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EMIL RACOVI COLLEGE OF NATURAL SCIENCES

CERTIFICATION PAPER

HAWAII, A NEVER ENDING STORY

Coordinating teacher: Student:


ANDREI BALABAN DIANA BLAJOVAN

MAY 2017
Table of contents
Argument..................................................................................................................................page 3
Introduction..............................................................................................................................page 4
Chapter I: Short History of Hawaii...........................................................................................page 5
Chapter II:Important facts about Hawaii...................................................................................page 8
Conclusion.................................................................................................................................page 15
Bibliography...............................................................................................................................page 16
Argument
I have chosen to make my project about Hawaii and its history, because I consider that is a
very interesting and important subject to discuss, since there are a lot of things to be visited in
Hawaii, and is also very important for USA. Due to its popularity, it is visited by lots of people,
especially Americans.
On one hand, Hawaii is one of the most popular holiday destination, which is worth being
visited rom lots of resons. The Hawaiian island has an impressive fauna and flora, being inhabited
by a lot of plants like palmgrass, blue butterfly bushes, air yam, plumerias, bamboo orchids,
rattlesnake plants, gingers, and other flowers and plants. Also the animals of Hawaii are pretty
interesting, like the Hawaiian monk seal, the Java sparrow, the Nene goose, the Hawaiian green sea
turtle, the white fairy tern, the dolphin, the wedge-tailed shearwater, the mongoose, the saffron
finch, the gold dust day gecko, and other animals which also happen to be endangered species. In
Hawaii you can choose from a wide range of activities and places to visit. Hawaii is full of touristic
attractions, and facilities which would make anyones vacation a living dream. There can be done a
lot of fun activities such as surfing, windsurfing, whale whatching, dancing hula, sunbathing, eating
hawaiian foods, going to marine parks and watch dolphins and other sea mammals, going to
amusement parks, go snorkeling, visiting volcanoes, and more. There are also great places to visit
such as The Volcano National Park of Hawaii, The Polynesian Cultural Center, Mauna Kea, Mauna
Loa, The Pearl Harbour, The Sea Life Park Hawaii, The Rainbow Falls, and more. The island has
also an interesting culture, which is worth to be learned about.
On the other hand, Hawaii is also very important for the United States, and even for the
world. This state is so important because it is a popular holiday destination, and even one of the
most visited ones in the world. Due to this fact, it has a big impact on the USAs tourism and
economy since is the most popular holiday destination in the country, and its meant to be a relaxing
place for the hardworking American people living in big, buzy cities such as New York or
Washington DC, where they restore their energy for being fully active and functionable at their
workplaces, and provide the countrys industry and economy. It is also a very important historical
and cultural centre, as a part of the American History took place there, one of the most important
American historical events, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour, which lead to launching a nuclear
bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, happened on this island. Also is a very cosmopolitan state, as
there you can find all sorts of cultures, mostly Asian. The state also exports coffee, macadamia nuts,
pineapple, livestock, sugarcane and honey. The honey bees might be the states most valuable
export, which means that Hawaii is actually the largest honey provider in USA. The residents of
Hawaii pay larger taxes than other American states, and also has a very good military base. It was
also important for USAs expansionism.
As far as Im concerned, Hawaii is a good subject to debate, since is a popular and important
state. It is worth visiting because of the impressive fauna and flora, wide range of activities, water
sports, and also places to visit. Also has a vast history and culture, and manages to have a good
economy, and a reliable military base, and thats why I have chosen this subject.

