or damage te persone o property se 2 matter of product se, or tom any use or operation of any methods, products, instructions or ideas inthe material herein ISBN 0080-44626-4 [ACIP catalogue record for this book Is available from the Britsh Library © Roles & Associates Ltd Published by Elsevier in association with Roles & Associates Ltd OWES cassaciates Mas ELSEVIER Amsterdam Boston Heidelberg London New York Oxford Paris San Diego San Francisco Singapore Sydney Tokyo 1 Fan history, types and characteristics 41,4 Introduction 4.2 Ancient history — “Not our sort of fan” 41.2.1 The advent of mechanical ait movernent using “air pumps" ane fires 4.2.2 Early mine ventilation fans 1.2.8 The dawn of tunnel vantation 1.2.4 The first Mersey road tunnel 41.2.5 Mechanical draught 1.26 Air conditioning, heating and ventilation 1.2.7 Developments from the 1930s to the 1960s, 41.2.8 More recent tunnel ventiation fans 1.2.9 Longitudinal tunnel ventilation by jet fens 1.2.10 The rise of the axial flow fan 4.3 Definitions and classification 41.3.1 Introduction 1.3.2 Whatis a fan? 1.4 Fan characteristics 4.5 Centrifugal fans 1.5.1 Introduction 1.5.2 Forward curved blades 1.5.3 Deep vane forvard curved blades 1.5.4 Shrouded radial blades 41.5.5 Opon paddle biados 1.5.6 Backplated paddle impellers 1.5.7 Radia tipped blades 1.5.8 Backward inclined blades 1.5.9 Backward curved blades 1.5.10 Reverse curve blades 15.11 Backward aerofoll blades 4.5.12 General comment 16 Axis 1.8.1 Introduction flow fans 1.8.2 Ducted axial flow fans 1.6.2.4 Tube axial fan 1.6.2.2 Vane axial fan (Cownstream guide vanes - DSGV) 4.6.2.8 Vane axial fan upstream guide vanes - USGV) 1.6.2.4 Vane axialfan lupsveam and downstream guide vanes ~ ulDscv) 1.6.2.5 Contra-rotating axial low fan 116.3 Blade forms Contents 10 1" 12 13 15 18 8 20 2 a 2 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 26 28 28 28 1.6.3.1 Free vortex 1.6.3.2 Forced vortex 1.8.3.3 Arbitrary vortex 1.64 Other types of aial fow fan 1.8.4.1 Truly reversible flow 1.8.4.2 Fractional solidity 1.8.4.9 High pressure axial fane 1.8.4.4 High officioney fans 1.8.45 Low-pressure axial fans 1.7 Propeller fans 41.7.1 Impeller construction 41.7.2 Impeller postioning 41.7.3 Diaphragm, ring or bell mounting 4.7.4 Performance characteristics 1.8 Mixed flow fans 1.8.1 Why the need - comparison of characterstics 1.8.2 General construction 41.8.3 Pesarance characteristics 1.8.4 Noise characteristics 4.9 Miscellaneous fans 41.9.1 Cross flow fans 1.9.2 Ring shaped fans 41.10 Bibliography 2 The properties of gases 2.1 Explanation of terms 2.1.4 Introduction 2.4.2 Changes of state 2.1.2.1 Boiling point 2.1.2.2 Moting point 2.1.4 deal gases 2.14 Density 2.4.5 Pressure 2.2 The gas laws 2.2.1 Boyle'slaw and Charles’ law 2.2.2 Viscosity 2.2.3 Atmosphere air 2.2.4 Woter vapour 2.2.5 Dalton's law of partial pressure 2.3 Humidity 2.3.1 Introduction, 2.3.2 Relative humidity 2.3.3 Absolute humidity 29 2 29 29 29 29 29 20 30 30 30 20 30 a a at 2 2 2 32 2 3 33, 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 or 28 38 38 38 38 39 FANG & VENTILATION Xi contents 2.3.4 Dry bulb, wet bulb and dew point temperature: 23.5 Psychromettic charts 2.4 Compressibility 2.4.1 Introduction 24.2Gasdata 2.4.3 Acoustic problems 2.5 Hazards 28.1 introduction 25.2 Health hezards 258.3Physical hazards 25.4 Environmental hazards 2.8.5 installation hazard assessment 2.6 Bibliography 3 Air and gas flow 3.1 Basic equations 3.1.1 Introduction 2.4.2 Conservation of matter 2.1. Conservation of eneray 3.1.4 Real thermodynamic systerts 21.5 Bernoull’s equation 3.2 Fan aerodynamics 32.1 Introduction 22.2 Elementary centritugal fan theory 2.2.2 Elementary axial fan theory 3.23.1 Use of aerofoll section blades 2.2.4 Elementary mixed flow fan theory 3.3 Ductwork elements 3.3.1 Introduction 3.3.2 Diffusers 3.3.3 Blowing cutlets 3.93.1 Punkah louvres 3.3.2 Grilles 33.4 Exhaust inlets 3.3.4.4 Comparison of blowing and exhausting 3.34.2 Airflow into exhaust opening for dust extract 3.3.4.3 Loss of pressure in hoods 3.9.4.4 Values of coefficient of entry Cy 3.9.4.5 General notes on exhausting 3.4 Friction charts 3.4.1 Duet fiction 3.5 Losses 35.1 Bence itings 3.5.1.1 Reduting the rasistance of awkward bends 35.2 Branches and junctions 35.3 Louvies and grilles 35.4 Expansions ard contractions XI FANS & VENTILATION 39 39 39 38 38 39 39 44 a 4 4a a 43 45 45 45 45 45 48 ar 47 47 40 50 51 54 51 53 85 86 87 58 59 59 60 61 62 62 64 66. 65 66 66 66 3.85 Square or rectangular ducting 3.86 Non gs.s. (galvanised steel sheet) ducting 3,87 Inlet boxes 3.58 Discharge bends 3,59 Weather cape 3.6 Air duet design 3.6: Blowing systems forH & V 36.1.1 Design schemes 36.1.2 Duct resistance caleuation 36.1.3 General notes 3.62 Exhaust ver 36.2.1 Incustrial schemes 96.22 Take-off regain 36.2.3 Effect of change in velume lation systems for H & V 3.7 Balancing 3.7.4 Unbalenced system example 3.72 Balancing scheme 3.7.3 Balancing tests 3.8 Notes on duct construction 3.84 Dit 3.82 Damp 3.83 Noise 3.84 tnt and discharge of fans 3.85 Temperature control 3.86 Branch connections 3.87 Fite damper 3.88 Acjustment of damper at outle's, 3.9 Duct design for dust or refuse exhaust 3.9.1 General notes 3.02 Design echeme 3.93 Calculation of resistance 3.94 Balancing of dust extract systems 3.10 Bibliography 4 Fan performance Standards 4.1 Introduction 4.4.4 Fan performance 4.1.2 The outlet duct 4.13 180 conventions 4.14 Common parts of ducting 4.15 Notional Stendard compatigone 4.16 Flow conditioners 4.2 Laboratory Standards 4.3 Determining the performance of fans in-situ 4.3.1 Introduction 4,32 Performance ratings 4.3.3 Measuring stations ieee es Berean eaten mere aT NC a Beteesnrenicrere ein Hearne ettanec ONTA Peete Se tea eer Gs intindustry Kean eee on peiagypecmnmenloemnenpe cheered Bennet oe so Sc a anne tet ec aa an Coe icus n Se het rrr Teena ee eee etd a cemetery rr ear eae eee rete Eee tan tn TA NT Tae Month rea ALR Lan ¥ eset gen pce onion era prcg orem seg oe er aepreeceaer ent Bodine theese ntsc contol anter sintee ee pec Ceo Rac Pee ete eee Lr eer ee ee ee ete a een eS ari ar een eer eet) reine iene eta ee a eee Een et eed De ete ered cose pe eT Ue iE Goreme Contents 43.4 Flowate measurements 43.5 Pressure measurement 43.6 Power measurements 44 Installation category 455 Testing recommendations 4.5.1 Laboratory test stands 45.2 Fioldtoste 45.3 Measuring flowrate 4.5.4 Measuring fan pressure 4.5.5 Measuring air density 4.5.6 Measuring fan speod 45.7 Measuring absorbed power 4.5.8 Calibration and uncertainties 45.9 Test results 46 Fan Laws 46.1 Introduction 46.2 The concapt of fan similarity 46.3 Dimensional analysis 47 Specific values 47.1 Specific speed 4.7.2 Specific diameter 4.7.3 Composite charts 48 Bibliography 5 Fans and ducting systems 5.1 Introduction 8.2 Air system components 8.2.1 System inlet 6.2.2 Distribution sytem 5.2.3 Fan and prime mover 5.2.4 Contol apparatus 5.2.5 Conditioning apparatus 5.26 System outlet 5.3 System curves 5.4 Multiple fans 54.1 Fansin aseries 8.4.2 Fansin paralel 5.5 Fan installation mistakes 55:4 Incorect rotation 5.5.2 Wrong handed impaliers 5.6 System effect factors 56.1 inlet connections 8.6.1.1 Non-unifo:m flow 8.64.2 Inlet swirl 5.61.3 Inlet turning vanes 5.6.1.4 Straighteners IV FANS & VENTILATION 84 85. 85. 85 386 86 86 86 86 86 86 87 87 87 87 a7 a 89 92 92 2 92 93 95 96 96 96 96 96 96 96 7 97 99 99 100 100 100 102 402 102 102 103 104 104 56.1.5 Enclosures (plenum and cabinet effects) 5.6.1.6 Obstructed inlots 56.1.7 Drive guards obstructing the iniet 5.62 Outlot connections 5.7 Bibliography 6 Flow regulation 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The need for flowrate control 6.24 Constant orfice systems 6.22 Parallel path systems 6.23 Series path systems 6.24 Variable air volume (VAV) systems 6.3 Damper control 6.31 Peralle blade dampers 6.32 Opposed blade dampers 6.33 Single blade swivel dampers 6.34 Guillotine dampers 6.4 Variable speed control 6.5 Variable geometry fans 6.511 Radial vane inlet control (RVIC) 6.52 Semi-cicular inlet regulator 6.53 Diferential side flow inlet control 6.54 Disc throttle 6.55 Variable pitc-in-moton (VPIM) axl flow fans 6.6 Conclusions, 7 Materials and stresses 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Material failure 7.3 Typical metals 7.3.4 Metal structure 7.32 Carbon stosls 7.33 Lowalloy and aloy steels 7:34 Cast irons 73.4.1 Grey cast iron 7.3.4.2 White cast iron 7.3.4.3 Malleable cast iron 7.35 Stainless steels 7.36 Nen-ferrous metal and alloys 73.8.1 Aluminium alloys 7.3.6.2 Copper alions 7.3.6.3 Magnesium alloys 7.3.64 Nickel alloys 7.3.6.5 Titanium alloys 7.3.6.6 Zinc alloys 7.4 Engineering plastics 108 108 105 108 106 107 108 108 408 108 108 109 109 109 110 0 110 110 14 1 113 13 13 15 16 9 121 121 121 tat at 424 121 121 122 122 122 422 122 122 422 122 122 12 122 Contemporary machine designs require advanced power transmission solutions. With the next genera tion synchronous rubber belt PowerGrip” GT3, Gates is one step ahead, providing dive designs not yet imagined. This technical tour de force transmits up to 30% more power than previous generation belts. PowerGrip’ GT3 is available in 2, 3, 5, 8 and 14 MGT pitches and runs on existing drives, requiring no adaptation of the system. When you think the impossible. think Gates, the perpetual technology leader. LD THE Pye tea aed SCR em a coe ener Race ee ede) @Psoconocce (=) Bouono! VENTILAZIONE BOLDROCCHI s.r. - Viale Trento e Trieste, 93 - 20046 Biassono— Milan ~ ITALY : boldrocchi@t Inttp:/ /www.boldrocchi.it - mailto: boldrocchi.it - phone: +39 039 2202.1 - fax: +39 039 2754200 7.4.1 Introduction 7.4.2 thermoplastics 74.3 Thermosets 7.4.4 Composites 7.4. Mechanical proper of plastics 7. Surface finishes 7.6 Surface protection 76.4 Introduction 76.2 Painting 7.63 Galvenising 76.4 Plating 7.6.5 Lining 7.6.6 Coating 7.7 Stressing of centrifugal impeller 7.7.4 Introduction 7:7.2 Sum and difference curves 77.3 Dises of any profile 7.7.4 Effect ofthe blades 775 Speed limitations 7.76 impeters not made of stee! 7.7.7 Stresses in the fan blades 7.7.8 Finite element analysis FEA) 7.8 Stressing of axial Impellers 7.8.1 Introduction 7.8.2 Centefugal loading effects 7.8.3 Fluctuating forces 7.8.3.4 Finite Element Analysis 7.8.3.2 Photoslastc coating tests 7.8.3.3 Strain gauge techniques 7.8.3.4 Fatigue 7.8.35 Fracture mechanics 7.8.3.6 Performance and fluctuating stress curves 7.83.7 Conclusions 79 Shaft design 7.9.4 Introduction 7.9.2 Stresses du to bending and torsion 7.9.3 Lateral crtical speeds 7.9.4 Torsional critical speed 7.40 Fan casings 7.41 Mechanical fitness of a fan at high temperatures 742 Conclusions 7.13 Bibliography 8 Constructional features 8.1 Introduction 122 123, 123 123 420 4123 123 123 124 124 124 124 124 124 124 128 125 128 127 127 127 128 128 128 128 128 129 129 129 130 131 131 132 132 102 192 192 133, 133 133 134 135 137 139 contents 8.1.4 Cradle mounted fans (centrifugal - Category 1) 139 8.1.2 Somi-tnivorsal cased fans (centrifugal ~ Category 2) 139 8.1.3 Fixed discharge cased fans (centeifugal - Category 3) 140 8.1.3.1 Hosizonialy split casings 140 8.1.3.2 Casings with a removable segment 140 8.2 Inlet boxes 140 8.3 Other constructional features and ancillaries 140 8.3.1 Inspection doors 140 8.3.2 Drain points 141 8.3.3 Spark minimising features 11 8.3.4 Dosign of explosion proof fans 1 8.4 Gas-tight fans 4 8.4.1 Tightness othe casing volute 141 8.4.2 Sialic assemblies 41 8.4.3 Absolute tightness 142 8.44 Sealing without joints 142 8.4.5 Gaskets 142 8.5 Shaft seals 142 8.5.1 Near absolute tightness 142 8.5.2 Shan closing washer v2 8.5.3 Stuffing box: 142 8.54 Labyrinth seals 143 8.5.5 Mecharical seals 143 8.6 Fans operating at non-ambient temperatures 143 8.6.1 Calculation ofthe duty requirement 143 8.6.2 Mechanicat fitness at high temperature 143 8.0.3 Maintaining the effectiveness of the fan bearings 144 8.6.4 Increased bearing “its” 144 8.6.5 Casing features 144 8.6. Lagging cleats 145 8.6.7 Mechanical fitness at low temperature 145 8.7 High pressure fans 145 8.7.1 Scavenger blades tis 8.7.2 Pressure equalizing holes 148 87.3 Duplexbearings 146 8.8 Construction features tor axial and mixed flow fans 146 8.81 Features apolicable 146 8.8.2 Short and long casings 146 8.8.3 Increased access casings for maintenance 148 8.844 Bifurcated casings “47 8.9 Bibliography a7 FANS & VENTILATION XVit fa tesyi il Meet and exceed European standards for smoke and heat control systems cFw 9 VECTRUE INVERTER a seme | EN12101-3 Requirements Independently tested 200°%- for 2hrs 300% - for 2hrs 400% - for 2hrs For all powered smoke and heat exhaust ventilation systems WEG Electric Motors (UK) Lis 28/28 Walkers Road Manorside Industral Estate North Moons Moat Readich Worcestershire B98 SHE Emal: sales@wegetectriomoters.co.uk esses Transforming energy into solutions 9 Fan arrangements and designation of discharge position 9.4 Introduction 9.2 Designation of centrifugal fans 9.2.1 Early USA Standards 9.2.2 Early Britsh Standards 0.2.3 Europoan and intomational Standarde 9.2.4 European and Intemational Standards for fan arrangements, 9.3 Designations for axial and mixed flow fans 9.3.1 Direcion of rotation 9.3.2 Designation of motor position 0.3.3 Drive arrangements for axialand mixed flow fans 9.4 Belt drives (for all types of fan) 9.5 Direct drive (for all types of fan) 9.6 Coupling drive (for all types of fan) 9.7 Single and double inlet centrifugal fans 98 Other drives 9.9 Bibliography 10 Fan bearings 10.4 Introdu 10.4.1 General comments 40.4.2 Kinematic pars 10.1.8 Condition monitoring 10.2 Theory 10.2.1 Bearing materials n 10.2.2 Lubrication panciples (hydrostatic and hydrodyramic) 10.2.3 Reynolds’ equation 10.3 Plain bearings 10.3.1 Sleeve bearings 10.3.2 Titing pad bearings 10.3.2.1 General princples 10.3.2.2 Tilting pad thrust bearings 10.3.28 Tiking pad journal bearings. 10.324 Load carrying capscity of tiling pad bearings 10.3.2.5 Friction losses 10.3.6 Cooling 10.4 Anti-friction or rolling element bearings 10.4.1 Deep-groove ball bearings 10.4.2 Selfaligning ball bearings 10.4.3 Angular-contact ball bearings 10.4.4 Cylindrical roller bearings 10.4.5 Spherical roller bearings 10.4.6 Tapered roller beerings 149 150 150 150 150 181 182 152 192 192 162 152 152 152 156 156 156 457 159 159 159 159 160 160 160 160 161 161 163, 163 163, 164 164 164 164 164 164 165 165 165 166, 166 10.47 Thrustbeatings 10.4.8 Other aspexs ofroling element bearings 10.49 Other features 10.4.10 Bearing dimensions 10.5 Needle rollers 10.6.4 Introduction 10.62 Dimensions 10.5.3 Design options 10.6 CARB® toroidal roller bearings 10.61 Description 10.62 Applcational advantages 10.7 Rolling element bearing lubrication 10.8 Bearing life 10.9 Bearing housings and arrangements 10.9.1 Light cuty plow blocks 10.9.2 Plummer block bearings 10.9.3 Plummer block bearings for ol lubrication 10.9.4 Bearing arrangemerts using long housing cartridge assemblies 10.9.5 Spherical roller rust bearings 10.10 Seals for bearings 410.10.1 Introduction 10.102 Shields and seals for bearing races 10.10.3 Standard sealing arrangements for bearing housings 10.11 Other types of bearing 10.1.1 Waterubiicated bearings 10.1.2 Airlubricated bearings 410.11.3 Unlubricated beariras 10.11.4 Magretic bearings 10.12 Bibliography 11 Belt, rope and chain drives 11.4 Introduction 11.2 Advantages and disadvantages 11.3 Theory of belt or rope drives 11.3.1 Centritugal stress in a bett or rope 11.3.2 Powor transmitted by a vee rope or bet 11.4 Vee belt drive Standards 11.441 Service factors 11.5 Other types of drive 11.8.1 Flat belts 41.8.2 Toothed bolts 11.5.3 Micro-vee belts 411.54 Banded bets 11.55 Raw-edged vee belts 41.56 Chain dives Contents 166 167 167 167 167 467 167 168 168 168 168 169 170 11 in nm am 172 1 173, 173 173 173 174 174 474 174 174 174 7 178 178 178 179 180 180 181 182 182 402 482 182 482 183 FANS & VENTILATION XIX: THIS PINT COULD SERIOUSLY DAMAGE YOUR HOUSE This is the amount of moisture that the average house generates in an hour Steam tom cooking, washing up. thes drying, batvooms, moisture The solution? Property sited ventilation from Vent-Axla. fram your own skin and Breath. al sds upto a hay 24 pints of i i ‘eisture a day becoming trapped in todays rauated. draught procied Wi" & angel ove 8 500 products; om the sunning umndl 2a ome. ‘Tro consequences of the condensation that forms can be ugly anc bronchial and other alerpy problems, ‘asorweda they can guide youto the supplier closest to you ak SS : 2 | we! Vent-Axia. | The first name in ventilation For more information please contact us on 01293 530202 www.vent-axia.com Sich e6 Ban quyén 11.816.1 Types of chain 1.6.6.2 Standards for chain drives 11.8.7 Drive efficiency 41.6 Installation notes for vee belt drives 11.7 Bibliography 12 Shaft couplings 12.4 Introduction 12.2 Types of coupling 12.3 Misalignment 12.4 Forces and moments 12.5 Service factors 12.6 Speed 12.7 Size and weight 12.8 Environment 12.9 Installation and disassembly 12.10 Service life 42.14 Sheft alignment 42.11.1 General 12.11.2 Methods of alignment 12.11.24 Misalignment and reference lines 12.11.2.2 Alignment procedure 12.11.2.3 Choice of measuring method 42.11.3 Determination of shim thickness 183 183 183, 184 185 187 188 188 189 190 190 191 191 191 192 192 194 194 194 194 195 195 195 12.11.4 Graphical method of determining shim thickness. 186 12.11.8 Optical alignment 412.12 Choice of coupling 12.124 Costs 12,4222 Factors influencing choice 12.13 Guards 13 Prime movers for fans 13.1 Introduction 13.2 General comments 13.3 Power absorbed by the fan 18.3.1 Example of a hot gas fan starting “cold” 13.4 Types of electric motor 18.4.1 Altemating current (AC) motors 18.4.2 S-phase motors 1944.2.1 Squirrel cage induction motors 19.4.2.2 Wound retorinduation motors 19.4.2.3 Synchronous induction motors 19.4.2.4 Polyohase AC commutator motors, 18.4.3 Single-phase AC motors 13.43.1 AC series motors 13.43.2 Single-phase shaded pole motors 107 197 197 197 197 199 200 200 201 201 201 202 202 202 202 203 203 204 204 206 contenss 18.4.4 Sngle-phase repulson-start induction motors 13.4.5 Direct current (DC) motors 1.4.5.1 Series wound motors 18.4.52 Shunt wound motors 18.4.8 “inside-out” motors 13.5 Starting the fan and motor Drocton-tine (DOL) indvetion motor ‘Siar-delta starting indU Auto-transtormer starting ‘Sip-ring motors/stator-otor siarting 43.6 Motor insulation 13.6.1 Temperature classification 13.7 Motor standards 43.7.1 Introduction 18.7.2 Frame nomenciature system 13.8 Standard motors and ratings 13.8.1 Standard moto: features 18.8.2 Standord motor ratings 13.9 Protective devices 14 Fan noise 414.1 Introduction 14.4.1 What is noise? 44.1.2 What is sound? 14.1.3 Frequency 14.1.4 Sound power level (SWL) 14.1.5 Sound pressure level (SPL) 14.1.6 Octave bands 44.1.7 How does sound spread? 