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# CHAPTER 16

## EXERCISE SET 16.1

1. (a) III because the vector eld is independent of y and the direction is that of the negative x-axis
for negative x, and positive for positive
(b) IV, because the y-component is constant, and the x-component varies priodically with x

## 2. (a) I, since the vector eld is constant

(b) II, since the vector eld points away from the origin

## 3. (a) true (b) true (c) true

4. (a) false, the lengths are equal to 1 (b) false, the y-component is then zero
(c) false, the x-component is then zero
y y y
5. 6. 7.

x x

y y y
8. 9. 10.

x x x

y x
11. (a) = x i + y j = i+ j = F, so F is conservative for all x, y
1 + x2 y 2 1 + x2 y 2
(b) = x i + y j = 2xi 6yj + 8zk = F so F is conservative for all x, y

## 12. (a) = x i + y j = (6xy y 3 )i + (4y + 3x2 3xy 2 )j = F, so F is conservative for all x, y

(b) = x i + y j + z k = (sin z + y cos x)i + (sin x + z cos y)j + (x cos z + sin y)k = F, so F is
conservative for all x, y

657
658 Chapter 16

## 16. div F = yexy + sin y + 2 sin z cos z, curl F = xexy k

2
17. div F =  , curl F = 0
x2 + y2 + z2

1 x z
18. div F = + xzexyz + 2 2
, curl F = xyexyz i + 2 j + yzexyz k
x x +z x + z2

## 24. ( F) = ((x + 3y)i yj 2xyk) = 2xi + 2yj 3k

f g h
27. Let F = f i + gj + hk ; div (kF) = k +k +k = k div F
x y z
     
h g f h g f
28. Let F = f i + gj + hk ; curl (kF) = k i+k j+k k = k curl F
y z z x x y

29. Let F = f (x, y, z)i + g(x, y, z)j + h(x, y, z)k and G = P (x, y, z)i + Q(x, y, z)j + R(x, y, z)k, then
     
f P g Q h R
div (F + G) = + + + + +
x x y y z z
   
f g h P Q R
= + + + + + = div F + div G
x y z x y z

30. Let F = f (x, y, z)i + g(x, y, z)j + h(x, y, z)k and G = P (x, y, z)i + Q(x, y, z)j + R(x, y, z)k, then
   

curl (F + G) = (h + R) (g + Q) i + (f + P ) (h + R) j
y z z x
 

+ (g + Q) (f + P ) k;
x y
expand and rearrange terms to get curl F + curl G.

31. Let F = f i + gj + hk ;
     
f g h
div (F) = + f + + g + + h
x x y y z z
   
f g h
= + + + f+ g+ h
x y z x y z
= div F + F
Exercise Set 16.1 659

32. Let F = f i + gj + hk ;
     

curl (F) = (h) (g) i+ (f ) (h) j+ (g) (f ) k; use the product
y z z x x y
rule to expand each of the partial derivatives, rearrange to get curl F + F

33. Let F = f i + gj + hk ;
     
h g f h g f
div(curl F) = + +
x y z y z x z x y
2h 2g 2f 2h 2g 2f
= + + = 0,
xy xz yz yx zx zy
assuming equality of mixed second partial derivatives
   2   2 
2 2 2 2
34. curl () = i+ j+ k = 0, assuming equality
yz zy zx xz xy yx
of mixed second partial derivatives

## 37. (a) curl r = 0i + 0j + 0k = 0

 x y z r
(b) r = x2 + y 2 + z 2 =  i+  j+  k=
x2 + y2 + z2 2 2
x +y +z 2 2 2
x +y +z 2 r

## 38. (a) div r = 1 + 1 + 1 = 3

1 xi + yj + zk r
(b) = (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )1/2 = 2 =
r (x + y 2 + z 2 )3/2 r3

r r r f  (r)
39. (a) f (r) = f  (r) i + f  (r) j + f  (r) k = f  (r)r = r
x y z r
f  (r)
(b) div[f (r)r] = f (r)div r + f (r) r = 3f (r) + r r = 3f (r) + rf  (r)
r

f  (r)
40. (a) curl[f (r)r] = f (r)curl r + f (r) r = f (r)0 + rr=0+0=0
r
  
f (r) f  (r) f  (r)
(b) f (r) = div[f (r)] = div
2
r = div r + r
r r r
f  (r) rf  (r) f  (r) f  (r)
=3 + r r = 2 + f  (r)
r r3 r

## 42. Multiply 3f (r) + rf  (r) = 0 through by r2 to obtain 3r2 f (r) + r3 f  (r) = 0,

d[r3 f (r)]/dr = 0, r3 f (r) = C, f (r) = C/r3 , so F = Cr/r3 (an inverse-square eld).

43. (a) At the point (x, y) the slope of the line along which the vector yi + xj lies is x/y; the
slope of the tangent line to C at (x, y) is dy/dx, so dy/dx = x/y.
(b) ydy = xdx, y 2 /2 = x2 /2 + K1 , x2 + y 2 = K
660 Chapter 16

y y

## 46. dy/dx = y/x, (1/y)dy = (1/x)dx, ln y = ln x + K1 , y

y = eK1 e ln x = K/x

## EXERCISE SET 16.2

 1
1. (a) dy = 1 because s = y is arclength measured from (0, 0)
0

## (b) 0, because sin xy = 0 along C


2. (a) ds = length of line segment = 2 (b) 0, because x is constant and dx = 0
C
 2  2 
dx dy 1  11 1 4
3. (a) ds = + dt, so (2t 3t2 ) 4 + 36t2 dt = 10 ln( 10 3)
dt dt 0 108 36 27
 1  1
1
(b) (2t 3t2 )2 dt = 0 (c) (2t 3t2 )6t dt =
0 0 2
 1   1
864 54
4. (a) t(3t2 )(6t3 )2 1 + 36t2 + 324t4 dt = (b) t(3t2 )(6t3 )2 dt =
0 5 0 5
 1  1
648
(c) t(3t2 )(6t3 )2 6t dt = (d) t(3t2 )(6t3 )2 18t2 dt = 162
0 11 0

 1
5. (a) C : x = t, y = t, 0 t 1; 6t dt = 3
0
 1
(b) C : x = t, y = t2 , 0 t 1; (3t + 6t2 2t3 )dt = 3
0
Exercise Set 16.2 661

(c) C : x = t, y = sin(t/2), 0 t 1;
 1
[3t + 2 sin(t/2) + t cos(t/2) (/2) sin(t/2) cos(t/2)]dt = 3
0
 1
(d) C : x = t3 , y = t, 0 t 1; (9t5 + 8t3 t)dt = 3
0
 1
1
6. (a) C : x = t, y = t, z = t, 0 t 1; (t + t t) dt =
0 2
 1
1
(b) C : x = t, y = t2 , z = t3 , 0 t 1; (t2 + t3 (2t) t(3t2 )) dt =
0 60
 1
2
(c) C : x = cos t, y = sin t, z = t, 0 t 1; ( sin2 t + t cos t cos t) dt =
0 2
  
3
1+t 3
1/2
1
1 + 2t
7. dt = (1 + t) dt = 2 8. 5 2
dt = 5(/4 + ln 2)
0 1+t 0 0 1+t
 1  1
9. 3(t2 )(t2 )(2t3 /3)(1 + 2t2 ) dt = 2 t7 (1 + 2t2 ) dt = 13/20
0 0
 2 
5 /4
10. et dt = 5(1 e2 )/4 11. (8 cos2 t16 sin2 t20 sin t cos t)dt = 1
4 0 0
 1  
2 2 5/3 2/3
12. t t +t dt = 6/5
1 3 3
 3
1
13. C : x = (3 t)2 /3, y = 3 t, 0 t 3; (3 t)2 dt = 3
0 3
 1  
2 2/3 2 1/3
14. C : x = t2/3 , y = t, 1 t 1; t t + t7/3 dt = 4/5
1 3 3
 /2
15. C : x = cos t, y = sin t, 0 t /2; ( sin t cos2 t)dt = 1 /4
0
 1
16. C : x = 3 t, y = 4 3t, 0 t 1; (37 + 41t 9t2 )dt = 39/2
0
 1
17. (3)e3t dt = 1 e3
0

 /2
6
18. (sin2 t cos t sin2 t cos t + t4 (2t)) dt =
0 192
 ln 2  
19. (a) e3t + e3t e2t + e2t dt
0

63 1 1 17 + 1 1 1 2+1
= 17 + ln(4 + 17) ln ln( 2 + 1) + ln
64 4 8 17 1 4 8 21
 /2
1
(b) [sin t cos t dt sin2 t dt] =
0 2 4
662 Chapter 16

 /2

## 20. (a) t sin t (3 cos2 t sin t)2 + (3 sin2 t cos t)2 dt

cos 21 9
0
 /2
61,047
= 3 cos22 t sin10 t dt =
0 4,294,967,296
 e 
5 2 4 1 5 6 59 4 491
(b) t ln t + 7t (2t) + t (ln t) dt = e + e
1 t 36 16 144