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Introduction
The project is about Hawaii and its history and culture. Hawaii is the 50th and most recent
U.S. state to join the United States, having joined on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only U.S. state
located in Oceania and the only one composed entirely of islands. It is the most northern island
group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean. Hawaii is the
only U.S. state not located in the Americas. The state does not observe daylight saving time. Also
the state has 5 volcanoes: Mauna Loa, Mauna Kea, Kohala, Huallai and Klauea. Hawaii has
Polynesian origins, and is one of four U.S. states apart from the original thirteen the Vermont
Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845), and the California Republic (1846) that were
independent nations prior to statehood. The Hawaiian island was colonised by the Polynesians from
the Marquesas Islands, around the year 300 CE. After that, the island was invaded by the Tahitians
around 1000 CE, who introduced a new line of high chiefs, the kapu system, the practice of human
sacrifice, and the building of heiau. Local chiefs, called alii, ruled their settlements, and launched
wars to extend their influence and defend their communities from predatory rivals. Ancient Hawaii
was a caste-based society, much like that of Hindus in India. It is possible that Spanish explorers
arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century 200 years before Captain James Cook's first
documented visit in 1778. Ruy Lpez de Villalobos commanded a fleet of six ships that left
Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines with a Spanish sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as
pilot. Hawaiians also had their own religion. Hawaiian religion encompasses the indigenous
religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic, with a belief
in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human beings and
objects such as animals, the waves, and the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the Tahitians
and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaii between 500 and 1300 AD. Today, Hawaiian
religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional
Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna." Hawaiian
religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kne, K, Lono and Kanaloa. Other
notable deities include Laka, Kihawahine, Haumea, Papahnaumoku, and, most famously, Pele. In
addition, each family is considered to have one or more family guardians known as aumakua.
Also I wrote about the important things that should be know about Hawaii such as the fact
that they are very known for water sports especially surfing, they have a tradition of welcoming
people with flower necklaces called leis which is made of plumerias, a kind of sweet scented
flowers, which if is put behind the right ear means that you are single, and if is put behind the left
ear means youre thaken, they dance Hula, a dance in which are expressed emotions and feelings,
and have a goddess of Hula called Laka, between the volcanoes, Mauna Loa is the biggest, and also
the biggest mountain in the world by volume and surface, and they also have very great dishes such
as Poi, Salmon, Lau Lau, Purple Sweet Potato, Kalua Pig, White Rice, Squid Luau, Chicken
Longrice, Poke, Breadfruit, Pipi Kaula, Haupia and Kulolo. Also their old alphabet is known to be
one of the shortest alphabets in the history.

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Chapter I
Short History of Hawaii

For the beggining, I will talk about the basic history of Hawaii. Hawaii is one of four U.S.
states apart from the original thirteen the Vermont Republic (1791), the Republic of Texas (1845),
and the California Republic (1846) that were independent nations prior to statehood. Along with
Texas, Hawaii had formal, international diplomatic recognition as a nation. The Kingdom of
Hawaii was sovereign from 1810 until 1893 when the monarchy was overthrown by resident
American and European capitalists and landholders in a coup d'tat. Hawaii was an independent
republic from 1894 until August 12, 1898, when it officially became a territory of the United States.
Hawaii was admitted as a U.S. state on August 21, 1959.
Based on archaeological evidence, the earliest habitation of the Hawaiian Islands dates to
around 300 CE, probably by Polynesian settlers from the Marquesas Islands. A second wave of
migration from Raiatea and Bora Bora took place in the 11th century. The date of the human
discovery and habitation of the Hawaiian Islands is the subject of academic debate. Some
archaeologists and historians believe there was an early settlement from the Marquesas. They think
it was a later wave of immigrants from Tahiti around 1000 CE who introduced a new line of high
chiefs, the kapu system, the practice of human sacrifice, and the building of heiau. This later
immigration is detailed in Hawaiian mythology (moolelo) about Paao. Other authors say there is
no archaeological or linguistic evidence for a later influx of Tahitian settlers and that Paao must be
regarded as a myth. The history of the islands is marked by a slow, steady growth in population and
the size of the chiefdoms, which grew to encompass whole islands. Local chiefs, called alii, ruled
their settlements, and launched wars to extend their influence and defend their communities from
predatory rivals. Ancient Hawaii was a caste-based society, much like that of Hindus in India.
It is possible that Spanish explorers arrived in the Hawaiian Islands in the 16th century 200
years before Captain James Cook's first documented visit in 1778. Ruy Lpez de Villalobos
commanded a fleet of six ships that left Acapulco in 1542 bound for the Philippines with a Spanish
sailor named Juan Gaetano aboard as pilot. Depending on the interpretation, Gaetano's reports
describe an encounter with either Hawaii or the Marshall Islands. If de Villalobos' crew spotted
Hawaii, Gaetano would be considered the first European to see the islands. Some scholars have
dismissed these claims due to a lack of credibility. Spanish archives contain a chart that depicts
islands at the same latitude as Hawaii but with a longitude ten degrees east of the islands. In this
manuscript, the island of Maui is named La Desgraciada (The Unfortunate Island), and what
appears to be Hawaii Island is named La Mesa (The Table). Islands resembling Kahoolawe, Lanai,
and Molokai are named Los Monjes (The Monks). For two-and-a-half centuries, Spanish galleons
crossed the Pacific from Mexico along a route that passed south of Hawaii on their way to Manila.
The exact route was kept secret to protect the Spanish trade monopoly against competing powers.
The 1778 arrival of British explorer James Cook was the first documented contact by a
European explorer with Hawaii. Cook named the archipelago as the Sandwich Islands in honor of
his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich. Cook published the islands' location and rendered
the native name as Owyhee. This spelling lives on in Owyhee County, Idaho. It was named after
three native Hawaiian members of a trapping party who went missing in that area. The Owyhee
Mountains were also named for them. Cook visited the Hawaiian Islands twice. As he prepared for
departure after his second visit in 1779, a quarrel ensued as Cook took temple idols and fencing as
"firewood", and a minor chief and his men took a ship's boat. Cook abducted the King of Hawaii
Island, Kalanipuu, and held him for ransom aboard his ship in order to gain return of Cook's
boat. This tactic had worked in Tahiti and other islands. Instead, Kalanipuu's supporters fought
back, killing Cook and four marines as Cook's party retreated along the beach to their ship. They
departed without the ship's boat.

