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Thermodynamic

2nd IFAC

2nd Foundations

IFAC Workshop

Workshop on

on of Mathematical Systems Theory

Thermodynamic Foundations of Mathematical Systems Theory

September 28-30,Foundations

Thermodynamic

Thermodynamic 2016. Vigo, Spain

of AvailableSystems

of Mathematical online atTheory

www.sciencedirect.com

September 28-30,Foundations Mathematical

2016. Vigo, Spain Systems Theory

September 28-30, 2016. Vigo, Spain

September 28-30, 2016. Vigo, Spain

ScienceDirect

IFAC-PapersOnLine 49-24 (2016) 087092

Distributed

Distributed Nonlinear Control of a

Distributed Nonlinear

Nonlinear Control

Control of

of a

a

Plug-flow

Plug-flow Reactor

Reactor Under

Under Saturation

Saturation

Plug-flow Reactor Under Saturation

J.L.

Pitarch

J.L.

Pitarch M. Rakhshan M.M. Mardani

M. Rakhshan M.M. Mardani

J.L.

Pitarch

J.L. M.S.

Pitarch M.

M. Rakhshan

Sadeghi C. de

Rakhshan M.M.

PradaMardani

M.S.

M.S. Sadeghi

Sadeghi C. deM.M.

Prada

C. de Prada

Mardani

M.S. Sadeghi C. de Prada

Department of Systems Engineering and Control, EII, Universidad de

Department

Department of

of Systems Engineering and Control, EII, Universidad de

Valladolid.

Department

Valladolid. of Systems

C/Real de

Systems

C/Real de

Engineering

Burgos S/N,

Engineering

Burgos S/N,

and

and Control,

47011,

47011, Control, EII,

Valladolid,

Valladolid,

Universidad

EII,SPAIN

SPAIN

de

(e-mail:

Universidad de

(e-mail:

Valladolid. C/Real

Valladolid. C/Real de Burgos

Burgos S/N,

{jose.pitarch,

de S/N, 47011, Valladolid,

Valladolid, SPAIN

prada}@autom.uva.es).

47011, SPAIN (e-mail:

(e-mail:

{jose.pitarch,

{jose.pitarch, prada}@autom.uva.es).

prada}@autom.uva.es).

Department of Electrical

{jose.pitarch,Engineering, University

prada}@autom.uva.es). of Notre Dame,

Department of

Department of Electrical

Electrical Engineering,

Engineering, University

University of

of Notre

Notre Dame,

Dame,

Notre

Notre Dame,

Department of

Dame, IN

IN 46556,

Electrical

46556, USA

USA (e-mail:

Engineering, mrakhsha@nd.edu)

University

(e-mail: of Notre

mrakhsha@nd.edu) Dame,

Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA (e-mail: mrakhsha@nd.edu)

Department

Notre Dame,

Department of

IN

of Control

46556,

Control Engineering,

USA (e-mail:

Engineering, Shiraz University

mrakhsha@nd.edu)

Shiraz University of

Department of Shiraz,

Technology,

Department of ControlIRAN

Control Engineering,

(e-mail:

Engineering, Shiraz

Shiraz University of

{m.mardani,

University of

of

Technology,

Technology, Shiraz,

Shiraz, IRAN

IRAN (e-mail:

(e-mail: {m.mardani,

{m.mardani,

Technology,shasadeghi}@sutech.ac.ir)

Shiraz, IRAN (e-mail:

shasadeghi}@sutech.ac.ir) {m.mardani,

shasadeghi}@sutech.ac.ir)

shasadeghi}@sutech.ac.ir)

Abstract: This

Abstract: This paper

paper dealsdeals with

with the the saturated

saturated control

control problem

problem of of aa class

class of of distributed

distributed systems

systems

Abstract:

which

Abstract: can This

be

This paper

modelled

paper deals

by

deals with

with the

first-order

the saturated

hyperbolic

saturated control problem

partial

control problem of aa class

differential

of class of distributed

equations

of (PDE).

distributed systems

systemsThe

which

which can

canis be be modelled

modelled by

by first-order

first-order hyperbolic

hyperbolic partial

partial differential

differential equations

equations (PDE).

(PDE). The The

objective

which

objective can is designing

be modelled

designing a

a distributed-parameter

by first-order

distributed-parameter state

hyperbolic

state feedback

partial

feedback with guaranteed

differential

with equations

guaranteed performance

(PDE).

performance for

The

for

objective

this class

objective is

of

is designing

systems,

designing a

a distributed-parameter

using the Lyapunov

distributed-parameter state

stability

state feedback

theory

feedback and with guaranteed

polynomial

with guaranteed performance

sum-of-squares

performance (SOS) for

for

this

this class

class of systems, using the Lyapunov stability theory and polynomial sum-of-squares (SOS)

this class of

programming.

programming. of systems,

For this,

systems,

For

using

this,

using

a

the

the Lyapunov

a polynomial

polynomial

Lyapunov stability

parameter theory

theory and

varying

stabilityvarying

parameter (PPV)

and

(PPV)

polynomial

model is

polynomial

model issum-of-squares

employed to

sum-of-squares

employed

(SOS)

to exactly

exactly

(SOS)

programming.

