Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

Air quality index

An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by 1 Denition and usage


government agencies [1] to communicate to the public
how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is fore-
cast to become.[2][3] As the AQI increases, an increas-
ingly large percentage of the population is likely to ex-
perience increasingly severe adverse health eects. Dif-
ferent countries have their own air quality indices, corre-
sponding to dierent national air quality standards. Some
of these are the Air Quality Health Index (Canada), the
Air Pollution Index (Malaysia), and the Pollutant Stan-
dards Index (Singapore).

An air quality measurement station in Edinburgh, Scotland

Computation of the AQI requires an air pollutant concen-


tration over a specied averaging period, obtained from
an air monitor or model. Taken together, concentration
and time represent the dose of the air pollutant. Health
eects corresponding to a given dose are established by
epidemiological research.[4] Air pollutants vary in po-
Smog builds up under an inversion in Almaty, Kazakhstan result- tency, and the function used to convert from air pollutant
ing in a high AQI concentration to AQI varies by pollutant. Air quality in-
dex values are typically grouped into ranges. Each range
is assigned a descriptor, a color code, and a standardized
public health advisory.
The AQI can increase due to an increase of air emissions
(for example, during rush hour trac or when there is
an upwind forest re) or from a lack of dilution of air
pollutants. Stagnant air, often caused by an anticyclone,
temperature inversion, or low wind speeds lets air pol-
lution remain in a local area, leading to high concentra-
tions of pollutants, chemical reactions between air con-
taminants and hazy conditions.[5]
On a day when the AQI is predicted to be elevated due to
ne particle pollution, an agency or public health organi-
zation might:

advise sensitive groups, such as the elderly, children,


and those with respiratory or cardiovascular prob-
lems to avoid outdoor exertion.[6]

declare an action day to encourage voluntary mea-


Wildres give rise to an elevated AQI in parts of Greece sures to reduce air emissions, such as using public
transportation.[7]

1
2 2 INDICES BY LOCATION

2 Indices by location

2.1 Canada

Main article: Air Quality Health Index (Canada)

Air quality in Canada has been reported for many years


with provincial Air Quality Indices (AQIs). Signicantly,
AQI values reect air quality management objectives,
which are based on the lowest achievable emissions rate,
and not exclusively concern for human health. The Air
Quality Health Index or (AQHI) is a scale designed to
help understand the impact of air quality on health. It
Signboard in Gulfton, Houston indicating an ozone watch
is a health protection tool used to make decisions to re-
duce short-term exposure to air pollution by adjusting ac-
recommend the use of masks to keep ne particles tivity levels during increased levels of air pollution. The
from entering the lungs[8] Air Quality Health Index also provides advice on how to
improve air quality by proposing behavioural change to
reduce the environmental footprint. This index pays par-
ticular attention to people who are sensitive to air pollu-
tion. It provides them with advice on how to protect their
health during air quality levels associated with low, mod-
erate, high and very high health risks.
The Air Quality Health Index provides a number from
1 to 10+ to indicate the level of health risk associated
with local air quality. On occasion, when the amount of
air pollution is abnormally high, the number may exceed
10. The AQHI provides a local air quality current value
as well as a local air quality maximums forecast for today,
tonight, and tomorrow, and provides associated health
advice.[13]