## 21. (a) C1 : (0, 0) to (1, 0); x = t, y = 0, 0 t 1

C2 : (1, 0) to (0, 1); x = 1 t, y = t, 0 t 1
C3 : (0, 1) to (0, 0); x = 0, y = 1 t, 0 t 1
 1  1  1
(0)dt + (1)dt + (0)dt = 1
0 0 0

## (b) C1 : (0, 0) to (1, 0); x = t, y = 0, 0 t 1

C2 : (1, 0) to (1, 1); x = 1, y = t, 0 t 1
C3 : (1, 1) to (0, 1); x = 1 t, y = 1, 0 t 1
C4 : (0, 1) to (0, 0); x = 0, y = 1 t, 0 t 1
 1  1  1  1
(0)dt + (1)dt + (1)dt + (0)dt = 2
0 0 0 0

## 22. (a) C1 : (0, 0) to (1, 1); x = t, y = t, 0 t 1

C2 : (1, 1) to (2, 0); x = 1 + t, y = 1 t, 0 t 1
C3 : (2, 0) to (0, 0); x = 2 2t, y = 0, 0 t 1
 1  1  1
(0)dt + 2dt + (0)dt = 2
0 0 0

## (b) C1 : (5, 0) to (5, 0); x = t, y = 0, 5 t 5

C2 : x = 5 cos t, y = 5 sin t, 0 t
 5 
(0)dt + (25)dt = 25
5 0

 1  1
1
23. C1 : x = t, y = z = 0, 0 t 1, 0 dt = 0; C2 : x = 1, y = t, z = 0, 0 t 1, (t) dt =
0 0 2
 1 
1 5
C3 : x = 1, y = 1, z = t, 0 t 1, 3 dt = 3; x2 z dx yx2 dy + 3 dz = 0 +3=
0 C 2 2

## 24. C1 : (0, 0, 0) to (1, 1, 0); x = t, y = t, z = 0, 0 t 1

C2 : (1, 1, 0) to (1, 1, 1); x = 1, y = 1, z = t, 0 t 1
C3 : (1, 1, 1) to (0, 0, 0); x = 1 t, y = 1 t, z = 1 t, 0 t 1
 1  1  1
(t3 )dt + 3 dt + 3dt = 1/4
0 0 0

  1
25. (0)dt = 0 26. (e2t 4et )dt = e2 /2 + 4e1 9/2
0 0

 1  /2
27. et dt = 1 e1 28. (7 sin2 t cos t + 3 sin t cos t)dt = 23/6
0 0
Exercise Set 16.2 663

## 29. Represent the circular arc by x = 3 cos t, y = 3 sin t, 0 t /2.

  /2

x yds = 9 3 sin t cos t dt = 6 3
C 0

30. (x, y) = k x2 + y 2 where k is the constant of proportionality,
   1  1 2t
t t
2 2
k x + y ds = k e ( 2e ) dt = 2k e dt = (e2 1)k/ 2
C 0 0

  /2
kx cos t
31. ds = 15k dt = 5k tan1 3
C 1 + y2 0 1 + 9 sin2 t

## 32. (x, y, z) = kz where k is the constant of proportionality,

  4
kzds = k(4 t)(2 + 1/t) dt = 136k/3
C 1

 1
33. C : x = t2 , y = t, 0 t 1; W = 3t4 dt = 3/5
0

 3  1
34. W = (t2 + 1 1/t3 + 1/t)dt = 92/9 + ln 3 35. W = (t3 + 5t6 )dt = 27/28
1 0

## 36. C1 : (0, 0, 0) to (1, 3, 1); x = t, y = 3t, z = t, 0 t 1

C2 : (1, 3, 1) to (2, 1, 4); x = 1 + t, y = 3 4t, z = 1 + 3t, 0 t 1
 1  1
W = (4t + 8t2 )dt + (11 17t 11t2 )dt = 37/2
0 0

## 37. Since F and r are parallel, F r = Fr, and since F is constant,

    4
F dr = d(F r) = d(Fr) = 2 2dt = 16
4
C C

38. F r = 0, since F is perpendicular to the curve
C

## 39. C : x = 4 cos t, y = 4 sin t, 0 t /2

 /2  
1
sin t + cos t dt = 3/4
0 4

## 40. C1 : (0, 3) to (6, 3); x = 6t, y = 3, 0 t 1

C2 : (6, 3) to (6, 0); x = 6, y = 3 3t, 0 t 1
 1  1
6 12 1 2
dt + dt = tan1 2 tan1 (1/2)
0 36 + 9(1 t)
2 2
0 36t + 9 3 3

## 41. Represent the parabola by x = t, y = t2 , 0 t 2.

  2 
3xds = 3t 1 + 4t2 dt = (17 17 1)/4
C 0

## 42. Represent the semicircle by x = 2 cos t, y = 2 sin t, 0 t .

 
2
x yds = 16 cos2 t sin t dt = 32/3
C 0
664 Chapter 16


43. (a) 2rh = 2(1)2 = 4 (b) S = z(t) dt
C
 2
(c) C : x = cos t, y = sin t, 0 t 2; S = (2 + (1/2) sin 3t) dt = 4
0

## 44. C : x = a cos t, y = a sin t, 0 t 2,

  2  2
x dy y dx a2 cos2 t a2 sin2 t
= dt = dt = 2
C x2 + y 2 0 a2 0

  1
45. W = F dr = (t2 (1 t), t t(1 t)) (1, 2t) dt = /12, W = 1 when = 12
C 0
  
1 3
46. The force exerted by the farmer is F = 150 + 20
z k = 170 t k, so
10 4
   60  
1 1
F dr = 170 z dz, and W = 170 z dz = 10,020. Note that the functions
10 0 10
x(z), y(z) are irrelevant.

## 1. x/y = 0 = y/x, conservative so /x = x and /y = y, = x2 /2 + k(y), k  (y) = y,

k(y) = y 2 /2 + K, = x2 /2 + y 2 /2 + K

## 2. (3y 2 )/y = 6y = (6xy)/x, conservative so /x = 3y 2 and /y = 6xy,

= 3xy 2 + k(y), 6xy + k  (y) = 6xy, k  (y) = 0, k(y) = K, = 3xy 2 + K

## 3. (x2 y)/y = x2 and (5xy 2 )/x = 5y 2 , not conservative

4. (ex cos y)/y = ex sin y = (ex sin y)/x, conservative so /x = ex cos y and
/y = ex sin y, = ex cos y + k(y), ex sin y + k  (y) = ex sin y,
k  (y) = 0, k(y) = K, = ex cos y + K

## 5. (cos y + y cos x)/y = sin y + cos x = (sin x x sin y)/x, conservative so

/x = cos y + y cos x and /y = sin x x sin y, = x cos y + y sin x + k(y),
x sin y + sin x + k  (y) = sin x x sin y, k  (y) = 0, k(y) = K, = x cos y + y sin x + K

## 7. (a) (y 2 )/y = 2y = (2xy)/x, independent of path

 1
(b) C : x = 1 + 2t, y = 2 + t, 0 t 1; (4 + 14t + 6t2 )dt = 13
0
(c) /x = y 2 and /y = 2xy, = xy 2 + k(y), 2xy + k  (y) = 2xy, k  (y) = 0, k(y) = K,
= xy 2 + K. Let K = 0 to get (1, 3) (1, 2) = 9 (4) = 13

## 8. (a) (y sin x)/y = sin x = ( cos x)/x, independent of path

 1
(b) C1 : x = t, y = 1 2t, 0 t 1; ( sin t 2t sin t + 2 cos t)dt = 0
0

## (c) /x = y sin x and /y = cos x, = y cos x + k(y), cos x + k  (y) = cos x,

k  (y) = 0, k(y) = K, = y cos x+K. Let K = 0 to get (, 1)(0, 1) = (1)(1) = 0
Exercise Set 16.3 665

## 9. (3y)/y = 3 = (3x)/x, = 3xy, (4, 0) (1, 2) = 6

10. (ex sin y)/y = ex cos y = (ex cos y)/x, = ex sin y, (1, /2) (0, 0) = e

## 12. (3x y + 1)/y = 1 = [(x + 4y + 2)]/x,

= 3x2 /2 xy + x 2y 2 2y, (0, 1) (1, 2) = 11/2

## 14. (ex ln y ey /x)/y = ex /y ey /x = (ex /y ey ln x)/x,

= ex ln y ey ln x, (3, 3) (1, 1) = 0

## 18. = ey sin x, W = (/2, 0) (/2, 1) = 1 1/e

19. (ey + yex )/y = ey + ex = (xey + ex )/x so F is conservative, (x, y) = xey + yex so