represent

programming. the For

nonlinearthis,

For this, PDE a

PDE polynomial

system

a polynomial inparameter

a local

parameter varying

region of

varying the (PPV)

state

(PPV) model

space

model is

and employed

then,

is employed basedto exactly

on

to exactly it, a

represent

represent the nonlinear

the nonlinear

nonlinear PDE system in a

system guaranteeing local

in aa local region

local region

region of the

of the state

the state

state space

space and and then,

and actuator based

then, based

based on

on it,it, aaa

PPV

PPV state-feedback

represent the

state-feedback law

law is

PDE designed

system

is designed in

guaranteeing exponential

of

exponential stability

space

stability and

and then, saturation

actuator saturation on it,

PPV

in such

PPVsuch state-feedback

region. The

state-feedback law

law is

The approach

approach is designed guaranteeing

is illustrated

illustrated

designed exponential

here through

guaranteeing through the standard

exponential stability

standard example

stability and

and actuator saturation

of aa nonisothermal

actuator nonisothermal

saturation

in

in such region.

region. The approach is

is illustrated here

here through the

the standard example

example of

of a nonisothermal

plug-flow

in such

plug-flow reactor.

region. The

reactor. approach is illustrated here through the standard example of a nonisothermal

plug-flow

plug-flow reactor.

reactor.

2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control) Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords:

Keywords: Hyperbolic PDE,

Hyperbolic PDE, Polynomial

Polynomial parameterparameter varying,

varying, SOS, SOS, Saturation,

Saturation, Plug-flowPlug-flow reactor

reactor

Keywords: Hyperbolic

Keywords: Hyperbolic PDE, PDE, Polynomial

Polynomial parameterparameter varying,

varying, SOS, SOS, Saturation,

Saturation, Plug-flowPlug-flow reactor

reactor

1. INTRODUCTION

1. troller (Ray, 1981), with its inherent difficulties, and it is

1. INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

troller

then

troller

(Ray,

(Ray, 1981),

trollerlumped

(Ray, 1981),

for real

1981),

with

with its

its inherent

inherent difficulties,

implementation.

with its inherent difficulties,

Direct

difficulties, methods

and

and it

and it

is

itap-

is

is

then

then lumped

lumped for

for real

real implementation.

implementation. Direct

Direct methods

methods ap-

ap-

Numerous processes in industry including fluid heat ex- ply

then

ply spatial

lumped

spatial discretization

for real

discretization methods

implementation.

methods (e.g., finite

Direct

(e.g., finite differences,

methods

differences,ap-

Numerous

Numerous processes

processes in

in industry

industry including

including fluid

fluidare heat

heat ex- ply

ex- finite spatial discretization methods (e.g., finite differences,

changers, fiber

Numerous fiber spin lines

processes lines

in or fixed-bed

fixed-bed

industry reactors,

including fluid heatessen-

ex- ply

finite volume,

spatial

volume, orthogonal

discretization

orthogonal collocation

methods

collocation or

(e.g.,

or Galerkins

finite

Galerkins meth-

differences,

meth-

changers,

changers, fiber spin

spin lines or

or fixed-bed reactors,

reactors, are

are essen-

essen- finite volume, orthogonal collocation or Galerkins meth-

tially distributed

changers, fiber spinin space,

lines or i.e. their

fixed-bed behavior

reactors, is determined ods)

finite to the

volume, PDE system

orthogonal in order to

collocation

are essen- ods) to the PDE system in order to obtain an approximate obtain

or an approximate

Galerkins meth-

tially

tially distributed

distributed in

in space,

space, i.e. their

i.e.also

their behavior

behavior is determined

is determined

determined ods) totothat

the PDEPDE system inoforder

order to obtain

obtain an approximate

approximate

not

tially only by

distributed the intime

space, but i.e. their by the

behavior spatial

is position. model

ods)

model that the contains

containssystema set

aa set in ordinary

of ordinaryto differential

an

differential equations

equations

not only

only byby the time but also by

by the spatial position.

position. model that contains

not

Mathematical

not only

Mathematical by the

the time for

models

time

models

butsuch

but

for

also systems

also

such by the can

the

systems

spatial

spatial

can be obtained

be obtained

position. (ODEs)

model

(ODEs) thatin

in time

contains

time a set

(Dochain

(Dochain set of ordinary

of et

et al.,

ordinary

al.,

differential

1992). The

differential

1992). The

equations

subsequent

equations

subsequent

Mathematical

by applying

Mathematical models

the for

fundamental

models for such

such systems

thermodynamic

systems can

can be

be obtained

principles

obtained (ODEs)

ODE

(ODEs) model in

in time

is

timethen (Dochain

used

(Dochain as et

the

et al.,

basis

al., 1992).

for

1992). the The

design

The subsequent

of finite

subsequent

by applying the fundamental thermodynamic principles ODE

ODE model

model is

is then

then used

used as

as the

the basis

basis for

for the

the design

design of

of finite

finite

by

by applying

(balances

applying of the fundamental

momentum,

the fundamental energy thermodynamic

and material),

thermodynamic principles

resulting

principles dimensional

ODE model controllers.

is then used This

as the approach

basis for benefits

the design from

of the

finite

(balances of momentum, energy and material), resulting dimensional

dimensional controllers.

controllers. This

This approach

approach benefits

benefits from

from the

the

(balances

in a set

(balances of of momentum,

semilinear

of momentum, energy PDEs

hyperbolic

energy and material),

and material),

(Aksikas, resulting

2005).

resulting direct application

dimensional of

controllers. finite-dimensional

This approach control

benefits theory

from and

the

in a set of semilinear hyperbolic PDEs (Aksikas, 2005). direct

direct application

application of

of finite-dimensional

finite-dimensional control

control theory

theory and

and

in

in a

a set

set of

of semilinear

semilinear hyperbolic

hyperbolic PDEs

PDEs (Aksikas,

(Aksikas, 2005).

