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ELECTRONIC COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

Wayne Tomasi, 5th edition

Introduction to Electronic Communications


Electricity began in 1837 when Samuel Finley Breese Morse invented A standard voice-band channel occupies approximately a 3-kHz
the first workable telegraph. bandwidth and is used for transmission of voice-quality signals;
commercial AM broadcast channels occupy approximately a 10-kHz
In 1894, Marchese Guglielmo Marconi successfully transmitted the first frequency band, and 30MHz or more of bandwidth is required for
wireless radio signals through Earths atmosphere. microwave and satellite radio channels.

In 1906, Lee DeForest invented the triode vacuum tube. The process of converting a frequency or band of frequencies to another
location in the total frequency spectrum is called frequency translation.
Commercial radio broadcasting began in 1920 when radio station KDKA
began broadcasting amplitude-modulated (AM) signals out of Pittsburgh, Frequency is simply the number of times a periodic motion, such as a
Pennsylvania. sine wave of voltage or current, occurs in a given period of time. Each
complete alternation of the waveform is called a cycle.
In 1931, Major Edwin Howard Armstrong patented frequency
modulation (FM). The basic unit of frequency is hertz (Hz), and one hertz equals one cycle
per second (1 Hz = 1 cps).
Commercial broadcasting of monophonic FM began in 1935.
The International Telecommunications Union (ITU) is an international
The decibel (abbreviated dB) is a logarithmic unit that can be used to agency in control of allocating frequencies and services within the overall
measure ratios of virtually anything. frequency spectrum.

Zero dB-SPL is the threshold of hearing. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assigns frequencies and
communications services for free-space radio propagation.
The threshold of pain is approximately 120 dB-SPL.
Commercial FM broadcast band has been assigned the 88-MHz to 108-
dB represents the ratio of the signal level at one point in a circuit to the MHz band.
signal level at another point in a circuit.
Extremely low frequencies. Extremely low frequencies (ELFs) are
A power loss is sometimes called attenuation. signals in the 30-Hz to 300-Hz range and include ac power distribution
signals (60 Hz) and low-frequency telemetry signals.
dBm is a unit of measurement used to indicate the ratio of a power level
with respect to a fixed reference level. Voice frequencies. Voice frequencies (VFs) are signals in the 300-Hz to
3000-Hz range and include frequencies generally associated with human
When power levels are given in watts and power gains are given as speech. Standard telephone channels have a 300-Hz to 3000-Hz
absolute values, the output power is determined by simply multiplying the bandwidth and are often called voice-frequency or voice-band channels.
input power times the power gain.
Very low frequencies. Very low frequencies (VLFs) are signals in the 3-
Modulation is simply the process of changing one or more properties of kHz to 30-kHz range, which include the upper end of the human hearing
the analog carrier in proportion with the information signal. range. VLFs are used for some specialized government and military
system, such as submarine communications.
Digital transmission is a true digital system where digital pulses are
transferred between two or more points in a communications system. Low frequencies. Low frequencies (LFs) are signals in the 30-kHz to
300-kHz range and are used primarily for marine and aeronautical
Digital radio is the transmittal of digitally modulated analog carriers navigation.
between two or more points in a communications system.
Medium frequencies. Medium frequencies (MFs) are signals in the 300-
If the information is analog and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is varied kHz to 3-MHz range and are used primarily for commercial AM radio
proportional to the information signal, amplitude modulation (AM) is broadcasting (535 kHz to 1605 kHz).
produced. If the frequency (f) is varied proportional to the information
signal, frequency modulation (FM) is produced, and, if phase is varied High frequencies. High frequencies (HFs) are signals in the 3-MHz to
proportional to the information signal, phase modulation (PM) is 30-MHz range and are often referred to as short waves. Most two-way
produced. radio communications use this range.

If the information signal is digital and the amplitude (V) of the carrier is Very high frequencies. Very high frequencies (VHFs) are signals in the
varied proportional to the information signal, a digitally modulated signal 30-MHz to 300-MHz range and are used for mobile radio, marine and
known as amplitude shift keying (ASK) is produced. If the frequency (f) aeronautical communications, commercial FM broadcasting (88 MHz to
is varied proportional to the information signal, frequency shift keying 108 MHz), and commercial television broadcasting of channels 2 to 13
(FSK) is produced, and, if the phase is varied proportional to the (54 MHz to 216 MHz).
information signal, phase shift keying (PSK) is produced. If both the
amplitude and the phase are varied proportional to the information signal, Ultrahigh frequencies. Ultrahigh frequencies (UHFs) are signals in the
quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) results. 300-MHz to 3-GHz range and are used by commercial television
broadcasting of channels 14 to 83, land mobile communications services,
ASK, FSK, PSK, and QAM are forms of digital modulation. cellular telephones, certain radar and navigation systems, and microwave
and satellite radio system.
The term channel is often used to refer to a specific band of frequencies
allocated a particular service. Superhigh frequencies. Superhigh frequencies (SHFs) are signals in
the 3-GHz to 30-GHz range and include the majority of the frequencies
used for microwave and satellite radio communication systems.
Atmospheric noise is naturally occurring electrical disturbances that
Extremely high frequencies. Extremely high frequencies (EHFs) are originate within Earths atmosphere. Atmospheric noise is commonly
signals in the 30-GHz to 300-GHz range and are seldom used for radio called static noise.
communications except in very sophisticated, expensive, and specialized
applications. The source of most static electricity is naturally occurring electrical
conditions, such as lightning.
Infrared. Infrared frequencies are signals in the 0.3-THz to 300-THz
range and are not generally referred to as radio waves. Infrared refers to Consequently, at frequencies above 30 MHz or so, atmospheric noise
electromagnetic radiation generally associated with heat. relatively insignificant.

Visible light. Visible light includes electromagnetic frequencies that fall Extraterrestrial noise consists of electrical signals that originate from
within the visible range of humans (0.3 PHz to 3PHz). Light-wave outside Earths atmosphere and is therefore sometimes called deep-
communications is used with optical fiber systems. space noise.

Wavelength is the length that one cycle of an electromagnetic wave Solar noise is generated directly from the suns heat. There are two
occupies in space (i.e., the distance between similar points in a repetitive parts to solar noise: a quiet condition, when a relatively constant radiation
wave). intensity exists, and high intensity, sporadic disturbances caused by
sunspot activity and solar flare-ups
Wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave and
directly proportional to the velocity of propagation (the velocity of Cosmic noise sources are continuously distributed throughout the
propagation of electromagnetic energy in free space is assumed to be the galaxies.
speed of light, 3 X 10^8 m/s).
Cosmic noise is often called black-body noise and is distributed fairly
The emission classifications are identified by a three-symbol code evenly throughout the sky.
containing a combination of letters and numbers. The first symbol is a
letter that designates the type of modulation of the main carrier. The Man-made noise is simply noise that is produced by mankind.
second symbol is a number that identifies the type of emission, and the
third symbol is another letter that describes the type of information being Man-made noise is impulsive in nature and contains a wide range of
transmitted. frequencies that are propagated through space in the same manner as
radio waves.
The bandwidth of an information signal is simply the difference
between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information, Man-made noise is most intense in the more densely populated
and the bandwidth of a communications channel is the difference metropolitan and industrial areas and is therefore sometimes called
between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to industrial noise.
pass through it
Internal noise is electrical interference generated within a device or
Information theory is a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of circuit.
bandwidth to propagate information through electronic communication
systems. Information theory can be used to determine the information Shot noise is caused by the random arrival of carriers (holes and
capacity of a data communications system. electrons) at the output element of an electronic device, such as diode,
field-effect transistor, or bipolar transistor.
Information capacity is a measure of how much information can be
propagated through a communications system and is a function of Shot noise is randomly varying and is superimposed onto any signal
bandwidth and transmission line. present.

The most basic digital symbol used to represent information is the binary Shot noise is sometimes called transistor noise and is additive with
digit or bit. thermal noise.

In 1928, R. Hartley of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a useful Any modification to a stream of carriers as they pass from the input to the
relationship among bandwidth, transmission time, and information output of a device (such as from the emitter to the collector of a
capacity. transistor) produces an irregular, random variation categorized as
transit-time noise.
In 1948, mathematician Claude E. Shannon (also of Bell Telephone
Laboratories) published a paper in the Bell System Technical Journal Thermal noise is associated with the rapid and random movement of
relating the information capacity of a communications channel to electrons within a conductor due to thermal agitation.
bandwidth and signal-to-noise ratio.
Because this type of electron movement is totally random and in all
The higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the better the performance and the directions, it is sometimes called random noise.
higher the information capacity.
Thermal noise is present in all electronic components and
Electrical noise is defined as any undesirable electrical energy that falls communications systems.
within the passband of the signal.
The ac component produced from thermal agitation has several names,
Correlated noise exists only when a signal is present. Uncorrelated including thermal noise, because it is temperature dependent;
noise, on the other hand, is present all the time whether there is a signal Brownian noise, after its discoverer; Johnson noise, after the man who
or not. related Brownian particle movement of electron movement; and white
noise because the random movement is at all frequencies. Hence,
Uncorrelated noise is present regardless of whether there is a signal thermal noise is the random motion of free electrons within a conductor
present or not. caused by thermal agitation.

External noise is noise that is generated outside the device or circuit. To convert C to Kelvin, simply add 273; thus T = C + 273.
Correlated noise is a form of internal noise that is correlated (mutually
related) to the signal and cannot be present in a circuit unless there is a
signal.

Correlated noise is produced by nonlinear amplification and includes


harmonic and intermodulation distortion, both of which are forms of
nonlinear distortion.

Harmonic distortion occurs when unwanted harmonics of a signal are


produced through nonlinear amplification (nonlinear mixing).

The original signal is the first harmonic and is called the fundamental
frequency.

Amplitude distortion is another name for harmonic distortion.

Total harmonic distortion (TDH) is the ratio of the quadratic sum of the
rms values of all the higher harmonics to the rms value of the
fundamental.

Intermodulation distortion is the generation of unwanted sum and


difference frequencies produced when two or more signals mix in a
nonlinear device. The sum and difference frequencies are called cross
products.

Impulse noise is characterized by high-amplitude peaks of short duration


in the total noise spectrum.

As the name implies, impulse noise consists of sudden bursts of


irregularly shaped pulses that generally last between a few microseconds
and several milliseconds, depending on their amplitude and origin.

Common sources of impulse noise include transients produced from


electromechanical switches (such as relays and solenoids), electric
motors, appliances, electric lights (especially fluorescent), power lines,
automotive ignition system, poor-quality solder joints, and lightning.

Signal-to-noise power ratio (S/N) is the ratio of the signal power level to
the noise power level.

Noise factor (F) and noise figure (NF) are figures of merit used to
indicate how much the signal-to-noise ratio deteriorates as a signal
passes through a circuit or series of circuits.

