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Context Retention Nida argued that there are two different types of equivalence,

namely formal equivalencewhich in the second edition by Nida


Principles of equivalence and Taber (1982) is referred to as formal correspondence
and dynamic equivalence. Formal correspondence 'focuses
Vinay and Darbelnet views:
attention on the message itself, in both form and content', unlike
Equivalence-oriented translation as a procedure which dynamic equivalence which is based upon 'the principle of
'replicates the same situation as in the original, whilst using equivalent effect' (1964:159). In the second edition (1982) or their
completely different wording. They also suggest that, if this work, the two theorists provide a more detailed explanation of each
procedure is applied during the translation process, it can type of equivalence.
maintain the stylistic impact of the SL text in the TL text.
BACK TRANSLATION
According to them, equivalence is therefore the ideal
back translation can be defined as the procedure
method when the translator has to deal with proverbs,
according to which a translator or team of professional
idioms, clichs, nominal or adjectival phrases and the
translators interpret a document previously translated
onomatopoeia of animal sounds.
into another language back to the original language.
Jakobson and the concept of equivalence in difference The process of back translation is especially useful for
professional translators who wish to ensure the most
Roman Jakobson's study of equivalence gave new
absolute quality and accuracy to their clients. Despite taking
impetus to the theoretical analysis of translation since extra time, back translation as performed by translation
he introduced the notion of 'equivalence in difference'. services is an excellent way of avoiding errors later on
On the basis of his semiotic approach to language and during the decision-making process.
his aphorism 'there is no signatum without signum'
Principles
(1959:232), he suggests three kinds of translation:
Intralingual (within one language, i.e. rewording or
- Learning grammar rules
paraphrase)

- Translating back and forth between the target language


Interlingual (between two languages)
and the students native language
Intersemiotic (between sign systems)
FIDELITY AND TRANSPARENCY
Nida and Taber: Formal correspondence and dynamic
equivalence: Fidelity refers to the limits to which a given human
translation work precisely depicts the underlying message
or meaning of the source text without distorting it, without intralingual (equivalence within one language; paraphrasing
intensifying or weakening any part of its context, and or rewriting the same content). The second type,
otherwise without subtracting or adding to it at all. interlingual, is the one where translation equivalence is
- Transparency pertains to the degree to which a translation classified in.
caters to native speakers and the target audience, such that Nida's Equivalence Theories: Conversely, E.A. Nida (1964)
idiomatic, syntactic, and grammatical conventions are has written that there are two kinds of equivalenceformal
followed while cultural, political, and social context is kept equivalence (also known as formal correspondence) and
in mind at all times. Adaptation and localization comes dynamic equivalence. Formal equivalence is more
closest to this school of thought, with the caveat that a bit concerned with word-for-word translation and content
of sacrifice in terms of the intended message will inevitably faithfulness, while dynamic equivalence is focused upon
happen whenever translators use this approach in their context and sense-for-sense adaptation.
translation. Understanding Jargons
EQUIVALENCE
Jargon
Equivalence will always be an important part of human
- is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may
translation as long as the latter exists. To be more specific,
not be well understood outside of it. The context is usually a
equivalence is one of the most important considerations of
particular occupation (that is, a certain trade, profession,
professional translation agents and freelance translation service
or academic field), but any in group can have jargon. The main trait
experts alike when it comes to localizing a website or
that distinguishes jargon from the rest of a language is
straightforwardly translating textual material.
special vocabularyincluding some words specific to it and, often,
Therefore, regardless of whether your professional translation narrower senses of words that out groups would tend to take in a
agency is doing source oriented (to be as faithful to the original text broader sense.
as possible) or target-oriented (to make sure that the original
Differs from slang
message is translated in terms that the target audience will
understand) translation, there's always some degree of equivalent Slang
exchange in different echelons of language.
is a type of informal category of a certain language developed
Theories of Equivalence within a certain community and consists of words or phrases whose
Jakobson's Equivalence Theories: R. Jakobson (1959) literal meanings are different than the actual meanings. Hence, it is
believes that equivalence comes in three types not understood by people outside of that community or
intersemiotic (equivalence between sign systems), circle.Jargon, on the other hand, is broadly associated with a
interlingual (equivalence between languages) and subject, occupation or business that makes use of standard words