14.1.8 Sound absorbing or anechoic chambers 14.1.9 Soun¢ reffecting or reverberation chambers 14.1.10 The “eal room” 414.1.11 Relationship betwean sound pressure and sound poner levels 14.1.12 Weighted sound prosetre levele 14.2 Empirical rules for determining fan noise 14.3 Noise-producing mechanisms in fans 14.5.1 Aorodmnamic 14:32 Electromagnetic 14.33 Mechanical 14.4 Fan noise measurement 14.5 Acoustic impedance effects 14.6 Fan sound laws 14.7 Generalised fan sound power formula 14.8 Disturbed flow conditions 14.9 Variation in sound power with flowrate 206 208 206 207 208 208 200 210 an an 212 212 212 212 213 213 213 213, 214 215 216 216 216 216 216 216 27 27 218 218 218 218 220 220 204 221 224 205 227 229 2x4 232 233 233 FANS & VENTILATION XI Dee oe ence ee Robust and reliable fans for demanding process-critical applications. Improved performance and efficiency of existing plant through refurbishment Unrivalled experience in industrial fans and blowers Contact Howden about your air and gas handling requirements, and benefit from Howden's 150 years experience Howden Industrial PC Cur esl} TT a sik Sere See een een eral end Sener + Flameproot (Hazardous Area) eee eee) ere tes ees We can also design and manufacture fans to suit non te eee ee eet eee XXIl FANS & VENTILATION 14.10 Typical sound ratings 14.11 Installation comments 14.12 Addition of sound levels 14.13 Noise rating (NR) curves. 14.14 Conclusions 14.15 Bibliography 15 Fan vibration 15.1 Introduction 18.1.1 Identification 18.1.2 History 15.1.8 Sources of vibration 45.4.4 Defnitions of vibration 18.1.5 Vibration measuring parameters 15.2 Mathematical relationships 16.2.1 Simole harmonic motion 18.2.2 Which vibration level to measure 15.3 Units of measurement 18.3.1 Absolute units 15.3.2 Decbels and logerithmic scales 15.3.9 Inter-reltionship of units 15.4 Fan response 45.5 Balancing 156 ration pickups 18.7 bration analysors 15.8 Vibration limits 15.8.1 For tests in a manufacturers works 15.8.2 Fortestson site 15.8.3 Vibration testing for produc. development and quality assessinent 15.9 Condition diagnosis 15.9.1 The machine in general 15.9.2 Specific vee belt rive problems 18.9.3 Electric motor problems 15.9.4 The specific problems of bearings 18.9.5 Selection and life of raling element bearings 1.8.5.1 Bearing parameters 19.8.5.2 Fangue ife 1.8.5.3 The need for early warning techniques 15.10 Equipment for predicting bearing failure 15.10.1 Spike energy detection 15.102 Shock pulse measurements 15.11 Kurtosis monitoring 18.11.1 What is Kurtosis? 15.11.2 The Kurtosis meter 15.11.3 Kurtosis values relative to frequency 235 235 236 236 237 237 239 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 240 241 242 242 242 242 242 243 244 245 245 245 245 245 247 2a7 248 249 249 249 249 2ag 250 250 260 251 254 254 255 255 15.11 Conclusions 15.12 Bibliography 16 Ancillary equipment 1641 Introduction 16.2 Making the fan system safe 16.2.4 Guares 18.2.1.4 Inlet and outlet guards 162.22 Dave guards 16.3 The hidden danger 16.4 Combination baseframes 16.5 Anti-vibration mountings 16.6 Bibliography 17 Quality assurance, inspection and performance certification 17.4 Introduction 17.2 Physical properties of raw materials 17.2.4 Utimete tensile strength 17.2.2 Limit of proportonalty 47.2.3 Elongation 17.2.4 Reductionin area 17.25 Hardness 17.2.6 impact strength 17.2.7 Fatigue strength 17.28 Creep resistance 17.2.9 Limitations 17.3 Heat treatment 17.4 Chemical composition 17.5 Corrosion resistance 17.6 Non-destructive testing 176.1 Visual inspection 17.6.2 Radiographic inspection 17.6.2 Accoptance erteria for Xay examination 17.6.3 Utrasonic inspection 17.64 Dye panetrant inspection 17.6.5 Magnetic patice inspection 17.7 Repair of castings 17.8 Welding 17.9 Performance testing 17.9.4 Aerodynamic testing 17:82 Sound testing 17.0.3 Balance and vibration toting 17.9.4 Run tests 17.10 Quality Assurance Standards and registration 17.10.1 Introduction contents 257 257 259 260 260 280 280 281 281 262 262 263 265 267 267 287 287 287 267 267 267 267 268, 288 268 268 268 268 268 269 art 272 22 272 272 212 213 273, ars 273, 273. 214 274 FANS & VENTILATION Xxitl Industrial Fans for reliable applications in all industrialsectors = rs Vg “7 ; Repre ‘ paren pee Cea Pare rs Rac Pe ee pais feed ean aR Providing fan Solutions Wak FANS UK LIMITED Tel: 01782349430 Fax: 01782 349439 sales@axair-fans.co.uk XXIV FANS & VENTILATION 17.10.2 History of the eatly Certificate of Air Moving Equipment (CAME) Scneme 47.40.3 What is quatty? 1740.4 Quality Assurance 17.106 The Quality Department 17.0.6 Quality performance 17.10.7 Quality assessment 47.11 Performance certification and ‘Standards AVAL Introduction 17.11.2 AMCA International Certified Ratings Programme 47.11.2.1 Purpose 17.M.2.2Sc0pe 17.11.2.3 Administration 17.41.2.4 Responsibilites 17.41.2.5 Definitions 17.41.2.6 Procedure for participation 17.11.2.9 Requirements for maintaining the certified ratings license 17.41.2.10 AMCA Certified Ratings Seal 17.41.2.11 Catalogues and pubiications 17.41.2.42 Challenge test procedure 17.41.2.13 Diteotory of icensed products 17.41.2.14 Appeals and settements of disputes 417.11.2.18 Other comments 47.12 AMCA Laboratory Re: Programme 1.12.1 Purpose 1.12.2 Scope 17.12.3 Definitions ration 17.42.3.1 The Licence 17.124 Procedure 17.12.4.1 Applicaton 17.12.4.2 Witness test 17.12.4.3 Check test 17.12.44 License agreement 17.125 Reference to AMCA registered laboratory 17.12.5.1 Literature or advertisement 47.12.8.2 Individual test date 417.1253 Other statements 17.128 Settlement of disputes 41.127 Other comments ara ara 275 278 276 276 27 a a an an arr ar a7 278 278 278 218 279 270 279 219 279 279 ara 279 219 279 279 279 279 279 280 280 280 280 280 280 48 Installation, operation and maintenance 281 418.1 General 18.1.1 Recaiving 18.1.2 Handling 283 283 283 18.1.3 Storage 18.2 Installation 18.21 Introduction 18.2.2 Concrete foundations 18.2.3 Supporting steework 18.24 Erection of complete units 18.25 Erection of CKD (Complete Knock Down) units 18.3 Making the system safe 48.311 Introduction 18.32 Noise hazards 18.33 Startup check lst 18.34 Electrical isolation 18.35 Special purpose sysiems 18.4 Commissioning and start-up 104.1 General 18.4.2 Startup 18.4.3 Precautions and wamings 18.5 Maintenance 18.51 Iniroduetion 18.52 Routine inspection 18.53 Routine maintenance 48.54 Bearing lubrication 185.4.1 Spit roler bearings 48.55 Excessive vibration 48.56 High motortemperature 18.57 High fen bearing temperature 18.6 Major maintenance 18.6.1 Iniroduction 18.62 Sem-universal fans 18.6.3 Ficed discharge fans 18.644 Removal of impeller from shat 418.65 Romoval of boarings from shaft 18.6.5.1 Spherical roller adapier sleeve bearings 186.52 Spit roler bearings 18.66 Refitng of new bearings on to shat 18.6.6 Spherical roller adapter sleeve bearings 186.62 Split roler bearings 18.67 Refiting ofimpelter on to shat 18.68 Refiting rotating assertly into unit 18.6.8. Semi-universal fans 186.82 Fited discharge fans 18.6.9 Vee belt drives — installation 186.10 Couplings and shaft seals 186.11 General notes 48.7 Trouble-shooting 18.8 Spare parts Contents 283 283 283 284 284 284 285, 285 285 285 285 285 286 286 286 288 286 287 287 287 287 288 288 280 289 289 289 269 289 289 209 290 280 290 290 290 290 291 291 201 291 201 292 293, 293 293 FANS & VENTILATION 3 Keeping man and machine at peak efficiency ee esate CINCINNATI FAN CO USA @ Industrial and OEM Centrifugal Fans in steel and aluminium, @ Can supply UK voltage motors, single, three phase, and metric. Cincinnati Fan is a highly respected and ‘experienced manufacturer with over 45 years in the industry. Top quality products at competitive pricing. We would be pleased to quote on your fan requirements. For further information and UK office details: E-mail: efv-uk.att.net Phone: 01484 305425 Wob site: www.cincinnatifan.com XXVI FANS & VENTILATION 2 Year Warranty ATEX Compliant NEW! Company CD now available Stainless/TitaniumiMild steel Centrifugal fans up to 250 m*/sec, 8 kpa Press, 1100 500 kW Drives Blossom Street Works, Blossom Street, ‘Ancoats, Manchester M4 6AE Tel: 0161 236 9314 Fax: 0161 228 0009 e-mail: fans@stockbridge-airco.com web: wuw.stockbridge-airco.com 18.9 Bibliography 419 Fan economics 19.4 Economic optimisation 19.4.1 Intraducion 19.4.2 The efficiency facior 19.1.3 New and existing plant 19.2 Economic assessment 19.24 Investment calculation - new plant 19.2.1. Prosent capitalised value method 19.2.1.2 Annuity method 19.2.2 Investment calculation - existing plant 19.2.2.1 Presont capitalised value method 19.2.2.2 Annuity method 19.223 Pay-off method 19.2.3 Estimated profits and service life 19.2.9.1 Estimated profits 19.23.2 Serve ie 19.5.4Energy costs 19.3 Important system characteristics 19.3. introduction 19.3.2 Overall fan eficiency 19.3.8 Demand variations 19.3.4 Avaitbilty 123.5 Air power 19.95.1 General 19.35.2 Ductprecsure losses 19.4 Partial optimisation 19.4.1 Economic duct diameter 48.4.2Component eficiency 19.4.3 Exising plant 19.5 Other considerations in fixed ‘output systems 18.6.1 General 10.5.2 Fixed opeod motors 195 3Vee belt drives 19.5.4 Electric motor design 19.5.6 Selection of correct motor speed and type 19.6 Whose responsibility? 18.7 The integrity of fan data 19.8 Bibliography 20 Fan selection 20.4 General operating conditions 20.1.1 Introduction 20.1.2 Airgas properties and operating conditions 20.1.3 The duty cycle 293 295 296 296 296 296 297 2s7 207 207 298 298 298 300 300 300 300 300 301 301 301 304 301 302 302 302 303 303 304 305 305 305 305 308 306 307 307 307 307 309 310 310 310 310 20.1.4 Flow variations 20.1.5 Fans handing solids 20.2 Mathematical tools 20.2.1 Introduction 20.2.2 Specifying requirements 20.2.3 Fan “apparent” pressure 20.2.4 The early history of fan catalogues 20.2.5 Multivating tables 20.2.6 Performance coefficients 20.2.7 R, Cand Ecurves 20.2.8 Background charts and cursors 20.2.8 Electronic catalogues 20.3 Purchasing 20.4 Bibliography 24 Some fan applications 24.1 Frosh air roquiroments for human comfort 21.4.4 Indoor air evaity 21.1.2 Improving ventiation 21.1.3 Alte science! 