2005). methodologies

direct application but ofit has the important

finite-dimensional drawback

control theoryof that

and

These systems

systems usually

usually do do not work work in in isolation

isolation in the the methodologies

methodologies but

but it has the important drawback of that

These do not isolationas in

the discretized

the methodologies

the discretized but it

ODE

ODE

has

itsize

hasmay

size

the

the be

may

important

very

important

be very

drawback

significant

drawback

significant in

in

of

of that

order

that

order to

These

process

These

process

systems

and

systems

and

usually

chemical

usually

chemical industry,

do

industry,

notbut

not but

work

workwork

work

intogether

in isolation

together as

in

pieces

in the

pieces the discretized

reach

the discretized

the desired ODE

ODE degreesize may

size may

of be very

be very significant

approximation. significantThis in order to

drawback

in order to

to

process

of

andequipment

of aa larger

processlarger

and chemical industry,

chemical

equipment

industry,

directly but

directly

but work in

involved

work

involved

together

production

together

in production as ob- reach

as pieces

pieces

ob- reach

causes

the

thethe

desired

desired degree

degree

controller

of

of

design

approximation.

approximation.

to become high

This

This drawback

drawback

dimensional

of reach

ob- causes thethe desired degree

controller design of approximation.

to become high This drawback

dimensional

of aa larger

larger

jectives.

jectives.

equipment

Therefore,

equipment

Therefore,

directlyanalysis

stability

directly

stability

involved

involved

analysis and in control

in production

production of such

ob- causes

in the

the controller

structure and design

design to

computationally to become

complex. high

high dimensional

jectives.

systems

jectives. Therefore,

with stability

guaranteed

Therefore, stability analysis and

performance

analysis and

is

and of

control

control

both

control

of

of such

such causes

theoreti-

of such in

in structure

structure

controller

and

and computationally

computationally

become

complex.

complex.

dimensional

systems

systems with guaranteed

with guaranteed

guaranteed performance

performance is of

issystemsboth

of both

bothare theoreti-

theoreti- in structure and computationally complex.

cal and

and practical

systems

cal practical

with importance. As PDE

performance PDE is of inher- The

theoreti- The stabilization

stabilization for

for tubular

tubular reactors

reactors in

in particular

particular has

has

cal

ently

cal and practical importance.

importance.

infinite-dimensional,

and practical importance. the

As

As

existent

As PDE

systems

PDE control

systems

are

are inher-

systemsapproaches

are inher- been

inher- The

The stabilization

done

stabilization typically for

for tubular

using

tubular PIDsreactors

(despite

reactors in

in particular

the

particularfact has

that

has

ently infinite-dimensional, the existent control approaches been

been done

done typically

typically using

using PIDs

PIDs (despite

(despite the

the fact

fact that

that

ently

for

ently infinite-dimensional,

lumped-parameter

infinite-dimensional, the

systems

the existent

(LPS)

existent control

are hard

control approaches

to be

approachesused such

been systems

done are nonlinear),

typically using provided

PIDs suitable

(despite the locations

fact thatof

for lumped-parameter systems (LPS) are such systems are nonlinear), provided suitable locations of

for lumped-parameter

directly

for (Wang

lumped-parameter et al., systems

2011):

systems actual

(LPS) are hard

(LPS)controller

are hard

to

to be

hard implemen-

to be used

be used such

used such systems

sensorssystems

and are nonlinear),

are nonlinear),

actuators to ensureprovided

passivity

provided suitable

(Alonso

suitable locations

and

locations Yd-of

of

directly (Wang et al., 2011): actual controller implemen- sensors

sensors and

and actuators

actuators to

to ensure

ensure passivity

passivity (Alonso

(Alonso and

and Yd-

Yd-

directly

tations

directly (Wangbeet

should

(Wang etdone

al., 2011):

al., 2011):

within actual

a finite

actual controller

number

controller of implemen-

actuators

implemen- stie,

sensors2001).and PID designs

actuators to are

ensurebased on

passivity local linear

(Alonso models,

and Yd-

tations should be done

done within a finite number

number of actuators stie, stie, 2001).

2001). PID

PID designs are based on local linear models,

tations

and sensors

tations

and

should

sensors

should in

be

in be

practice.

done

practice.

within

Thus,aa aafinite

within

Thus,

finite

guaranteed

number

guaranteed

of actuators

actuators obtained

distributed-

of

distributed- stie, 2001).

obtained in

in PID designs

different

designs

different

are

are based

operation

operation regions

based

regions

on

on bylocal

local

by

linear

linear models,

input-output

input-output lin-

models,

lin-

and sensors

parameter

and in practice.

controller

sensorscontroller

in practice. design Thus,

Thus,becomesa guaranteed

a challenging

a guaranteed distributed-

task.

distributed- obtained

earization

obtained in different

(Aguilar

in(Aguilar

differentet etoperation

al.,

operation 2002; regions

regions by

Mikhalevich input-output

et

by input-output al., lin-

2015).

lin-

parameter design becomes a challenging task. earization

earization (Aguilar al.,

et al.,

al., 2002; Mikhalevich

2002; Mikhalevich

Mikhalevich et al.,

et al.,

al., 2015).