F dr = (0, ln 2) (1, 0) = ln 2 1
C

## 20. (2xy)/y = 2x = (x2 + cos y)/x so F is conservative, (x, y) = x2 y + sin y so


F dr = (, /2) (0, 0) = 3 /2 + 1
C

## 21. F dr = [(ey + yex )i + (xey + ex )j] [(/2) cos(t/2)i + (1/t)j]dt

= cos(t/2)(ey + yex ) + (xey + ex )/t dt,
2
  2  
1
so F dr = cos(t/2) t + (ln t)esin(t/2) + sin(t/2) + esin(t/2) dt = ln 2 1
C 1 2 t

22. F dr = 2t2 cos(t/3) + [t2 + cos(t cos(t/3))](cos(t/3) (t/3) sin(t/3)) dt, so
 
 2
F dr = 2t cos(t/3) + [t2 + cos(t cos(t/3))](cos(t/3) (t/3) sin(t/3)) dt = 1 + 3 /2
C 0

23. No; a closed loop can be found whose tangent everywhere makes an angle < with the vector
eld, so the line integral F dr > 0, and by Theorem 16.3.2 the vector eld is not conservative.
C

24. The vector eld is constant, say F = ai + bj, so let (x, y) = ax + by and F is conservative.

25. If F is conservative, then F = = i+ j+ k and hence f = ,g = , and h = .
x y z x y z
f 2 g 2 f 2 h 2 g 2 h 2
Thus = and = , = and = , = and = .
y yx x xy z zx x xz z zy y yz
The result follows from the equality of mixed second partial derivatives.
666 Chapter 16

26. Let f (x, y, z) = yz, g(x, y, z) = xz, h(x, y, z) = yx2 , then f /z = y, h/x = 2xy = f /z, thus

by Exercise 25, F = f i+gj+hk is not conservative, and by Theorem 16.3.2, yz dx+xz dy+yx2 dz
C
is not independent of the path.

27. (h(x)[x sin y + y cos y]) = h(x)[x cos y y sin y + cos y]
y

(h(x)[x cos y y sin y]) = h(x) cos y + h (x)[x cos y y sin y],
x
equate these two partial derivatives to get (x cos y y sin y)(h (x) h(x)) = 0 which holds for all
x and y if h (x) = h(x), h(x) = Cex where C is an arbitrary constant.

cx 3cxy cy
28. (a) 2 2 3/2
= 2 2 5/2
= when (x, y) = (0, 0),
y (x + y ) (x + y ) x (x + y 2 )3/2
2

## so by Theorem 16.3.3, F is conservative. Set /x = cx/(x2 + y 2 )3/2 ,

then (x, y) = c(x2 + y 2 )1/2 + k(y), /y = cy/(x2 + y 2 )3/2 + k  (y), so k  (y) = 0.
c
Thus (x, y) = 2 is a potential function.
(x + y 2 )1/2
(b) curl F = 0 is similar to Part (a), so F is conservative. Let

cx
(x, y, z) = dx = c(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )1/2 + k(y, z). As in Part (a),
(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2
k/y = k/z = 0, so (x, y, z) = c/(x2 + y 2 + z 2 )1/2 is a potential function for F.
 Q
1 1
29. (a) See Exercise 28, c = 1; W = F dr = (3, 2, 1) (1, 1, 2) = +
P 14 6
1 1
(b) C begins at P (1, 1, 2) and ends at Q(3, 2, 1) so the answer is again W = + .
14 6
(c) The circle is not specied, but cannot pass through (0, 0, 0), so is continuous and dier-
entiable on the circle. Start at any point P on the circle and return to P , so the work is
(P ) (P ) = 0.
C begins at, say, (3, 0) and ends at the same point so W = 0.
 
dx dy
30. (a) F dr = y x dt for points on the circle x2 + y 2 = 1, so
dt dt
 
C1 : x = cos t, y = sin t, 0 t , F dr = ( sin2 t cos2 t) dt =
C1 0
 
C2 : x = cos t, y = sin t, 0 t , F dr = (sin2 t + cos2 t) dt =
C2 0

f x2 y 2 g y 2 x2 f
(b) = 2 2 2
, = 2 =
y (x + y ) x (x + y 2 )2 y
(c) The circle about the origin of radius 1, which is formed by traversing C1 and then traversing
C2 in the reverse direction, does not lie in an open simply connected region inside which F
is continuous, since F is not dened at the origin, nor can it be dened there in such a way
as to make the resulting function continuous there.
Exercise Set 16.4 667

31. If C is composed of smooth curves C1 , C2 , . . . , Cn and curve Ci extends from (xi1 , yi1 ) to (xi , yi )
 n 
n
then F dr = F dr = [(xi , yi ) (xi1 , yi1 )] = (xn , yn ) (x0 , y0 )
C i=1 Ci i=1
where (x0 , y0 ) and (xn , yn ) are the endpoints of C.
     
32. F dr + F dr = 0, but F dr = F dr so F dr = F dr, thus
C1 C2 C2 C2 C1 C2

F dr is independent of path.
C

33. Let C1 be an arbitrary piecewise smooth curve from (a, b) to a point (x, y1 ) in the disk, and C2
the vertical line segment from (x, y1 ) to (x, y). Then
   (x,y1 ) 
(x, y) = F dr + F dr = F dr + F dr.
C1 C2 (a,b) C2

## The rst term does not depend on y;

 

hence = F dr = f (x, y)dx + g(x, y)dy.
y y C2 y C2


However, the line integral with respect to x is zero along C2 , so = g(x, y) dy.
y y C2
 y

Express C2 as x = x, y = t where t varies from y1 to y, then = g(x, t) dt = g(x, y).
y y y1

## EXERCISE SET 16.4

  1  1
1. (2x 2y)dA = (2x 2y)dy dx = 0; for the line integral, on x = 0, y 2 dx = 0, x2 dy = 0;
0 0
R
on y = 0, y 2 dx = x2 dy = 0; on x = 1, y 2 dx + x2 dy = dy; and on y = 1, y 2 dx + x2 dy = dx,
  1  0
hence y 2 dx + x2 dy = dy + dx = 1 1 = 0
0 1
C

2. (1 1)dA = 0; for the line integral let x = cos t, y = sin t,
R
  2
y dx + x dy = ( sin2 t + cos2 t)dt = 0
0
C

 4  2  2  3
3. (2y 3x)dy dx = 0 4. (1 + 2r sin )r dr d = 9
2 1 0 0

 /2  /2  
2 2
5. (y cos x + x sin y)dy dx = 0 6. (sec x tan x)dA = dA =
0 0
R R
   1  x
7. [1 (1)]dA = 2 dA = 8 8. (2x 2y)dy dx = 1/30
0 x2
R R
668 Chapter 16

   
y 1
9. dA = dA = 4
1+y 1+y
R R

 /2  4
10. (r2 )r dr d = 32
0 0

   
y2 1
11. 2
dA = dA = 1
1+y 1 + y2
R R

  1 
x
12. (cos x cos y cos x cos y)dA = 0 13. (y 2 x2 )dy dx = 0
0 x2
R
 2  2x  2  2x
14. (a) (6x + 2y)dy dx = 56/15 (b) 6y dy dx = 64/5
0 x2 0 x2

## 15. (a) C : x = cos t, y = sin t, 0 t 2;

  2
 sin t
= e ( sin t) + sin t cos tecos t dt 3.550999378;
C 0
   
y
(yex ) e dA = [yex ey ] dA
x y
R R
 
2 1  
= r sin er cos er sin r dr d 3.550999378
0 0
  1  
2
(b) C1 : x = t, y = t2 , 0 t 1; [ey dx + yex dy] = et + 2t3 et dt 2.589524432
0
C1
  1  
2 e+3
C2 : x = t2 , y = t, 0 t 1; [ey dx + yex dy] = 2tet + tet dt = 2.859140914
0 2
C2
    1 
x
0.269616482; = [yex ey ] dy dx 0.269616482
0 x2
C1 C2 R

  2   2
16. (a) x dy = ab cos2 t dt = ab (b) y dx = ab sin2 t dt = ab
C 0 C 0

  2
1 1
17. A = y dx + x dy = (3a2 sin4 cos2 + 3a2 cos4 sin2 )d
2 C 2 0
 2  2
3 2 3
= a2 sin cos d = a2 2
sin2 2 d = 3a2 /8
2 0 8 0

## 18. C1 : (0, 0) to (a, 0); x = at, y = 0, 0t1

C2 : (a, 0) to (0, b); x = a at, y = bt, 0t1
C3 : (0, b) to (0, 0); x = 0, y = b bt, 0 t 1
  1  1  1
1
A= x dy = (0)dt + ab(1 t)dt + (0)dt = ab
C 0 0 0 2
Exercise Set 16.4 669

