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INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Avocado (Persea americana) refers to the tree's fruit, which is botanically a large berry

containing a single seed. Avocados (Persea americana) have green-skinned, fleshy body that

may be pear shaped, egg shaped, or spherical. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting.

Avocado trees are partially self-pollinating and often are propagated through grafting to maintain

a predictable quality and quantity of the fruit.

Also known as an alligator pear or butter fruit, the versatile avocado is the only fruit that

provides a substantial amount of healthy monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Avocados

(Persea americana) offers nearly 30 vitamins and minerals in every serving including potassium

(which helps control blood pressure), lutein (which is good for your eyes) and folate (which is

crucial for cell repair and during pregnancy).

Avocados (Persea americana) are good source of B vitamins, which help you fight off

disease and infection. They also give you vitamins C and E, plus natural plant chemicals that

may help prevent cancer. Avocados are low in sugar and they contain fiber which helps you feel

full longer. (WebMD, LLC, 2016)

B. Statement of the Problem

The acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas

Specific Problem

1. Determine the acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas in terms of

taste, texture, appearance and aroma.

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2. Compare the cost analysis between the experimented product and the commercial

product.

C. Significance of the Study

Nowadays, children lack vitamins, proteins, potassium and they are more prone to

illnesses. Children prefer to eat unhealthy foods like chocolates, junk foods and other fatty foods

than vegetables and fruits. Buying these kinds of food can also waste money.

The researchers conducted a study to determine the acceptability of Avocado (Persea

americana) Pastillas to create a fun snack and give livelihood to every family. Avocado (Persea

americana) has its own beneficial effects, like its health benefits, vitamins and minerals. It is also

rich in healthy monounsaturated fat (MUFA). The product can help you prevent illnesses and can

help with most of the health issues.

D. Scope and Limitations

The purpose of this study was to create a healthy snack for the community to consume

and to give livelihood to every family. Avocado (Persea americana) was used in this experiment.

The researchers were cautious on the amount of Avocado (Persea americana) and the

ingredients that were used in the experiment.

The study was conducted last July 6, 2016 at Teachers Subdivision, Magsaysay, Tabuk

City, Kalinga.

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E. Review of Related Literature

This work is aimed at measuring the chemical contents of avocado extracts including

toxicological studies and studying the effect of enzymes indicators of heart and liver necrosis and

also hematological parameters in rats. During May, avocado pears are bought in Bamenda-

Cameroon market. The fruit were peeled, seeds removed, fined chopped then weighed. The dried

pears were blended, sieved for the flour then weighed. The flour obtained was mixed with

ethanol and kept for 24 hours then filtered. Vitamin A, B2, C, K, folic acid, lutein, zeaxanthin,

coenzyme Q10 and -carotene were quantified by dissolving 1 g of the flour in 10 cm3 of

appropriate solvents (methanol for vitamin A, B2 and Folic acid; ethanol for vitamin C, K, lutein,

zeaxanthin, and CoQ10; then chloroform for -carotene), then heating for 30 min at 40 C and

filtered. The absorbance read at specific wavelength using the UV-visible principle of Keith and

Kenneth, 1994. In the first study, a group of rats was given a diet with crude protein, 14.5%),

crude fiber (7.2%), fat (7.0%), calcium (9.8%), phosphorus (0.4%) and energy (2,500Kcal/kg)

and drinking water. Each rat was given 5 g/kg and observed for oral toxicity. An additional oral

acute toxicity study was designed as a limit test, where the rats were administered 10 g/kg

body weight two times a day in 24 hrs. All the animals were continuously observed for 6 h after

each treatment. The animals did not exhibit any sign of toxicity even when large dose were

given. The extract was found to significantly decrease the activity of liver and heart enzymes in

the treated animals when compared with the control. The extract decreased total cholesterol by

37.97%, triglycerides by 37.87%, very low density lipoproteins by 47.41%, low density

lipoproteins by 3.64%. The extract also decreased the prothrombin time and the partial

prothrombo plastin time with kaolin. These results are discussed with regard to preventive and

possible curative values of this extract as a potential inhibitor of cardiovascular diseases and the

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regulation of blood clotting time due to its significant Vitamin K content. (E.F. Gouegni, and H.