-3-
After Cook's visit and the publication of several books relating his voyages, the Hawaiian
islands attracted many European visitors: explorers, traders, and eventually whalers, who found the
islands to be a convenient harbor and source of supplies. Early British influence can be seen in the
design of the flag of Hawaii, which bears the Union Jack in the top-left corner. These visitors
introduced diseases to the once-isolated islands, causing the Hawaiian population to drop
precipitously. Native Hawaiians had no resistance to Eurasian diseases, such as influenza, smallpox
and measles. By 1820, disease, famine and wars between the chiefs killed more than half of the
Native Hawaiian population. During the 1850s, measles killed a fifth of Hawaii's people. Historical
records indicated the earliest Chinese immigrants to Hawaii originated from Guangdong Province; a
few sailors arrived in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey and more arrived in 1789 with an American
trader, who settled in Hawaii in the late 18th century. It appears that leprosy was introduced by
Chinese workers by 1830; as with the other new infectious diseases, it proved damaging to the
Hawaiians.
The Kingdom of Hawaii was established in 1795 with the unification of the independent
islands of Hawaii, Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Lnai into one government with the use of western
military technology. In 1810 the entirety of the archipelago was unified when Kauai and Niihau
joined the kingdom willingly and without bloodshed or war. The kingdom was ruled by two major
dynastic families: the House of Kamehameha and the House of Kalkaua. The kingdom won
recognition from major European powers. The United States became its chief trading partner, and
the kingdom was watched jealously lest Britain, Japan or another power threatened to seize control.
A new Constitution was imposed in 1887, to reduce the absolute power of the king. The queen who
succeeded him tried to restore the old order, but was overthrown in 1893, largely at the hands of
United States citizens. Hawaii became a republic until it was annexed by the United States in 1898.
During the 1780s and 1790s, chiefs often fought for power. After a series of battles that
ended in 1795, all inhabited islands were subjugated under a single ruler, who became known as
King Kamehameha the Great. He established the House of Kamehameha, a dynasty that ruled the
kingdom until 1872. After Kamehameha II inherited the throne in 1819, American Protestant
missionaries to Hawaii converted many Hawaiians to Christianity. They used their influence to end
many traditional practices of the people. The islands' first Christan king was Kamehameha III.
Hiram Bingham I, a prominent Protestant missionary, was a trusted adviser to the monarchy during
this period. Other missionaries and their descendants became active in commercial and political
affairs, leading to conflicts between the monarchy and its restive American subjects. Catholic and
Mormon missionaries were also active in the kingdom, but they converted a minority of the Native
Hawaiian population. Missionaries from each major group administered to the leper colony at
Kalaupapa on Molokai, which was established in 1866 and operated well into the 20th century. The
best known were Father Damien and Mother Marianne Cope, both of whom were canonized in the
early 21st century as Roman Catholic saints. The death of the bachelor King Kamehameha V who
did not name an heir resulted in the popular election of Lunalilo over Kalkaua. Lunalilo died the
next year, also without naming an heir. In 1874, the election was contested within the legislature
between Kalkaua and Emma, Queen Consort of Kamehameha IV. After riots broke out, the United
States and Britain landed troops on the islands to restore order. Governance passed to the House of
Kalkaua.
The Hawaiians also had a very interesting religion. Hawaiian religion encompasses the
indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Native Hawaiians. It is polytheistic and animistic,
with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human
beings and objects such as animals, the waves, and the sky. Hawaiian religion originated among the
Tahitians and other Pacific islanders who landed in Hawaii between 500 and 1300 AD. Today,
Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American Indian Religious Freedom Act.
Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age practice known as "Huna."
Hawaiian religion is polytheistic, with four deities most prominent: Kne, K, Lono and
Kanaloa.
-4-
Other notable deities include Laka, Kihawahine, Haumea, Papahnaumoku, and, most famously,
Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more family guardians known as
aumakua.