## 19. C1 : (0, 0) to (a, 0); x = at, y = 0, 0 t 1

C2 : (a, 0) to (a cos t0 , b sin t0 ); x = a cos t, y = b sin t, 0 t t0
C3 : (a cos t0 , b sin t0 ) to (0, 0); x = a(cos t0 )t, y = b(sin t0 )t, 1 t 0
   
1 1 1 1 t0 1 0 1
A= y dx + x dy = (0) dt + ab dt + (0) dt = ab t0
2 C 2 0 2 0 2 1 2

## 20. C1 : (0, 0) to (a, 0); x = at, y = 0, 0 t 1

C2 : (a, 0) to (a cosh t0 , b sinh t0 ); x = a cosh t, y = b sinh t, 0 t t0
C3 : (a cosh t0 , b sinh t0 ) to (0, 0); x = a(cosh t0 )t, y = b(sinh t0 )t, 1 t 0
   
1 1 1 1 t0 1 0 1
A= y dx + x dy = (0) dt + ab dt + (0) dt = ab t0
2 C 2 0 2 0 2 1 2

   5
21. W = y dA = r2 sin dr d = 250/3
0 0
R

22. We cannot apply Greens Theorem on the region enclosed by the closed curve C, since F does not
have rst order partial derivatives at the origin. However, the curve Cx0 , consisting of
y = x30 /4, x0 x 2; x = 2, x30 /4 y 2; and y = x3 /4, x0 x 2 encloses a region Rx0 in
which Greens Theorem does hold, and
  
W = F dr = lim F dr = lim F dA
x0 0+ x0 0+
C Cx0 Rx0

 2  x3 /4  
1 1/2 1 1/2
= lim x y dy dx
x0 0+ x0 x30 /4 2 2
 
18 2 3 3/2 3 7/2 3 5/2 18
= lim 2 x0 + x0 + x0 x0 = 2
x0 0+ 35 4 14 10 35

   2  a(1+cos )
23. y dx x dy = (2)dA = 2 r dr d = 3a2
C 0 0
R

  
1 1 2
24. x = x dA, but x dy = x dA from Greens Theorem so
A C 2
R R
  
1 1 2 1 2 1
x = x dy = x dy. Similarly, y = y 2 dx.
A C 2 2A C 2A C

 1  x   1
1 3
25. A = ; C1 : x = t, y = t3 , 0 t 1,
dy dx = x2 dy = t2 (3t2 ) dt =
0 x 3 4 C1 0 5
  1   
1 3 1 4 8
C2 : x = t, y = t, 0 t 1; x2 dy = t2 dt = , x2 dy = = = , x =
C2 0 3 C C1 C2 5 3 15 15
  1  1  
2 6 2 1 1 4 8 8 8
y dx = t dt t dt = = , y = , centroid ,
C 0 0 7 3 21 21 15 21
670 Chapter 16

a2
26. A = ; C1 : x = t, y = 0, 0 t a, C2 : x = a t, y = t, 0 t a; C3 : x = 0, y = a t, 0 t a;
2
   a     
2 2 2 a3 2 2 a3 a
x dy = 0, x dy = (a t) dt = , x dy = 0, x dy = + + = , x = ;
0 3 3 3
C1 C2 C3 C C1 C2 C3
  a 3 a a
a a
y 2 dx = 0 t2 dt + 0 = , y = , centroid ,
0 3 3 3 3
C

## 27. x = 0 from the symmetry of the region,

C1 : (a, 0) to (a, 0) along y = a2 x2 ; x = a cos t, y = a sin t, 0 t
C2 : (a, 0) to (a, 0); x = t, y = 0, a t a
  a 
2 1 3 3
A = a /2, y = a sin t dt + (0)dt
2A 0 a
   
1 4a3 4a 4a
= = ; centroid 0,
a2 3 3 3

ab
28. A = ; C1 : x = t, y = 0, 0 t a, C2 : x = a, y = t, 0 t b;
2
C3 : x = a at, y = b bt, 0 t 1;
   b   1
ba2
x2 dy = 0, x2 dy = a2 dt = ba2 , x2 dy = a2 (1 t)2 (b) dt = ,
C1 C2 0 C3 0 3
   
2ba2 2a
x2 dy = + + = , x = ;
C C1 C2 C3 3 3
  1  
ab2 b 2a b
y 2 dx = 0 + 0 ab2 (1 t)2 dt = , y = , centroid ,
C 0 3 3 3 3

29. From Greens Theorem, the given integral equals (1x2 y 2 )dA where R is the region enclosed
R
by C. The value of this integral is maximum if the integration extends over the largest region for
which the integrand 1 x2 y 2 is nonnegative so we want 1 x2 y 2 0, x2 + y 2 1. The
largest region is that bounded by the circle x2 + y 2 = 1 which is the desired curve C.

## 30. (a) C : x = a + (c a)t, y = b + (d b)t, 0 t 1

  1
y dx + x dy = (ad bc)dt = ad bc
C 0

(b) Let C1 , C2 , and C3 be the line segments from (x1 , y1 ) to (x2 , y2 ), (x2 , y2 ) to (x3 , y3 ), and
(x3 , y3 ) to (x1 , y1 ), then if C is the entire boundary consisting of C1 , C2 , and C3
 3 
1 1
A= y dx + x dy = y dx + x dy
2 C 2 i=1 Ci
1
= [(x1 y2 x2 y1 ) + (x2 y3 x3 y2 ) + (x3 y1 x1 y3 )]
2
1
(c) A = [(x1 y2 x2 y1 ) + (x2 y3 x3 y2 ) + + (xn y1 x1 yn )]
2
1
(d) A = [(0 0) + (6 + 8) + (0 + 2) + (0 0)] = 8
2
Exercise Set 16.5 671

  
2
31. F dr = (x + y) dx + (4x cos y) dy = 3 dA = 3(25 2) = 69
C C
R
  
32. F dr = (ex + 3y) dx + x dy = 2 dA = 2[(4)2 (2)2 ] = 24
C C
R

## 1. R is the annular region between x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = 4;

  
x2 y2
z 2 dS = (x2 + y 2 ) + + 1 dA
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
R
 2  2  2 3 15
= 2 (x + y 2 )dA = 2 r dr d = 2.
0 1 2
R

## 2. z = 1 x y, R is the triangular region enclosed by x + y = 1, x = 0 and y = 0;

 
 1  1x 3
xy dS = xy 3 dA = 3 xy dy dx = .
0 0 24
R

## 3. Let r(u, v) = cos ui + vj + sin uk, 0 u , 0 v 1. Then ru = sin ui + cos uk, rv = j,

  1
ru rv = cos ui sin uk, ru rv  = 1, x2 y dS = v cos2 u du dv = /4
0 0


4. z = 4 x2 y 2 , R is the circular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 3;
  
 x2 y2
(x2 + y 2 )z dS = (x2 + y 2 ) 4 x2 y 2 + + 1 dA
4x y
2 2 4 x2 y 2
R
  
2 3
2 2
= 2(x + y )dA = 2 r3 dr d = 9.
0 0
R

5. If we use the projection of onto the xz-plane then y = 1 x and R is the rectangular region in
the xz-plane enclosed by x = 0, x = 1, z = 0 and z = 1;
   1 1
(x y z)dS = (2x 1 z) 2dA = 2 (2x 1 z)dz dx = 2/2
0 0
R

## 6. R is the triangular region enclosed by 2x + 3y = 6, x = 0, and y = 0;

   3  (62x)/3
(x + y)dS = (x + y) 14 dA = 14 (x + y)dy dx = 5 14.
0 0
R

## 7. There are six surfaces, parametrized by projecting onto planes:

1 : z = 0; 0 x 1, 0 y 1 (onto xy-plane), 2 : x = 0; 0 y 1, 0 z 1 (onto yz-plane),
3 : y = 0; 0 x 1, 0 z 1 (onto xz-plane), 4 : z = 1; 0 x 1, 0 y 1 (onto xy-plane),
5 : x = 1; 0 y 1, 0 z 1 (onto yz-plane), 6 : y = 1; 0 x 1, 0 z 1 (onto xz-plane).
672 Chapter 16

By symmetry the integrals over 1 , 2 and 3 are equal, as are those over 4 , 5 and 6 , and
  1 1   1 1
(x + y + z)dS = (x + y)dx dy = 1; (x + y + z)dS = (x + y + 1)dx dy = 2,
0 0 0 0
1 4

thus, (x + y + z)dS = 3 1 + 3 2 = 9.