Abubakar, 2013)

Studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of vegetable oils with varying

percentages of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on insulin resistance. However,

there is no report on the effect of avocado oil on this pathologic condition. The aim of this work

was to evaluate the effect of avocado oil on sucrose-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. An

experimental study was carried out on Wistar rats that were randomly assigned into six groups.

Each group received a different diet over an 8-week period (n = 11 in each group): the control

group was given a standard diet, and the other five groups were given the standard feed plus

sucrose with the addition of avocado oil at 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, respectively. Variables

were compared using Student t test and analysis of variance. Statistically significant difference

was considered when p < 0.05. Rats that were given diets with 10% and 20% avocado oil

showed lower insulin resistance (p = 0.022 and p = 0.024, respectively). Similar insulin

resistance responses were observed in the control and 30% avocado oil addition groups (p =

0.85). Addition of 530% avocado oil lowered high sucrose diet-induced body weight gain in

Wistar rats. It was thus concluded that glucose tolerance and insulin resistance induced by high

sucrose diet in Wistar rats can be reduced by the dietary addition of 520% avocado oil. (Mario

Del Toro-Equihua et al., 2016)

Phospholipids has important functions in biological systems. This study described a

solid-phase extraction (SPE) method, with graphene and titanium dioxide (G/TiO2)

nanocomposite as sorbent, for the isolation and enrichment of phospholipids from avocado

(Persea americana Mill.). Based on the principal that the group in the phospholipid can interact

with TiO2 via a bridging bidentate mode, an optimum condition was established for SPE, and

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was successfully applied to prepare avocado samples. The extracts were monitored by matrix-

assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS)

in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes. Results showed that phospholipids could be

extracted in a clean manner by G/TiO2 based SPE. In addition, the signals of phospholipids were

enhanced while the noise was reduced. In conclusion, the nano composite material of G/TiO2

was proved to be a promising sorbent for selective separation of phospholipids from crude lipid

extract. (Qing Shen et al., 2014)

Avocados offer nearly 20 vitamins and minerals in every serving, including potassium

(which helps control blood pressure), lutein (which is good for your eyes), and folate (which is

crucial for cell repair and during pregnancy). Avocados are a good source of B vitamins, which

help you fight off disease and infection. They also give you vitamins C and E, plus natural plant

chemicals that may help prevent cancer. Avocados are low in sugar. And they contain fiber,

which helps you feel full longer. In one study, people who added a fresh avocado half to their

lunch were less interested in eating during the next three hours. Avocados are high in fat. But it's

monounsaturated fat, which is a "good" fat that helps lower bad cholesterol, as long as you eat

them in moderation. Avocados have a lot of calories. The recommended serving size is smaller

than youd expect: 1/5 of a medium avocado (or 1 ounce) is 50 calories. (WebMD, LLC, 2016)

The avocado is colloquially known as the Alligator Pear, reflecting its shape and the

leather-like appearance of its skin. Avocado is derived from the Aztec word "ahuacatl". Avocados

are the fruit from Persea americana, a tall evergreen tree that can grow up to 65 feet in height.

Avocados vary in weight from 8 ounces to 3 pounds depending upon the variety. Avocados are

commercially valuable and are cultivated in tropical and Mediterranean climates throughout the

world. They have a green-skinned, fleshy body that may be pear-shaped, egg-shaped, or

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spherical. Commercially, they ripen after harvesting. Trees are partially self-pollinating and often

are propagated through grafting to maintain a predictable quality and quantity of the fruit.

Varieties: 'Fuerte', a Mexican/Guatemalan cross originating in Puebla, the 'Fuerte' earned its

name, which means strong in Spanish, after it withstood a severe frost in California in 1913.