2015).

parameter controller

parameter controller design

design becomes

becomes aa challenging

challenging task. task. Though

earization the use

(Aguilarof PIDet controllers

2002; is quite simple,et the main

2015).

Many research works have been proposed for the control Though

Though the

the use

use of PID controllers is quite simple, the main

Many

Many

of PDE

PDE

research

research works

works

systemsworks during

have

have been

been

thebeen

proposed

proposed

last proposed

decade. These

for

for the

These

control

control Though

themethods

drawback

drawback the use of

arises

arises in

of

in

PID

finding

PID

finding

controllers

the

controllers

the right

right

is quite

quite simple,

is tuning

tuning in

simple,

in order

order

the

theto

to

main

pro-

main

pro-

Many

of research

systems during havethe last decade. for the control

methods drawback

vide good

drawback arises

arises in

in finding

robustness/performance

finding the

the right

right tuning

trade-offs.

tuning in

in order

In

order to pro-

addition,

to pro-

of

can

of PDE

be

PDE systemsinto

divided

systems during

two

during the last

well-known

the last decade.

types:

decade. These

indirect

These methods

methodsand vide

vide good

good robustness/performance

robustness/performance trade-offs.

trade-offs. In

In addition,

addition,

can be divided into two well-known types: indirect and even

vide

even if

good

if a

a good trade-off

robustness/performance

good trade-off has

has been

been achieved

trade-offs.

achieved in

In

in practice,

addition,

practice,

can

can be

direct divided

be divided into

(Christofides,

into twotwo well-known

2012).

well-known types:

Indirecttypes:methods indirect

employ and

indirect and

the thereeven if ifis aanogood

good trade-off has been achieved

achieved in practice,

practice,

direct (Christofides, 2012). Indirect methods guarantee of constraints satisfaction in the

direct

original

direct (Christofides,

PDE model

(Christofides, to 2012).

design

2012). Indirect

an methods employ

infinite-dimensional

Indirect methods employcon-

employ

the

the even

the there

there is

is no

no

trade-off

guarantee

guarantee of

of

has been

constraints

constraints satisfaction

satisfaction

in in

in the

the

original PDE model to design an infinite-dimensional con- entire

there

entire operating

is no

operating region.

guarantee

region. ofRecently,

constraints

Recently, some

some works

satisfaction

works have

have ingiven

the

given

original

original

PDE model

PDE leading to

modeltotothese design

design an infinite-dimensional

an has

infinite-dimensional con-

con- entire operating region. Recently, some works have given

The research results received

The research leading to these results has received funding from the funding from the alternatives

entire operating

alternatives to

to the PID

region. control

Recently, of PDE

some systems.

works In

have partic-

given

European

The Unionleading

The research

research (FP7/2007-2013,

to

to these

these resultsgrant agreement

has received 604068)from

received funding and the alternatives

ular, Aksikas

alternatives toetthe

to the

theal.

PID

PID

PID (2007)

control

control

control

of

of PDE

proposed

of PDEansystems.

PDE systems.

LQR

systems.

In

In partic-

In partic-

control de-

partic-

European Unionleading

(FP7/2007-2013, results

grant has

agreement funding

604068)from the

and the ular, Aksikas et al. (2007) proposed an LQR control de-

Spanish

European

European Government

Union

Union (MINECO/FEDER

(FP7/2007-2013,

(FP7/2007-2013, grant

grant

Spanish Government (MINECO/FEDER DPI2015-70975-P).

DPI2015-70975-P).

agreement

agreement 604068)

604068) and

and the

the ular,

ular, Aksikas

Aksikas et

et al.

al. (2007)

(2007) proposed

proposed an

an LQR

LQR control

control de-

de-

Spanish

Spanish Government

Government (MINECO/FEDER

(MINECO/FEDER DPI2015-70975-P).

DPI2015-70975-P).

Copyright

2405-8963 2016 IFAC 102 Hosting by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Copyright 2016, IFAC (International Federation of Automatic Control)

2016 IFAC 102

Copyright

Peer review

Copyright 2016

under IFAC

2016 responsibility

IFAC 102

of International Federation of Automatic

102Control.

10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.10.760

2016 IFAC TFMST

88

September 28-30, 2016. Vigo, Spain J.L. Pitarch et al. / IFAC-PapersOnLine 49-24 (2016) 087092

sign for nonisothermal PFRs using spectral factorization, form A bB takes place, being b > 0 the stoichiometric

and Wang et al. (2011) presented a fuzzy Takagi-Sugeno coefficient. Thus, the composition of the reaction mixture

(TS) approach (quasi-LPV) for such systems based on changes along the length x of the reactor, as represented

linear matrix inequalities (LMI) and the well-known sector in Figure 1. The reaction is endothermic and a jacket is

nonlinearity modelling (Tanaka and Wang, 2001). Nev- used to heat the reactor, so that the system is dissipative,

ertheless, there is still a common drawback for practical therefore open-loop stable.

implementation of the above designs: the actuators physi-

cal limitations are sometimes neglected or their treatment

leads to very conservative controllers. However, treating

them appropriately throughout the control design is key.