## 8. Let r(, ) = sin cos i + sin sin j + cos k, 0 2, 0 /2; r r  = sin ,

  2  /2
(1 + cos ) dS = (1 + cos ) sin d d
0 0

 /2
= 2 (1 + cos ) sin d = 3
0

## 9. R is the circular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 1;

    
x2 y2
x2 + y 2 + z 2 dS = 2(x2 + y 2 ) + + 1 dA
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
R  
= lim 2 x2 + y 2 dA
r0 0+
R

where R is the annular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = r02 with r0 slightly larger

x2 y2
than 0 because + + 1 is not dened for x2 + y 2 = 0, so
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
   2  1
4 4
x2 + y 2 + z 2 dS = lim+ 2 r2 dr d = lim+ (1 r03 ) = .
r0 0 0 r0 r0 0 3 3

## 10. Let r(, ) = a sin cos i + a sin sin j + a cos k,

0 2, 0 ; r r  = a2 sin , x2 + y 2 = a2 sin2
  2 
8
f (x, y, z) = a4 sin3 d d = a4
0 0 3

 
29 6 (122x)/3
11. (a) xy(12 2x 3y)dy dx
16 0 0
 3  (124z)/3
29
(b) yz(12 3y 4z)dy dz
4 0 0
 3  62z
29
(c) xz(12 2x 4z)dx dz
9 0 0

   
a a2 x2 a a2 z 2
12. (a) a x dy dx (b) a z dy dz
0 0 0 0
 
a a2 z 2
xz
(c) a dx dz
0 0 a2 x2 z 2
Exercise Set 16.5 673

13. 18 29/5 14. a4 /3
    
4 2
1 4 4
15. y3 z 4y 2 + 1 dy dz; xz 1 + 4x dx dz
0 1 2 0 1

   
9 a/ 2
x2 y 2a/ 5 9
16. a
 dy dx, a x2 dx dz 17. 391 17/15 5 5/3
0 a/ 5 a2 y 2 a/ 2 0

## 18. The region R : 3x2 + 2y 2 = 5 is symmetric in y. The integrand is

 
x yz dS = x y(5 3x 2y ) 1 + 36x + 16y dy dx, which is odd in y, hence
2 2 2 2 2 2 x2 yz dS = 0.

z x z
19. z = =
4 x2 , , = 0;
x 4x 2 y
    4 1
x2 1 4
0 dS = 0 + 1 dA = 20 dx dy = 0 .
4 x2 0 0 4x2 3
R

1 2
20. z = (x + y 2 ), R is the circular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 8;
2
    2  8 
52
0 dS = 0 x2 + y 2 + 1 dA = 0 r2 + 1 r dr d = 0 .
0 0 3
R

## 21. z = 4 y 2 , R is the rectangular region enclosed by x = 0, x = 3, y = 0 and y = 3;

    3 3 
1
y dS = 2
y 4y + 1 dA = y 4y 2 + 1 dy dx = (37 37 1).
0 0 4
R

## 22. R is the annular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = 16;

  
 x2 y2
x2 z dS = x2 x2 + y 2 + + 1 dA
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2

  2  2  4 4
R
2 2 2 1023 2
= 2 x x + y dA = 2 r cos dr d = .
0 1 5
R

  
23. M = (x, y, z)dS = 0 dS = 0 dS = 0 S


24. (x, y, z) = |z|; use z = a2 x2 y 2 , let R be the circular region enclosed by x2 +y 2 = a2 , and
the hemisphere above R. By the symmetry of both the surface and the density function with
respect to the xy-plane we have
    
x2 y2
M =2 z dS = 2 a x y
2 2 2 + 2 + 1 dA = lim 2a dA
a2 x2 y 2 a x2 y 2 r0 a
R Rr0

where Rr0 is the circular region with radius r0 that is slightly less than a. But dA is simply
Rr0
the area of the circle with radius r0 so M = lim 2a(r02 ) = 2a3 .
r0 a
674 Chapter 16

25. By symmetry x = y = 0.
    
2 8  52
dS = x2 + y 2 + 1 dA = r2 + 1 r dr d = ,
0 0 3
R
    
1
z dS = z x2 + y 2 + 1 dA = (x2 + y 2 ) x2 + y 2 + 1 dA
2
R R
 
1 2 8  596
= r3 r2 + 1 dr d =
2 0 0 15
596/15 149
so z = = . The centroid is (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 149/65).
52/3 65

26. By symmetry x = y = 0.
   2  3
2 r
dS =  dA = 2 dr d = 4,
4x y2 2
0 0 4 r2
R
 
z dS = 2 dA = (2)(area of circle of radius 3) = 6
R
6 3
so z = = . The centroid is (x, y, z) = (0, 0, 3/2).
4 2

27. r/u = cos vi + sin vj + 3k, r/v = u sin vi + u cos vj, r/u r/v = 10u;
 4  /2  2 4
3 10 u sin v cos v dA = 3 10 u sin v cos v du dv = 93/ 10
0 1
R

## 28. r/u = j, r/v = 2 sin vi + 2 cos vk, r/u r/v = 2;

  2  3
1 1
8 dA = 8 du dv = 16 ln 3
u 0 1 u
R

29. r/u = cos vi + sin vj + 2uk, r/v = u sin vi + u cos vj, r/u r/v = u 4u2 + 1;
   sin v
u dA = u du dv = /4
0 0
R

30. r/u = 2 cos u cos vi + 2 cos u sin vj 2 sin uk, r/v = 2 sin u sin vi + 2 sin u cos vj;
r/u r/v = 4 sin u;
  2  /2
4 e2 cos u sin u dA = 4 e2 cos u sin u du dv = 4(1 e2 )
0 0
R

2
y 2 2
y 2
31. z/x = 2xex , z/y = 2yex ,
2 2 2 2 2(x2 +y 2 )
(z/x) + (z/y) + 1 = 4(x + y )e + 1; use polar coordinates to get
 2  3 
M= r2 4r2 e2r2 + 1 dr d 57.895751
0 0
  
2 1
1
32. (b) A = dS = 40u cos(v/2) + u2 + 4u2 cos2 (v/2) + 100du dv 62.93768644;
0 1 2

x 0.01663836266; y = z = 0 by symmetry
Exercise Set 16.6 675

## 1. (a) zero (b) zero (c) positive

(d) negative (e) zero (f ) zero

## 2. (a) positive (b) zero (c) zero

(d) zero (e) negative (f ) zero

## 3. (a) positive (b) zero (c) positive

(d) zero (e) positive (f ) zero

## 6. (a) r cos i r sin j + rk (b) inward, by inspection

   2  1
7. n = zx i zy j + k, F n dS = (2x2 + 2y 2 + 2(1 x2 y 2 )) dS = 2r dr d = 2
0 0
R R

## 8. With z = 1 x y, R is the triangular region enclosed by x + y = 1, x = 0 and y = 0; use upward

normals to get
  
F n dS = 2 (x + y + z)dA = 2 dA = (2)(area of R) = 1.
R R

## 9. R is the annular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 1 and x2 + y 2 = 4;

   
x2 y2
F n dS =   + 2z dA
x2 + y 2 x2 + y 2
R
   2  2
14
= x2 + y 2 dA = r2 dr d = .
0 1 3
R

## 10. R is the circular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 4;

   2  2
F n dS = 2
(2y 1)dA = (2r2 sin2 1)r dr d = 4.
0 0
R
 
11. R is the circular region enclosed by x + y y = 0;
2 2
F n dS = (x)dA = 0 since the
R
region R is symmetric across the y-axis.
1
12. With z = (6 6x 3y), R is the triangular region enclosed by 2x + y = 2, x = 0, and y = 0;
2
      1  22x
3
F n dS = 3x2 + yx + zx dA = 3 x dA = 3 x dy dx = 1.
2 0 0
R R

## 13. r/u = cos vi + sin vj 2uk, r/v = u sin vi + u cos vj,

r/u r/v = 2u2 cos vi + 2u2 sin vj + uk;
  2  2
(2u3 + u) dA = (2u3 + u)du dv = 18
0 1
R
676 Chapter 16

14. r/u = k, r/v = 2 sin vi + cos vj, r/u r/v = cos vi 2 sin vj;
  2  5
(2 sin2 v e sin v cos v) dA = (2 sin2 v e sin v cos v)du dv = 10
0 0
R

## 15. r/u = cos vi + sin vj + 2k, r/v = u sin vi + u cos vj,

r/u r/v = 2u cos vi 2u sin vj + uk;
   sin v
2
u dA = u2 du dv = 4/9
0 0
R

16. r/u = 2 cos u cos vi + 2 cos u sin vj 2 sin uk, r/v = 2 sin u sin vi + 2 sin u cos vj;
r/u r/v = 4 sin2 u cos vi + 4 sin2 u sin vj + 4 sin u cos uk;
  2  /3
8 sin u dA = 8 sin u du dv = 8
0 0
R

## 17. In each part, divide into the six surfaces

1 : x = 1 with |y| 1, |z| 1, and n = i, 2 : x = 1 with |y| 1, |z| 1, and n = i,
3 : y = 1 with |x| 1, |z| 1, and n = j, 4 : y = 1 with |x| 1, |z| 1, and n = j,
5 : z = 1 with |x| 1, |y| 1, and n = k, 6 : z = 1 with |x| 1, |y| 1, and n = k,
    
(a) F n dS = dS = 4, F n dS = dS = 4, and F n dS = 0 for
1 1 2 2 i

i = 3, 4, 5, 6 so F n dS = 4 + 4 + 0 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 8.