24.44 Ar fitration 24.1.8 Conclusions 24.2 Extract ventil 21.21 Introduction 21.22 Powered versus “natural” venilation 21.23 Comparative tests 21.24 The justification for mechanical ventilation 21.25 Fan pressure development 21.26 The affordable alternative 21.27 Sizing the fans 21.2.7.4 Wall mounted 21.2.7.2 Reof mounted 21.28 Construction 21.2.8. Cow! and base 212.82 Motors 21.2.83 Mountings. 21.2.8 Ancilanes 24.29 Input units 21.210 High temperature smoke venting 24,2.10-1 Extractor fan requirements 21.211 Conclusions 24.3 Residential ventilation 21.3.1 The UK situation 21.8.2 The situation elsewhere 21.33 Introduction of the new part F Building Regulations 21.3.4 Air tightness of dwelings Contents 310 sit ant att an an 312 312 313 315 318 ate 318 318 319 322 322 322 322 303. 323 324 324 325 325 326 3268 226 228 328 228 328 328 328 328, 220 328 329 329 329 330 330 330 330 330 FANS & VENTILATION xxvii www.leadertan. wager Fan industries Li. iy ‘Tel, 618.075.4700 » Faw. 498.875.0707 ‘Toronta, ontario, Canada ‘A Division of Leader Fan industries Lid. Positive Pressure Ventilators High pertormance ‘units avaliable with asoline engines or www .taniraxk.com | Division of Leader Fan industries L1a. Tol, 416.675.4700 + Fax. 416.575.4707 Toronto, Ontario, Canada Era ial] ELTA; al 17 Bare We Fons, Saorene Eat Farr harp PO'SSST Ura Hogs Cooper wil save your business money and improve bottom line frances. Our split roller bearings are proven in fan applications throughout the world across a range of heay industries. Ss SPER 21.3.5 Air flowrate and ai distibuton 21.8.6 System controls 21.3.7 Noise 21.8.8Fan siting 21.3.9 Dwoling characteristics 21.3.10 Ductwork 21.3.11 Duct temnina! fitings 2.3.12 Fire precautons 21.8.13 Cleaning and maintenance 2.8.13 Window opening and summer operation 2.9.18 The fan and motor unit 21.3.18 Fan mounting boxes 21.8.18 Heat recovery 21.3.17 Conclusions 21.4 Tunnel ventilation 21.4.1 Introduction 21.4.2 Ventilation and smoke contol inmettos 21.4.3 Ventilation of mainline rail tunnels 21.4.4 Road turnel ventilation 21.441 Deana withthe poisonous gases 21.4.4.2 Contol of smoke and hot gases 21.4.5 Ventilation systems 21.45. Fully transverse systern 17.5.2 Semtransverse system 21.4.5. Mixed system 21.4.4 Longitudinal system 21.4.6 Axia flow fans for vehicular tunnels 21.46. Flowrate contol 21.4.7 Caleulation of jet tunnel fan requirements 21.471 Fresh airrequirements 21.4.7.2 Tunnel thrust requirements 21.4.7.3 Entry and exit pressure losses 17.4.7.4 Traffic drag or resistance 21.4.7.5 Ambient conditions 24.4.7.6 Tunnel surface fition 21.4.7,7 Testing for performance 21.4.7.8 Rea! thnust requirements 21.4.7.9 Guidelines for jet tunnel fan selection 21.4.8 Venillation during construction 21.5 Drying 24.5.1 Introduction 21.5.2 Moisture content 21.5.8 Equilibrium moisture content 21.5.4 Methods of removing moisture 21.5.5 The drying of solids in air 21.86 Critical moisture content 21.8.7 Rate of drying 330 330 331 331 331 331 331 331 331 331 331 332 332 332 332 332 332 333, 393 334 334 334 334 334 335 336 336 337 337 338 339 339 999 330 340 341 341 3at 342 342 342 342 342 342 342 343 Contents 21.8.7. Example 21.5.8 Elementary psychrometry 21.59 Practical drying systems 21.6 Mechanical draught 21.6.1 Introduction 21.6.2 Combustion 21.6.3 Operaiing advantages 21.64 Determining the correct fan duty 21.8.5 Combustion air and flue gases 21.6.5.1 Velumetric fowrates 21.8.5.2 Use of the nomogram 21.7 Dust and fume extraction 21.7.1 inroduction 21.7.2 Types of ontract systom 21.7.3 Components of an extract system 21.7.4 Categories of particles to be extracted 21.7.5 General design considerations 21.7.6 Motion of fine partices, fumes and vapours 24.7.7 Dust features 21.7.8 Balancing of duct systems. 21.8 Explosive atmospheres 21.8.1 Introduction 21.82 The need for a Standard 21.83 Zone classfication and fan calegoies 21.84 prEN 14986 — contents ofthis draft Standard 21.85 Clearances between rolaling and staticnary parts 21.86 Actions requites by manufacturers and users 21.8.7 Probable changes to prEN 14986 21.8.8 Conclusions 21.9 Pneumatic conveying 21.8.1 Introduction 21.9.2 The basis of a cesign 21.8.3 Conveying velositios 21.9.31 Vertical velocity 21,9.32 Horizontal velocity 21.9.4 Pressure losses 21.9.41 Pressure loss due to air lone 21.9.4.2 Pressure loss due to the particles, 21.8.5 Types of conveying system 21.10 Bibliography 22 Units, conversions, standards and pre- forrod numbors 22.1 SI, The International System of Units, 22.1.1 Brief history of unit systems, 22.1.2 Method of expressing symbols and numbers 343, 304 344 345 345, 306. 347 347 348, 348 349 349 340 309 349 309 309 382 382 352 362 383 363, 363 364 364 355, 355 365 355 386 266 386 386 357 357 367 358 358 327 329 329 329 FANS & VENTILATION XIX: ACI The Problem Solvers in Air Movement Technology We offer a complete design and manufacturing service from individual fans to complete airknife drying systems - no problem is too large ‘or too small Call us now - 01460 671714 Air Control Industries Ltd Silver Street, Chard, Somerset, UK, TA20 2AE www.air-con.co.uk eet tee peter gs of industri etree Ser ce Peers Cy Noort Oat renner ea Cea Dee aN a ees es yer ane [Comoce us and request 9 . The characteristics are showninFigure 3.9, and are seen to be very similarto those for, a backward bladed centrifugal fan, apart from the stall point Itis usual to design a blade to give the same axial velocity and pressure development at each radius, in which case Equ3.9 Preseue igus 3.9 Theonticalsharactenstes ofan axl owimpslar FANS & VENTILATION' {io image not available image not available image not available textbooks. The Sections whichfollow area mixture of basicfluid dynamics and practcal “nous: 33.2 Diffusers ‘These are attached to the discharge orfan outletand are used toimprove the fan siatic pressure of medium to high pressure fans. They may also be used ina system at the end of the outlet duct to atmosphere. A change from high to low velocity is ac- ‘companiad by a conversion from velacity pressure to static prossure. Thereis awaysa loss in this conversion such thatthe {otal preseure ie never the same before and after the difuser, Efficiency of conversion E is rever 100%. percentage converted of difference in initial and final Velocity pressures ‘True efficiency of conversion in the diffuser itself depends al- sost entirely on the angle of taper. If however, the diffusing taper is followed by a length ofstraignt cucting 4 to 6 chametars long, then tnere is some additional conversion after the taper. In ‘uch cases, the overall ofcioncy, as detormined by tect, ie ro- lated to the angée of the taper and the area ratio. ‘The included angle ofa jet of air which isconfined by the wats of a ductis about 7°, Ifthe taper is more than this than the flow leaves the walls and dead areas result ‘An unconfined jet of arin free space has an included angle of about 3°, but the jet is spread by the induction of secondary ait so that the actual included angle increases to about 16°. This ‘can be seen from smoke photographs o airjots, the resulte bo- ing summarised in Figures 3.15 to 3.17. ‘The static regain, or increase in static pressure in the larger duct Elp.-Po) equ3.29 E = efficiency of conversion expressed 198 a decimal Itis generally more convenient to calculate the regain rom the intial velocty pressure, and to make allowance for the differ- ‘once by an area torm io A poet) p equ3.20 Fly 3.17 Normal situsor folewed by cue. 9 Air nd ga ow where: Par = initial velocity pressure (Pa) Pe = final velocity pressure (Pa} Ay = Inilal cross-sectional area of aiftuser (m) Az > final or outlet cross-sectional area of diffuser (om) E = efficiency of conversion exoressed as a dec mol [At 100% theoretical aficierey of conversion: Par +a or Po 2 “Pia 61 + (Pus Pra) because velocity pressure inversely proportional to area? Then tata woop. (Ay a] ee ang surepwitnaion pa] i-( 2 |veithiseadybe somes * malta) (Pa-Pad ‘As the eficiency of conversion isnever 100%, ine actualregan will be ep.|1-| { Equ3.st (A) a From this a combined factorF may beobtainedtromthe value: rela] Values of F from experiment are plotted with included angle of Laper and varoustatiosof +, Those romthe tots of Kratz and Fellows are the most reliable, see Figures 3.18 - 3.20. {tis impossible to include factors for every possible design of, diffuser. Those given sre fer eieular cross-section cifusers. If the cross-section is square or rectangular then the efficiencyis, somewhat less for a given included angle. Itis suggested that an average reducton of 5%or.0Sin Bisa suitable allowance, Diffusers for stee! plate industral fan outlets often transform, from rectangular or circular cross-section. Drew the view each way and estimate the mean included angle. Then use te val- Les for a circular design. Ifthe design is critical and has to be passed by a performance test, tis wise to be on the safe side with the factor, FANS & VENTILATION: 52: image not available image not available image not available image not available image not available image not available image not available ‘measurement, but must be a mean over the area of flow. 3.3.44 Values of coefficient of entry Ce ‘Typical values of C, are shown in Figures 2.46 to 3.62. = x amr me S {Nbc 20 sn ck. is ss at ower ey gure 3.46 ©, fr pn open ond uct Fou 3.48, for syuaremauned dicts Strand ges flow ON : com |For omn| wommn | ume |e © | mee [| ew | a] wo | se [a | | zo | asoxeo | ow 708, - Fg 350 6 rcp hon 9 Sv te Figue 351 Cfo vectangur hoor ato 3:4 3.34.5 General notes on exhausting Detailed designs for hoods to suit most appications may de. ound in the stancard design manuals produced by machinery ‘manufacturers and also in Industria! Ventilation published by ACGIH®. FANS & VENTILATION! 