Noise factor is simply a ratio of input signal-to-noise power ratio to


output signal-to-noise power ratio.
Signal Analysis and Mixing The bandwidth of a frequency spectrum is the range of frequencies
contained in the spectrum. The bandwidth is calculated by subtracting the
lowest frequency from the highest.
Signal analysis is the mathematical analysis of the frequency, bandwidth,
and voltage level of a signal.
The bandwidth of an information signal is simply the difference
between the highest and lowest frequencies contained in the information,
Electrical signals are voltage- or current-time variations that can be
and the bandwidth of a communications channel is the difference
represented by a series of sine or cosine waves.
between the highest and lowest frequencies that the channel will allow to
pass through it.
A description of a signal with respect to time is called a time-domain
representation.
When analyzing electronic communications circuits, it is often necessary
to use a rectangular pulse.
A standard oscilloscope is a time-domain instrument. The display on
the cathode ray tube (CRT) is an amplitude-versus-time representation of
The duty cycle (DC) for the waveform is the ratio of the active time of the
the signal and is commonly called a signal waveform.
pulse to the period of the waveform.
With an oscilloscope, the vertical deflection is proportional to the
Electrical power is the rate at which energy is dissipated, delivered, or
amplitude of the input signals, and horizontal deflection is a function of
used and is a function of the square of the voltage or current.
time (sweep rate).
With the discrete Fourier transform, a time-domain signal is sampled at
A description of a signal with respect to its frequency is called a
discrete times. The samples are fed into a computer where an algorithm
frequency-domain representation. A spectrum analyzer is a frequency-
computes the transform.
domain instrument.
In 1965 a new algorithm called the fast Fourier transform (FFT) was
With a spectrum analyzer, the horizontal axis represents frequency and
developed by Cooley and Tukey. With the FFT the computing time is
the vertical axis amplitude.
proportional to n log 2n rather than n^2.
Any repetitive waveform that is comprised of more than one harmonically
We can consider a communications channel to be equivalent to an ideal
related sine or cosine wave is a nonsinusoidal, complex wave.
linear-phase filter with a finite bandwidth.
To analyze a complex periodic wave, it is necessary to use a
In a communications system, bandlimiting reduces the information
mathematical series developed in 1826 by the French physicist and
capacity of the system, and, if excessive bandlimiting is imposed, a
mathematician Baron Jean Fourier. This series is appropriately called
portion of the information signal can be removed from the composite
the Fourier series.
waveform.
Fourier analysis is a mathematical tool that allows us to move back and
Mixing is the process of combining two or more signals and is an
forth between the time and frequency domains.
essential process in electronic communications.
The Fourier series is used in signal analysis to represent the sinusoidal
Linear summing occurs when two or more signals combine in a linear
components of nonsinusoidal periodic waveforms.
device, such as a passive network or a small-signal amplifier.
Any periodic waveform is comprised of an average dc component and a
In radio communications, mixing almost always implies a nonlinear
series of harmonically related sine or cosine waves.
process.
A harmonic is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. The
Nonlinear mixing occurs when two or more signals are combined in a
fundamental frequency is the first harmonic and is equal to the frequency
nonlinear device such as a diode or large-signal amplifier. With nonlinear
(repetition rate) of the waveform.
mixing, the input signals combine in a nonlinear fashion and produce
additional frequency components.
The fundamental frequency is the minimum frequency necessary to
represent a waveform.
Integer multiples of a base frequency are called harmonics.
Wave symmetry describes the symmetry of a waveform in the time
Nonlinear amplification of a single frequency results in the generation of
domain, that is, its relative position with respect to the horizontal (time)
multiples or harmonics of the frequency. If the harmonics are undesired, it
and vertical (amplitude) axes.
is called harmonic distortion. If the harmonics are desired, it is called
frequency multiplication.
If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about the vertical axis, it is
said to have axes, or mirror, symmetry and is called an even function.
A JFET is a special-case nonlinear device that has characteristics that
are approximately those of a square-law device.
If a periodic voltage waveform is symmetric about a line between the
vertical axis and the negative horizontal axis and passing through the
The cross products are sum and the difference frequencies.
coordinate origin, it is said to have point, or skew, symmetry and is called
an odd function.
If the cross products are undesired, it is called intermodulation
distortion. If the cross products are desired, it is called modulation.
If a periodic voltage waveform is such that the waveform for the first half
cycle repeats itself except with the opposite sign for the second half cycle,
Intermodulation distortion is the generation of any unwanted cross-
it is said to have half-wave symmetry.
product frequency when two or more frequencies are mixed in a
nonlinear device.
Frequency spectrum of a waveform consists of all the frequencies
contained in the waveform and their respective amplitudes plotted in the
frequency domain.
Digital Modulation
The minimum theoretical bandwidth necessary to propagate a signal is
Electronic Communications is the transmission, reception and the called minimum Nyquist bandwidth or sometimes called minimum
processing of information with the use of electronic circuits. Nyquist frequency.

Information is defined as knowledge or intelligence that is The simplest digital modulation technique is amplitude-shift keying
communicated between two or more points. (ASK), where a binary information signal directly modulates the
amplitude of an analog carrier.
Digital modulation is the transmittal of digitally modulated analog signals
(carriers) between two or more points in a communications system. Amplitude-shift keying is sometimes called digital amplitude
modulation (DAM).
Digital modulation is sometimes called digital radio because digitally
modulated signals can be propagated through Earths atmosphere and Amplitude-shift keying is sometimes referred to as a on-off keying
used in wireless communications systems. (OOK).

Digital Communications include systems where relatively high Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is another relatively simple, low
frequency analog carriers are modulated by relatively low frequency performance type of digital modulation. FSK is a form of constant
digital information signals (digital radio) and systems involving the amplitude angle modulation similarly to standard frequency modulation
transmission of digital pulses. (FM) except the modulating signal is a binary signal that varies between
two discrete voltage levels rather than a continuously changing analog
If the information signal is digital and the amplitude of the carrier is varied form.
proportional to the information signal, a digitally modulated signal called
amplitude shift keying (ASK) is produced. Consequently, FSK is sometimes called binary FSK (BFSK).

If the frequency is varied proportional to the information signal, The most common circuit used for demodulating binary FSK signals is
frequency shift keying (FSK) is produced. the phase-locked loop (PLL).

If the phase of the carrier is varied proportional to the information signal, Continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CP-FSK) is a binary FSK
phase shift keying (PSK) is produced. except the mark and space frequency are synchronized with the input
binary bit rate.
if both amplitude and the phase are varied proportional to the information
signal, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) results. Phase-shift keying (PSK) is another form of angle-modulated,
constant-amplitude digital modulation.
Information theory is a highly theoretical study of the efficient use of
bandwidth to propagate information through electronic communication PSK is an M-ary digital modulation scheme similar to conventional phase
systems. modulation except with psk the input is a binary digital signal and there
are a limited number of output phases possible.
Information capacity is a measure of how much information can be
propagated through a communications system and is a function of The simplest form of PSK is binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), where
bandwidth and transmission time. N=1 and M=2. As the input digital signal changes state, the phase of the
output carrier shifts between two angles that are separated by 180
Information capacity represents the number of independent symbols that degrees.
can be carried through a system in a given unit of time.
Other names for BPSK are phase reversal keying (PRK) and biphase
Bit rate is simply the number of bits transmitted during one second and is modulation.
expressed in bits per second (bps).
A constellation diagram, which is sometimes called a signal state-
In 1928, R.Hartley of Bell Telephone Laboratories developed a useful phase diagram, is similar to a phasor diagram except that the entire
relationship among bandwidth, transmission time, and information phasor is not drawn.
capacity.
A balanced modulator is a product modulator; the output signal is the
In 1948, mathematician Claude E. Shannon published a paper in bell product of the two input signals.
system technical journal relating the information capacity of a
communication channel to bandwidth and signal to noise ratio. The BPSK modulator-the carrier input signal is multiplied by the binary data.
higher the signal-to-noise ratio, the better the performance and the higher
the information capacity. The coherent carrier recovery circuit detects and regenerates a carrier
signal that is both frequency and phase coherent with the original
M-ary is a term derived from the word binary. M simply represents a digit transmit carrier.
that corresponds to the number of conditions, levels, or combinations
possible for a given number of binary variables. The low-pass filter (LPF) separates the recovered binary data from the
complex demodulated signal.
Bit rate refers to the rate of change of a digital information signal, which
is usually binary. Quarternary phase shift keying (QPSK), or quadrature PSK as it is
sometimes called, is an other form of an angle modulated, constant
Baud refers to the rate of change of a signal on the transmission medium amplitude digital modulation. QPSK is an M-ary encoding scheme where
after encoding and modulation have occurred. N=2 and M=4.

Baud is the reciprocal of the time of one output signaling element, and a Offset QPSK (OQPSK) is a modified form of QPSK where the bit
signaling element may represent several information bits. waveforms on the I and Q channels are offset or shifted in the phase from
each other by one-half of a bit time
According to H. Nyquist, binary digital signals can be propagated
through an ideal noiseless transmission medium at a rate equal to two OQPSK is sometimes called OKQPSK (offset-keyed QPSK).
times the bandwidth of the medium.
With 8-PSK, three bits are encoded, forming tribits and producing eight
different output phases. With 8-PSK ,n-3 M=8, and there are 8 possible
output phases.

Gray Code or, sometimes, the maximum distance code. This code is
used to reduce the number of transmission errors. Using the Gray code
results in only a single bit being received in error.

16-PSK is an M-ary encoding technique where M=16; there are 16


different output phases possible. With 16 PSK, four bits (called quadbits)
are combined, producing 16 different output phases.

Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is a form of digital modulation


similar to PSK except the digital information is contained in both the
amplitude and the phase of the transmitted carrier.

8-QAM is an M-ary encoding technique where M=8. Unlike 8-PSK, the


output signal from an 8-QAM modulator is not a constant amplitude signal.

As with the 16-PSK, 16-QAM is an M-ary system where M=16. The input
data are acted on in groups of four (2^4 = 16).

Bandwidth efficiency (sometimes called information density or


spectral efficiency) is often used to compare the performance of one
digital modulation technique to another.

Carrier recovery is the process of extracting a phase coherent reference


carrier from a receiver signal. This is sometimes called phase
referencing.

The squaring circuit removes the modulation and generates the second
harmonic of the carrier frequency.

The Costas loop produces the same result as a squaring circuit followed
by an ordinary PLL in place of the BPF.

The remodulator produces a loop error voltage that is proportional to


twice the phase error between the incoming signal and the VCO signal.

Differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) is an alternative form of digital


modulation where the binary input information is contained in the
difference between two successive signaling elements rather than the
absolute phase.

Differential binary phase-shift keying - an incoming information bit is


XNORed with the preceding bit prior to entering the BPSK modulator.

Data transmission rates in excess of 56 kbps can be achieved, however


over standard telephone circuit using an encoding technique called trellis
code modulation (TCM).

Dr. Ungerboeck at IBM Zuerich Research Laboratory developed TCM,


convolutional (tree) codes, which combines encoding and modulation to
reduce the probability of error, thus improving the bit error performance.

Trellis code modulation is sometimes thought of as a magical method


of increasing transmission bit rates over communications systems using
QAM or PSK with fixed bandwidths.