There are, of course, other control strategies based in op-

timization (e.g., model predictive control) which explicitly

consider input/state constraints, not discussed here.

Recently, TS/LPV modelling techniques have been ex-

tended to employ polynomial vertex models (Tanaka et al.,

2009b) instead of linear ones. This class of polynomial

parameter-varying (PPV) representation allows asymptot- Fig. 1. Nonisothermal plug-flow reactor.

ically reducing conservativeness of the design approach if

the Taylor series decomposition is used for the sector mod- In Figure 1, CA and CB are the reactant and product

elling (Sala and Arino, 2009). Then, the sum-of-squares concentrations respectively, T denotes the reactor temper-

(SOS) programming developed for pure polynomial sys- ature, Tin/out and CA,in/out are defined as the temperature

tems (Papachristodoulou and Prajna, 2005; Pitarch et al., and concentration of the inlet/outlet streams respectively,

2016b) is used to design PPV-based control systems with FB is the partial flow of product B, and L denotes the

guaranteed performance (Tanaka et al., 2009a; Sala, 2009; total length of the reactor. Under assumptions of perfect

Pitarch, 2013). Numerical solutions for these designs can radial mixing, constant density and heat capacity of the

be computed via the Gram-matrix decomposition and reacting liquid, and negligible diffusive phenomena, a dy-

semidefinite programming (SDP) (Seiler, 2013). namic model of the process can be derived from material

The objective of this paper is extending the existent and energy balances. Note that CB is known if CA and T

LPV control designs for a nonisothermal plug-flow reactor are known, so its mass balance has been omitted and only

(PFR) to a PPV approach, including explicit consideration states T and CA will be considered henceforth:

of the actuator limits from the design phase. First, a T T k0 H E 4h

= v CA e RT + (TJ T ) (1)

PPV-PDE model based on the Taylor series is proposed t l p C p p C p d

to accurately represent the nonlinear hyperbolic PDE CA CA E

t l

with antiwindup is proposed. In this way, the problem of Where E, R, k0 , H, h and d are the activation energy, the

finding suitable controller gains fulfilling input-saturation ideal gas, the pre-exponential factor, the enthalpy of the

and guaranteeing local exponential stability of the closed- reaction, the wall heat transfer coefficient and the reactor

loop system is derived in terms of a set of spatially- diameter, respectively. The control input is chosen to be

dependent polynomial constraints, to be checked for SOS. the spatially distributed jacket temperature TJ and t, l

Briefly, the rest of the paper organizes as follows: Section 2 denote the independent time and space variables.

describes the PFR, its thermodynamic model and gives a The process is subject to the boundary conditions

PPV local representation for it; Section 3 states the control

problem and its formulation into a SOS programming T (0, t) = Tin , CA (0, t) = CA,in , CB (0, t) = 0 (3)

problem; Section 4 shows the effectiveness of the proposed and the initial state-conditions profiles are:

approach with some results in simulation and, finally, a T (l, 0) = T0 (l), CA (l, 0) = CA0 (l) (4)

conclusion is drawn in the last section.

Notation: I stands for the identity. D[v] denotes a diag- 2.1 Nonlinear dimensionless PDE model

onal matrix formed by the elements of v. M [k] will denote

the k-th row of the matrix M . A symmetric matrix P (x) A scaled model will be obtained in order to compensate

in the spatial variable x is positive definite (semidefinite) large differences in the magnitude orders of states, avoid-

in an interval l1 x l2 if P (x) 0 (P (x) 0) for all ing thus numerical problems in the SOS design phase.

x [l1 , l2 ]. The symbol () denotes the symmetric element Hence, the following dimensionless states and input are

in matrix expressions, e.g., [M (x) + N (x) + ()] [M (x) + introduced:

N (x) + M T (x) + N T (x)]. A SOS polynomial p(y) in vari- T Tin CA,in CA TJ Tin

1 := , 2 := , J := (5)

ables y is denoted by p(y) y . Similarly, an n m SOS Tin CA,in Tin

polynomial matrix L(y) will be denoted by L(y) nm y . Define also x := l/L. Then an equivalent representation

of (1)-(2) in variables (5) can be obtained (omitted for

2. PLUG-FLOW REACTOR MODELLING brevity 1 ). Note that the dimensionless equilibrium profile

(t ) in one variable can be computed given a prefixed

A nonisothermal PFR is an ideal flow reactor in which 1 The reader is referred to Aksikas (2005, Chap. 5) for the system

no back mixing occurs while a chemical reaction of the description with more details.

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Tin along the reactor in equilibrium for simplicity, the

remaining profiles read:

2 L 1 2 L

1e (x) = 0, 2e (x) = 1 e v x , Je (x) = e v x

b

with 1 2 , 2 k0 e , and

E (H)CA,in 4h

, , b .

RTin p Cp Tin p C p d

Numerical values for the above parameters are in Table 1.