2.2 Hong Kong


Woman wearing an air pollution mask in Beijing, China

On the 30th December 2013 Hong Kong replaced the


Air Pollution Index with a new index called the Air Qual-
During a period of very poor air quality, such as an air
ity Health Index.[14] This index is on a scale of 1 to 10+
pollution episode, when the AQI indicates that acute ex- and considers four air pollutants: ozone; nitrogen dioxide;
posure may cause signicant harm to the public health,
sulphur dioxide and particulate matter (including PM10
agencies may invoke emergency plans that allow them to and PM2.5). For any given hour the AQHI is calculated
order major emitters (such as coal burning industries) to from the sum of the percentage excess risk of daily hospi-
curtail emissions until the hazardous conditions abate.[9] tal admissions attributable to the 3-hour moving average
Most air contaminants do not have an associated AQI. concentrations of these four pollutants. The AQHIs are
Many countries monitor ground-level ozone, particulates, grouped into ve AQHI health risk categories with health
sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, advice provided:[15]
and calculate air quality indices for these pollutants.[10] Each of the health risk categories has advice with it. At
The denition of the AQI in a particular nation reects the low and moderate levels the public are advised that
the discourse surrounding the development of national they can continue normal activities. For the high cate-
air quality standards in that nation.[11] A website allow- gory, children, the elderly and people with heart or res-
ing government agencies anywhere in the world to sub- piratory illnesses are advising to reduce outdoor physical
mit their real-time air monitoring data for display using exertion. Above this (very high or serious) the general
a common denition of the air quality index has recently public are also advised to reduce or avoid outdoor physi-
become available.[12] cal exertion.
2.5 Mexico 3

2.3 Mainland China the Ministry recently aimed at balancing environment and
conservation and development as air pollution has been a
Chinas Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) is matter of environmental and health concerns, particularly
responsible for measuring the level of air pollution in in urban areas.[19]
China. As of 1 January 2013, MEP monitors daily pol-
The Central Pollution Control Board along with State Pol-
lution level in 163 of its major cities. The API level is
lution Control Boards has been operating National Air
based on the level of 6 atmospheric pollutants, namely
Monitoring Program (NAMP) covering 240 cities of the
sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), suspended
country having more than 342 monitoring stations.[20]
particulates smaller than 10 m in aerodynamic diam-
In addition, continuous monitoring systems that provide
eter (PM10 ), suspended particulates smaller than 2.5
data on near real-time basis are also installed in a few
m in aerodynamic diameter (PM.), carbon monoxide
cities. They provide information on air quality in public
(CO), and ozone (O3 ) measured at the monitoring sta-
domain in simple linguistic terms that is easily understood
tions throughout each city.[16]
by a common person.[21] Air Quality Index (AQI) is one
AQI Mechanics such tool for eective dissemination of air quality infor-
An individual score (IAQI) is assigned to the level of mation to people. As such an Expert Group comprising
each pollutant and the nal AQI is the highest of those 6 medical professionals, air quality experts, academia, ad-
scores. The pollutants can be measured quite dierently. vocacy groups, and SPCBs was constituted and a techni-
PM. PM10 concentration are measured as average per cal study was awarded to IIT Kanpur. IIT Kanpur and the
24h. SO2 , NO2 , O3 , CO are measured as average per Expert Group recommended an AQI scheme in 2014.[22]
hour. The nal API value is calculated per hour accord-
There are six AQI categories, namely Good, Satisfac-
ing to a formula published by the MEP.[17]
tory, Moderately polluted, Poor, Very Poor, and Severe.
The scale for each pollutant is non-linear, as is the nal The proposed AQI will consider eight pollutants (PM10 ,
AQI score. Thus an AQI of 100 does not mean twice the PM., NO2 , SO2 , CO, O3 , NH3 , and Pb) for which
pollution of AQI at 50, nor does it mean twice as harmful. short-term (up to 24-hourly averaging period) National
While an AQI of 50 from day 1 to 182 and AQI of 100 Ambient Air Quality Standards are prescribed.[23] Based
from day 183 to 365 does provide an annual average of on the measured ambient concentrations, corresponding
75, it does not mean the pollution is acceptable even if the standards and likely health impact, a sub-index is calcu-
benchmark of 100 is deemed safe. This is because the lated for each of these pollutants. The worst sub-index
benchmark is a 24-hour target. The annual average must reects overall AQI. Associated likely health impacts for
match against the annual target. It is entirely possible to dierent AQI categories and pollutants have been also
have safe air every day of the year but still fail the annual been suggested, with primary inputs from the medical ex-
pollution benchmark.[16] pert members of the group. The AQI values and corre-
AQI and Health Implications (HJ 663-2012) [16] sponding ambient concentrations (health breakpoints) as
well as associated likely health impacts for the identied
eight pollutants are as follows:
2.4 India
The Minister for Environment, Forests & Climate 2.5 Mexico
Change Shri Prakash Javadekar launched The National
Air Quality Index (AQI) in New Delhi on 17 September Main article: ndice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire
2014 under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. It is outlined
as One Number- One Colour-One Description for the The air quality in Mexico City is reported in IMECAs.
common man to judge the air quality within his vicinity. The IMECA is calculated using the measurements of av-
The index constitutes part of the Governments mission to erage times of the chemicals ozone (O3 ), sulphur dioxide
introduce the culture of cleanliness.[18] Institutional and (SO2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), carbon monoxide (CO),
infrastructural measures are being undertaken in order to particles smaller than 2.5 micrometers (PM.), and par-
ensure that the mandate of cleanliness is fullled across ticles smaller than 10 micrometers (PM10 ).[24]
the country and the Ministry of Environment, Forests &
Climate Change proposed to discuss the issues concerned
regarding quality of air with the Ministry of Human Re- 2.6 Singapore
source Development in order to include this issue as part
of the sensitisation programme in the course curriculum. Singapore uses the Pollutant Standards Index to report
While the earlier measuring index was limited to three in- on its air quality,[25] with details of the calculation sim-
dicators, the current measurement index had been made ilar but not identical to that used in Malaysia and Hong
quite comprehensive by the addition of ve additional pa- Kong[26] The PSI chart below is grouped by index values
rameters. Under the current measurement of air quality and descriptors, according to the National Environment
there are 8 parameters . The initiatives undertaken by Agency.[27]
4 2 INDICES BY LOCATION