618 (110 image not available image not available image not available 3.5.1 Bends Inthe caseof bendsit is important to note that much American data is categorised on the basis that theradius ofa bendis oits centrelina. British practice is usualy to give the inside radius. When looking at data, make sure you are comparing lke with Tite, The loss of pressure in a bend following by further straight ductingis less than iftaischarges to atmosphere. In the former aco thore is seme rocovory inthe expansion ofthe airfow to the ful duct diameter. (See Figure 3.55.) Fue 955 Recovery indict alr a bend Itshould be noted that the factors are in diamete's. For exam- pple a 355 mm ciameter single radius 90° bend Is equivalent in resistence fo 9 diameters of straight duct. its equivalent length inmetiesisthen °°? 9-32 metes. When dealing with ect- 100 angular bends, the equivalentis taken on the “way” ofthe bend i.e. on dimension W (see Figure 3.59). Two 90° bends of exactly the same cross-section will have diferent pressure lesses ac- ‘cording to the ‘way'. Oneis an easy bend ard the other a hard bend, | _) Figure 256 Essy an hare bones aT = ema ure 457 Duct resistance equvalerlanghs for bends ‘The hard bend throws the air to one side as itturns the corner and so causes higher resisiance. Ths loss can be reduced by the inclusion of spitters. Figure 3.57 givesequivalentiengthsin diameters for a number of different bends, including those with spliters. ‘The equivalent length in diameters is based upon the assump- tionthat one velocty pressure islost 58 diameters of ducting, Orto be precise the equivalent of one velocity pressure is lostin {fictionalresistance, Extensive tests havebeen made onbends, Of various designs anc their losses measured, ‘These were then converted into fractions of velociy pressure. This factor is then independent of velocity over a limited work lng range. For exemple a bend with a resistance of 50 Pa at 10 iis (velocity pressure 60 Pa) therefore has a loss factor of 0.83. As resistance may be taken as the square of volocity ovor this limited renge, at 29 mis the loss would be 200 Pa and the velccly pressure would be 240 Pa and thelossfactor would sill, aaa. 240 ‘To repeat, its convenient in estimating the resistance, or pres sure loss of a ducting system to calcuiate assuming that bends are equivalent to so many metres of straight ducting 3.5.1.4 Reducing the resistance of awkward bends. ‘When ducting isto be arranged in large buildings itis often im- possibleto find the space to incorporate bends of areasonable radius. Itis then possible to insert vanes or eplitere to reduce the pressure loss, See Figures 3.58 10 3.81. z i a Fique 3 5 Bond wih pits Figue 3.60 Bend wih arte secton vanes Figue 361 Dotal of aero secten vane FANS & VENTILATION 850 image not available image not available image not available outthe system. Too high a velacity means excessive resistance with consequent high power consumption. Tao low a velocity ‘means a risk of choking at bends etc, with consequent cor Paints. Velocity maybe varied sligitly in dfferentbranches ac- Cording to he ideas of the designer, butin principle the basis is constant velocity 36-1 Blowing systems for H& V 36.1.1 Design schemes Round piping 4. Makea line diagram, or isometric of proposed run of duots with al branches and outlets shown, On this diagram mark the volumes of air to be delivered by each outlet ane the totals o all branches from main duct. 2. For genaral industrial schemes the piping is sized on the basis of 1.6 Pain. In very extensive layouts ie. with dstri- bution ducts upto 120 m~ 180 mlong, imay be incroacod to around 3.3 Paim, Initial velocity inthe duct system wil vary from 10to 11.5 mis in relatively small layouts, up ta 18.5 to 21.5 mis in extensive in- dustrial systems Itis important tonote thatwhen the system is fora public build ing, such velocties cannot be used because of air noise in dts and in the noise generatad by the fan. When quietness is ‘essential the maximum sir speed in ducts should be kept bo- tween6 to 8.5 mis, and for less important cases itmaybe 8 5to 1s mis. Goneral: Subdivide the main duet ané branches by tapering down after air cutlets wih reasonable compromise, Included angle of tapers between 2.5" and 10" ‘Teo many taper shculd te avoided, and with emall"pons” (say 4160 mm dis, )3 may te taken on each sectionwithout reduction. With larger"pore’ either a single outlet, or a pair, is usual prac tie. ‘Note that the sizing of the ducts on the basis of construction fretion per metre does net in itself ensure the flow ofthe calcu- fated volumes in the various branches. Balancing of resistance Is necessary as described later. Size the duct to the nearest ‘3mm in smaller sizes to nearest 6 mmin larger sizes, Rectangular piping 4. Makea line diagram of system with volumes indicated ex- actly 2s in scheme A 2. Assess the sizes of ducts as round piping 3, Convert these round duct diameters into equivalent rect- angular bythe Equivalent chan, in Table 3.6, which chowe 8zes for equal fiction at equal volume, One side of rect- angular duct, such as the depth, is kept constant in many cases, or at least so far as is reasonable, General: The size of the fan, and henee its cischarge dimen- sions, ar0 not known at this stage. The initial area of main duct is not necessaiily equal to the fan discharge, but of course shouls never be less in erea, Ifa fan supplies a main duct which immadiately branshas into ‘wo directions, iis usual to come from the cischargein a rect- angular duct of same area. Then divide into two with each area proportional to the respective air volumes. Finally, vansform from these on each side fo the area decided in the duct layout assessment. ‘An adjustable spltte: damper is desirable at he junction asflow from the fan discharge is generally uneven 3.6.1.2 Duct resistence calculation ‘The design basis of fiction por metre will be known at this slage. Prepare a scale layout diagram. Air and gas flow 1. Examine this scale diagram and decide which is the lon- gest run from fan discharge fo remote air outlet. The equivalent length of ths longestrun s the actual lexgthin metres, as measured trom the diagram, plus the equiva- lent iength in metres for each bend in this run, pus the ‘equivalent length of any junction. Values for bends, junctions ote. are given in this Chapter and also in CIBSE and ASHRAE guides. ‘As mentioned in Section 35.1, if the piping is rectangular itis, important to note the ‘way' of each bend and to use correct di- mersion to work out the equivalent iength. Ignore any ress- tance sel up by duct tapers. 2. Ifthe total equivalent length ofthe longest run calculated in metres is L, then duct frictional resistance s LL xtrietion Paym =Pa 3. I-ducts are notin galvanised shoot stool, use the correc- tion factor as given in Table 3.7. 4. Add an extra 25% of duct resistance only as a margin for balancing. Do notinclude resistance of heaters, washers, coolers, fers etc. in this addition as these should be known more accurately 3.6.1.3 General notes It willbe appreciated that when a ductis sizedon equal friction por mets, the velosityie graduelly reduced fram the fan to tho: remote end of the system. Hence it might be exoected thal, there would be a gain n static pressure cue to this reduction. (tie normal to neglact any such gain, and this wae advised by ASHVE. Sorre engineers allow a regain ofhaifthe differencein inilial and final velocity pressure in the longestrun of duet. This is deducied from tne calculated frictional resistance. Actually, as willbe shown, the pressure changes ina duct sys temare extremely complicated, and cannot Bs assessed with accuracy in commercial work. Experience over years has shown that the sinple method 2s glven will provide a reaso- able approximation to the actual working resistance when installed Before the design is finaly approved itis necessery to check the overall resistance of the plant, This includes dud resistanco (with margin), addtion for any special type of ar outlet or grille, fresh airinlet louvies, iters, heaters, etc Ifthe calculated overal resistance is found to be excessive for the particulartypeot system, t would hen involve too nigh fan, ‘speed. Noise in operation must be considered, ad also the ower absorted by the fan, both of whichare related to overall resistance, If resistance is too high, then etther redesign the ductwork for lower velocity or increase the area of fiters, heaters, etc. tore- duce their resistance, Overall resistance values depend upon local conditons and ex- erience Is necessary 10 Judge. Table 3.8 may be used as a uide nating hat these values may currently be viewed as low. However, in an energy conscious world we should be endeavouring to reduce system resistance Table 3.8 Typice stati pressure les in vatious ysis FANS & VENTILATION’ 69 image not available image not available image not available Figure 3.80 Fig tee camper 3.8.8 Adjustment of damper at outlets ‘These may be fitted as sit and slide, or hit and miss slides ad- usted by poking through the grille. Examples areshown in Fig- ‘ures 3.81 and 3.82 Fou 382 Hi anamiss side 3.9 Duct design for dust or refuse exhaust Long experience has decided the most sutable diameters of the connections to exhaust hoods for al the usual machines to \which dustor retuse collection is applied. These standards are available from machine manufacturers or system designers, ‘The velocity necessary to provide adequate margin forthe sus- ‘pension of he parties in the aistieam is aiso known for most types of dust or refuse. Table 3.9 shows some examples. | crear wee cnt 2 ‘Needs nrmsinechies ra \Wootchips, ton ape mennes a oer ma i ‘Toble 29 Duct voit typos of stor refuee 3 Air and gos flow The range of ar velocty usad by engineers is from about 12t0 25 misec, bul 18 to 23mis covers the usual requirements. For Lnitcollectors or individuals grinding or bufing machines, lower velectias are common in the short connecting pipes e.g. 185 mis for grinders and 17 mis for buffing machines. Many plants are at work successfully which were designed for constantairvelociyin ll mains and branches. Sore designers vary the velocity in @ system in ifferent branches according to the types of machines connected. For exampee, in a wood ro- fuse plant the branches to sawdust-producing machines may ’be cesigned for 18 mis; with those to chip-producing machines ‘at 2010 Z3mis, and wthall mains atanominal 20 ms. This may vary slightly in mains due to approximation for duct diameters to the nearest 5 mm. 3.9.1 General notes nan extensive woodworking plant, 2 separate sysiem may be installedto deal witn the saws, as sawdustcan be sold. Another Separate system deals wih planers and moulders etc., the chips collected being discharged to a boiler or a refuse destructor. Wood sendpapering machines should be hardled by @ sepa- rate plart, or as individual units, as this cust is extremely fine and it requires a textile fiter to collect. Grinding machines and buffing machines should no be con rected to the camo exhaust plant. Sparks from grinding might, ignite lint from the buffs with risk offre. ‘When a woodworking machine has multiple connections, e.g. four-cutter or six-cutter moulder, its impertantto keep in mind the effec of itbeing outof service withblast-gales (dampers) on Connections closed, This mght resultin too iow a velocity in te ‘main to carry the refuse from other machines stil in service on this section. Actually, when the materal isin the main, the mini- mum carrying velocity is considerably less than those men- tioned, say 75% ofnormal, and this alowssome latitude. Expe- rience is the only guide in éificult cases. 3.9.2 Design scheme (On an outine pian of the factory, mark the positions of ma- chines with their exhaust points and sizes according to the ‘schodule, Lay out a suitable run for ductng, noting that branches in an exhaust system enter the main at 30°, or through patent junctions wilh almost parallel entry. From the diameter of connection and sclocted voiocity caleu- late the flow or obiain this from a manufacturer's data, The di- ‘ameter of the main is tien calculated in is graduated sizes as, branches enier, from selected velocity and total flow at any given point. Work o the nearest 10 or mm inmain sizes. This. alters the selected velocity slightly and the final figure is used, for fiction calculation. 3.9.3 Calculation of resistance 1. Estmate entryoss atthe nood most remate trom tne tan. Calculate the approximate equivalent length in metres of this most remote branch from hood to main, That is, the length of straight piping plus equivalent length in metres for bencs, 3. _Brenchioss at entry to main from B to Afor exhaust sys- tems is less than in blowing. (Figure 3.83.) Now total up the equivalert length of branch, estimateits friction loss in mm w.g. Add entry loss from item 4. FANS & VENTILATION’ 73: image not available image not available image not available 4 Fan performance Standards Unil very recently there were more than 12 national Codes for fan testing, incorporating over 70, specific duct arrangamonte. However, three international Siandarde, ISO S80, |S0 5802 and ISO 13347 for specifying the aerodynamic and noise performance of fans have reveived con- siderable attention. As they alone embody the latest agreements within ISO, their virtues have been extolled in many quarters. Nevertheless, misunderstandings as to their intent and accuracy are apparent. This Chapter outlnes the reasening behind the various decisions made, how fan performance Standards may be compared and corrects current misurderstandngs. ISO Standards ae discussed and the diferences with prevous Standards explained. Shortzomings in the latter have been icentifed and are rectified Contents: 4.1 Introduction 4.1.1 Fan performance 4.4.2 The outet duct, 4.1.8 180 conventions 4.14 Common parts of ducting 4.1.6 National Standard comparsons 4.1.8 Flow conditioners 4.2 Laboratory Standards 4.3 Determining the performance of fans in-situ 3.4 Introduction 4.3.2 Performance ratings 4.3.3 Measuring stations 4.3.4 Flonrate measurements 4.3.5 Pressure measurements 4.36 Power measurements 4.4 Installation category 4.5 Testing recommendations 4.5.1 Laboratory test stands 4.5.2 Fied tests 4.5.3 Measuring flowrate 4.5.4 Measurng fan pressure 4.5.5 Measurng air density 4.5.8 Moacurng fan spood 4.5.7 Measurng absorbed power 4.5.8 Calibration and unceraintios 4.59 Test esulls 46 Fan Laws 46.1 Introduction 4.6.2 The concept of fan similarty 4.6.3 Dimensional analysis 4.7 Specific values 4.7.1 Specific speed 4.7.2 Specific diameter 4.7.3 Composite charts 4.8 Bibliography FANS & VENTILATION 77 image not available image not available image not available Figure 48 Conmonparstor ducting on faniniet snd out inleVoutletareaas relevent, whilsttheirlength is generally longer than those previously usec. (Figure 4.6). V)__ Itspetifesthe use ofa “conditions onthe eutletofinstal> lation type B or D fans. This is designed to dissipate any Sail energy, which is not normally avatabie for overcom- ing the systom resistance. vi) Itdefines the init and outlet areas ofthe fan as the gross ‘areas inside the casing at the appropriate plane, vi). Site testing is considered of suffciant importance to be ttansferred to e separate document (ISO 5802) The tra- versing techniques fora variety of ducteross-eections are detailed SO considered it ilogical and unacceptable for cifferen! fan. ‘ypeo of tho same instalation category to need different toot ‘methods because o' the differing outlei ow. Thus the neces- sty todevise an outiet simulation, which had the combined re~ {uirements of conditioning the flow to permit worthwhile mea~ surements without severely tampering the fan by excessive pressure lasses, These losses were likely o be an important part of the fan pressure determination and wouldbe calculated fon the basis of straight, fully developed flow ‘Thon arose another requirement for the common part — to match its actual increase in pressure loss in the presence of non-uniform and svaring flow to that corresponding to a long, siraight unform duct. Ths was considered a fait requirement, ‘which would neither unduly penalize nor benefit afan with such ‘an oullet flow. Unfortunately ooltcs intervened and some ex- ‘ceptions to this desrable situation continue to be permitted 4£Fan perfomance Standawds Compared with the use of the simulation, or common par, itcan be stated thal, n tie presence of nor-unitormand swirling low from the fan outlet: a) a short length of duct benefits the fan b) a mult-cell straightener, as used in outlet side testing in other national Standards, tends to penalize the fan unduly. 4.4.4 Common parts of ducting Satisfactory measurements of pressure cannot be takenimme- diately adjacent to the fan inlet or outlet and i is necessary to establish test stations some distance away, where ihe flow can. bbe normalized The quantity measured at these stations i the state pressure, to whichis added some conventional velocity pressure to cb- tainthe effecive total pressure. Oversized ducts can enhance fan performance whilstinsuffcient length can also result in n- accurate measurements offan presures. The common parts include a duct on the autiet side ofthe fan, having a length of tive equtalent clametars tthe pressure measuring pant and incorporating a standardised flow staightener. Without such parts, diferent values of pressure can result according to the Character of the airflow at the fan outlet. The velocity distribu. tion atts peint oten contzins considerable swi. Even when {roe from suit tisfor rom unforn. This rogults nen excoasof kinetic energy or velocty pressure over the conventional allon- ance of “pv caused by the proportionally of kinetc energy t0 the ocalvalue ofr (mass ow x velocity pressure) so that the excess where vis high excoeds the defiat where vis low. ‘Now the non-unitermity ofthe axial velocty components dirin- ishes as the fow proceeds dovn the duct and the excess en- ergy reaches a minimum of a few percent of Yap? within 2 length ecual o tw or three ductdiameters, buiflluniformityis not eached until about 48 diameters, (Figure 4.7). Part of tha eriginal excessia ost, bu partis converted intoaddtional tac pressure, the corventonal velocity pressure remaining con- Stant. This addition Is avaiable or overcoming externa ress- tance, and inorder to credititto the fan, as it souls befor ype B and ype Dinstallaions,t hasbeen determined thatthe test Staton for outlet side