Table 1. Model parameters for simulation.

Parameters Numerical values

v 0.025 m/s

L 1m Fig. 2. Bounding with polynomial vertex models.

E 11250 cal/mol

3. CONTROL SYNTHESIS

k0 106 s1

4h/p Cp d 0.2 s1

CA,in 0.02 mol/L

Definition. The system (7) is exponentially stable with

R 1.986 cal/(mol.K)

decay rate > 0, if there exists > 0 such that:

Tin 340 K y(x, t)22 e2t y(x, 0)22 t 0. (10)

0.25

Consider the following candidate Lyapunov functional

1

Now, let us consider a new input vector u(x, t) = J (x, t)

Je (x) and the state transformation: V (t) = y(x, t)T P 1 (y2 , x)y(x, t)dx (11)

0

1 (x, t) 1e (x) where P (y2 , x) = P T (y2 , x) R22

y(x, t) = (6) y2 ,x is a positive-definite

2 (x, t) 2e (x) polynomial matrix.

Finally, the system (1)-(2) can be rewritten as: Lemma 1. (Wang et al. (2011)). If there exists a Lya-

y(x, t) y(x, t) punov functional (11) and a scalar > 0 satisfying

= + f (y, x) + B(x)u(x, t) (7) dV (t)

t x + 2V (t) 0 (12)

v dt

= I, B(x) = [b, 0]T , f (y, x) = [1 f0 (y, x) by1 , the system (7) is exponentially stable with decay rate .

L

y1 y1

T

2 f0 (y, x)] , f0 (y, x) = (12e (x))[e 1+y1 1]y2 e 1+y1 Note that condition (12) is indeed a dissipation inequality

when the supply rate is zero but initial conditions are not.

2.2 PPV modelling So, if the storage function (11) is proven convex (ensured

by (12)), the above Lyapunov requirements are analogous

The only non-polynomial term appearing in (7) is (y1 ) = to the ones in passivity theory (Alonso and Ydstie, 2001).

y1

e 1+y1 . Consider a modelling region = {y1 : 2 y12 0}. SOS Polynomials. Checking a polynomial for SOS, i.e.,

Then, using the Taylor series (Sala and Arino, 2009) up to positive, is being able to express it as the sum of squares

degree 3, we can exactly represent (y1 ) in as of simpler polynomials. An even-degree polynomial p(y)

(y1 ) = 122.13y12 + 16.661y1 + 1+ is SOS iff there exist a vector of monomials m(y) and a

matrix H 0 such that p(y) = m(z)T Hm(y). In this way,

1 (y1 ) sup T3 (y1 ) + 2 (y1 ) inf T3 (y1 ) (8)

if the polynomial is affine in decision variables (typically

being 1 , 2 the nonlinear membership functions and T3 its coefficients), it can be checked for SOS via SDP solvers

the Taylors remainder of order 3, computed as: searching for such an H. See Seiler (2013) for details.

(y1 ) 122.13y12 16.661y1 1 Local positivity of polynomials can be checked via the well-

T3 (y1 ) = known Positivstellensatz theorem (Stengle, 1974), imple-

y13

mentations in (Jarvis-Wloszek et al., 2005). The following

T3 (y1 ) inf T3 (y1 ) lemma is reduced version of such theorem. Consider a

1 (y1 ) = , 2 (y1 ) = 1 1 (y1 )

sup T3 (y1 ) inf T3 (y1 ) region defined by polynomial boundaries as := {y :

For example, Figure 2 shows a comparison between the g1 (y) > 0, ..., gng (y) > 0, h1 (y) = 0, ..., hnh (y) = 0}.

sector bounding of in 0.2 y1 0.2 using linear vertex Lemma 2. (Pitarch (2013)). If polynomials si (y) y

models (LPV/TS) and polynomial ones up to degree 3 and rj (y) Ry can be found fulfilling

ng nh

(Taylor O3).

p(y) (y) si (y)gi (y) + rj (y)hj (y) y (13)

Assuming y1 is measurable, this technique allows to i=1 j=1

rewrite (7) in PPV form:

2

then p(y) is locally greater or equal than (y) in .

y y

= + i (y1 )Ai (y, x)y + B(x)u(x, t) (9) Based, also in Positivstellensatz results, we can set SOS

t x i=1

conditions for a semialgebraic set Z = {zk (y) > 0, k =

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1, . . . , kM } to be included in . For instance, the existence Pq (y2 ) s6qi (y)(2 y12 ) s7qi (y)( 2 y22 ) ()

of multipliers (si , sik ) y , rij Ry such that si gi + Mqi (y) Lqi (y) 2

nh kM

j rij hj k=1 sik zk y , i : 1, . . . , ng . 33

y q : 1, . . . , N i : 1, 2 (22)

Pq (y2 (xq , 0)) y(xq , 0) y(xq , 0)T 0 q : 1, . . . , N (23)

3.1 Problem statement

Pq (y2 ) qi I ()

33 q : 1, . . . , N ; i : 1, 2 (24)

Consider the following modelling region for the plug-flow Mqi (y) 2 /2 y

reactor 2

Pq (y2 )