Trellis Coding also defines the manner in which signal state transitions
are allowed to occur, and transitions that do not follow this pattern are
interpreted in the receiver as transmission error.

TCM is thought of as a coding scheme that improves on standard QAM


by increasing the distance between symbols on the constellations (known
as the Euclidean distance).

Probability of error is a theoretical (mathematical) expectation of the bit


error rate for a given system.

Bit error rate (BER) is an empirical (historical) record of a systems


actual bit error performance.
Digital Transmission functions is called codec (coder/decoder).

Digital transmission is the transmittal of digital signals between two or The most common method used for sampling voice signals in PCM
more points in a communications system. systems is flattop sampling, which is accomplished in a sample-and-
hold circuit.
AT&T developed the first digital transmission system for the purpose of
carrying digitally encoded analog signals, such as the human voice, over The purpose of a sample and hold circuit is to periodically sample the
metallic wire cables between telephone offices. continually changing analog input voltage and convert those samples to a
series of constant-amplitude PAM voltage levels.
Digital signals are also better suited than analog signals for processing
and combining using a technique called multiplexing. Aperture error is when the amplitude of the sampled signal changes
during the sample pulse time.
Digital signal processing (DSP) is the processing of analog signals
using digital methods and includes bandlimiting the signal with filters, The storage time of the capacitor is called the A/D conversion time
amplitude equalization, and phase shifting. because it is during this time that the ADC converts the sample voltage to
a PCM code.
Pulse modulation consists essentially of sampling analog information
signals and then converting those samples into discrete pulses and Droop is caused by the capacitor discharging through its own leakage
transporting the pulses from a source to a destination over a physical resistance and the input impedance of voltage follwer Z2.
transmission medium.
If fs is less than two time fa, an impairment called alias or foldover
The four predominant method of pulse modulation include pulse width distortion occurs
modulation (PWM), pulse position modulation (PPM), pulse
amplitude modulation (PAM), and pulse code modulation (PCM). antialiasing or antifoldover filter - its upper cutoff frequency is choosen
such no frequency greater than one half the sampling rate is allowed to
PWM is sometimes called pulse duration modulation (PDM) or pulse enter the sample and hold circuit, thus eliminating the ability of foldover
length modulation (PLM), as the width of a constant amplitude pulse is distortion occuring.
varied proportional to the amplitude of the analog signal at the time the
signal is sampled. The codes currently used for PCM are sign-magnitude codes, where
the most significant bit (MSB) is the sign bit and the remaining bit are
With PPM, the position of a constant-width pulse within a prescribed time used for magnitude.
slot is varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog
signal. Quantization is the process of converting an infinite number of
possibilities to a finite number of conditions.
With PAM, the amplitude of a constant width, constant-position pulse is
varied according to the amplitude of the sample of the analog signal. folded binary code. Codes on the bottom half of the table are a mirror
image of the codes on the top half, except for the sign bit.
With PCM, the analog is sampled and then converted to a serial n-bit
binary code for transmission. The magnitude difference between adjacent steps is called the
quantization interval or quantum.
PAM is used as an intermediate form of modulation with PSK, QAM, and
PCM, although it is seldom used by itself. If the magnitude of the sample exceeds the highest quantization interval,
overload distortion (also called peak limiting) occurs.
PWM and PPM are used in special-purpose communications systems
mainly for the military but are seldom used for commercial digital The magnitude of a quantum is also called the resolution.
transmission systems.
The resolution is equal to the voltage of the minimum step size, which is
Alex H. Reeves is credited with inventing PCM in 1937 while working for equal to the voltage of the least significant bit of the PCM code.
AT&T at its Paris laboratories.
Any round-off errors in the transmitted signals are reproduced when the
PCM is the preferred method of communications within the public code is converted back to analog in the receiver. This error is called the
switched telephone network because with PCM it is easy to combine quantization error.
digitized voice and digital data into a single, high-speed digital signal and
propagate it over either metallic or optical fiber cables. The quantization error is equivalent to additive white noise as it alters the
signal amplitude.
PCM is the only digitally encoded modulation technique that is commonly
used for digital transmission. Quantization error is also called quantization noise.

Sample and Hold circuit periodically samples the analog input signal and Dynamic range (DR) is the ratio of the largest possible magnitude to the
converts those samples to a multilevel PAM signal. smallest possible magnitude that can be decoded by the digital-to-analog
converter in the receiver.
The analog-to-digital converter (ADC) convert the PAM samples to
parallel PCM codes, which are converted to serial binary data in parallel- Coding efficiency is a numerical indication of how efficiently a PCM
to-serial converter and then outputted to the transmission line as serial code is utilized. Coding efficiency is the ratio of the minimum number of
digital pulses. bits required to achieve a certain dynamic range to the actual number of
PCM bits used.
Serial to parallel converter converts serial pulses receive from the
transmission line to parallel PCM codes. Three-bit PCM coding consists of linear codes, which means that the
magnitude change between any two successive codes is the same.
The digital-to-analog converter (DAC) converts the parallel PCM codes
to multilevel PAM signals. The worst possible signal voltage-to-quantization noise voltage ratio
(SQR) occurs when the input signal is at its minimum amplitude.
An integrated circuit that performs the PCM encoding and decoding
Digital T-Carriers and Multiplexing
Differential PCM is similar to conventional PCM except that the exact
Multiplexing is the transmission of information from one or more source magnitude of a sample is not transmitted.
to one or more destination over the same transmission medium.
Digital line encoding involves converting standard logic levels (TTL,
There are several domains in which multiplexing can be accomplished, CMOS, and the like) to a form more suitable to telephone line
including space, phase, time, frequency, and wavelength. transmission.

Space-division multiplexing (SDM) is a rather unsophisticated form of Unipolar transmission of binary data involves the transmission of only a
multiplexing that simply constitutes propagating signals from different single nonzero voltage level. In bipolar transmission, two nonzero
sources on different cables that are contained within the same trench. voltages are involved.

The trench is considered to be the transmission medium. The duty cycle of a binary pulse can be used to categorize the type of
transmission. If the binary pulse is maintained for the entire bit time, this
QPSK is a form of phase-division multiplexing (PDM) where two data is called nonreturn to zero (NRZ).
channels modulate the same carrier frequency that has been shifted
90degrees in phase. If the active time of the binary pulse is less than 100% of the bit time, this
is called return to zero (RZ).
The three most predominant methods of multiplexing signals are time-
division multiplexing (TDM), frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), With alternate mark inversion (AMI) transmissions, successive logic 1s
and the more recently developed wavelength-division multiplexing are inverted in polarity from the previous logic 1. Because return to zero
(WDM). is used, the encoding technique is called bipolar-return-to-zero
alternate mark inversion (BPRZ-AMI)
With time division multiplexing (TDM), transmissions from multiple
sources occur on the same facility but not at the same time. With NRZ encoding, a long string of either logic 1s or logic 0s produces a
condition in which a receive may lose its amplitude reference for optimum
One eight-bit PCM code from each channel (16 total bits) is called a TDM discrimination between received 1s and 0s. This is called dc wandering.
frame, and the time it takes to transmit one TDM frame is called the
frame time. Digital biphase (sometimes called the Manchester code or diphase) is
a popular type of line encoding that produces a strong timing component
The frame time is equal to the reciprocal of the sample rate (1/fs or for clock recovery and does not cause dc wandering.
1/8000 = 125 us).
Biphase M is used for encoding SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and
A digital carrier system is a communication system that uses digital Television Engineers) time-code data for recording on videotapes.
pulse rather than analog signals to encode information.
Miller codes are forms of delay-modulation codes where a logic1
T1 stands for transmission one and specifies a digital carrier system condition produces a transition in the middle of the clock pulse, and logic
using PCM-encoded analog signals. 0 produces no transition at the end of the clock intervals unless followed
by another logic 0.
A T1 carrier system time division multiplexes PCM-encoded samples
from 24 voice-band channels for transmission over a single metallic wire Dicodes are multilevel binary codes that use more than two voltage
or optical fiber transmission line. Each voice-band channels has a levels to represent the data.
bandwidth of approximately 300 Hz to 3000 Hz.
T carriers are used for the transmission of PCM-encoded time-division
The system does not become a T1 carrier until it is line encoded and multiplexed digital signals.
placed on special conditioned cables called T1 lines.
The transmission bit rate (line speed) for a T1 carrier is 1.544 Mbps,
Early T1 carrier systems used D1 digital channel banks (PCM encoders including an 8-kbps framing bit. The lengths of T1 carrier systems
and decoders) with a seven-bit magnitude-only PCM code, analog typically range from about 1 mile to over 50 miles.
companding, and u = 100.
Ensuring that sufficient transitions occur in the data stream is sometimes
Another framing format recently developed for new designs of T1 carrier called ones density.
systems is the extended superframe format. The extended superframe
format consists of 24 193-bit frames, totaling 4632 bits, of which 24 are With modern T1 carriers, a technique called binary eight zero
framing bits. substitution (B8ZS) is used to ensure that sufficient transitions occurs in
the data to maintain clock synchronization.
Six additional framing bits in frames 1, 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21 are used for
error detection code called CRC-6 (cyclic redundancy checking). T2 carrier systems use an alternative method of ensuring that sample
transitions occur in the data. This method is called binary six zero
A data service unit/channel service unit (DSU/CSU) is a digital substitution (B6ZS).
interface that provides the physical connection to a digital carrier network.
The coding technique use with T3 carriers is binary three zero
To upgrade from one level in the hierarchy to the next higher level, a substitution (B3ZS).
special device called muldem (multiplexers/demultiplexers) is required.
Muldems can handle bit-rate conversions in both directions. In Europe, a different version of T carrier lines is used, called E-lines.

Digital signals are routed at central locations called digital cross- Time slot 17 is used for a common signaling channel (CSC).
connects. A digital cross-connect (DSX) provides a convenient place
to make patchable interconnects and perform routine maintenance and T1 carriers using D1, D2, or D3 channel banks use added-digit framing.
troubleshooting.
An alternative solution is to replace the least significant bit of every nth
Essentially, picturephone is a low-quality video transmission for use frame with a framing bit. This process is called robbed-digit framing.
between nondedicated subscribers.
Essentially, added-channel framing is the same as added digit framing There are two types of mastergroups: L600 and U600 types. The L600
except that digits are added in groups or words instead of as individual mastergroup is used for low-capacity microwave systems, and the U600
bits. mastergroup may be further multiplexed and used for higher-capacity
microwave radio systems.
With statistical framing, it is not necessary to either rob or add digits.
With the gray code, the second bit is a logic 1 in the central half of the Guard bands - a void band of frequency that is not included within any
code range and a logic 0 at the extremes. sipergroup band.

With unique-line code framing, some property of the framing bit is A radio channel comprises either a single L600 mastergroup or up to
different from the data bits. The framing bit is made either higher or lower three U600 mastergroups.
in amplitude or with a different time duration.