2.7 South Korea An annual index, which represents the citys general
air quality conditions throughout the year and com-
The Ministry of Environment of South Korea uses the pare to European air quality norms. This index is
Comprehensive Air-quality Index (CAI) to describe the based on the pollutants year average compare to an-
ambient air quality based on the health risks of air pollu- nual limit values, and updated once a year.
tion. The index aims to help the public easily understand
the air quality and protect peoples health. The CAI is However, the proposed indices and the supporting com-
on a scale from 0 to 500, which is divided into six cate- mon web site www.airqualitynow.eu are designed to give
gories. The higher the CAI value, the greater the level of a dynamic picture of the air quality situation in each city
air pollution. Of values of the ve air pollutants, the high- but not for compliance checking.[33]
est is the CAI value. The index also has associated health
eects and a colour representation of the categories as
shown below.[28] 2.9.1 The hourly and daily common indices
The N Seoul Tower on Namsan Mountain in central
Seoul, South Korea, is illuminated in blue, from sunset These indices have 5 levels using a scale from 0 (very low)
to 23:00 and 22:00 in winter, on days where the air qual- to > 100 (very high), it is a relative measure of the amount
ity in Seoul is 45 or less. During the spring of 2012, the of air pollution. They are based on 3 pollutants of major
Tower was lit up for 52 days, which is four days more than concern in Europe: PM10, NO2, O3 and will be able to
in 2011.[29] take into account to 3 additional pollutants (CO, PM2.5
and SO2) where data are also available.
The calculation of the index is based on a review of a
2.8 United Kingdom number of existing air quality indices, and it reects EU
alert threshold levels or daily limit values as much as pos-
The most commonly used air quality index in the sible. In order to make cities more comparable, inde-
UK is the Daily Air Quality Index recommended by pendent of the nature of their monitoring network two
the Committee on Medical Eects of Air Pollutants situations are dened:
(COMEAP).[30] This index has ten points, which are fur-
ther grouped into 4 bands: low, moderate, high and very
Background, representing the general situation of
high. Each of the bands comes with advice for at-risk
the given agglomeration (based on urban back-
groups and the general population.[31]
ground monitoring sites),
The index is based on the concentrations of 5 pollutants.
The index is calculated from the concentrations of the Roadside, being representative of city streets with a
following pollutants: Ozone, Nitrogen Dioxide, Sulphur lot of trac, (based on roadside monitoring stations)
Dioxide, PM2.5 (particles with an aerodynamic diameter
less than 2.5 m) and PM10. The breakpoints between
The indices values are updated hourly (for those cities
index values are dened for each pollutant separately and
that supply hourly data) and yesterdays daily indices are
the overall index is dened as the maximum value of the
presented.[33]
index. Dierent averaging periods are used for dierent
pollutants.[31] Common air quality index legend:

2.9 Europe 2.9.2 The common annual air quality index

To present the air quality situation in European cities in The common annual air quality index provides a general
a comparable and easily understandable way, all detailed overview of the air quality situation in a given city all the
measurements are transformed into a single relative g- year through and regarding to the European norms.
ure: the Common Air Quality Index (or CAQI) Three It is also calculated both for background and trac con-
dierent indices have been developed by Citeair to en- ditions but its principle of calculation is dierent from
able the comparison of three dierent time scale:.[32][33] the hourly and daily indices. It is presented as a distance
to a target index, this target being derived from the EU
An hourly index, which describes the air quality directives (annual air quality standards and objectives):
today, based on hourly values and updated every
hours, If the index is higher than 1: for one or more pollu-
tants the limit values are not met.
A daily index, which stands for the general air qual-
ity situation of yesterday, based on daily values and If the index is below 1: on average the limit values
updated once a day, are met.
2.10 United States 5

The annual index is aimed at better taking into account Clow = the concentration breakpoint that is
long term exposure to air pollution based on distance to C,
the target set by the EU annual norms, those norms being Chigh = the concentration breakpoint that is
linked most of the time to recommendations and health C,
protection set up by World Health Organisation.[33]
Ilow = the index breakpoint corresponding to
Clow ,
2.10 United States Ihigh = the index breakpoint corresponding to
Chigh .

EPAs table of breakpoints is:[35][36][37]


Suppose a monitor records a 24-hour average ne parti-
cle (PM.) concentration of 12.0 micrograms per cubic
meter. The equation above results in an AQI of:

50 0
(12.0 0) + 0 = 50
12.0 0
corresponding to air quality in the Good range. To con-
vert an air pollutant concentration to an AQI, EPA has
developed a calculator.[38]
PM2.5 24-Hour AQI Loop, Courtesy US EPA If multiple pollutants are measured at a monitoring site,
then the largest or dominant AQI value is reported for
The United States Environmental Protection Agency the location. The ozone AQI between 100 and 300 is
(EPA) has developed an Air Quality Index that is used computed by selecting the larger of the AQI calculated
to report air quality. This AQI is divided into six cate- with a 1-hour ozone value and the AQI computed with
gories indicating increasing levels of health concern. An the 8-hour ozone value.
AQI value over 300 represents hazardous air quality and 8-hour ozone averages do not dene AQI values greater
below 50 the air quality is good.[10] than 300; AQI values of 301 or greater are calculated with
The AQI is based on the ve criteria pollutants regu- 1-hour ozone concentrations. 1-hour SO2 values do not
lated under the Clean Air Act: ground-level ozone, par- dene higher AQI values greater than 200. AQI values
ticulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ni- of 201 or greater are calculated with 24-hour SO2 con-
trogen dioxide. The EPA has established National Am- centrations.
bient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for each of these Real time monitoring data from continuous monitors are
pollutants in order to protect public health. An AQI value typically available as 1-hour averages. However, compu-
of 100 generally corresponds to the level of the NAAQS tation of the AQI for some pollutants requires averaging
for the pollutant.[10] The Clean Air Act (USA) (1990) re- over multiple hours of data. (For example, calculation of
quires EPA to review its National Ambient Air Quality the ozone AQI requires computation of an 8-hour aver-
Standards every ve years to reect evolving health ef- age and computation of the PM. or PM AQI requires
10
fects information. The Air Quality Index is adjusted pe- a 24-hour average.) To accurately reect the current air
riodically to reect these changes. quality, the multi-hour average used for the AQI compu-
tation should be centered on the current time, but as con-
2.10.1 Computing the AQI centrations of future hours are unknown and are dicult
to estimate accurately, EPA uses surrogate concentrations
The air quality index is a piecewise linear function of the to estimate these multi-hour averages. For reporting the
pollutant concentration. At the boundary between AQI PM., PM10 and ozone air quality indices, this surrogate
categories, there is a discontinuous jump of one AQI unit. concentration is called the NowCast. The Nowcast is a
To convert from concentration to AQI this equation is particular type of weighted average that provides more
used:[34] weight to the most recent air quality data when air pollu-
Ihigh Ilow tion levels are changing.[39][40]
I= Chigh Clow (C Clow ) + Ilow
where:
2.10.2 Public Availability of the AQI