Hardy to-3C (27F), it has medium-sized, pear-shaped fruit with a green, leathery, easy-to-peel

skin. The creamy flesh of mild and rich flavor has 18% oil. The skin ripens green. Tree size is 6

by 4 m (19.7 by 13.1 ft). 'Hass', while dozens of cultivars are grown, the 'Hass' avocado is today

the most common. It produces fruit year-round and accounts for 80% of cultivated avocados in

the world. All 'Hass' trees are descended from a single "mother tree" raised by a mail carrier

named Rudolph Hass, of La Habra Heights, California.Hass patented the productive tree in 1935.

The "mother tree", of uncertain subspecies, died of root rot and was cut down in September,

2002. 'Hass' trees have medium-sized (150-250 g or 5.3-8.8 oz), ovate fruit with a black, pebbled

skin. The flesh has a nutty, rich flavor with 19% oil. A hybrid Guatemalan type can withstand

temperatures to-1C (30F). (Digiserve Solutions Ltd., 2014)

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METHODOLOGY

A. Materials and Equipments

300g mashed Avocado- its mesocarp was used as the main ingredient in making the

product.

500g powdered milk, sifted- used as the dry ingredient in making the product.

25 ounces or 400g of condensed milk- used as the wet ingredient in making the

product.

Five bowls- used as container for the materials.

Fork- used in mashing the avocado.

Spatula- used for mixing the ingredients.

Cellophanes- used for wrapping the product.

Knife and Chopping Board- used for cutting the avocados.

Weighing Scale- used in weighing the ingredients.

B. Procedure

In making the Avocado Pastillas de Leche, the

ingredients needed were prepared and the powdered milk and

the condensed milk were measured for the right amount.

The 25 ounces condensed milk and 500g powdered

milk were placed in two separate bowls. Then, the avocado

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was mashed and mixed together with the 25 ounces condensed

milk.

The 500g powdered milk was gradually folded in;

making sure that the 500g powdered milk is completely added.

Some of the mixture was scooped and molded into cylinder and

wrapped in cellophane. (Vanjo Merano, 2009-2017)

C. Treatments of the Study

There was one formulation of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas, one formulation of

Banana Pastillas and the commercial brand.

T1= Commercial Brand (Plain Pastillas)

T2= Avocado Pastillas

T3= Banana Pastillas

D. Data Gathered

The treatments were presented on a number of teenagers and adults who judged the

acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas using the given evaluation sheet within

the value of being very acceptable, moderately acceptable, acceptable and not acceptable. T2

(Avocado Pastillas) showed comparable results with T1 (commercial brand) and T3

(Banana Pastillas) in terms of aroma, texture, and appearance within the value, Moderately

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Acceptable, and T 2 (Avocado Pastillas) showed higher result with T1 (commercial brand)

in terms of taste within the value, Very Acceptable. The Avocado Pastillas has an ROI of 60%

which is higher than the control product that has an ROI of 53.57%.

E. Statistical Tool

Statistical tool was used as total average weighted mean, ranking and t-test.

Weighted mean:

This was used to determine the meaning of the expenses along the variables.

X= W 1 / F1

Where:

W 1 / F1 = summation of the weighted mean

F1 = number of observation

Likert Scale:

Values Limits Description


4 3.41 4.20 Very Acceptable
3 2.61 3.40 Moderately Acceptable
2 1.81 2.60 Acceptable
1 1.0 1.80 Not Acceptable

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RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table 1.A. Evaluators perception on the Acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas
in terms of Aroma.
Treatments VA (4) MA (3) A (2) NA (1) Total Mean Rank
T1 10(40) 7(21) 3(6) 0 67 3.35 2
T2 12(48) 4(12) 4(8) 0 68 3.40 1
T3 9(36) 8(24) 3(6) 0 66 3.30 3

Table 1.A. Perception on the acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas in

terms of Aroma shows that treatment 2 (Avocado Pastillas) ranked first and has a mean of 3.40

which means that the Avocado Pastillas is Moderately Acceptable in terms of aroma.