pressure measurement should be mere than five duct diameter fram the outlet (Figure 4.8). © Flgue 4.7 Velocty dtason sowrstroam of fn FANS & VENTILATION’ 1 image not available image not available image not available image not available image not available image not available “gure 424 Terinclony and esti dimensions axa Fn VENTILATION clearances between different parts ofthe fan canalso vary but these may be of great importance and should be eliminated by both careful design and by quality contro! at the manufacturing slage. Figures 4.23 and 4.24 give the terminology and showthose di mensions which are ofitical. These, together with Tables 4.2 ‘and 4.3 have been abstracted from AGA 602. They give rec- ‘ommendations for maximum divergences of these artical di- mensions fom strict geometrical similarity without invalidating the “Fan Laws’ used in performance prediction, within the slated uncertainties of the method. One of the requirements of dynamic similarty is that Reynolds ‘numbers be equal at all corresponding poinis in the two fans - modeland predicted. Differing cross-sectional areas within the impolfor bizdo passagoe and into and out ofthe casing, dictate that Reynolds rumber vary considerably tis, therefore, both ‘customary and convenient to refer o a single arbitrary fgure basedon the impeller tip diameter D anc theperipheral velocity al this point zND together with the air or gas properties al the fan inlat - mass density p and viscosity Thus fan Reynolds number Re, = Pano? H Changes in Re can be the resull of varyingN or D or both. By tering onlyN, any size efectsthatmight accompany a chenge 4 Fn perfomance Stondants imation of what actually happens inside the fan. Itis, however, adequate for predictive purposes. To simply any analysis, itis again convenientto specify a sin- gle fan Mach number basedon the peripheral elocty ofthe im= peller blade tps when compared with the speed of sound C as, fined by the airor gas density at the fan inlet. Thus: uta, =282 _ ND © im where c = speed of sound (m/s) R= pevctant 287 a) absolute gas temperature (°K) From compressibiliy effects, variations in Mar produce no de- viation trom tne simpiean laws unless they approach a valueot around 0.3. This value may appear lower than articipated, butit should be. recognised may wall ndicale @ local valuewithn the blade pas- ‘sages approaching 1.0. Critical condltionscan hen develop re- sulting in a "choking" effect where there ‘sa limitation on the flowrate. tis not usualiy a problem unless the blade passageis, highiy otstructed. Figure 4,25, also abstracted rom AMCA 802 gives allowable variations in Na. fD can be eliminates. Tests by Phelansuggest that hereis 8 threshold limit for Rer for each and every fan design below ap: which neveasing deviations frm te fan aerodynamic laws oc- #» “The approximats threshold limits fr vaious designs are given g in Tabe 4.4, It vill be note tat ths lowest Imig value I for go the paddle fan where, duet its simple casign flow a Highly tar = bulent throughout the flow passages. More sophisticated de- 2 signe have highar threshold valuoe indicating that ow ain tho Be transitonal region, unt speeds are reached at which most of a the passages are hysrauicaly rough. Shoes losses foliom the 3 Fan Laws and aro independent of Reynolds number but are 3 > less wth the increasingly eficent designs. Bo. — 5 TypeFan | impter devon ear .| eS ia | ranmternor ‘ rr ae ota saa et 8 a tae ee “TW SPEEDWACH PARAMETER(FUL SEF) | en SEE rane not tin tn on crams nes 121 4.6.3 Dimensional analysis | Conanscinave | zone | __The capacity of a fan “Or is cependent on: ee Meet ocowaton za | Capacity (m/s) - ‘iantomie | se Fantize Dim) —_— motte | ‘Fanspeed Nevis) “aie 44 Aprsiate thas an Reynads nb kere pes of Gasdensty p («gine) Gas viscosity 4 (Pa.s) For dyname similarly Mach numbers in thetestand predicted ‘Thus fen mustbe the same, whichis unicely unless they devel the Qf, Nep.uh same pressure, When operating at high pressures, above say 20 kPa, the it oF gas may no longer be considered incom- pressible ad a compressbilit costcienthas tobe inroduced Qa DEN peut into the simplified form of the Fan Laws. This coefficient is a function of the polyiropic exponent n and the absolute pres- sures at fan inlet and outlet ‘The assurrption of a polytropic process between the fan con- nections as defined by total pressures isin itself only an approx- we assign to each of the physical properties detailed above the fundamental units of mass M, longth Land time T we then have: ET etn (L,TAMLMLT) FANS & VENTILATION’ 80: 4 Fen performance Standants That PMC MELT Equatng indices we have: for Ms ore for 3 = ated oa d3d+3 ti bd Thus Qc DEN pee ox nooA@*)" ‘The formula can be altered to ~ NO} ale aataoct M Ing itsvaliaty as isa constart, and itwenote that ND = fen tip speed u then it wil 9 saen that the term in brackets has the form 2 i.e. some sort of Reynolds number. : This is a dmensionless quantity. For reasonable vatiations in this fan Reynolds number, ts effecis wit be small. ISO 5801 re- ‘quires thatthe tost condiion is within the range 0.7 to1.4 tmes the fan Reynolis number for the specified duty. Frovided that these limits are met then @ « NDF equa ‘tis anticipated thatihis “Law would be acourateto atleast the catalogue tolerances of [SO13348. In goreral if the test fan Reynolds number is lower than the spectied fan Reynolds rnumber, then the law willbe pessimistic, whilst ifthe test nur berishigher than tne duty numberthe resuls of he calculation willbe optimist At very “high” numbers (test and duty) .e. above the so-called threshold tumber for a particular design (ses Table 44), the et fects may be ignored but the dangers of predicting the perfor ‘mance ofa small ard or high-speed fan are apparent. These affocts havo beon noted ac boing especially corious with high ‘ficiency fans, e.g, aercfll bladed centritugals. Inikemannerwe-can calcuatsthefan pressure (staticor total. ‘Ine pressure of a fan pis dependenton the seme quantities and thus pe fn(D,N,p.x) ° pe Dene ppt Pressure has the dimensions of force (masax acceleration) per unit atea and using dimensional analysis we have: MUN T of (LT, MLS, ML! T*) MUI Toc Le TM LO MO LET Enuating indices we hava M:it=c+d ore=t4 Lit=aded ora=3etdd o anodd+dt ora=22d Ti2s-bd orb=2d Thus: pa DPN plays Equ4.2 on (90 FANS & VENTILATION Pogayiied No*) p< nebo p [pNO*) ws or: p= NeD2p| np NO Ow) ‘Again the function in brackets iein the form of the fen Reynolde ‘number and with the same provisos we may say that pop?" Equ 43 ‘The fan power absorbed W is proportional to Q x p and there- fore: PocND? x pND? PecpN"O Note: Capilal Pis for power whilst small p is for pressure. umustbe emphasisedtnattnese simpliied iaws apply toa sp cific duty point of @, pand P. ASP = Qxp, the efficiency of the Uunitwilremain unchanged. When the fan's appliedto a system ‘we cannot change the speed N without altering all the quant ties Just as fans havelaws, which gover their behaviour, so have systems. The usual fan systemconsists of a number offtings uct as bends, grilles, transformation pisces, junctions, ett Botwoon thazo wil bo longths of straight pipe or ducting, The pressure loss in tings, assuming a constant friction loss factor x: Equ 4d x velocity pressure a ‘erase -eactional area xe as In ike manner the pressure loss in straight ducting fe where: f= ition factor & = tengtn et ave v= aigas voloety m= meanhyérasliccopth (crose-socton 0a 5 4) (perimeter ' Unfortunately the friction factor is never a constant over the complete fan characteristic, For many ventilation systems we arein the transitional zone between laminar and fuly turbulent flow. The incex forv may be nearer 1.8 even at thedesign flow rate. It wil fal to 1.0 atzero low. However, this would upset al those peoplewho‘or yearshavebeen decaring thal, onagiven sysiem. as Q « v. we may say that the loss in straight ducting and fitings is also Q®, Thus overall p x Qand asystem line maybe plotted onthe fan characterisic accordingly, see Figure 4.28. Ths is only strictly correct for flows varying by about 20% ‘trom design (see Chapter 5 and 6). ‘Achange in fan speed altars the point of operation from Ato lie, along the system curve, This is because, as previously shown in he Fan Laws, fora given fan and system Q «N, px Nand therelore px G? forthe fan as well, butonlyif femains ‘constant, or neairy so. It should be repeated that this system Characteristic ‘trotation Ne Charactoratic pag Figure 425 Fan and syston characeses law is only valid for speed changes of about 20%. Over this value tne divergence in the value of f becomes to0 great. ‘Thus i fan is applied to a system and its speed is changed from N; to No, OeN ie equ pene Equ46 Pen Equ47 ‘Aa increase of 10% in fan retational speed will therefore in- ‘crease volume flow Q by 10%, pressure developed p by 21% but power absorbed P by 33%, assuming airigas density is un ‘changed. Unless large motor margins over the absorbed ower are available, therefore, the possibllies of increasing flow by speed increase are usually imied. ‘Aithe same speed and gas density a fan ofa cifferentsize, but geometrical similar, wilfhavea performance as givenbelow. QxDie Equa p= Die, Equa.s Px OF ie. Equ4.t0 Ina range of fans to ISO 13361, wherethe size ratio averages 41.12, the approximate increase per size will therofore be 40% (on capacity, 25% on pressure, and 76% on power. ‘At the same tip speed ard gas density, N;, D2 will equal NDz but then Equatt also Equa.t2 ard Equ4.13 4 Fan perfomance Standards rn {o,) ‘Thus