One breakdown of the Hawaiian pantheon consists of the following groups:

the four gods (ka h) K, Kne, Lono, Kanaloa


the forty male gods or aspects of Kne (ke kanah)
the four hundred gods and goddesses (ka lau)
the great multitude of gods and goddesses (ke kini akua)
the spirits (na unihipili)
the guardians (na aumkua)

Another breakdown consists of three major groups:

the four gods, or akua: K, Kne, Lono, Kanaloa


many lesser gods, or kupua, each associated with certain professions
family gods, aumakua, associated with particular families

One Hawaiian creation myth is embodied in the Kumulipo, an epic chant linking the alii, or
Hawaiian royalty, to the gods. The Kumulipo is divided into two sections: night, or p, and day, or
ao, with the former corresponding to divinity and the latter corresponding to mankind. After the
birth of Lailai, the woman, and Kii, the man, the man succeeds at seducing and reproducing with
the woman before the god Kne has a chance, thereby making the divine lineage of the gods
younger than and thus subservient to the lineage of man. This, in turn, illustrates the transition of
mankind from being symbols for the gods (the literal meaning of kii) into the keeper of these
symbols in the form of idols and the like. The Kumulipo was recited during the time of Makahiki, to
honor the god of fertility, Lono.
The First and Second Hawaiian Renaissance (also often called the Hawaiian Cultural
Renaissance) was the Hawaiian resurgence of a distinct cultural identity that draws upon traditional
knaka maoli culture, with a significant divergence from the tourism-based culture which Hawaii
was previously known for worldwide (along with the rest of Polynesia). The First Hawaiian
Renaissance had its foundation in the nationalism sentiments of King Kamehameha V. At the time
Hawaii was an independent kingdom. The intention was to form a contemporary national identity
rather than modeling Hawaii after Great Britain and the culture of the United States. King Kalkaua
had a controversial rise to power due to the internal conflicts between family lineage. One half of
the island wanted Kalkaua, whereas the other half cheered for his competitor. The result spread
tension between the people themselves, but most came to favor Kalkaua as he brought back the
Hawaiian culture to urban areas. The Second Hawaiian Renaissance is generally considered to have
started in 1970, and drew from similar cultural movements from the late 60s and early 70s. It is
mostly known from music, such as Gabby Pahinui and his work with the Sons of Hawaii, or Keola
and Kapono Beamer's traditionalist slack-key music, and their signature twin-hole guitar designs
constructed at the Guitar and Lute Workshop. Other noted Hawaiian musicians who played an
integral role in the renaissance were Dennis Pavao, Ledward Kaapana, and Nedward Kaapana.
The Kaapana brothers, along with cousin Pavao formed the falsetto trio, Hui Ohana. The musical
group "Olomana" contributed greatly to the music of this period with songs like 'O Malia' and 'Mele
O Kahoolawe'. This period in Hawaiian history is also associated with a renewed interest in
Hawaiian language, Pidgin, Hula, Traditional Hawaiian Crafts, Hawaiian Studies, and other cultural
items

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Chapter II
Important facts about Hawaii
As a first fact, Hawaii is most known for surfing, and organising surf contests, this water sport
being a very important part of their culture, and they also have surfing schools, and make a
considerable amount of money by surfing lessons. The greatest surfer on the beach is entitled as
The Big Kahuna, and is considered the king of the beach.