  
(b) F n dS = dS = 4, similarly F n dS = 4 for i = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 so
1 1 i

F n dS = 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = 24.

   
(c) F n dS = dS = 4, F n dS = 4, similarly F n dS = 4 for i = 3, 5
1  1 2  i

and F n dS = 4 for i = 4, 6 so F n dS = 4 + 4 4 + 4 4 + 4 = 0.
i

18. Decompose into a top 1 (the disk) and a bottom 2 (the portion of the paraboloid). Then
   2  1
n1 = k, F n1 dS = y dS = r2 sin dr d = 0,
0 0
1 1
  
y(2x2 + 2y 2 + 1)
n2 = (2xi + 2yj k)/ 1 + 4x2 + 4y 2 , F n2 dS =  dS = 0,
1 + 4x2 + 4y 2
2 2

because the surface 2 is symmetric with respect to the xy-plane and the integrand is an odd
function of y. Thus the ux is 0.
Exercise Set 16.6 677

## 19. R is the circular region enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 1; x = r cos , y = r sin , z = r,

n = cos i + sin j k;
   2  1
F n dS = (cos + sin 1) dA = (cos + sin 1) r dr d = .
0 0
R

## 20. Let r = cos vi + uj + sin vk, 2 u 1, 0 v 2; ru rv = cos vi + sin vk,

 
F n dS = (cos2 v + sin2 v) dA = area of R = 3 2 = 6
R

1
21. (a) n = [i + j + k],
3
  1  1x
V = F n dS = (2x 3y + 1 x y) dy dx = 0 m3 /s
0 0

## (b) m = 0 806 = 0 kg/s

22. (a) Let x = 3 sin cos , y = 3 sin sin , z = 3 cos , n = sin cos i + sin sin j + cos k, so
 
V = F n dS = 9 sin (3 sin2 sin cos + 3 sin cos sin + 9 sin cos cos ) dA

 2  3
A

## = 3 sin cos ( sin sin + 4 cos ) r dr d = 0 m3

0 0

dm
(b) = 0 1060 = 0 kg/s
dt
g g
23. (a) G(x, y, z) = x g(y, z), G = i j k, apply Theorem 16.6.3:
y z
   
x x
F ndS = F i j k dA, if is oriented by front normals, and
y z
R
   
x x
F ndS = F i + j+ k dA, if is oriented by back normals,
y z
R
where R is the projection of onto the yz-plane.

(b) R is the semicircular region in the yz-plane enclosed by z = 1 y 2 and z = 0;
   1  1y2
32
F n dS = (y 2yz + 16z)dA = (y 2yz + 16z)dz dy = .
1 0 3
R

g g
24. (a) G(x, y, z) = y g(x, z), G = i+j k, apply Theorem 16.6.3:
x z
  
y y
F ij+ k dA, oriented by left normals,
x z
R
  
y y
and F i+j k dA, oriented by right normals,
x z
R
where R is the projection of onto the xz-plane.
678 Chapter 16

(b) R is the semicircular region in the xz-plane enclosed by z = 1 x2 and z = 0;
   1  1x2
2 2 2 2
F n dS = (2x + (x + z ) 2z )dA = (x2 + z 2 )dz dx = .
1 0 4
R

25. (a) On the sphere, r = a so F = ak r and F n = ak r (r/a) = ak1 r2 = ak1 a2 = ak+1 ,
 
k+1
hence F n dS = a dS = ak+1 (4a2 ) = 4ak+3 .


(b) If k = 3, then F n dS = 4.

26. Let r = sin u cos vi + sin u sin vj + cos uk, ru rv = sin2 u cos vi + sin2 u sin vj + sin u cos uk,
1
F (ru rv ) = a2 sin3 u cos2 v + sin3 u sin2 v + a sin u cos3 u,
a
  2   
1
F n dS = a2 sin3 u cos2 v + sin3 u sin2 v + a sin u cos3 u du dv
0 0 a


4
= (a3 cos2 v + sin2 v) dv
3a 0
 
4 1
2
= a + = 10 if a 1.722730, 0.459525, 1.263205
3 a

## EXERCISE SET 16.7

 
1. 1 : x = 0, F n = x = 0, (0)dA = 0 2 : x = 1, F n = x = 1, (1)dA = 1
1 2
 
3 : y = 0, F n = y = 0, (0)dA = 0 4 : y = 1, F n = y = 1, (1)dA = 1
3 4
 
5 : z = 0, F n = z = 0, (0)dA = 0 6 : z = 1, F n = z = 1, (1)dA = 1
5 6
  
F n = 3; div FdV = 3dV = 3
G G

## 2. For any point r = xi + yj + zk on let n = xi + yj + zk; then F n = x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, so

   
F n dS = dS = 4; also div FdV = 3dV = 3(4/3) = 4
G G


3. 1 : z = 1, n = k, F n = z = 1, 2
(1)dS = ,
1

## 2 : n = 2xi + 2yj k, F n = 4x2 4x2 y 2 x4 3y 4 ,

Exercise Set 16.7 679

  
2 1  2 
F n dS = 4r cos2 4r4 cos2 sin2 r4 cos4 3r4 sin4 r dr d = ;
0 0 3
2

4
=
3

   2  1  1
div FdV = (2 + z)dV = (2 + z)dz r dr d = 4/3
0 0 r2
G G

 
4. 1 : x = 0, F n = xy = 0, (0)dA = 0 2 : x = 2, F n = xy = 2y, (2y)dA = 8
1 2
 
3 : y = 0, F n = yz = 0, (0)dA = 0 4 : y = 2, F n = yz = 2z, (2z)dA = 8
3 4
 
5 : z = 0, F n = xz = 0, (0)dA = 0 6 : z = 2, F n = xz = 2x, (2x)dA = 8
5 6
  
F n = 24; also div FdV = (y + z + x)dV = 24
G G

  2  1  3
5. G is the rectangular solid; div F dV = (2x 1) dx dy dz = 12.
0 0 0
G

##   

6. G is the spherical solid enclosed by ; div F dV = 0 dV = 0 dV = 0.
G G G

## 7. G is the cylindrical solid;

 
div F dV = 3 dV = (3)(volume of cylinder) = (3)[a2 (1)] = 3a2 .
G G

## 8. G is the solid bounded by z = 1 x2 y 2 and the xy-plane;

   2  1  1r2
3
div F dV = 3 dV = 3 r dz dr d = .
0 0 0 2
G G

## 9. G is the cylindrical solid;

   2  2  3
div F dV = 3 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )dV = 3 (r2 + z 2 )r dz dr d = 180.
0 0 0
G G

##    1  1x  1xy

1
10. G is the tetrahedron; div F dV = x dV = x dz dy dx = .
0 0 0 24
G G


11. G is the hemispherical solid bounded by z = 4 x2 y 2 and the xy-plane;
   2  /2  2
192
div F dV = 3 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )dV = 3 4 sin d d d = .
0 0 0 5
G G
680 Chapter 16

## 12. G is the hemispherical solid;

   2  /2  a
5a4
div F dV = 5 z dV = 5 3 sin cos d d d = .
0 0 0 4
G G

## 13. G is the conical solid;

   2  1  1

div F dV = 2 (x + y + z)dV = 2 (r cos + r sin + z)r dz dr d = .
0 0 r 2
G G

## 14. G is the solid bounded by z = 2x and z = x2 + y 2 ;

   /2  2 cos  2r cos

div F dV = dV = 2 r dz dr d = .
0 0 r2 2
G G

## 15. G is the solid bounded by z = 4 x2 , y + z = 5, and the coordinate planes;

   2  4x2  5z
2 4608
div F dV = 4 x dV = 4 x2 dy dz dx = .
2 0 0 35
G G

  
16. F n dS = div F dV = 0 dV = 0;
G G
since the vector eld is constant, the same amount enters as leaves.
  
17. r n dS = div r dV = 3 dV = 3vol(G)
G G


18. F n dS = 3[(32 )(5)] = 135

  
19. curl F n dS = div(curl F)dV = (0)dV = 0
G G
  
20. f n dS = div (f )dV = 2 f dV
G G

  
21. (f g) n = div (f g)dV = (f 2 g + f g)dV by Exercise 31, Section 16.1.
G G
 
22. (f g) n dS = (f 2 g + f g)dV by Exercise 21;
G
 
(gf ) n dS = (g2 f + g f )dV by interchanging f and g;
G
subtract to obtain the result.
Exercise Set 16.7 681

23. Since v is constant, v = 0. Let F = f v; then divF = (f )v and by the Divergence Theorem
   
f v n dS = F n dS = divF dV = (f ) v dV
G G

## 24. Let r = ui + vj + wk so that, for r = 0,

u v w
F(x, y, z) = r/||r||k = 2 2 2 k/2
i+ 2 2 2 k/2
j+ 2 k
(u + v + w ) (u + v + w ) (u + v + w2 )k/2
2

F1 u2 + v 2 + w2 ku2
= 2 ; similarly for F2 /v, F3 /w, so that
u (u + v 2 + w2 )(k/2)+1
3(u2 + v 2 + w2 ) k(u2 + v 2 + w2 )
div F = = 0 if and only if k = 3.
(u2 + v 2 + w2 )(k/2)+1

25. (a) The ux through any cylinder whose axis is the z-axis is positive by inspection; by the
Divergence Theorem, this says that the divergence cannot be negative at the origin, else
the ux through a small enough cylinder would also be negative (impossible), hence the
divergence at the origin must be 0.
(b) Similar to Part (a), 0.