in a series of fans sized to|SO 13361 (a Renard R20 se- ries) at constant tip speed and gas density, the approximate in- Sracoe pr sao be 25% on ath copay a Power the Se ne spersctts aesdby Inthe stove ane we hve aver that ‘+ The airis incompressible -a reasonably accurete assumo- tion at fan pressures upto about 2.0 kPa - and that ar / gas, velocity tangles at iniot and outlet retain similarity after a speed change. Asan alternative the change ink, from test conditions to specified duty should net exceed 0.001 + Velocities are substantially balow the spoed of sound and there are no Mach number effects «fant speed velocity of sound <025, say (see Figure 4.21) + Changes of Reynolds number are maintained wehin ha lim= lis shown, + Relative roughness of fan parts remain unchanged with Ifallthese effects were included in our dimensional analysis ad- ditional variables would be introduced and the mathematics, ‘complicated acccedingly. The overall fan laws would then become: OND? (Re,)" (Ne,)"k,® Equ4.t4 pocN?O? (Re,)°(Ma,)k,? qu 4.15, P N08 (Rez) (May)"Ky" 3 Equ 4.16 where Rey fan Reynolds number ee Mar ‘an Mach number = od _fan tip speed ‘velocity oF sound compressibility coefficient = 2422-1, 2 eMe-9 where z= OP Op + absolute pressure ratio across fan y= tio of spactc nants (1.4 for air) R= gas constant (287 Jka, °K) {= absolute gas temperature (K) = relative rougnness absolute roughness of component impeller diameter ‘The calculation of ris dependent on whether the fan is ducted Cn the inlet andor outlet. The velocity of sound in air at sea level and 20°C (283°) 344 ovo, Care must ba taken to use N in revis in the calcuation of fan Reynolds and Mach numbers, FANS & VENTILATION’ 0 Fan performance Sanders Relative roughness should not normally be of interest except ‘when predicting the performance of a very smallfan from fests on a larger unit, or where impeller scantiings are varied substantial, Further informetion on the above is given in a number of ad- vanced textbooks, 0.9 Cranfield Series on Turbomachinery. It Jsimportant to note however tnat the exponents a,b,c, etc are peculiar to a given design of fan and probably a given duty point. Work is neing carried out in many research estatlish ments to estabish them. Usually hey only need to be known ‘whenit is importanto achieve the duty within very clase toler- ‘anees ie. within 2%. Approximate Reynolds numbers and absolute roughness ef- {ects are typicaly combined in manufacturers data. Thosefor a medium prossure backward inclined centnfugal ‘an are shown a axgaastove T LB S | 00 5 1 mt 2 | AN P ral fon. : here 2 (10 8 S rot 1 3 a | B dstnara Soo 12S ne Tee} — eevoume 77 tinct 5 1 BGE 0S cy 8 1 79 = 900) : oo i | ' wl. as es ie eS Tooblaintan siaticetticieney or speed obtain curve value and multiplyby factor eg sze zon mm selectedat 55% cefficeancy on curve and 1200 revmin Theretore Actuslalficieney = 8531.09 = 604 ‘Actual speed = 1600x 0-989 = 1454 evimin gure «27 Econ mess mtn fuga fan wit bard cies i | T | oynolss number» 10° baded ane 92 FANS & VENTILATION in Figure4.27. The effect offan Reynoldsnumberson the peak slat efficiency Is shown in Figures 4.28, 4.7 Specific values 4.74 Specific speed The speaiic speed of fan ata givendulyis the speed al which ‘a geometrically similar or homologous fan would have to run to give unit flowrate and unit pressure at the same pcint o rating (assumed seme afficieney) when handling ait or gas of unit density. Thus by manpoulating the fan laws NO®* » PR, Equ4i7 Si units were used then Ns (and N} should be in revs 4.7.2 Specific diamet ‘Specific diameter D, is the impeller diameter of the geomet cally siilar cr homologousfan for which the specific speed has been calculated. 0,°# 9, Equa.t8 Pt 4.7.3 Composite charts Reference to Figure 420 show that tie possible to plotall ofa ‘manufacturer's product range on a singlechart. Specific ciam- ‘eter andefficiency nave been plotled against specific speed. It willbe seen that the specific speed at maximum eficiency isa Unique value for a paricular design. z rer omen ge serene Sf «oe —n. gue 429 pe jeer and etiieneyepsva spaco speed re ere Use of such charts is useful in both the selection and design of fens. The manufacturer can ently gaps in his range if ade~ ‘quate coverage of all duties isto be actieved 4.8 Bibliography ANSUASME PTC 11.1984, Fans: Performance Tost Codes. 'AS 2936-1987, Industrial fans - Determination of performance characteristics (known as the SAA Fan Test Code) superseded by: AS ISO 5801-2004 : Industrial fans ~ Performance testing using standardized airweys identical to ISO 5801:1997. 180 13347-1:2004, Industria! fans — Determination of fan ‘sound power levels under standardized laboratory conditions — Part 4: General overview. BBS 843-1:1997, Fans for general purposes. Performance test ing using standardized airways. DIN 241633, Fans: performance testing of smal fans using standerdized test aimays 180 7104:1983, Measurement of dud fow in closed conduits — Vebottyarea methods of fow measurement in swirrg or asymmetric low coneitions in circular ducts by means of cur- rent-meters or Pitot static tubes. SO 3966:1977, Moasuremort of fuid Tow in closed conduits — Velocity ares method using Pitot static tubes, 4F.an perfomance Standards Tho Measurement of Airfow, E, Ower and R.C. Parkhurst, Pergamon Press, Oxford 1977, Pressure-prohe metheds for determining wind speed and flow direction, D.W. Bryer and R.C. Pankhurst, NPL (Natonal Physi- cal Laboratory), ANCA 01, Fans & Systems The Fanand Ductwork installation Guide, UK Fan Manufactur- ers Asscciation, (HEVAC), AMCA208, Field Performance Measurement of Fan Systems, Axial Flow Fans and Compressors: Aerodynsmic Design and Performance (Crentieid Series on Turbomachinery Technol- ogy), AB. Mckenzie, Ashgate Publishing Ltd 10 5801:1997. Industrial Fans — Performance testing using standarcised airways. 180 5802:2001, Industrial Fans — Performance testing in-situ A study of the influence of Reynolds Number on the perfor ‘mance of centrifugal fens, J.J. Phelan, SH, Russell and W.C. Zoluff, ASME Paper No. 78-WNPTC-1, 1978. 1BS7405.1991, Selection and application of flewmeters for the meesurement of fuid flow in closed conduits AMCA Publication 802, Industial process/power generation fans — Establishing performance using laboratory models FANS & VENTILATION’ 03 image not available image not available image not available ‘+ Allering its humidity by passing through a dryer or washer ‘+ Allerg its solids conient by passing through filter ordust colecter Many conditioning devices require an outside energy source such as hot water, orelectrcalresistance fora heater, or chilled ‘water for a cooling coil. Other apparatus such as fers or oy clonic dust collectors are passive and have no external eneray Connection. ll such apparatus nowever nes a pressure 10ss, increasing the fan pressure requirement and therefore having an important effect on the fan selection and the absorbed power 52.6 System outlet ‘Avvenilation system usually terminates with a special compo- nent at the end of each ofthe cutlets. This component maybe a simple wiremesh screen, a ceiling diffuser ora special grila. In many cases these may incorporate control devices suc as {dampers andor mixing boxes. In zit conditioning, the distiou- tion requiring careful outlet positioning and cifusers to achieve the desired air motion and temperature consitons, 5.3 System curves ust a fans have characteristic curves, so also do systems. Ithas been shown that fan performance camot be adequately described by single values of flowrate ard pressure. Both quan- tites ae variable, buthavea fied relationship with each other. This relationship, demonstrated in Chapter 1, is bast descrbed graphecally in the form of a fan characteristic. Volumetric owraie is normally plotted along the base withthe fan eres- sure, absorood sowar and offeioncy as ordinates, Such char acteristic curves are specific to: + given fan design ard size (usually based on imoelier di- ameter) + impeller rotational speed + airlaas concitions (temperature, barometric pressure, hu- midi, chemical composition and, theretore, gas density) Chapter 2 showed how to calevlate the system pressure caused by the resistance of a system tothe required volumetric flowrate. The resistance can also be plotted alongthe base with the system pressure a ordinate, For a specific system the pressure for a number of points may be calculated and these points would be joined bea curve — the system characterstic. ‘Again, it's spesific to the alcgas conditions. In general, the rrore air required to be crculeted, the more pressure required, ‘As noted in Section 5.2, a typical system will comprise a num- ber of components connected by a ducting system comprising straight ducting, berds, junctions, etc. The head loss in metres of fluid flowing in straiant ducting ne aie ‘i {© ‘etn fc L = length of duct (m) v= ably vei) f= anh oom _ofoss -sectional atea_m?_ finden Fora circular cross-section duct: 5 Fans and ducting systems Heed loss may be converted to pressure loss for, =A weg Equez Note: in some literature, mostly of German or American cri- gin. py is defined in terms of ercular cross-section ducting, ie eg Equs3 ‘Ac m = §, hevalveoffhasto be tines argorin ns iterate, for in the UK AML Nyt Eques a2 lfwe define v=. andi we assume thatthe fois fully turbu- lent, then we may also assume that fis @ constant then ne In like manner, the pressure loss in fitings, ‘Again ifwe assume fullyturbulent ow, kmay be taken asa.con- stant and aloe a