Another fact is that one of the most popular flowers of Hawaii is plumeria, a tropical flower
which is mostly used in floral arrangements and leis, which are flower necklaces, usually made
from this flower. The flower also can indicate the girls relationship status. If its put behind the
left ear means that the girl has already a significant other, but if its put behind the right ear
means that the girl is single.

Another fact is that the most popular dance in Hawaii is Hula, which is considered a local
tradition for years. Hula is a Polynesian dance accompanied by chant (oli) or song (mele). It was
developed in the Hawaiian Islands by the Polynesians who originally settled there. The hula
dramatizes or portrays the words of the oli or mele in a visual dance form. In the past, Native
Hawaiians believed in a goddess of Hula called Laka, and now Hula is present at all kinds of
Hawaiian holidays and festivities.

Another fact is that Mauna Loa is Hawaiis biggest volcano, and actually the biggest mountain
in the world in volume and surface. The volcano is still active, and there is still the danger to
erupt, however, the local people are still upbeat. Mauna Loa is one of the five volcanoes of
Hawaii, the other four being: Kohala, Mauna Kea, Huallai and Klauea.

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Another fact is that early Hawaiians have a history of being expert canoe builders. The tradition
requires that prayer and food offerings are made to forest gods before, during and after the tree
is taken from the forest. Cultural protocols determine exactly how the tree for a canoe would be
felled.

Another fact is that early Hawaiians were also master non-instrument navigators. Using only the
sun, moon, stars and waves, they were known to traverse the Pacific, which resulted in the
occupation of many small islands in Polynesia. The Hawaiians had an intimate knowledge of
the location and types of celestial bodies. Everything from the North Star to the South Cross
have Hawaiian identities and lore.

Another fact is that the Hawaiian language is comprised of only five vowels and eight
consonants, being the shortest alphabet in the world. Tricky for most to master, the language is
compromised of soft sounds with words having many and often hidden meanings. One of the
most notable is the word aloha. It's probably the most widely known of all Hawaiian words, and
it is one of the most important. Aloha also means hello, goodbye and love, but also kindness,
compassion, affection and fondness.

Another fact is that music has also grown to be a familiar and popular part of Hawaiian culture.
Ever evolving from a beginning of simple drumbeats and chants, music today is filled with a
multitude of artists and genres that include hapa-haole (Hawaiian melody with English lyrics),
traditional, luau, kolohe (naughty or teasing hula), chalangalang, jawaiian and more.

Another fact of the culture lies in legends. Ancient Hawaiians were known to be storytellers.
Legends were a way of documenting history, knowledge, facts and beliefs from generation to
generation. Some of the more popular legends include the story of the demi-God Maui, who
pulled the island up from the bottom of the sea, the wicked, deceptive and jealous volcano
goddess Pele and her snow god sister Poliahu.

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Another fact is that Hawaii state's nickname is "Aloha State', because the word 'Aloha' is one of
the most commonly used words in Hawaiian Language. Based on the context, Aloha can mean
'hello', 'welcome', 'love', 'best wishes' or even 'goodbye'.

Another fact is that Hawaii is the only US state with a tropical rain forest.

Another fact is that Iolani Palace, in Honolulu, is the only royal palace in the United States.
Electric lights illuminated Iolani Palace four years before the White House in Washington D.C.
had them.

Another fact is that Hawaii is the only US state made up entirely of islands. It is composed of
132 islands - eight main islands (Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Niihau and
Kahoolawe) and 124 islets, reefs, and shoals. Hawaii is the southernmost state in the USA.

Another fact is that from east to west, Hawaii is the second widest state in the United States
(behind Alaska).
-8-
Another fact is that Ka Lae on the Big Island of Hawaii is the southernmost point in the United
States.

Another fact is that Hawaii is the only U.S. state that grows coffee, cocoa, and vanilla beans.

Another fact is that The Big Island (Hawaii Island) is getting bigger by about 42 acres each year
because of the continuous eruption of the Kilauea Volcano. It's been erupting for 30 years.

