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# EG4321/EG7040

Nonlinear Control

## Dr. Matt Turner

A nonlinear control method
Basic idea: allows a system to be controlled with minimal
information
Has been successfully used in the US aero industry

Aims of Lecture
1. To introduce the underlying ideas of direct adaptive control
2. To discuss pros and cons of the approach
A control system in which the controllers parameters are updated
(adapted) according to its in environment
- Radically different to other most approaches
Linear control: all controller parameters are fixed
NDI: all controller parameters are fixed

## Two distinct strands of adaptive control

Controller parameters are updated adapted from measurement data
Plant parameters estimated and used to update controller parameters
(may include an online controller re-design)

## Focus on direct adaptive control

Potential benefits:
Does not need much information about the plant for design

## The obvious costs of adaptive control

Potential benefits:
Does not need much information about the plant for design
If plant changes, controller can change

## The obvious costs of adaptive control

Potential benefits:
Does not need much information about the plant for design
If plant changes, controller can change
May provide better performance than a linear controller

## The obvious costs of adaptive control

Potential benefits:
Does not need much information about the plant for design
If plant changes, controller can change
May provide better performance than a linear controller

## The obvious costs of adaptive control

Control system typically more complex
Potential benefits:
Does not need much information about the plant for design
If plant changes, controller can change
May provide better performance than a linear controller

## The obvious costs of adaptive control

Control system typically more complex
Controller nonlinear: stability/performance issues
Potential benefits:
Does not need much information about the plant for design
If plant changes, controller can change
May provide better performance than a linear controller

## The obvious costs of adaptive control

Control system typically more complex
Controller nonlinear: stability/performance issues
No direct handle on evolution of controller
Consider system

x = Ax + Bu

Assume that
1. u R (B is a column vector)
2. (A, B) controllable; A unknown, B known.
3. States available for feedback
Implications:
(A, B) controllable K such that

A + BK is stable

## This then implies that P > 0 such that

(A + BK ) P + P(A + BK ) < 0
Extra assumption: Given Ac there exists a K such that

Ac = A + BK Ac P + PAc = Q < 0

u(t) = K (t)x(t)

## Note that (x PB) is a scalar

Notes:
By assumption we know B
By assumption there exists a K such that Ac = A + BK
we know P

Implication:
We just need to choose - rate of adaptation
1. Re-write dynamics

## x = Ax + B(K (t) x) = Ax + B(K (t) + K K )x

= (A + BK )x + B K (t) K x
| {z }
K

## 2. Choose Lyapunov function

V (x, K ) = x Px + K 1 K

3. Differentiate

V = 2x P[(A + BK )x + BK x] + 2K 1 K
= x [(A + BK ) P + P(A + BK )]x + 2x PBK x+
2K 1 (x(x PB))
= x (Ac P + PAc )x + 2x PBK x 2K x(x PB)

= x (Ac P + PAc )x 0
Lyapunov function is negative semi-definite
States, x(t), and controller gains, K (t) are bounded
In fact, can prove convergence of states (Barbalats Lemma)