T1 carrier system use word interleaving; eight-bit samples from each


channel are interleaved into a single 24-channel TDM frame. Higher- Multiplexers or combiners mix or combine optical signals with different
speed TDM systems and delta modulation systems use bit interleaving. wavelengths in a way that allows them to all pass through a single optical
fiber without interfering with one another.
There is an efficient alternative to synchronous TDM called statistical
time-division multiplexing. Statistical time division multiplexing is Demultiplexers or splitters separate signals with different wavelengths
generally not used for carrying standard telephone circuits but are used in a manner similar to the way filters separate electrical signals of
more often for the transmission of data when they are called different frequencies.
asynchronous TDM, intelligent TDM, or simply stat muxs.
Add/drop multiplexer/demultiplexers are similar to regular multiplexers
A codec is a large-scale integration (LSI) chip designed for use in the and demultiplexers except they are located at intermediate points in the
telecommunication industries for private branch exchanges (PBXs), system.
central office switches, digital handsets, voice store-and-forward systems,
and digital echo suppresors. Add/drop multiplexer/demultiplexers are devices that separate a
wavelength from a fiber cable and reroute it on a different fiber going in a
Codec is a generic term that refers to the coding functions performed by different direction.
a device that converts analog signals to digital codes and digital codes to
analog signals. There are three basic types of WDM couplers: diffraction grating, prism,
and dichroic filter.
Recently developed codecs are called combo chips because they
combine codec and filter functions in the same LSI package. With diffraction grating or prisms, specific wavelengths are separated
from the other optic signal by reflecting them at different angles.
A combo chip can provide the analog-to-digital and the digital-to-analog
conversions and the transmit and receive filtering necessary to interface A dichroic filter is a mirror with a surface that has been coated with a
a full-duplex (four-wire) voice telephone circuit to the PCM highway of a material that permits light of only one wavelength to pass through while
TDM carrier system. reflecting all other wavelengths.

In the fixed-data-rate mode, data are input and output for a single The synchronous optical network (SONET) is a multiplexing system
channel in short bursts. (This mode of operation is sometimes called the similar to conventional time-division multiplexing except SONET was
burst mode.) developed to be used with optical fibers.

The variable-data rate mode allows for a flexible data input and output
clock frequency.

With frequency-division multiplexing (FDM), multiple sources that


originally occupied the same frequency spectrum are each converted to a
different frequency band and transmitted simultaneously over a single
transmission medium, which can be physical cable or the Earths
atmosphere.

The message channel is the basic building block of the FDM hierarchy.

A group is the next higher level in the FDM hierarchy above the basic
message channel and, consequently, is the first multiplexing step for
combining message channels.

The next higher level in the FDM hierarchy is the supergroup, which is
formed by frequency-division multiplexing five groups containing 12
channels each for a combined bandwidth of 240 kHz.

The next highest level of multiplexing is the mastergroup, which is


formed by frequency-division multiplexing 10 supergroups together for a
combined capacity of 600 voice-band message channels occupying a
bandwidth of 2.4 MHz.

Mastergroup can be further multiplexed in mastergroup banks to form


jumbogroups (3600 VB channels), multijumbogroups (7200 VB
channels), and superjumbogroups (10,800 VB channels).

Baseband describes the modulating signal (intelligence) in the


communication system.
Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Free space is vacuum, so no loss of energy occurs as a wave propagates
through it. As waves propagate through free space, however, they spread
Free-space propagation of electromagnetic waves is often called radio out, resulting in a reduction in power density. This is called attenuation
frequency (RF) propagation or simply radio propagation. and occurs in free space as well as the Earths atmosphere.

An electromagnetic wave is electrical energy that has escaped into free Since Earths atmosphere is not a vacuum, it contains particles that can
space. Electromagnetic waves travel in a straight line at approximately absorb electromagnetic energy. This type of reduction of power is called
the speed of light and are made up of magnetic and electric fields that are absorption loss and does not occur in wave traveling outside Earths
at right angles of each other and at right angles to the direction of atmosphere.
propagation.
The reduction in power density with distance is equivalent to a power loss
The essential properties of radio waves are frequency, intensity, and is commonly called wave attenuation.
direction of travel, and plane of polarization.
The reduction in power density due to the inverse square law presumes
Radio waves are a form of electromagnetic radiation similar to light and free-space propagation (a vacuum or nearly a vacuum) and is called
heat. wave attenuation.

The polarization of a plane electromagnetic wave is simply the orientation The reduction in power density due to nonfree-space propagation is
of the electric field vector in respect to the surface of the Earth. If the called absorption.
polarization remains constant, it is described as linear polarization.
Water vapor causes significant attenuation of electromagnetic waves at
Horizontal polarization and vertical polarization are two forms of linear the higher frequencies. The first absorption band due to water vapor peak
polarization. at approximately 22GHz, and the first absorption band caused by oxygen
peaks at approximately 60 GHz.
If the electric field is propagating parallel to the Earths surface, the wave
is said to be horizontally polarized. The effect of rain on electromagnetic wave propagation is insignificant
below approximately 6 GHz.
If the electric field is propagating perpendicular to the Earths surface, the
wave is said to be vertically polarized. Refraction can be thought of as bending, reflection as bouncing,
diffraction as scattering, and interference as colliding.
If the polarization vector rotates 360 as the wave moves one wavelength
through space and the field strength is equal at all angels of polarization, Refraction is sometimes referred to as the bending of the radio-wave
the wave is described as having circular polarization. path.

When the field strength varies with change in polarization, this is Electromagnetic refraction is actually the changing of direction of an
described as elliptical polarization. electromagnetic ray as it passes obliquely from one medium into another
with different an electromagnetic ray as it passes obliquely form one
A ray is a line drawn along the direction of propagation of an medium into another with different velocities of propagation.
electromagnetic wave. Rays are used to show the relative direction of
electromagnetic wave propagation. Refraction occurs whenever a radio wave passes from one medium into
another medium of different density.
A wavefront shows a surface of constant phase of electromagnetic waves.
A wavefront is formed when points of equal phase on rays propagated The angle of incidence is the angle formed between the incident wave
from the same source are joined together and the nominal, and the angle of refraction is the angle formed between
the refracted wave and the normal.
A point source is a single location from which rays propagate equally in
all directions (an isotropic source). The refractive index is simply the ratio of the velocity of propagation of a
light ray in free space to the velocity of propagation of a light ray in a
The magnetic field is an invisible force field produced by a magnet, such given material.
as a conductor when current is flowing through it.
Refraction also occurs when a wavefront propagates in a medium that
Electric fields are also invisible force fields produced by a difference in has a density gradient that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
voltage potential between two conductors.
Electromagnetic reflection occurs when an incident wave strikes a
Permittivity is the dielectric constant of the material separating the two boundary of two media and some or all of the incident power does not
conductors (i.e., the dielectric insulator). The permittivity of air or free enter the second material.
space is approximately 8.85 X 10^-12 F/m.
The ratio of the reflected to the incident voltage intensities is called the
The rate at which energy passes through a given surface area in free reflection coefficient.
space is called power density. Therefore, power density is energy per
unit time per unit of area and is usually given in watts per square meter. The portion of the total incident power that is not reflected is called the
power transmission coefficient or simply the transmission
Field intensity is the intensity of the electric and magnetic fields of an coefficients.
electromagnetic wave propagating in free space.
Reflection also occurs when the reflective surface is irregular or rough;
The characteristic impedance of a lossless transmission medium is equal however, such a surface may destroy the shape of the wavefront.
to the square root of the ratio of its magnetic permeability to its electric
permittivity. When an incident wavefront strikes an irregular surface, it is randomly
scattered in many directions. Such a condition is called diffuse refection,
Isotropic radiator is a point source that radiates power at a constant rate whereas reflection from a perfectly smooth surface is called specular
uniformly in all directions. (mirrorlike) reflection.
Surfaces that fall between smooth and irregular are called semirough Refraction is caused by the troposphere because of changes in its
surface. density, temperature, water vapor content, and relative conductivity.

The Rayleigh criterion states that a semi rough surface will reflect as if it A special condition called duct propagation occurs when the density of
were a smooth surface whenever the cosine of the angle of incidence is the lower atmosphere is such that electromagnetic waves are trapped
greater than ^/8d, where d is the depth of the surface irregularity and ^ is between it and Earths surface.
the wavelength of the incident wave.
Electromagnetic waves that are directed above the horizon level are
Diffraction is defined as the modulation or redistribution of energy within called sky waves. Typically, sky waves are radiated in a direction that
a wavefront when it passes near the edge of an opaque object. produces a relatively large angle with reference to Earth.
Diffraction is the phenomenon that allows light or radio waves to
propagate (peek) around corners. Sky wave propagation is sometimes called ionospheric propagation.

Huygenss principle states that every point on a given spherical The ionosphere is the region of space located approximately 50 km to
wavefront can be considered as a secondary point source of 400 km (30 mi to 250 mi) above Earths surface.
electromagnetic waves from which other secondary waves (wavelets) are
radiated outward. Reducing the dielectric constant increases the velocity of propagation
and causes electromagnetic waves to bend away from the regions of high
Diffraction occurs around the edge of the obstacle, which allows electron density toward regions of low electron density.
secondary waves to sneak around the corner of the obstacle into what
is called the shadow zone. The higher the ion density, the more refraction.

Radio-wave interference occurs when two or more electromagnetic The D layer is the lowest layer of the ionosphere and is located
waves combine in such a way that system performance is degraded. approximately between 30 miles and 60 miles (50 km to 100 km) above
Earths surface.
Refraction, reflection, and diffraction are categorized as geometric
optics, which means that their behavior is analyzed primarily in terms of The amount of ionization in the D layer depends on the altitude of the sun
rays and wavefronts. Interference, on the other hand, is subject to the above the horizon. Therefore, it disappears at night.
principle of linear superposition of electromagnetic waves and occurs
whenever two or more waves simultaneously occupy the same point in The D layer reflects VLF and LF waves and absorbs MF and HF waves.
space.
The E layer is located approximately between 60 miles and 85 miles (100
The principle of linear superposition states that the total voltage km to 140 km) above Earths surface. The E layer is sometimes called the
intensity at a given point in space is the sum of the individual wave Kennelly-Heaviside layer after the two scientists who discovered it. The
vectors. E layer has its maximum density at approximately 70 miles at noon, when
the sun is at its highest point.
Electromagnetic waves traveling within Earths atmosphere are called
terrestrial waves, and communications between two or more points on The sporadic E layer is caused by solar flares and sunspot activity.
Earth is called terrestrial radio communications.
Frequencies above the UHF range are virtually unaffected by the
Direct and ground-reflected waves together are called space waves. ionosphere because of their extremely short wavelengths.