Table 1.B. Evaluators perception on the Acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas
in terms of Texture.
Treatments VA(4) MA(3) A(2) NA(1) Total Mean Rank
T1 4(16) 14(42) 2(4) 0 62 3.10 1
T2 4(16) 10(30) 6(12) 0 58 2.90 2
T3 3(12) 11(33) 6(12) 0 57 2.85 3

Table 1.B. Perception on the acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas in

terms of Texture shows that treatment 2 (Avocado Pastillas) ranked second and has a mean of

2.90 which means that the Avocado Pastillas is Moderately Acceptable in terms of texture.

Table 1.C. Evaluators perception on the Acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas
in terms of Appearance.
Treatments VA(4) MA(3) A(2) NA(1) Total Mean Rank
T1 4(16) 13(39) 3(6) 0 61 3.05 1
T2 5(20) 11(33) 4(8) 0 61 3.05 1
T3 4(16) 10(30) 6(12) 0 58 2.90 3

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Table 1.C. Perception on the acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas in

terms of Appearance shows that treatment 2 (Avocado Pastillas) ranked first and has a mean of

3.05 which means that the Avocado Pastillas is Moderately Acceptable in terms of appearance.

Table 1.D. Evaluators perception on the Acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas
in terms of Taste.
Treatments VA(4) MA(3) A(2) NA(1) Total Mean Rank
T1 8(32) 11(33) 1(2) 0 67 3.35 3
T2 14(56) 6(18) 0 0 74 3.70 1
T3 16(54) 1(3) 3(6) 0 73 3.65 2

Table 1.D. Perception on the acceptability of Avocado (Persea americana) Pastillas in

terms of Taste shows that treatment 2 (Avocado Pastillas) ranked first and has a mean of 3.70

which means that the Avocado Pastillas is Very Acceptable in terms of taste.

Table 2. Return of Investments

Expenses Avocado Pastillas Commercial Brand


Ingredients 260 130
Total Expenses 260 130
Price 6 5
Total Sale 650 280
ROI 60% 53.57%

Avocado Pastillas:

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ROI= sale expenses x 100 = 650 260 x 100 = 39,000 = 60%
Sale 650 650

Commercial Brand:

ROI= sale expenses x 100 = 280 130 x 100 = 15,000 = 53.57%


Sale 280 280

Table 2 shows the cost comparison between Treatment 1 and Treatment 2. The basis of

comparison is the price of the product. The cost of one Pastillas for T1 is 5. While, the cost on

one Pastillas for T2 is 6. On the other hand, the return of investment for T2 is 60% which shows

that if it will be commercialized aside from its nutritive value that provides a substantial amount

of healthy monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), vitamins, minerals, potassium, lutein, folate and

natural plant chemicals, it can also give livelihood to every family.

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CONCLUSION

Based on the findings under sensory evaluation, T2 (Avocado Pastillas) showed

comparable results with T1 (commercial brand) and T3 (Banana Pastillas) in terms of

aroma, texture, and appearance within the value, Moderately Acceptable, and T2 (Avocado

Pastillas) showed higher result with T1 (commercial brand) in terms of taste within the value,

Very Acceptable.

Furthermore, the product of the study is proven to be cheaper by the cost comparison and

has an ROI of 60% which is higher than the commercial brand that has an ROI of 53.57% which

makes it easier for people to economize their expenses. These imply that the Avocado Pastillas is

more affordable than the commercial brand.

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RECOMMENDATION

Avocado Pastillas is recommended as an everyday snack. Based on the findings, it is very

acceptable in terms of taste and moderately acceptable in terms of texture, appearance and

aroma. Furthermore, Avocado Pastillas is very nutritious and more affordable.

For improvement of the study, the researchers recommend the following:

1. Find ways to improve the texture, appearance and aroma of the product.
2. Further studies on verification and acceptability of the product from the difference

of evaluation of teenagers and adults.


3. Determine the nutritional facts of the product.
4. Determine the longevity of the product.

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