Another fact is that The Hawaii is one of four US states that have outlawed billboards (The
others are Alaska, Maine, and Vermont).

Another fact is that Haleakal (means 'House of the Sun') is the world's largest dormant volcano.
It forms more than 75% of the Hawaiian Island of Maui. Its crater is 3,000 feet deep, 7.5 miles
long by 2.5 miles wide.

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Another fact is that by law, no building on Kauai is allowed to be built taller than a palm
tree.

Another fact is that the word Hawaii is from the Proto-Polynesian hawaiki, meaning 'place
of the gods' or 'homeland'.

Another fact is that Hawaii is one of the three US states that are antipodal (diametrically
opposite on the other side of the globe) to inhabited land Hawaii and Oahu islands lie exact
opposite to the African nations of Botswana and Namibia. So, if you start digging a straight
hole in Honolulu and manage to come on the other side of the globe, you will come out in
Botswana/Namibia.

Another fact is that Niihau, the seventh largest of the Hawaiian Islands, was purchased by
Elizabeth Sinclair in 1864 from King Kamehameha V for $10,000 in gold and private
ownership passed on to her descendants, the Robinson family.

Another fact is that Hawaii is the only state in United States where whites (Caucasians) are
in minority. About 38% of Hawaii's population are of Asian ancestry.

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Another fact is that The Hawaiian Islands are the projecting tops of the biggest mountain
range in the world. Under-sea volcanoes that erupted millions of years ago formed the
islands of Hawaii.

Another fact is that Hawaii has its own time zone (Hawaiian Standard Time) It's also one of
two U.S. states that doesn't follow Daylight Saving Time (Arizona is the other).

Another fact is that Hawaii is the 8th smallest, the 11th least populous, but the 13th most
densely populated of the 50 U.S. states.

Another fact is that Molokais north shore is home to the worlds largest sea cliffs (more
than 3,000 ft or 914 m high) and Hawaiis longest waterfall (Kahiwa Falls 2,165 ft or 660
m long).

Another fact is that The Hawaiian archipelago spans the distance of 1,523 miles (2,451 km),
making Hawaii the longest island chain in the world.

Another fact is that Pearl Harbour near Honolulu is a United States Navy deep-water naval
base. It was shot into headlines when Japan attacked Pearl Harbour on Sunday, December 7,
1941, an event that brought the USA into World War II.

Another fact is that Kalaaupapa on Molokai was once a leper colony. It was administered by
Father Damien, a Flemish Catholic missionary, who later died of leprosy he contacted while
treating the patients.

-11-
Another fact is that Hawaii is the most isolated population center on the face of the earth.
Hawaii is 2,390 miles from California; 3,850 miles from Japan; 4,900 miles from China;
and 5,280 miles from the Philippines.

Another fact is that at less than half a million years old, Hawaii Big Island is the youngest of
the Hawaiian Islands. As it is still forming, the Big Island is lacking in good beaches (We
need to wait for 5 million years to get beaches on the Big Island) 6 million years old Kauai
is the oldest of the Hawaiian Islands.

Another fact is that a luau is a traditional Hawaiian party or feast that is usually
accompanied by entertainment. Many families celebrate a child's first birthday with a luau.
Graduation luaus and wedding luaus are also common.

Another fact is that Hawaii is the only state in the United States to honour a monarch,
celebrating King Kamehameha Day on June 11th since 1872. King Kamehameha I
(Kamehameha the Great) is known for uniting the Hawaiian Islands in 1810.

Another fact is that the Hawaiians also have a large range of dishes such as Poi, Lomi
Salmon, Lau Lau, Purple Sweet Potato, Kalua Pig, White Rice, Squid Luau, Chicken
Longrice, Poke, Breadfruit, Pipi Kaula, Haupia and Kulolo.