:= (y, x) : 2 y12 0, 2 y22 0, x [0, 1] (14) qi = Aqi (y)[k] y

yk

k=1

Based on the PPV model (9), consider the subsequent qi = 2wT rqi (y)BqT + wT rqi (y)w wT Lqi (y)

infinite-dimensional state-feedback law with saturation for

controlling the nonlinear PDE system (7): qi = s8qi (y)(2 y12 ) + s9qi (y)( 2 y22 )

2

being x = N 1 , then the closed-loop system (17) is

u(x, t) = sat((x, t)), (x, t) = j (y1 )Kj (y, x)y (15) guaranteed to be exponentially stable with decay rate in

j=1 the region (14), with controller (15) fulfilling bounds (16)

and the actuators speed is bounded by +

where Kj (y, x) = M (y, x)P 1 (y2 , x), M (y, x) R12

y,x are , (, ) > 0. The controller gains can be obtained as

the controller gains to be found. The control law (15) must Kqi (y) = Mqi (y)Pq1 (y2 ).

fulfill a saturation constraint:

Proof. Conditions in this theorem asymptotically ap-

|u(x, t)| , R+ (y, x) proach 2 those in Lemma 1 for large N , i.e., Kqj (y)

sat((x, t)) := sign((x, t)) min (|(x, t)| , ) (16) and Pq1 (y2 ) are good approximations to Kj (y, x) and

P 1 (y2 , x) on the interval [xq x/2, xq + x/2]. In this

Now, defining := sat(), from (15) and (9) the overall way, conditions (18) ensure V > 0 locally in each q by

closed-loop system can be written as: Lemma 2. Conditions (23) ensure the initial conditions

y(xq , 0) belong to the level set {(y, xq ) : y T P 1 (y2 , xq )y

y y

2 1} by applying Schur complement twice:

= + i (y1 ) Ai (y, x)

t x i=1 T 1 1 yT

1 y Pq y 0 0 Pq y y T 0

y Pq

+ B(x)Ki (y, x) y B(x) (17)

Conditions (19) are a particular convex implementation of

The goal of this paper is finding a suitable finite- (12) with a backward difference for the spatial derivative

dimensional approximation to (15), fulfilling (16), which, P/x, details omitted 3 . On the one hand, multipliers

in closed loop with (7), makes the overall system locally s2 , s3 ensure that the spatial discretization of (12) holds

exponentially stable in region (14) with decay rate > 0, in each q . On the other hand, multipliers r together with

starting from initial conditions y(x, 0) . conditions (22) make (12) hold also with controller (15),

as follows. We need to ensure the bound (16) inside each

3.2 Finite-dimensional convex SOS design level set {(y, xq ) : yT Pq1 (y)y 1}. This, by the convex-

sum property of i (y1 ) and Lemma 2, is:

The following SOS approach follows a direct schema. So,

2 ()T (Kqi (y)y (q )) sq 1 y T Pq1 (y2 )y y

the spatial length x [0, 1] is gridded in N equally-

distributed points in order to apply finite differences

Now, assume that () = i i Gi (y)y when () =

(Ames, 1992) to (12). Now, define q := (y, xq ) with 0, being G(y) R12 slack decision variables. Then,

q N , xq = Nq , i.e., q is the cutting hyperplane of in y

x = xq . Similarly, Aq (y) will stand for A(y, xq ). choosing sq = 2 (classical S-procedure for quadratic

LMIs) and doing the changes of variables y = Pq (y2 ),

Theorem 3. Given scalars (, , , ) R+ , if there exist Lqi (y) = Gqi (y)Pq (y2 ), the SOS conditions before lead to

polynomial matrices Pq (y), Mqi (y), Lqi (y), plus multipli-

ers s(y) y and r(y) Ry , fulfilling: T Pq (y2 ) 2 ()T (Mqi (y) Lqi (y))

which becomes (22) by Schur complement plus multipliers

Pq (y2 ) 1 +s1q (y2 )( 2 y22 ) I 22

y2 q : 0, . . . , N (18)

s6 , s7 to add local information of q . So, what remains

is checking the dissipativity condition (12) together with

T Pq1 (y2 )Pq (y2 ) Aqi (y)Pq (y2 )+Bq Mqi (y) ensuring () = i i (y1 )Gi (y)y when () = 0. By

x Lemma 2, this is ensured adding the term

() + qi 2Pq (y2 ) 2 + s2qi (y)(2 y12 ) + s3qi (y)

T 1

( 2 y22 ) I + qi y,,w q : 1, . . . , N ; i : 1, 2 (19) (q ) rq (y) (q ) i (y1 )Gqi (y)y

i

D[2 , 3 ] Pq (y2 ) s4q (y2 )( 2 y22 )I 22

y2 q : 1, . . . , N 2 It is well established (Balas, 1986) that as N increases, the closed-

(20)

loop system that results from the PDE model plus an approximate

D[4 , 2 ] Pq (y2 ) s5q (y2 )( 2 y22 )I 22

y2 q : 1, . . . , N finite-dimensional controller converges to (17).

(21) 3 The extended proof will be available in Pitarch et al. (2016a).

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to the spatially-discretized version of (12). By the convex- and decreasing exponentially up to 0.014 mol/L at x = 1

sum property and the change of variable () = w, the (see Figures 3, 4). To ensure stability and performance

above can be expressed as guarantees starting from these initial conditions, we have

modelled the plug-flow reactor as a PPV model (8) in the

qi (y) ()

[ w] 1 1 y,,w region (14) with = 0.1, = 1.