I = the (Air Quality) index, Real time monitoring data and forecasts of air quality that
C = the pollutant concentration, are color-coded in terms of the air quality index are avail-
6 4 REFERENCES

able from EPAs AirNow web site.[41] Historical air mon- [2] National Weather Service Corporate Image Web Team.
itoring data including AQI charts and maps are available NOAAs National Weather Service/Environmental Pro-
at EPAs AirData website.[42] tection Agency - United States Air Quality Forecast Guid-
ance. Retrieved 20 August 2015.

[3] https://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/services/raq/raq_nrt/
2.10.3 History of the AQI
[4] Step 2 - Dose-Response Assessment. Retrieved 20 Au-
The AQI made its debut in 1968, when the National Air gust 2015.
Pollution Control Administration undertook an initiative
[5] Myanmar government (2007). Haze. Archived from
to develop an air quality index and to apply the methodol- the original on 27 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-11.
ogy to Metropolitan Statistical Areas. The impetus was to
draw public attention to the issue of air pollution and in- [6] Air Quality Index - American Lung Association. Amer-
directly push responsible local public ocials to take ac- ican Lung Association. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
tion to control sources of pollution and enhance air quality [7] Spare the Air - Summer Spare the Air. Retrieved 20
within their jurisdictions. August 2015.
Jack Fensterstock, the head of the National Inventory of [8] FAQ: Use of masks and availability of masks. Retrieved
Air Pollution Emissions and Control Branch, was tasked 20 August 2015.
to lead the development of the methodology and to com-
pile the air quality and emissions data necessary to test [9] http://cleanairinitiative.org/portal/sites/default/files/
and calibrate resultant indices.[43] presentations/1_en_air_pollution_emergency_response_
system_-_us_experience_1.pdf
The initial iteration of the air quality index used standard-
ized ambient pollutant concentrations to yield individual [10] Air Quality Index (AQI) - A Guide to Air Quality and
pollutant indices. These indices were then weighted and Your Health. US EPA. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 8
summed to form a single total air quality index. The over- August 2012.
all methodology could use concentrations that are taken [11] Jay Timmons (13 August 2014). The EPAs Latest
from ambient monitoring data or are predicted by means Threat to Economic Growth. WSJ. Retrieved 20 August
of a diusion model. The concentrations were then con- 2015.
verted into a standard statistical distribution with a preset
[12] World Air Quality Index. Retrieved 20 August 2015.
mean and standard deviation. The resultant individual
pollutant indices are assumed to be equally weighted, al- [13] Environment Canada - Air - AQHI categories and expla-
though values other than unity can be used. Likewise, the nations. Ec.gc.ca. 2008-04-16. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
index can incorporate any number of pollutants although
[14] Hsu, Angel. Chinas new Air Quality Index: How does it
it was only used to combine SOx, CO, and TSP because
measure up?". Retrieved 8 February 2014.
of a lack of available data for other pollutants.
While the methodology was designed to be robust, the [15] Air Quality Health Index. Government of the Hong
Kong Special Administrative Region. Retrieved 9 Febru-
practical application for all metropolitan areas proved to
ary 2014.
be inconsistent due to the paucity of ambient air qual-
ity monitoring data, lack of agreement on weighting fac- [16] Focus on urban air quality daily. Archived from the
tors, and non-uniformity of air quality standards across original on 2004-10-25.
geographical and political boundaries. Despite these is-
[17] Peoples Republic of China Ministry of Environmental
sues, the publication of lists ranking metropolitan areas Protection Standard: Technical Regulation on Ambient
achieved the public policy objectives and led to the fu- Air Quality Index (Chinese PDF)" (PDF).
ture development of improved indices and their routine
application. [18] Rama Lakshmi (17 October 2014). India launches its
own Air Quality Index. Can its numbers be trusted?".
Washington Post. Retrieved 20 August 2015.

