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J. Appl. Ichthyol.

19 (2003), 397398 Received: April 7, 2003


2003 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin Accepted: May 10, 2003
ISSN 01758659

Short communication
Lipid content and fatty acid composition during early and late embryonic
development of redclaw craysh, Cherax quadricarinatus (Crustacea, decapoda)
By A. R. Alimon1, P. Roustaian2, C. R. Saad3 and M. S. Kamarudin3
1
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department
of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food Science, Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia
(KUSTEM), Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia; 3Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

Cherax quadricarinatus, commonly known as redclaw craysh,

Percentage total fatty acid composition


(a)
belongs to the family Parastacidae, a group of freshwater
craysh entirely restricted to the Southern Hemisphere (Jones, Early embryonic stages Late embryonic stages
1990). In recent years, the species has emerged as an 40
aquaculture candidate because of its avor and texture, 35
relatively large size, physiological tolerance to environmental 30
extremes, non-aggressive nature and a high market value, all 25
20
which compare well with the most sought-after crustacea
15
(Jones, 1990). The species was recently introduced into
10
Malaysia and there is currently some culturing of C. quadri- 5
carinatus in the southern part of the Malaysian peninsula on a 0
commercial scale. However, not much related literature is
18 9
7

20 6

22 3

3
0

n-
n-

n-

n-

n-

n-

n-

n-
:0

:0

:0

available as compared with other farmed crustacea. The


14

16

:1
:1

:2

:3

:4

:5

:5

:6
1

18
16

18

20

22
objective of this communication is to provide some baseline
7&
n-

information on the lipid concentration and fatty acid prole of


:1
18

redclaw craysh eggs. The information can be applied in


Fatty acids
further studies pertaining to fatty acid metabolism during
embryonic development as well as for feed formulation for
broodstock and newly hatched juveniles. (b)
Samples from early (no eyes or pereiopods visible) and
Percentage fatty acid class

80 Early embryonic stages Late embryonic stages


late (eyes and/or pereiopods visible) stages of redclaw
craysh egg development were obtained from broodstock 70
collected from Johore, Malaysia. The early and late stages 60
used in this work closely resemble stages 13 and 56, 50
respectively, as described by Jones (1995). Total lipid was 40
determined according to Holland and Hannant (1973) by 30
subsampling (n 3) of 35 mg of freeze-dried samples for 20
both early and late stages. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME)
10
were prepared according to the direct methylation technique
0
of Divakaran and Ostrowski (1989). The FAME samples
ed

ed

d
d
d

-6
3

were subsequently analyzed (n 3) using a gasliquid


te
te
te

n-

n-

n
at

at

ra
ra
ra

3/
ur

ur

chromatograph (Shimadzu GC-8A) equipped with ame


tu
tu
tu

n-
at

at

sa
a
Sa

ns
ns

d/

ionization detector and Supleco 2330 capillary column as


un
ou
U

te

ly
ra

on

Po

described by Roustaian et al. (1999). Fatty acid structures


u

M
at

are represented as (L : BnX) where L chain length,


ns
U

B number of ethylenic bond, and nX position of the


Fatty acid classes
double bond closest to the terminal methyl group. The
weight percentages of total lipid for early and late embryonic Fig. 1. The fatty acid composition for early (no eyes or pereiopods
visible) and late (eyes and/or pereiopods visible) stages of Cherax
stages were arcsine transformed to ensure a normal distri- quadricarinatus embryonic development. (a) selected fatty acids
bution (Zar, 1984) and tested for statistical signicance [expressed as percent fatty acid methyl esters (FAME); mean values,
(P < 0.05) by independent t-test using SPSS Release 7.5 n 3]; (b) fatty acid classes (mean value, n 3)
software (SPSS Inc., USA).
Total lipid concentration (expressed as percent dry weight)
diered signicantly (P < 0.05) between early and late

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398 A. R. Alimon et al.