-12-
Conclusion
The conclusion is that the History of Hawaii is a very interesting and important subject to
discuss, since is so vast and big and it is a lot to be said. Firstly they have great history and a very
vast and great culture. They have miraculous natural resources as they can export cofee, vanilla and
cocoa, and they have wonderful flora and fauna with a wide range of animal and plant species. It is
also one of the most popular exotic locations in the world and is very visited by tourists for
spending their vacations. It has beautiful scenery and sightings as well as impressive volcanoes.
There are a lot of fun activities to do on this island, the most popular one is surfing, and mostly
water sports. The island is also important for USAs expansionism, and has a very good economy
which consist mostly of tourism, natural goods export, surfing lessons, and also has the biggest
taxes in USA. Also has a very good military base and this is also a important thing about the island.
Hawaii is also an important historical and cultural centre and there had place a lot of important
American historical events, one of them being the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour which caused
USA to enter into the World War II. The Hawaiian state is also independent and self-governing.
Their history is very interesting and worth to be learned about. Hawaii is the 50th and most
recent U.S. state to join the United States, having joined on August 21, 1959. Hawaii is the only
U.S. state located in Oceania and the only one composed entirely of islands. The island is
Polynesian in origins and is located in northern Polynesia in the Pacific Ocean. That is a good thing
for them because can make more colonies. The Polynesians colonised Hawaii in the 3rd century
from the Marquesas and were followed by Tahitian settlers in 1300 CE who conquered the original
inhabitants. They were also really smart because they brought with them clothing, plants and
livestock and established settlements along the coasts and larger valleys. The 1778 arrival of British
explorer James Cook was the first documented contact by a European explorer with Hawaii. Cook
named the archipelago as the Sandwich Islands in honor of his sponsor John Montagu, 4th Earl of
Sandwich. They also had a famous king called King Kamehameha and their Renaissance mostly
consisted in trying to be distinguished in culture from other states and countries, and also was
noticed for music and hula dance.
They also had a very interesting religion. The Hawaiian religion is polytheistic and animistic
with a belief in many deities and spirits, including the belief that spirits are found in non-human
beings and objects such as animals, the waves, and the sky. The most notable deities were Kne,
K, Lono and Kanaloa. Other notable deities include Laka, Kihawahine, Haumea, Papahnaumoku,
and, most famously, Pele. In addition, each family is considered to have one or more family
guardians known as aumakua. Today, Hawaiian religious practices are protected by the American
Indian Religious Freedom Act. Traditional Hawaiian religion is unrelated to the modern New Age
practice known as "Huna."
And the last but not the least, there are a lot of important and interesting facts about this
beautiful island named Hawaii. Hawaii is the capital of surfing, has a traditional dance called hula,
traditional flower necklaces called leis which are made from plumerias and are a form of
welcoming. Hawaii also has five volcanoes, the biggest of them being Mauna Loa which is also the
biggest mountain in the world. The island has also traditional parties called luau and delicious
dishes such as Poi, Lomi Salmon, Lau Lau, Purple Sweet Potato, Kalua Pig, White Rice, Squid
Luau, Chicken Longrice, Poke, Breadfruit, Pipi Kaula, Haupia and Kulolo. Hawaiians are also
experts in canoe building and non-instrument navigation, and their language has the shortest
alphabet in history. Hawaii is also the only American state which has a tropical rain forest, and also
has its own time zone.
As far as I am concerned, the Hawaiian history and culture is very interesting, and it is a
very important part in all the American history around the years. Its history should be preserved,
and its culture to be appreciated, and the land respected for everything the native inhabitants have
done, and also what their ancestors have done.
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Bibliography
BOOKSOURCE:
1) Linda K. Menton and Eileen H. Tamura: A History of Hawaii, Student Book, 1999, page 10
2) William Alanson Bryan: Natural History of Hawaii - Being an Account of the Hawaiian People,
the Geology and Geography of the Islands, and the Native and Introduced Plants and Animals of
the Group, Read Books Design, 1915, page 300
3) Ann Rayson: Modern History of Hawai'i, Bess Press, 2004, page 25
4) Albert J. Schtz: The Voices of Eden: A History of Hawaiian Language Studies, University of
Hawaii Press, 1994, page 80
5) Norris Whitfield Potter,Lawrence M. Kasdon and Ann Rayson: History of the Hawaiian
Kingdom, Bess Press, 2003, page 72

INTERNET SOURCE: 1) http://hawaiifunfacts.facts.co/hawaiifunfactsforkids/hawaiifunfacts.php


2) www.mythichawaii.com
3) www.mtholyoke.edu

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