3 See also [19] National Air Quality Index (AQI) launched by the Envi-
ronment Minister AQI is a huge initiative under 'Swachh
Bharat'". Retrieved 20 August 2015.
Air pollution
[20] Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Stations. 2016-08-15.
Indoor air quality Retrieved 2016-08-16.

[21] India launches index to measure air quality.


timesondia-economictimes. Retrieved 20 August
4 References 2015.

[22] http://home.iitk.ac.in/~{}mukesh/indian%20air%
[1] International Air Quality. Retrieved 20 August 2015. 20quality.html
7

[23] "::: Central Pollution Control Board :::". Retrieved 20 Au- 5 External links
gust 2015.

[24] Direccin de Monitoreo Atmosfrico. www.aire.cdmx.


CAQI in Europe- AirqualityNow website
gob.mx. Retrieved 2016-06-15. CAI at Airkorea.or.kr - website of South Korea En-
[25] MEWR - Key Environment Statistics - Clean Air. vironmental Management Corp.
App.mewr.gov.sg. 2011-06-08. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
AQI at airnow.gov - cross-agency U.S. Government
[26] .National Environment Agency - Calculation of PSI site
(PDF). Retrieved 2012-06-15.
New Mexico Air Quality and API data - Example
[27] National Environment Agency. App2.nea.gov.sg. Re- of how New Mexico Environment Department pub-
trieved 2011-11-11. lishes their Air Quality and API data.

[28] Whats CAI. Air Korea. Retrieved 25 October 2015. AQI at Meteorological Service of Canada

[29] Improved Air Quality Reected in N Seoul Tower. The UK Air Quality Archive
Chosun Ilbo. 18 May 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
API at JAS (Malaysian Department of Environ-
[30] COMEAP. Review of the UK Air Quality Index. ment)
COMEAP website.
API at Hong Kong - Environmental Protection De-
[31] Daily Air Quality Index. Air UK Website. Defra. partment of the Government of the Hong Kong Spe-
cial Administrative Region
[32] Garcia, Javier; Colosio, Jolle (2002). Air-quality indices
: elaboration, uses and international comparisons. Presses San Francisco Bay Area Spare-the-Air - AQI expla-
des MINES. ISBN 2-911762-36-3. nation
[33] Indices denition. Air quality. Retrieved 9 August Malaysia Air Pollution Index
2012.
AQI in Thailand
[34] http://www.epa.gov/airnow/
aqi-technical-assistance-document-dec2013.pdf Unocial PM25 AQI in Hanoi, Vietnam

[35] David Mintz (February 2009). Technical Assistance Doc-


ument for the Reporting of Daily Air Quality the Air Qual-
ity Index (AQI) (PDF). North Carolina: US EPA Oce of
Air Quality Planning and Standards. EPA-454/B-09-001.
Retrieved 9 August 2012.

[36] Revised Air Quality Standards For Particle Pollution And


Updates To The Air Quality Index (AQI) (PDF). North
Carolina: US EPA Oce of Air Quality Planning and
Standards. 2013.

[37] http://www3.epa.gov/airquality/ozonepollution/pdfs/
20151001fr.pdf

[38] AQI Calculator: Concentration to AQI. Retrieved 9


August 2012.

[39] AirNow API Documentation. Retrieved 20 August


2015.

[40] How are your ozone maps calculated?". Retrieved 20


August 2015.

[41] AirNow. Retrieved 9 August 2012..

[42] AirData - US Environmental Protection Agency. Re-


trieved 20 August 2015.