The cumulative sum of the direct, ground-reflected, and surface waves is Critical frequency is defined as the highest frequency that can be
sometimes referred to as the ground wave. propagated directly upward and still be returned to Earth by the
ionosphere.
At frequencies below approximately 2 MHz, surface waves provide the
best coverage because ground losses increase rapidly with frequency. A measurement technique called ionospheric sounding is sometimes
used to determine the critical frequency.
Sky waves are used for high-frequency applications, and space waves
are used for very high frequencies and above. Virtual height is the height above Earths surface from which a refracted
wave appears to have been reflected.
A surface wave is an Earth-guided electromagnetic wave that travels
over the surface of Earth. The maximum usable frequency (MUF) is the highest frequency that
can be used for sky wave propagation between two specific points on
Ground waves must be vertically polarized because the electric field in a Earths surface.
horizontally polarized wave would be parallel to Earths surface, and such
waves would be short-circuited by the conductivity of the ground. Skip distance is defined as the minimum distance from a transmit
antenna that a sky wave at a given frequency will be returned to Earth.
Surface waves propagation is commonly used for ship-to-ship and ship-
to-shore communications, for radio navigation, and for maritime mobile The area between where the surface waves are completely dissipated
communications. Surface waves are used at frequencies as low as 15 and the point where the first sky wave returns to Earth is called the quiet,
KHz. or skip zone because in this area there is no reception.

Ground waves are relatively unaffected by changing atmospheric Free-space path loss is often defined as the loss incurred by an
conditions. Ground waves require a relatively high transmission power. electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line through a
vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby objects.
Space wave propagation with direct waves is commonly called line of
sight (LOS) transmission. Fading can be caused by natural weather disturbances, such as rainfall,
snowfall, fog, hail and extremely cold air over a warm Earth. Fading can
The curvature of Earth presents a horizon to space wave propagation also be caused by man-made disturbances, such as irrigation, of from
commonly called the radio horizon. The radio horizon is approximately multiple transmission paths, irregular Earth surfaces, and varying terrains.
four-thirds that of the optical horizon.
Antennas and Waveguides
Directive gain is the ratio of the power density radiated in a particular
An antenna is metallic conductor system capable of radiating and direction to the power density radiated to the same point by a reference
capturing electromagnetic energy. antenna, assuming both antennas are radiating the same amount of
power.
Antennas are used to interface transmission lines to the atmosphere, the
atmosphere to transmission lines, or both. Power gain is the same as directive gain except that the total power fed
to the antenna is used.
A waveguide is a special type of transmission line that consists of a
conducting metallic tube through which high-frequency electromagnetic EIRP or simply ERP (effective radiated power) is the equivalent power
energy is propagated. that an isotropic antenna would have to radiate to achieve the same
power density in the chosen direction at a given point as another antenna.
A waveguide is used to efficiently interconnect high-frequency
electromagnetic waves between an antenna and a transceiver. Power gain is the natural parameter for describing the increased power
density of a transmitted signal due to the directional properties of the
Radio waves are electrical energy that has escaped into free space in transmiting antenna, a related quantity called capture area is a more
the form of transverse electromagnetic waves. natural parameter for describing the reception properties of an antenna.

The plane parallel to the mutually perpendicular lines of the electric and The polarization of an antenna refers simply to the orientation of the
magnetic fields is called the wavefront. electric field radiated from it.

The radiation efficiency is the ratio of radiated to reflected energy. Antenna beamwidth is simply the angular separation between the two
half-power (-3 dB) points on the major lobe of an antennas plane
Basic quarter-wave antenna or a vertical monopole (sometimes called radiation pattern, usually taken in one of the principal planes.
a Marconi antenna), the conductors are spread out in a straight line to a
total length of one-quarter wavelength. Antenna gain is inversely proportional to beamwidth.

A half-wave dipole is called a Hertz antenna. Antenna bandwidth is vaguely defined as the frequency range over
which antenna operation is satisfactory.
A basic antenna is a passive reciprocal device.
The point on the antenna where the transmission line is connected is
Active antennas are nonreciprocal (i.e., they either transmit or receive but called the antenna input terminal or simply the feedpoint. The
not both). feedpoint presents an ac load to the transmission line called the antenna
input impedance.
A special coupling device called a diplexer can be used to direct the
transmit and receive signals and provide the necessary isolation. Antenna input impedance is simply the ratio of the antennas input
voltage to input current.
A radiation pattern is a polar diagram or graph representing field
strengths or power densities at various angular positions relative to an The simplest type of antenna is the elementary doublet. The
antenna. elementary doublet is an electrically short dipole and is often referred to
simply as a short dipole, elementary dipole, or Hertzian dipole.
If the radiation pattern is plotted in terms of electric field strength or power
density, it is called an absolute radiation pattern. An elementary doublet has uniform current throughout its length.

If it plots field strength or power density with respect to the value at a The linear half-wave dipole is one of the most widely used antennas at
reference point, it is called a relative radiation pattern. frequencies above 2 MHz.

The primary beam in a 90 direction is called the major lobe. The half-wave dipole is generally referred to as a Hertz antenna after
Heinrich Hertz, who was the first to demonstrate the existence of
Minor lobes represent undesired radiation or reception. electromagnetic waves.

Because the major lobe propagates and receives the most energy, that A Hertz antenna is a resonant antenna. That is, it is a multiple of quarter-
lobe is called the front lobe (the front of the antenna). wavelengths long and open circuited at the far end.

Lobes adjacent to the front lobe are called side lobes (the 180 minor lobe In Earths atmosphere, wave propagation is affected by antenna
is a side lobe), and lobes in a direction exactly opposite the front lobe are orientation, atmospheric absorption, and ground effects, such as
called back lobes. reflection.

The term near field or induction field refers to the field pattern that is A monopole (single pole) antenna one-quarter wavelength long, mounted
close to the antenna and the term far field or radiation field refers to the vertically with the lower end either connected directly to ground or
field pattern that is at great distance. grounded through the antenna coupling network, is called a Marconi
antenna.
Radiation resistance is an ac antenna resistance and is equal to the
ratio of the power radiated by the antenna to the square of the current at A counterpoise is a wire structure placed below the antenna and erected
its feedpoint. above the ground. A counterpoise is a form of capacitive ground system;
capacitance is formed between the counterpoise and Earths surface.
Radiation resistance is the resistance that, if it replaced the antenna,
would dissipate exactly the same amount of power that the antenna A Marconi antenna has the obvious advantage over a Hertz antenna of
radiates. being only half as long. The disadvantage of a Marconi antenna is that it
must be located close to the ground.
Antenna efficiency is the ratio of the power radiated by an antenna to
the sum of the power radiated and the power dissipated or the ratio of the
power radiated by the antenna to the total input power.
It is possible to increase the electrical length of an antenna by a
technique called loading. When an antenna is loaded, its physical length The typical directivity for a Yagi is between 7 dB and 9 dB.
remains unchanged, although its effective electrical length is increased.
Yagi antenna is commonly used for VHF television reception because of
A loading coil effectively increases the radiation resistance of the its wide bandwidth (the VHF TV band extends from 54 MHz to 216 MHz).
antenna by approximately 5 ohms.
A turnstile antenna is formed by placing two dipoles at right angles to
With top loading, a metallic array that resembles a spoked wheel is each other, 90 out of phase. Turnstile antenna gains of 10 or more dB
placed on top of the antenna. The wheel increases the shunt capacitance are common.
to ground, reducing the overall antenna capacitance.
A class of frequency-independent antennas called log periodics evolved
Top loading is awkward for mobile applications. from the initial work of V.H. Rumsey, J. D. Dyson, R.H. DuHamel, and D.
E. Isbell at the University of Illinois in 1957.
An antenna array is formed when two or more antenna elements are
combined to form a single antenna. The primary advantage of log-periodic antennas is the independence of
their radiation resistance and radiation pattern to frequency. Log-periodic
An antenna element is an individual radiator, such as half-or quarter- antennas have bandwidth ratio of 10:1 or greater.
wave dipole. The elements are physically placed in such a way that their
radiation fields interact with each other, producing a total radiation pattern Very often, TV antennas advertised as high-gain or high-performance
that is the vector sum of the individual fields. antennas are log-period antennas.

The purpose of an array is to increase the directivity of an antenna The most fundamental loop antenna is simply a single-turn coil of wire
system and concentrate the radiated power within a smaller geographic that is significantly shorter that one wavelength and carries RF current.
area.
Loops have an advantage over most other types of antennas in direction
Driven elements are directly connected to the transmission line and finding in that loops are generally much smaller and, therefore, more
receive power from or are driven by the source. easily adapted to mobile communication applications.

Parasitic elements are not connected to the transmission line; they A phased array antenna is a group of antennas or a group of antenna
receive energy only through mutual induction with a driven element or array that, when connected together, function as a single antenna whose
another parasitic element. beamwidth and direction can be changed electronically without having to
physically move any of the individual antennas or antenna elements
Parasitic element that is longer than the driven element from which it within the array.
receives energy is called a reflector. A reflector effectively reduces the
signal strength in its direction and increases it in the opposite direction. The primary advantage of phased array antennas is that they eliminate
Therefore, it acts as if it were a concave mirror. the need for mechanically rotating antenna elements.

A parasitic element that is shorter than its associated driven element is The primary application of phased array is in radar when radiation pattern
called a director. A director increases field strength in its direction and must be capable of being rapidly changed to follow a moving object.
reduces it in the opposite direction. Therefore, it acts as if it were a
convex lens. A helical antenna is a broadband VHF or UHF antenna that is ideally
suited for applications for which radiating circular rather than horizontal or
A Broadside array is one of the simplest types of antenna arrays. It is vertical polarized electromagnetic waves are required.
made by simply placing several resonant dipoles of equal size in parallel
with each other and in a straight line. With a helical antenna, there are two modes of propagation: normal and
axial. In the normal mode, electromagnetic radiation is in a direction at
Broadside array radiates at right angles to the plane of the array and right angles to the axis of the helix. In the axial mode, radiation is in the
radiates very little in the direction of the plane. axial direction and produces a broadband, relatively directional pattern.

Directivity can be increased even further by increasing the length of the Antennas used for UHF (0.3 GHz to 3 GHz) and microwave (1 GHz to
array by adding more elements. 100 GHz) must be highly directive.

An end-fire array is essentially the same element configuration as the Highly directional (high gain) antennas are used with point-to-point
broadside array except that the transmission line is not crisscrossed microwave systems. By focusing the radio energy into a narrow beam
between elements. As a result, the fields are additive in line with the that can be directed toward the receiving antenna, the transmitting
plane of the array. antenna can increase the effective radiated power by several orders of
magnitude over that of nondirectional antenna. The most common type of
The rhombic antenna is a nonresonant antenna that is capable of antenna used for microwave transmission and reception is the parabolic
operating satisfactorily over a relatively wide bandwidth, making it ideally reflector.
suited for HF transmission (range 3 MHz to 30 MHz).
Parabolic reflector antennas provide extremely high gain and directivity
Rhombic antenna has a maximum efficiency of 67%. Gains of over 40 and are very popular for microwave radio and satellite communications
(16 dB) have been achieved with rhombic antennas. links.

The folded dipole is essentially a single antenna made up of two Parabolic reflectors resemble the shape of a plane or dish; therefore, they
elements. are sometimes called parabolic dish antennas or simply dish antennas.

A widely used antenna that commonly uses a folded dipole as the driven Aperture number determines the angular aperture of the reflector, with
element is the Yagi-Uda antenna, named after two Japanese scientists indirectly determines how much of the primary radiation is reflected by
who invented it and described its operation. the parabolic dish.