embryonic stages. The level of the egg total lipid during early the fatty acid metabolism and possible eects of the dietary
stages of development ranged from 31.9 to 33.2% (mean fatty acids on embryonic growth and development in
SD 32.5 0.6), which dropped signicantly to 16.6% C. quadricarinatus.
1.3 (range from 15.6 to 17.5%) at late stages of develop-
ment. The fatty acid (expressed as percent FAME) prole for
early and late embryonic development of C. quadricarinatus is References
shown in Fig. 1. Major fatty acids during embryonic develop- Clarke, A., 1977: Seasonal variations in the total lipid content of
ment of redclaw craysh were oleic/vaccenic (18 : 1), palmitic Chorismus antarcticus (Pfeer) (Crustacea: Decapoda) at South
Georgia. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 27, 93106.
(16 : 0), linoleic (18 : 2n-6) and palmitoleic (16 : 1n-7). Mono- Clarke, A.; Brown, J. H.; Holmes, L. J., 1990: The biochemical
unsaturated fatty acids constituted the major moiety of the composition of eggs from Macrobrachium rosenbergii in relation
fatty acid prole. Polyunsaturated fatty acids were dominated to embryonic development. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 96B, 505
by n-6 series. 511.
Divakaran, S.; Ostrowski, A. C., 1989: Fatty acid analysis of sh eggs
Lipid concentration decline from the early to late embryonic without solvent extraction. Aquaculture 80, 371375.
stage is indicative of lipid utilization for developing embryos of Holland, D. L.; Hannant, P. J., 1973: Addendum to a micro-analytical
redclaw craysh, C. quadricarinatus. The number of lipid scheme for biochemical analysis of marine invertebrate larvae.
characteristics, including high energy content, precursors of J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. UK 53, 833838.
prostaglandins and their vital role as phospholipids as a Jones, C. M., 1990: The biology and aquaculture potential of the
tropical freshwater craysh Cherax quadricarinatus. Queensland
structural part of cellular membranes, may contribute to their Department of Primary Industries Information Series Q190028,
importance during embryonic as well as larval development. pp. 109.
The importance of lipids for crustacean embryonic (Clarke, Jones, C. M., 1995: Production of juvenile redclaw craysh, Cherax
1977; Clarke et al., 1990; Noblitt and Payne, 1995) and larval quadricarinatus (von Martens) (Decapoda, Parastacidae). I.
Development of hatchery and nursery procedures. Aquaculture
(Ward et al., 1979; Roustaian et al., 1999) development has
138, 239245.
been established. Millamena, O. M.; Pascul, P., 1990: Tissue lipid content and fatty acid
The fatty acid prole of the C. quadricarinatus early composition of Penaeus monodon Fabricius broodstock from the
embryo can be considered as a reection of what is required wild. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 21, 116121.
for transfer to the developing embryos after fertilization. Noblitt, S. B.; Payne, J. F., 1995: A comparative study of selected
chemical aspects of the eggs of the craysh Procambarus clarkii
The eects of the dietary fatty acids in maturation and (Girard, 1852) and P. zonangulus Hobbs and Hobbs, 1990
spawning of decapode crustaceans have already been shown (Decapoda, Cambaridae). Crustaceana 68, 695704.
(Millamena and Pascul, 1990). Likewise, the formulation of Roustaian, P.; Kamarudin, M. S.; Omar, H.; Saad, C. R.; Ahmad, M.
dietary fatty acid prole for the juvenile C. quadricarinatus H., 1999: Changes in fatty acid prole during larval development
of freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man).
can greatly benet from the fatty acid composition of the
Aquacult. Res. 30, 815824.
late embryonic stages. The major fatty acids of early Ward, D. G.; Middleditch, B. S.; Missler, S. R.; Lawrence, A. L., 1979:
embryonic stages (16 : 0, 16 : 1n-7, 18 : 1, and 18 : 2n-6), Fatty acid changes during larval development of Penaeus setiferus.
which remain the major fatty acids of the later stages, J. World Maricult. Soc. 10, 464471.
appear to be required in larger quantities than are other Zar, J. H., 1984: Biostatistical analysis. Prentice Hall International
Inc., Englewood Clis, NJ, pp. 620.
fatty acids.
A low ratio of n-3 to n-6 found during C. quadricarinatus Authors address: Paymon Roustaian, Department of Fisheries and
embryonic development may suggest the nutritional superi- Aquaculture, Faculty of Agrotechnology and Food
Science, Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi
ority of n-6 over n-3 for the developing embryo. It may also Malaysia (KUSTEM), 21030 Kuala Terengganu,
reect some possible terrestrial ancestral origin of this Malaysia.
species. However, further studies are needed to elucidate E-mail: paymon62@yahoo.com