[43] J.C Fensterstock et al., " The Development and Utiliza-


tion of an Air Quality Index, Paper No. 69-73, presented
at the 62nd Annual Meeting of the Air Pollution Control
Administration, June 1969.
8 6 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

6 Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses


6.1 Text
Air quality index Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_quality_index?oldid=734882110 Contributors: SimonP, Heron, Willsmith,
Julesd, Mulad, Fuzheado, WhisperToMe, Radiojon, Tpbradbury, Dragons ight, David.Monniaux, Alan Liefting, Dinomite, Jpp, Fys, Be-
land, Spiy sperry, CALR, Discospinster, Wrp103, Bender235, RoyBoy, Smalljim, Velella, RJFJR, Shoey, Lebite, BDD, Gene Nygaard,
Gordeonbleu, Rtdrury, Rjwilmsi, Samlowry, RobertG, Reetep, Samuel Wiki, RussBot, Gaius Cornelius, CrazyC83, NHSavage, Flower-
sofnight, SmackBot, KnowledgeOfSelf, Hu Gadarn, Alex mayorga, ACupOfCoee, E946, JonHarder, TedE, PointyOintment, Jellysho,
Derek R Bullamore, Drphilharmonic, The Toad, Shadowlynk, Mbeychok, BLUE, Thegreatdr, Shaoquan, Ckatz, Hvn0413, Markjdb, John
Riemann Soong, JohnCD, Neelix, No1lakersfan, Acs4b, Tawkerbot4, Simeon H, Catsmoke, Dugwiki, Phy1729, Openlander, AntiVandal-
Bot, MER-C, Magioladitis, Dekimasu, Gabriel Kielland, IwantCleanAir, Jikbusai, Dlary, Rettetast, RockMFR, Ciotog, Stambouliote, SJP,
Vanished user 39948282, DASonnenfeld, Lop.dong, Templationist, KyleRGiggs, Freeghter~enwiki, Andywata, Pjoef, Coee, Flyer22
Reborn, ClueBot, Fyyer, JTSchreiber, Conchobhair II, DragonBot, Stzsi, Razorame, DumZiBoT, XLinkBot, RyanCross, Addbot, Ele-
ment16, Montgomery '39, Shirtwaist, Download, Be224886, Principiacoh, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Themfromspace, Ptbotgourou, Alchimista,
AnomieBOT, Mahmudmasri, Citation bot, Xqbot, Drilnoth, Mononomic, Danielstoner, Caichris, Khalidshou, Pinethicket, Tom.Reding,
Elekhh, Trappist the monk, Mean as custard, RjwilmsiBot, Jojndon, Dcirovic, Jenks24, Niki1984, Michaela den, ClueBot NG, Larch922,
Catlemur, Wbm1058, DBigXray, BG19bot, Aqhiguy, Cskim761, PhnomPencil, Nicolaas19, Hamish59, Amelie.fritz.airparif, Drdowiki,
Mogism, , Buchexperte, Silly Santa Claus, Eyesnore, S9971706h, TheOrangeUnicorn, VulpesVulpes42, Dirac, CAPTAIN RAJU,
Barabace, TanyaSharma1986 and Anonymous: 138

6.2 Images
File:25August_2007_Greek_fires.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b7/25August_2007_Greek_fires.
jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Aegopodium_podagraria1_ies.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Aegopodium_podagraria1_ies.
jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Frank Vincentz
File:Carson_Fall_Mt_Kinabalu.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/57/Carson_Fall_Mt_Kinabalu.jpg Li-
cense: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Sze Sze SOO
File:Commons-logo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/4a/Commons-logo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contribu-
tors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Edinburgh_air_quality_measurement_station_dsc06786.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a1/
Edinburgh_air_quality_measurement_station_dsc06786.jpg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: David Mon-
niaux
File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-by-
sa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Pm25-24a-super.gif Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/54/Pm25-24a-super.gif License: Public domain
Contributors: www.airnow.gov Original artist: US EPA and partners
File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:SignboardAirQualityHouston.JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/18/
SignboardAirQualityHouston.JPG License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: WhisperToMe
File:Smog_over_Almaty.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/Smog_over_Almaty.jpg License: CC BY
3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Igors Jemovs
File:Women_walking_at_Temple_of_Heaven_Park,_Beijing.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e8/
Women_walking_at_Temple_of_Heaven_Park%2C_Beijing.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Daniel
Case

6.3 Content license


Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0