A Yagi antenna is a linear array consisting of a dipole and two or more A parabolic antenna consists of a paraboloid reflector illuminated with
parasitic elements: one reflector and one or more directors. microwave energy radiated by a feed system located at the focus point.
A ridged waveguide has more loss per unit length than a rectangular
Center feed, the primary antenna is placed at the focus. Energy radiated waveguide.
toward the reflector is reflected outward in a concentrated beam.
A flexible waveguide consists of spiral-wound ribbon of brass or copper.
Horn feed, the primary antenna is a small horn antenna rather than a A flexible waveguide is also used extensively in microwave test
simple dipole or dipole array. equipment.

The horn is simply a flared piece of waveguide material that is placed at


the focus and radiates a somewhat directional pattern toward the
parabolic reflector.

When a propagating electromagnetic field reaches the mouth of the horn,


it continues to propagate in the same general direction, except that, in
accordance with Huygenss principle, it spreads latterly, and the
wavefront eventually becomes spherical.

The Cassegrain feed is named after an 18th-century astronomer and


evolved directly from astronomical optical telescopes.

The Cassegrain feed is commonly used for receiving extremely weak


signals or when extremely long transmission lines or waveguide runs are
required and it is necessary to place low-noise preamplifiers as close to
the antenna as possible.

A conical horn antenna consists of a cone that is truncated in a piece of


circular waveguide.

A waveguide is a hollow conductive tube, usually rectangular in cross


section but sometimes circular or elliptical. A waveguide does not
conduct current in the true sense but rather serves as a boundary that
confines electromagnetic energy. The walls of the waveguide are
conductors and, therefore, reflect electromagnetic energy from their
surface.

Rectangular waveguides are the most common form of waveguide.

Group velocity is the velocity at which a wave propagates, and phase


velocity is the velocity at which the wave changes phase.

Phase velocity is the apparent velocity of a particular phase of the wave.


Phase velocity is the velocity with which a wave changes phase in a
direction parallel to a conducting surface, such as the walls of a
waveguide.

Group velocity is the velocity of a group of waves. Group velocity is the


velocity at which information signals of any kind are propagated. It is also
the velocity at which energy is propagated.

The cutoff frequency is an absolute limiting frequency; frequencies


above the cutoff frequency will not be propagated by the waveguide.
Conversely, waveguides have a maximum wavelength that they can
propagate, called the cutoff wavelength.

The cutoff wavelength is defined as the smallest free-space wavelength


that is just unable to propagate in the waveguide. In other words, only
frequencies with wavelengths less than the cutoff wavelength can
propagate down the waveguide.

Electromagnetic waves travel down a waveguide in different


configurations called propagation modes.

Reactive stubs are used in waveguides for impedance transforming and


impedance matching just as they are in parallel-wire transmission lines.

Short-circuited waveguide stubs are used with waveguides in the


same manner that they are used in transmission lines.

Rectangular waveguides are by far the most common; however, circular


waveguides are used in radar and microwave applications when it is
necessary or advantageous to propagate both vertically and horizontally
polarized waves in the same waveguide.
Cellular Telephone Concepts Dualization is a means of avoiding full-cell splitting where the entire area
would otherwise need to be segmented into smaller cells.
Mobile telephone services began in the 1940s and were called MTSs
The radio network is defined by a set of radio-frequency transceivers
(mobile telephone systems or sometimes manual telephone systems, as
located within each of the cells. The locations of these radio-frequency
all calls were handled by an operator).
transceivers are called base stations.
MTS system utilized frequency modulation and were generally assigned
Roaming is when a mobile unit moves from one cell to another-possibly
a single carrier frequency in the 35-MHz to 45-MHz range that was used
form one companys service area into another companys service area.
by both the mobile unit and the base station.
The transfer of a mobile unit from one base stations control to another
Large cells (called macrocells) typically have a radius between 1 mile
base stations control is called a handoff (or handover).
and 15 miles with base station transmit powers between 1 W and 6 W.
A connection that is momentarily broken during the cell-to-cell transfer is
The smallest cells (called microcells) typically have a radius of 1500
called a hand handoff.
feet or less with base station transmit power between 0.1 W and 1 W.
A flawless hand-off is called a soft handoff and normally takes
Microcells are used most often in high-denstiy areas such as found in
approximately 200 ms, which is imperceptible to voice telephone users,
large cities and inside buildings.
although the delay may be disruptive when transmitting data.
Omnidirectional antennas are normally used in center-excited cells, and
sectored directional antennas are used in edge- and corner-excited cells.

Frequency reuse is the process in which the same set of frequencies


(channels) can be allocated to more than one cell, provided the cells are
separated by sufficient distance.

Two cells using the same set of frequencies are called co-channel cells,
and the interference between them is called co-channel interference.

Adjacent-channel interference occurs when transmissions from


adjacent channels interfere with each other. Adjacent-channel
interference result from imperfect filters in receivers that allow nearby
frequencies to enter the receiver.

Adjacent-channel interference is most prevalent when an adjacent


channel is transmitting very close to a mobile units receiver at the same
time the mobile unit is trying to receive transmissions from the base
station on an adjacent frequency. This is called the near-far-effect and is
most prevalent when a mobile unit is receiving a weak signal from the
base station.

Cell splitting is when the area of a cell, or independent component


coverage areas of a cellular system, is further divided, thus creating more
cell areas. The purpose of cell splitting is to increase the channel capacity
and improve the availability and reliability of a cellular telephone network.

The point when a cell reaches maximum capacity occurs when the
number of subscribers wishing to place a call at any given time equals
the number of channels in the cells. This is called the maximum traffic
load of the cell.

Cell splitting is the resizing or redistribution of cell areas. In essence,


cell splitting is the process of subdividing highly congested cells into
smaller cells each will their own base station and set of channel
frequencies.

Decreasing co-channel interference while increasing capacity by using


directional antennas is called sectoring.

As a rule, antennas located 30 meters above the ground require a


separation of eight wavelengths, and antennas located 50 meters
above the ground require a separation of 11 wavelengths.

Segmentation divides a group of channels into smaller groupings or


segments of mutually exclusive frequencies; cell sites, which are within
the reuse distance, are assigned their own segment of the channel group.

Segmentation is a means of avoiding co-channel interference, although


it lowers the capacity of a cell by enabling reuse inside the reuse distance,
which is normally prohibited.
Cellular Telephone Systems

Simultaneous transmission in both directions is a transmission mode


called full duplex (FDX) or simply duplexing.

A special device called a duplexer is used in each mobile unit and base
station to allow simultaneous transmission and reception on duplex
channels.

Transmissions from base stations to mobile units are called forward


links, whereas transmission form mobile unit to base stations are called
reverse links.

Standard cellular telephone subscribers access the AMPS system using


a technique called frequency-division multiple accessing (FDMA).

The mobile identification number (MIN) is a 34-bit code, which in the


United States represents the standard 10-digit telephone number.

Another identification code used with AMPS is the electronic serial


number (ESN), which is a 32-bit binary code permanently assigned to
each mobile unit.

The system identifier (SID) is a 15-bit binary code issued by the FCC
to an operating company when it issues it a license to provide AMPS
cellular service to an area.

The Personal Communication System (PCS) is a relatively new class


of cellular telephony based on the same basic philosophies as standard
cellular telephone systems (CTSs), such as AMPS.

Home location register (HLR) is a database that stores information


about the user, including home subscription information and what
supplementary service the user is subscribed to, such as call waiting, call
hold, call forwarding, and call conferencing (three-way calling).

Visitor location register (VLR) is a database that stores information


about subscribers in a particular MTSO serving area, such as whether
the unit is on or off and whether any of the supplementary services are
activated or deactivated.

Equipment identification registry (EIR) is a database that stores


information pertaining to the identification and type of equipment that
exists in the mobile unit.

The available mode allows all calls to pass through the network to the
subscriber except for a minimal number of telephone numbers that can
be blocked.

The screen mode is the PCS equivalent to caller ID. With the screen
mode, the name of the calling party appears on the mobile units display,
which allows PCS users to screen calls.

With the private mode, all calls except those specified by the subscriber
are automatically forwarded to forwarding destination without ringing the
subscribers handset.
Fundamental Concepts of Data Communications A lost message is one that never arrives at the destination or one that
arrives but is damaged to the extent that it is unrecognizable.
The Baudot code (sometimes called the Telex code) was the first fixed-
A damaged message is one that is recognized at the destination but
length character code developed for machines rather than for people.
contains one or more transmission errors.
A French postal engineer named Thomas Murray developed the Baudot
Error-detecting codes include enough redundant information with each
code in 1875 and named the code after Emile Baudot, an early pioneer in
transmitted message to enable the receiver to determine when an error
telegraph printing.
has occurred.
The Baudot code is a five-bit character code that was used primarily for
Error-correcting codes include sufficient extraneous information along
low speed teletype equipment, such as the TWX/Telex system and radio
with each message to enable the receiver to determine when an error
teletype (RTTY).
has occurred and which bit is in error.
ASCII is the standard character set for source coding the alphanumeric
Retransmission, as the name implies, is when a receive station requests
character set that humans understand but computers do not (computers
the transmit station to resend a message (or a portion of a message)
only understand 1s and 0s) ASCII is a seven-bit fixed-length character
when the message is received in error.
set.
Discrete ARQ uses acknowledgements to indicate the successful or
The extended binary-coded decimal interchange code (EBCDIC) is
unsuccessful reception of data.
an eight-bit fixed-length character set developed in 1962 by the
International Business Machines Corporation (IBM). With eight bits, 2^8,
Continuous ARQ allows the destination station to asynchronously
or 256, codes are possible, although only 139 of the 256 codes are
request the retransmission of a specific frame (or frames) of data and still
actually assigned characters.
be able to reconstruct the entire message once all frames have been
successfully transported through the system.
A bar code is a series of vertical black bars separated by vertical white
bars (called spaces). The widths of the bars and spaces along with their
Forward error correction (FEC) is the only error-correction scheme that
reflective abilities represent binary 1s and 0s, and combinations of bits
actually detects and corrects transmission errors when they are received
identify specific items.
without requiring a retransmission.
Discrete code. A discrete bar code has spaces or gaps between
The Hamming code is an error-correcting code used for correcting
characters.
transmission errors in synchronous data streams.
Continuous code. A continuous bar code does not include spaces
Hamming bits (sometimes called error bits) are inserted into a
between characters.
character at random locations.
2D code. A 2D bar code stores data in two dimensions in contrast with a
Character synchronization involves identifying the beginning and end of a
conventional linear bar code, which stores data along only one axis.
character within a message.
Single-bit errors affect only one character within a message.
Asynchronous data transmission is sometimes called start-stop
transmission because each data character is framed between start and
A multiple-bit error is when two or more nonconsecutive bits within a
stop bits.
given data string are in error. Multiple-bit errors can affect one or more
characters within a message.
Synchronous data generally involves transporting serial data at relatively
high speeds in groups of characters called blocks or frames.
A burst error is when two or more consecutive bits within a given data
string are in error. Burst error can affect one or more characters within a
Data terminal equipments (DTE) can be virtually any binary digital
message.
device that generates, transmits, receives, or interprets data messages.
Error detection is the process of monitoring data transmission and
Data communications equipment (DCE) is a general term used to
determining when errors have occurred.
describe equipment that interfaces data terminal equipment to a
transmission channel, such as digital T1 carrier or an analog telephone
Duplicating each data unit for the purpose of detecting errors is a form of
circuit.
error detection called redundancy. Redundancy is an effective but rather
costly means of detecting errors, especially with long messages.
UART is used for asynchronous transmission of serial data between a
DTE and a DCE.
Vertical redundancy checking (VRC) is probably the simplest error-
detection scheme and is generally referred to as character parity of
A universal synchronous receiver/transmitter (USRT) is used for
simply parity.
synchronous transmission of data between a DTE and a DCE.
Checksum is another relatively simple form of redundancy error
Asynchronous modems can be generally classified as low-speed voice-
checking where each character has a numerical value assigned to it.
band modems, as they are typically used to transport asynchronous data
Longitudinal redundancy checking (LRC) is a redundancy error
The 103 modem is capable of full-duplex operation over a two-wire
detection scheme that uses parity to determine if a transmission error has
telephone line at bit rates up to 300 bps.
occurred within a message and is therefore sometimes called message
parity.