## 28. div F = y x; sources where y > x, sinks where y < x.

29. div F = 3x2 + 3y 2 + 3z 2 ; sources at all points except the origin, no sinks.

30. div F = 3(x2 + y 2 + z 2 1); sources outside the sphere x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1, sinks inside the sphere
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1.

31. Let 1 be the portion of the paraboloid z = 1 x2 y 2 for z 0, and 2 the portion of the plane
z = 0 for x2 + y 2 1. Then
 
F n dS = F (2xi + 2yj + k) dA
1 R
 
1 1x2
= (2x[x2 y (1 x2 y 2 )2 ] + 2y(y 3 x) + (2x + 2 3x2 3y 2 )) dy dx
1 1x2

= 3/4;
 
z = 0 and n = k on 2 so F n = 1 2x, F n dS = (1 2x)dS = . Thus
2 2

F n dS = 3/4 + = 7/4. But div F = 2xy + 3y 2 + 3 so

   
1 1x2 1x2 y 2
div F dV = (2xy + 3y 2 + 3) dz dy dx = 7/4.
1 1x2 0
G
682 Chapter 16

## EXERCISE SET 16.8

1. (a) The ow is independent of z and has no component in the direction of k, and so by inspection
the only nonzero component of the curl is in the direction of k. However both sides of (9)
are zero, as the ow is orthogonal to the curve Ca . Thus the curl is zero.
(b) Since the ow appears to be tangential to the curve Ca , it seems that the right hand side of
(9) is nonzero, and thus the curl is nonzero, and points in the positive z-direction.

2. (a) The only nonzero vector component of the vector eld is in the direction of i, and it increases
with y and is independent of x. Thus the curl of F is nonzero, and points in the positive
z-direction. Alternatively, let F = f i, and let C be the circle of radius . with positive
orientation. Then T = sin i + cos j, and
  2   0
FT ds = . f (., ) sin d = . f (., ) sin d . f (., ) sin d
C 0 0

= . (f (., ) f (., )) sin d < 0
0
because from the picture f (., ) > f (., ) for 0 < < . Thus, from (9), the curl is nonzero
and points in the negative z-direction.
(b) By inspection the vector eld is constant, and thus its curl is zero.

## 3. If is oriented with upward normals then C consists of three parts parametrized as

C1 : r(t) = (1 t)i + tj for 0 t 1, C2 : r(t) = (1 t)j + tk for 0 t 1,
C3 : r(t) = ti + (1 t)k for 0 t 1.
    1
1
F dr = F dr = F dr = (3t 1)dt = so
C1 C2 C3 0 2

1 1 1 3
F dr = + + = . curl F = i + j + k, z = 1 x y, R is the triangular region in
C 2 2 2 2

## the xy-plane enclosed by x + y = 1, x = 0, and y = 0;

   
1 3
(curl F) n dS = 3 dA = (3)(area of R) = (3) (1)(1) = .
2 2
R

4. If is oriented with upward normals then C can be parametrized as r(t) = cos ti + sin tj + k for
0 t 2.
  2
F dr = (sin2 t cos t cos2 t sin t)dt = 0;
C 0
 
curl F = 0 so (curl F) n dS = 0 dS = 0.

5. If is oriented with upward normals then C can be parametrized as r(t) = a cos ti + a sin tj for
0 t 2.
  2  
F dr = 0 dt = 0; curl F = 0 so (curl F) n dS = 0 dS = 0.
C 0

Exercise Set 16.8 683

6. If is oriented with upward normals then C can be parametrized as r(t) = 3 cos ti + 3 sin tj for
0 t 2.
  2  2
2 2
F dr = (9 sin t + 9 cos t)dt = 9 dt = 18.
C 0 0
curl F = 2i + 2j + 2k, R is the circular region in the xy-plane enclosed by x2 + y 2 = 9;
   2  3
(curl F) n dS = (4x + 4y + 2)dA = (4r cos + 4r sin + 2)r dr d = 18.
0 0
R

7. Take as the part of the plane z = 0 for x2 + y 2 1 with n = k; curl F = 3y 2 i + 2zj + 2k,
 
(curl F) n dS = 2 dS = (2)(area of circle) = (2)[(1)2 ] = 2.

## 8. curl F = xi + (x y)j + 6xy 2 k;

   1  3
2
(curl F) n dS = (x y 6xy )dA = (x y 6xy 2 )dy dx = 30.
0 0
R

## 9. C is the boundary of R and curl F = 2i + 3j + 4k, so

  
Fr= curl F n dS = 4 dA = 4(area of R) = 16
R R

10. curl F = 4i 6j + 6yk, z = y/2 oriented with upward normals, R is the triangular region in the
xy-plane enclosed by x + y = 2, x = 0, and y = 0;
   2  2x
(curl F) n dS = (3 + 6y)dA = (3 + 6y)dy dx = 14.
0 0
R

11. curl F = xk, take as part of the plane z = y oriented with upward normals, R is the circular
region in the xy-plane enclosed by x2 + y 2 y = 0;
    sin
(curl F) n dS = x dA = r2 cos dr d = 0.
0 0
R

12. curl F = yi zj xk, z = 1 x y oriented with upward normals, R is the triangular region in
the xy-plane enclosed by x + y = 1, x = 0 and y = 0;
  
1 1
(curl F) n dS = (y z x)dA = dA = (1)(1) = .
2 2
R R

## 13. curl F = i + j + k, take as the part of the plane z = 0 with x2 + y 2 a2 and n = k;

 
(curl F) n dS = dS = area of circle = a2 .

14. curl F = i + j + k, take as the part of the plane z = 1/ 2 with x2 + y 2 1/2 and n = k.
 

(curl F) n dS = dS = area of circle = .
2

684 Chapter 16

15. (a) Take as the part of the plane 2x + y + 2z = 2 in the rst octant, oriented with downward
normals; curl F = xi + (y 1)j k,
 
F T ds = (curl F) n dS
C
    1  22x  
1 3 1 3 3
= x y+ dA = x y+ dy dx = .
2 2 0 0 2 2 2
R

## (b) At the origin curl F = j k and with n = k, curl F(0, 0, 0) n = (j k) k = 1.

(c) The rotation of F has its maximum value at the origin about the unit vector in the same
1 1
direction as curl F(0, 0, 0) so n = j k.
2 2

16. (a) Using the hint, the orientation of the curve C with respect to the surface 1 is the opposite
of the orientation of C with respect to the surface 2 .
Thus in the expressions
   
(curl F) n dS = F T dS and (curl F) n dS = F T dS,
C C
1 2

## the two line integrals have oppositely oriented tangents T. Hence

  
(curl F) n dS = (curl F) n dS + (curl F) n dS = 0.
1 2

(b) The ux of the curl eld through the boundary of a solid is zero.
   