Bq + rqi (y)Lqi (y)/2 rqi (y) w

(25) For numerical computation we have decided to set N =

being qi (y) the left-hand side of (19) without the 30 distributed points along the reactors length, fourth

terms. Henceforth, (25) becomes (19) by matrix congru- degree for the Lyapunov matrices Pq (y2 ) and third degree

ence with [I rqi (y)]. for polynomial matrices Lqi (y), Mqi (y). The user-defined

scalars for the theorem were set to = 0.008, = 0.1,

Enforcing {(y, xq ) : y T P 1 (y2 , xq )y 1} q is required = 0.02 and 1,2,3,4 = 0.0001. The evolution of the

to keep the validity of the PPV model in the rest of reactor states in closed loop with the computed controller

conditions. In this way, conditions (20)-(21) are proving is depicted in Figures 3 and 4.

that y T P 1 (y2 , xq )y 1 in the boundary of , resorting

to similar argumentations to the ones discussed for (22).

Finally, the application of Lemma 1 with conditions (18)-

(19) ensures y 1 et y0 , 1 > 0. By differentiating

both sides with respect to time, one can obtain the bound

y y 2 y, 2 > 1. Then, thanks to the

Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, the control input derivative

Kqi (y) [k]

q = i Kqi (y)y + k yk y y can be bounded by

qi Kqi (y)y + Kqi (y) y +

2 Kqi (y) y + 2 3 Kqi (y)y + (26)

with > 0, 3 1 and the fact that Kqi (y)/yk are

bounded in q . Hence, ensuring T 2 ()T (Kqi (y)y)

0 when y T Pq1 y 1 allows bounding + ,

= 2 3 . This set inclusion is checked by (24) after

the usual change of variables, Positivstellensatz and Schur Fig. 3. Evolution of the reactor temperature.

complement, analogous to the development followed to

obtain (22).

The synthesis methodology using Theorem 3 is fixing a

priori particular structures (usually by setting a maximum

degree) for polynomial decision variables Pq (y), Mqi (y),

Lqi (y), s(y) and r(y), and then check (18)-(24) for SOS.

Remark 4. Notice that the controller gains computed by

Theorem 3 are neither constant nor polynomial, but ra-

tional in the state variables. This fact, together with the

nonlinear nature of the membership functions i (y1 ), gives

great freedom to get complex nonlinear controllers.

Remark 5. Note also that no limit cycles or other attrac-

tors than the considered equilibrium profile can appear in

if Theorem 3 renders feasible, because strict positivity

of Lyapunov inequalities is ensured by the tolerances.

Fig. 4. Evolution of the reactant concentration.

Despite conditions (24) do not state a rigorous bound like Figure 5 shows the evolution with time of the control

the ones to ensure input saturation, Theorem 3 addresses input, the reactor jacket temperature. The actuator satu-

also an important limitation in practice: the actuators rates at its limits during the first 2-3 seconds, converging

speed, often forgotten in most of theoretical LMI/SOS then to the equilibrium profiles in an smooth way.

designs. In fact, can be understood as a qualitative design

parameter to tune the aggressiveness of the controller. For completeness, the obtained Lyapunov surface for the

point x7 = 0.23 is depicted in Figure 6. The estimated

4. SIMULATION RESULTS domain of attraction, i.e., the level set y T P71 (y2 )y = 1, is

also shown at the right-hand side of the picture, together

The controller computed with the proposed method has with its corresponding initial conditions (red point).

been tested in closed loop with the plug-flow reactors

model. The initial conditions for simulation are

2 xL

chosen 5. CONCLUSION

y1 (x, 0) = 0.07 sin(2xL), y2 (x, 0) = 0.5(e v 1).

This means an initial reactor temperature fluctuating The proposed systematic methodology for distributed-

25 K around the inlet temperature Tin and an initial controller synthesis with input constraints has succeeded

concentration of reactant A starting at Ca,in in x = 0 in finding a nonlinear state feedback which guarantees

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Balas, M.J. (1986). Finite-dimensional control of dis-

tributed parameter systems by galerkin approximation

of infinite dimensional controllers. Journal of Mathe-

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Christofides, P.D. (2012). Nonlinear and robust control

of PDE systems: Methods and applications to transport-

reaction processes. Springer Science & Business Media.

Dochain, D., Babary, J., and Tali-Maamar, N. (1992).

Modelling and adaptive control of nonlinear distributed

parameter bioreactors via orthogonal collocation. Auto-

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Jarvis-Wloszek, Z., Feeley, R., Tan, W., Sun, K., and

Packard, A. (2005). Control applications of sum of

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Mikhalevich, S., Rossi, F., Manenti, F., and Baydali, S.

(2015). Robust PI/PID controller design for the reliable

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Papachristodoulou, A. and Prajna, S. (2005). Analysis

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Pitarch, J.L., Sala, A., Lauber, J., and Guerra, T.M.

(2016b). Control synthesis for polynomial discrete-

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Ray, W. (1981). Advanced Process Control. McGraw-Hill.

antiwindup is able to make the PFR reach the desired state

Sala, A. (2009). On the conservativeness of fuzzy and

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