Probably the most reliable redundancy checking technique for error


detection is a convolutional coding scheme called cyclic redundancy
checking (CRC).
Data-Link Protocols and Data Communications
Baseband transmission formats are defined as transmission format
Networks
that use digital signaling. In addition, baseband formats use the
transmission medium as a single-channel device.
A data-link protocol is a set of rules implementing and governing an
orderly exchange of data between layer two devices, such as line control
Carrier sense, multiple access with collision detection. CSMA/CD is
units and front-end processors.
an access method used primarily with LANs configured in bus topology.
Enquiry/acknowledgement (ENQ/ACK) is a relatively simple data-link-
Token passing is a network access method used primarily with LANs
layer line discipline that works best in simple network environment where
configured in a ring topology using either baseband or broadband
there is no doubt as to which station is the intended receiver.
transmission formats.
A poll is a solicitation sent from the primary to a secondary to determine
Ethernet is a baseband transmission system designed in 1972 by
if the secondary has data to transmit.
Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs of the Xerox Palo Alto Research
Center (PARC).
Flow control defines a set of procedures that tells the transmitting station
how much data it can send before it must stop transmitting and wait for
an acknowledgement from the destination station.

With stop-and-wait flow control, the transmitting station sends one


message frame and then waits for an acknowledgment before sending
the next message frame.

Character-oriented protocols interpret a frame of data as a group of


successive bits combined into predefined patterns of fixed length, usually
eight bits each.

A bit-oriented protocol is a discipline for serial-by-bit information


transfer over a data communications channel.

XMODEM is a relatively simple data-link protocol intended for low-speed


applications.

With synchronous data-link protocols, remote stations can have more


than one PC or printer.

Binary synchronous communications (BSC) is a synchronous


character-oriented data-link protocol developed by IBM. BSC is
sometimes called bisync or bisynchronous communications.

Synchronous data-link control (SDLC) is a synchronous bit-oriented


protocol developed in the 1970s by IBM for use in system network
architecture (SNA) environments.

A public switched data network (PDN or PSDN) is a switched data


communication network similar to the public telephone network except a
PDN is designed for transferring data only.

A permanent virtual circuit (PVC) is logically equivalent to a two-point


dedicated private-line circuit except slower.

A virtual call (VC) is logically equivalent to making a telephone call


through the DDD network except no direct end-to-end connection is
made.

Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is a relatively new data


communications technology that uses a high-speed form of packet
switching network for the transmission media.

The topology or physical architecture of a LAN identifies how the stations


(terminals, printers, modems, and so on) are interconnected.

Star topology. The preeminent feature of the star topology is that each
station is radially linked to a central node through a direct point-to-point
connection. With a star configuration, a transmission from one station
enters the central node, where it is retransmitted on all the outgoing links.

Bus topology. In essence, the bus topology is a multipoint or multidrop


circuit configuration where individual nodes are interconnected by a
common, shared communications channel.

Ring topology. With a ring topology, adjacent stations are


interconnected by repeaters in a closed-loop configuration.
Microwave Radio Communications and System Gain
Hybrid diversity is a somewhat specialized form of diversity that consists
Microwaves are generally described as electromagnetic wave with of a standard frequency-diversity path where the two transmitter/receiver
frequencies that range from approximately 500 MHz to 300 GHz or more. pairs at one end of the path are separated from each other and
connected to different antennas that are vertically separated as in space
On august 17, 1951, the first transcontinental microwave radio system diversity. This arrangement combines the operational advantages of
began operation. frequency diversity with the improved diversity protection of space
diversity.
Intrastate or feeder service microwave systems are generally categorized
as short haul because they are used to carry information for relatively With hot standby protection, each working radio channel has a
short distances. dedicated backup or spare channel. With diversity protection, a single
backup channel is made available to as many as 11 working channels.
Long-haul microwave systems are those used to carry information for
relatively long distances, such as interstate and backbone route Hot standby systems offer 100% protection for each working radio
applications. channel. A diversity system offers 100% protection only to the first
working channel to fail.
Microwave radios propagate signals through Earths atmosphere
between transmitters and receivers often located on top of towers spaced Terminal stations are points in the system where baseband signals
about 15 miles to 30 miles apart. either originate or terminate.

Frequency modulation (FM) is used in microwave radio systems rather Repeater stations are points in a system where baseband signals may
than amplitude modulation (AM) because AM signals are more sensitive be reconfigured or where RF carriers are simply repeated or amplified.
to amplitude nonlinearities inherent in wideband microwave amplifiers.
A microwave generator provides the RF carrier input to the up-converter.
Intermodulation noise is a major factor when designing FM radio
systems. An isolator is a unidirectional device often made form a ferrite material.
The isolator is used in conjunction with a channel-combining network to
The preemphasis network provides an artificial boost in amplitude to the prevent the output of one transmitter from interfering with the output of
higher baseband frequencies. another transmitter.

With systems that are longer than 40 miles or when geographical Examples of commonly used low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) are tunnel
obstructions, such as a mountain, block the transmission path, repeaters diodes and parametric amplifiers.
are needed.
At frequencies below 1.5 MHz, the surface wave provides the primary
A microwave repeater is a receiver and a transmitter placed back to coverage, and the sky wave helps extend this coverage at night when the
back or in tandem with the system. absorption of the ionosphere is at a minimum.

IF repeaters are also called heterodyne repeaters. With an IF repeater, Free-space path loss is often defined as the loss incurred by an
the received RF carrier is down-converted to an IF frequency, amplified, electromagnetic wave as it propagates in a straight line through a
reshaped, up-converted to an RF frequency, and then retransmitted. vacuum with no absorption or reflection of energy from nearby objects.

With baseband repeater, the received RF carrier is down-converted to an All points from which a wave could be reflected with an additional path
IF frequency, amplified, filtered, and then further demodulated to the length of one-half wavelength form an ellipse that defines the first Fresnel
baseband. The baseband signal, which is typically frequency-division- zone.
multiplexed voice-band channels, is further demodulated to a
mastergroup, supergroup, group, or even channel level. Fading is a general term applied to the reduction in signal strength at the
input to a receiver. Fading can occur under conditions of heavy ground
The baseband frequencies are generally less than 9 MHz, whereas the fog or when extremely cold air moves over warm ground.
IF frequencies are in the range 60 MHz to 80 MHz.
Multipath fading occurs primarily during nighttime hours on typical
In a microwave system, the purpose of using diversity is to increase the microwave links operating between 2 GHz and 6 GHz.
reliability of the system by increasing its availability.
System gain is the difference between the nominal output power of a
Frequency diversity is simply modulating two different RF carrier transmitter and the minimum input power to a receiver necessary to
frequencies with the same IF intelligence, then transmitting both RF achieve satisfactory performance.
signals to a given destination. At the destination, both carriers are
demodulated, and the one that yields the better-quality IF signal is Fade margin (sometimes called link margin) is essentially a fudge
selected. factor included in system gain equations that considers the nonideal and
less predictable characteristics of radio-wave propagation, such as
With space diversity, the output of a transmitter is fed to two or more multipath propagation (multipath loss) and terrain sensitivity.
antennas that are physically separated by an appreciable number of
wavelengths.

With polarization diversity, a single RF carrier is propagated with two


different electromagnetic polarizations (vertical and horizontal).

Receiver diversity is using more the one receiver for a single radio-
frequency channel.

Quad diversity is another form of hybrid diversity and undoubtedly


provides the most reliable transmission; however, it is also the most
expensive. It combines frequency, space, polarization, and receiver
diversity into one system.
Satellite Communications In the United States today, a publicly owned company called
Communications Satellite Corporation (Comsat) regulates the use
A satellite is a celestial body that orbits around a planet. and operation of U.S. satellites and also sets their tariffs.

A satellite radio repeater is called a transponder, of which a satellite may A satellite remains in orbit because the centrifugal force caused by its
have many. rotation around Earth is counterbalanced by Earths gravitational pull.

The simplest type of satellite is a passive reflector, which is a device German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the laws
that simply bounces signals from one place to another. that govern satellite motion.