B
17. Since E rdr = curl E n dS, it follows that curl E ndS = ndS. This
t
C
B
relationship holds for any surface , hence curl E = .
t

## 18. Parametrize C by x = cos t, y = sin t, 0 t 2. But F = x2 yi + (y 3 x)j + (2x 1)k along C


so F dr = 5/4. Since curl F = (2z 2)j + (1 x2 )k,
C
 
(curl F) n dS = (curl F) (2xi + 2yj + k) dA
R
 
1 1x2
= [2y(2x2 + 2y 2 4) 1 x2 ] dy dx = 5/4
1 1x2

## CHAPTER 16 SUPPLEMENTARY EXERCISES

c (x x0 )i + (y y0 )j + (z z0 )k
2. (b) (r r0 ) (c) c 
r r0 3 (x x0 )2 + (y y0 )2 + (z z0 )2
 b  
dx dy
3. (a) f (x(t), y(t)) + g(x(t), y(t)) dt
a dt dt
Chapter 16 Supplementary Exercises 685

 b 
(b) f (x(t), y(t)) x (t)2 + y  (t)2 dt
a
  
4. (a) M = (x, y, z) ds (b) L = ds (c) S = dS
C C
  
1
(d) A = x dy = y dx = y dx + x dy
2
C C C
 
11. f (x, y, z)dS = f (x(u, v), y(u, v), z(u, v))ru rv  du dv
R

13. Let O be the origin, P the point with polar coordinates = , r = f (), and Q the point with
polar coordinates = , r = f (). Let
dx dy
C1 : O to P ; x = t cos , y = t sin , 0 t f (), y +x =0
dt dt
dx dy
C2 : P to Q; x = f (t) cos t, y = f (t) sin t, , y +x = f (t)2
dt dt
dx dy
C3 : Q to O; x = t cos , y = t sin , f () t 0, y +x =0
dt dt
  
1 1 2 1 2
A= y dx + x dy = f (t) dt; set t = and r = f () = f (t), A = r d.
2 C 2 2

qQ(xi + yj + zk)
14. (a) F(x, y, z) =
4.0 (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )3/2
 
qQ qQ 1 1
(b) F = , where = 2 2 2 1/2
, so W = (3, 1, 5)(3, 0, 0) = .
4.0 (x + y + z ) 4.0 3 35

qQ[0 + t + 25t] dt
C : x = 3, y = t, z = 5t, 0 t 1; F dr =
4.0 (9 + t2 + 25t2 )3/2
 1  
26qQt dt qQ 1 1
W = 2 3/2
=
0 4.0 (26t + 9) 4.0 35 3

15. (a) Assume the mass M is located at the origin and the mass m at (x, y, z), then
GmM
r = xi + yj + zk, F(x, y, z) = r,
+ y 2 + z 2 )3/2 (x2
 t2  
GmM dx dy dz
W = 2 2 2 3/2
x + y + z dt
t1 (x + y + z ) dt dt dt
t2  
1 1
= GmM (x2 + y 2 + z 2 )1/2 = GmM
t1 r2 r1
 
1 1
(b) W = 3.99 105 103 1596.801594 km2 kg/s2 1.597 109 J
7170 6970

y 2 x2 x2 y 2 1 1
16. div F = + + 2 = 2 , the level surface of div F = 1 is the
(x2 + y 2 )2 (x2 + y 2 )2 (x + y 2 ) x + y2
cylinder about the z-axis of radius 1.
686 Chapter 16


1
17. x = 0 by symmetry; by Exercise 16, y = y 2 dx; C1 : y = 0, a x a, y 2 dx = 0;
2A
C
C2 : x = a cos , y = a sin , 0 , so

1 4a
y = a2 sin2 (a sin ) d =
2(a2 /2) 0 3

1
18. y = x by symmetry; by Exercise 16, x = x2 dy; C1 : y = 0, 0 x a, x2 dy = 0;
2A
C

## C2 : x = a cos , y = a sin , 0 /2; C3 : x = 0, x2 dy = 0;

 /2
1 4a
x = a2 (cos2 )a cos d =
2(a2 /4) 0 3

1
19. y = 0 by symmetry; x = x2 dy; A = a2 ; C1 : x = t cos , y = t sin , 0 t a;
2A
C
C2 : x = a cos , y = a sin , ;
C3 : x = t cos , y = t sin , 0 t a (reverse orientation);
 a   a
2Ax = t2 cos2 sin dt + a3 cos3 d t2 cos2 sin dt,
0 0
  
2a3 2a3 1 3
= cos2 sin + 2a3 3
cos d = 2 3
cos sin + 2a sin sin
3 0 3 3
4 2a sin
= a3 sin ; sinceA = a2 , x =
3 3
 a 
b 2ab
20. A = b 2 x2 dx = , C1 : x = t, y = bt2 /a2 , 0 t a;
0 a 3
C2 : x = a t, y = b, 0 t a, x2 dy = 0; C3 : x = 0, y = b t, 0 t b, x2 dy = y 2 dx = 0;
 a
a2 b 3a
2Ax = t2 (2bt/a2 ) dt = , x = ;
0 2 8
 a  a
2 2 2 ab2 4ab2 3b
2Ay = (bt /a ) dt + b2 dt = + ab2 = , y =
0 0 5 5 5
   

21. (a) f (x) dx + g(y) dy = g(y) f (x) dA = 0
x y
C R
 
(b) W = F dr = f (x) dx + g(y) dy = 0, so the work done by the vector eld around any
C C

## 22. (a) Let r = d cos i + d sin j + zk in cylindrical coordinates, so

dr dr d dr
= = (d sin i + d cos j), v = = k r = r.
dt d dt dt
Chapter 16 Supplementary Exercises 687

## (c) From Part (b), curl v = 2k = 2

(d) No; from Exercise 34 in Section 16.1, if were a potential function for v, then
curl () = curl v = 0, contradicting Part (c) above.

23. Yes; by imagining a normal vector sliding around the surface it is evident that the surface has two
sides.
  
24. Dn = n , so Dn dS = n dS = () dV
G
  2 2 2


= + 2 + 2 dV
x2 y z
G

  
25. By Exercise 24, Dn f dS = [fxx + fyy + fzz ] dV = 6 dV = 6vol(G) = 8
G G

26. (a) fy gx = exy + xyexy exy xyexy = 0 so the vector eld is conservative.

## (b) x = yexy 1, = exy x + k(x), y = xexy , let k(x) = 0; (x, y) = exy x


(c) W = F dr = (x(8), y(8)) (x(0), y(0)) = (8, 0) (0, 0) = 8
C

27. (a) If h(x)F is conservative, then (yh(x)) = (2xh(x)), or h(x) = 2h(x) 2xh (x) which
y x
y 2
has the general solution x3 h(x)2 = C1 , h(x) = Cx3/2 , so C 3/2 i C 1/2 j is conservative,
x x
with potential function = 2Cy/ x.

(b) If g(y)F(x, y) is conservative then (yg(y)) = (2xg(y)), or g(y) + yg  (y) = 2g(y),
y x
1 2x
with general solution g(y) = C/y 3 , so F = C 2 i C 3 j is conservative, with potential
y y
function Cx/y 2 .

28. A computation of curl F shows that curl F = 0 if and only if the three given equations hold.
Moreover the equations hold if F is conservative, so it remains to show that F is conservative if
curl F = 0. Let C by any simple closed curve in the region. Since the region is simply connected,
there
 is a piecewise
 smooth, oriented
  surface in the region with boundary C. By Stokes Theorem,
F dr = (curl F) n dS = 0 dS = 0.
C

688 Chapter 16

## CHAPTER 16 HORIZON MODULE

1. (a) If r = xi + yj denotes the position vector, then F1 r = 0 by inspection, so the velocity eld
k
is tangent to the circle. The relationship F1 r = k indicates that r, F1 , k is a right-
2
k
handed system, so the ow is counterclockwise. The polar form F1 = (sin i cos j)
2r
k
shows that the speed is the constant on a circle of radius r; and it also shows that the
2r
1
speed is proportional to with constant of proportionality k/(2).
r
k
(b) Since F1  = , when r = 1 we get k = 2F1 
2r

2. y
1

x
1 1

q q
3. (a) F2 = 2
r so F2 is directed toward the origin, and F2  = is constant for con-
2r 2r
stant r, and the speed is inversely proportional to the distance from the origin (constant of
q
proportionality ). Since the velocity vector is directed toward the origin, the uid ows
2
towards the origin, which must therefore be a sink.
(b) From Part (a) when r = 1, q = 2F2 .

4. y
1

x
1 1

5. (b) The magnitudes of the eld vectors increase, and their directions become more tangent to
circles about the origin.
(c) The magnitudes of the eld vectors increase, and their directions tend more towards the
origin.
Chapter 16 Horizon Module 689

q
6. (a) The inward component is F2 , so at r = 20, 15 = F2  = , so q = 600; the tangential
2(20)
k
component is F1 , so at r = 20, 45 = F1  = , so k = 1800.
2(20)
1
(b) F = [(300x + 900y)i + (300y 900x)j]
+ y2 x2

300 10
(c) F = 5 km/hr if r 60 10 189.7 km.
r
1 q k 1
7. F = [(q cos + k sin )i + (q sin k cos )j] = ur + u = (qur ku )
2r 2r 2r 2r
   
1 k 1 1 k 1
8. F = (qur ku ) ur + qu = q k q = 0, since ur and u are
2r r r 2r r r
orthogonal unit vectors.

9. From the hypotheses of Exercise 8, = k ln r + G(), = G () = q;

let G = q, = k ln r + q

## 10. The streamline = c becomes k ln r + q = c, ln r = q/k + c/k,

r = eq/k ec/k = eq/k , where > 0.
y
11.
1
x
1 2 3

12. q = 600, k = 1800, r = e/3 ; at r = 20, = /4, = re/3 = 20e/12 25.985; the desired
streamline has the polar equation r = 25.985e/3 .

y
20

10

x
25