The moon became the first passive satellite in 1954, when the U.S. Navy Keplers first law states that a satellite will orbit a primary body (like
successfully transmitted the first message over this Earth-to-moon-to- Earth) following an elliptical path.
Earth communications system.
Keplers second law, enunciated with the first law in 1609, is known as
In 1957, Russia launched Sputnik 1, the first active earth satellite. the law of areas. Keplers second law states that for equal intervals of
time a satellite will sweep out equal areas in the orbital plane, focused at
An active satellite is capable of receiving, amplifying, reshaping, the barycenter.
regenerating, and retransmitting information.
The velocity will be greatest at the point of closest approach to Earth
In 1957, Russia launched Sputnik 1, the first active earth satellite. (known as the perigee), and the velocity will be least at the farthest point
from Earth (known as the apogee).
An active satellite is capable of receiving, amplifying, reshaping,
regenerating, and transmitting information. Keplers third law, announced in 1619, is sometimes known as the
harmonic law. The third law states that the square of the periodic time of
Sputnik 1 transmitted telemetry information for 21 days. Later in the orbit is proportional to the cube of the mean distance between the
same year, the United States launched Explorer 1, which transmitted primary and the satellite.
telemetry information for nearly five months.
Nonsynchronous satellites rotate around Earth in an elliptical or circular
In 1958, NASA launched Score, a 150-pound conical-shaped satellite. pattern.
With an on board tape recording, Score rebroadcast President
Eisenhowers 1958 Christmas message. If the satellite is orbiting in the same direction as Earths rotation
(counterclockwise) and at an angular velocity greater than that of Earth,
Score was the first artificial satellite used for relaying terrestrial the orbit is called a prograde or posigrade orbit.
communications. Score was a delayed repeater satellite as it received
transmissions from earth stations, stored them on magnetic tape, and If the satellite is orbiting in the opposite direction as Earths rotation or in
then rebroadcast them later to ground stations farther along in its orbit. the same direction with the angular velocity less than that of Earth, the
orbit is called a retrograde orbit.
In 1960, NASA in conjunction with Bell Telephone Laboratories and the
Jet Propulsion Laboratory launched Echo, a 100-foot-diameter plastic Most nonsynchronous satellites revolve around Earth in a prograde orbit.
balloon with an aluminum coating.
Most low earth orbit (LEO) satellites operate in the 1.0-GHz to 2.5-GHz
The first transatlantic transmission using a satellite was accomplished frequency range. Motorolas satellite-based mobile-telephone system,
using Echo. Iridium, is a LEO system utilizing a 66-satellite constellation orbiting
approximately 480 miles above Earths surface.
Also in 1960, the Department of Defense launched Courier, which was
the first transponder-type satellite. MEO satellites operate in the 1.2-GHz to 1.66-GHz frequency band and
orbit between 6000 miles and 12,000 miles above Earth.
In 1962, AT&T launched Telstar1, the first active satellite to
simultaneously receive and transmit radio signals. NAVSTAR, is a MEO system with a constellation of 21 working satellites
and six spares orbiting approximately 9500 miles above Earth.
Telstar 2 was used for telephone, television, facsimile, and data
transmissions and accomplished the first successful transatlantic video Geosynchronous satellites are high-altitude earth-orbit satellites
transmission. operating primarily in the 2-GHz to 18-GHz frequency spectrum with
orbits 22,300 miles above Earths surface.
The Syncom 3 satellite was used to broadcast the 1964 Olympic Games
from Tokyo. Most commercial communication satellites are in geosynchronous orbit.

Intelsat 1 (called Early Bird) was the first commercial Geosynchronous or geostationary satellites are those that orbit in a
telecommunications satellite. circular pattern with an angular velocity equal to that of Earth.

Intelsat stands for International Telecommunications Satellite Satellites in high-elevation, nonsynchronous circular orbits between
Organization. 19,000 miles and 25,000 miles above Earth are said to be in near-
synchronous orbit.
The former Soviet Union launched the first set of domestic satellites
(Domsats) in 1966 and called them Molniya, meaning lightning. Apogee. The point in an orbit that is located farthest from Earth

Domsat are satellites that are owned, operated, and used by a single Perigee. The point in an orbit that is located closest to Earth
country.
Major axis. The line joining the perigee and apogee through the center of
In 1972, Canada launched its first commercial satellite designated Anik, Earth; sometimes called line of apsides
which is an Inuit word meaning little brother.
Minor axis. The line perpendicular to the major axis and halfway
between the perigee and apogee
All satellites rotate around Earth in an orbit that forms a plane that passes A link budget identifies the system parameters and is used to determine
through the center of gravity of Earth called the geocenter. the projected C/N and E/N ratios at both the satellite and earth station
receivers for a given modulation scheme and desired P(e).
Inclined orbits are virtually all orbits except those that travel directly
above the equator or directly over the North and South Poles.

An equatorial orbit is when the satellite rotates in an orbit directly above


the equator, usually in a circular path. All geosynchronous satellites are in
equatorial orbits.

A polar orbit is when the satellite rotates in a path that takes it over the
North and South Poles in an orbit perpendicular to the equatorial plane.

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Molniya is an


interesting orbital satellite currently in use. Molniya can also be spelled
Molnya and Molnia, which means lightning in Russian (in colloquial
Russian, Molniya means news flash). Molniya satellites are used for
government communications, telephone, television, and video.

One sidereal day for Earth is 23 hours and 56 minutes. A sidereal day is
sometimes called the period or sidereal period.

Satellites remain in orbit as a result of a balance between centrifugal and


gravitational forces.

The process of maneuvering a satellite within a preassigned window is


called station keeping.

A geosynchronous earth orbit is sometimes referred to as the Clarke


orbit or Clarke belt, after Arthur C. Clarke, who first suggested its
existence in 1945 and proposed its use for communications satellites.

Angle of elevation (sometimes called elevation angle) is the vertical


angle formed between the direction of travel of an electromagnetic wave
radiated from an earth station antenna pointing directly toward a satellite
and horizontal plane.

Azimuth is the horizontal angular distance from a reference direction,


either the southern or northern most point of the horizon.

Azimuth angle is defined as the horizontal pointing angle of an earth


station antenna.

A spinner satellite uses the angular momentum of its spinning body to


provide roll and yaw stabilization.

Three-axis stabilizer, the body remains fixed relative to Earths surface,


while an internal subsystem provides roll and yaw stabilization.

The geographical representation of a satellite antennas radiation pattern


is called a footprint or sometimes a footprint map. In essence, a
footprint of a satellite is the area on Earths surface that the satellite can
receive from or transmit to.

Spot beams concentrate their power to very small geographical areas


and, therefore, typically have proportionately higher EIRPs than those
targeting much larger areas because a given output power can be more
concentrated. Spot and zonal beams blanket less than 10% of the Earths
surface.

Hemispherical downlink antennas typically target up to 20% of the Earths


surface and, therefore, have EIRPs that are 3 dB or 50% lower than
those transmitted by spot beams that typically cover only 10% of the
Earths surface.

The wideband carrier power is the combined power of the carrier and its
associated sidebands.

Gain-to-equivalent noise temperature ratio is a figure of merit used to


represent the quality of a satellite or earth station receiver.
Satellite Multiple Accessing Arrangements If half the bits within a code were made the same and half were made
exactly the opposite, the resultant would be zero cross correlation
Multiple accessing is sometimes called multiple destinations because between chip code. Such a code is called an orthogonal code.
the transmissions from each earth station are received by all the other
earth stations in the system. Direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS) is produced when a bipolar
data-modulated signal is linearly multiplied by the spreading signal in a
Communications satellites operating in the C-band are allocated to total special balanced modulator called spreading correlator.
bandwidth of 500 MHz symmetrical around the satellites center
frequency. The most significant advantage of CDMA is immunity to interference
(jamming), which makes CDMA ideally suited for military applications.
Anik is an Eskimo word meaning little brother. The Anik-E
communications satellites are Domsats (domestic satellites) operated Frequency hopping is a form of CDMA where a digital code is used to
by Telsat Canada. continually change the frequency of the carrier.

Satellite multiple accessing (sometimes called multiple destination) A digital noninterpolated interface assigns an individual terrestrial
implies that more than one user has access to one or more radio channel (TC) to a particular satellite channel (SC) for the duration of the
channels (transponders) within a satellite communications channel. call.

FDMA, each earth stations transmissions are assigned specific uplink A digital speech interpolated interface assigns a terrestrial channel to
and downlink frequency bands within an allotted satellite bandwidth; they a satellite channel only when speech energy is present on the TC.
may be preassigned or demand assigned.
Time-assignment speech interpolation (TASI) is a form of analog
TDMA, each earth station transmits a short burst of information during a channel compression that has been used for suboceanic cables for many
specific time slot (epoch) within a TDMA frame. years. TASI also uses 2:1 compression ratio.

CDMA, all earth stations transmit within the same frequency band and, Navigation can be defined as the art or science of plotting, ascertaining,
for all practical purposes, have no limitations on when they may transmit or directing the course of movements.
or on which carrier frequency.
With celestial navigation, direction and distance are determined from
Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) is a method of multiple precisely time sightings of celestial bodies, including the stars and moon.
accessing where a given RF bandwidth is divided into smaller frequency
bands called subdivisions. Piloting is fixing a position and direction with respect to familiar,
significant landmarks, such as railroad tracks, water towers, barns,
The first FDMA demand-assignment system for satellites was developed mountain peaks, and bodies of water.
by Comsat for use on the Intelsat series IVA and V satellites.
Dead(ded) reckoning is a navigation technique that determines position
SPADE is an acronym for single-channel-per-carrier PCM multiple- by extrapolating a series of measured velocity increments.
access demand-assignment equipment.
With radio navigation, position is determined by measuring the travel time
Time-division multiple access (TDMA) is the predominant multiple- of an electromagnetic wave as it moves from a transmitter to a receiver.
access method used today. TDMA is a method of time-division
multiplexing digitally modulated carriers between participating earth Until recently, Loran (Long Range Navigation) was the most effective,
stations within a satellite network through a common satellite transponder. reliable, and accurate means of radio navigation. Loran-A was developed
during World War II, and the most recent version, Loran-C, surfaced in
CEPT is the Conference of European Postal and 1980.
Telecommunications Administrations; the CEPT sets many of the
European telecommunication standards. Navstar is and acronym for Navigation System with Time and Ranging,
and GPS is an abbreviation of Global Positioning System.
TDMA is a store-and-forward system. Earth stations can transmit only
during their specified time slot, although the incoming voice-band signals Navstar GPS is a satellite-based open navigation system.
are continuous.
United States Department of Defense (DoD) developed Navstar to
With FDMA, earth stations are limited to a specific bandwidth within a provide continuous, highly precise position, velocity, and time information
satellite channel or system but have no restriction on when they can to land-, sea-, air-, and space-based users.
transmit.
The Navstar Satellite System was completed in 1994 and is maintained
With TDMA, an earth stations transmissions are restricted to a precise by the United States Air Force.
time slot but have no restriction on what frequency or bandwidth it may
use within a specified satellite system or channel allocation. The standard positioning service (SPS) is a positioning and timing
service that is available to all GPS users on a continuous, worldwide
With code-division multiple access (CDMA), there are no restrictions basis with no direct charge.
on time or bandwidth.
The precise positioning service (PPS) is a highly accurate military
CDMA is sometimes referred to as spread-spectrum multiple access. positioning, velocity, and timing service that is available on a continuous,
worldwide basis to users authorized by the DoD.
Earth stations transmissions are encoded with a unique binary word
called a chip code. Each station has a unique chip code. The U.S. Air Force Space Command (AFSC) formally declared the
Navstar GPS satellite system as being fully operational as of April 27,
With CDMA, all earth stations within the system may transmit on the 1995. The satellite segment, sometimes called the space segment,
same frequency at the same time. consists of 24 operational satellites revolving around Earth in six orbit
planes approximately 60 apart with four satellites in each plane. There
are 21 working satellite and three satellites reserved as spaces.
Each Navstar satellite continually transmits a daily update set of digitally
coded ephemeris data that describes its precise orbit.

Ephemeris is a term generally associated with a table showing the


position of a heavenly body on a number of dates in a regular sequence,
in essence, an astronomical almanac.

The GPS system works by determining how long it takes a radio signal
transmitted from a satellite to reach a land-based receiver and then using
that time to calculate the distance between the satellite and the earth
station receiver.

All Navstar satellites transmit on the same two L band microwave carrier
frequencies: L1 = 1575.42 MHz and L2 = 1227.6 MHz.

Differential GPS makes standard GPS even more accurate. Differential


GPS works by canceling out most of the natural and man-made errors
that creep into normal GPS measurement.