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Extraction and Determination of Caffeine Contents in Various Tea Samples"


Introduction to the topic

Observations and Expected Errors

Caffeine in Tea Samples - Extraction and Determination - Chemistry Experiment

Most popular drinks in India are Tea and Coffee As is the popularity of these
drinks so is the contribution of India in their production. India has been the
leading producer of tea.
Tea grows indeed, fertile & well drained soil. It require warm and moist climate
throughout the year. Frequent showers, well distributed over the year ensures
continuous growth of tender leaves. In India it grows mainly in low hills of Assam,
Hills of Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri, Northern West Bengal and the hill of Nilgiri
Tea also causes many harmful disease such as Diabetes, problems in nervous system,
decrease in ADN secretion which causes increase in wine secretion and it has
Nicotine which is a Stimulant.

Theory and Chemistry Experiment

Use difference in the solubility of caffeine and tannic acid in water and
chloroform to separate them them from tea leaves.
Caffeine is much more soluble in chloroform than in water. But tannic acid is
extensively soluble in water as well as chloroform.

Extraction of Water Soluble Components from Tea Sample - Step-I

Take about 100ml of distilled water in 250ml conical flask.
Add 5gm of tea and boil it for 4 to 5 minute. Then cool it and filter.
Repeat this process again with 100ml of distilled water and residual tea leave.
The filtrate in each case should be collected.
Now the wet tea samples may be dried in an over and weighted.
Removal of Tannic Acid from Filtrate - Step-II
The filtrate obtained in the first step is now boiled with 2-3 grm. calcium
carbonate to get tannic acid, present in tea extract, frecipitated. On leaving it
for ten minutes ppt. is obtained.
Filter the solution without disturbing the ppt carefully. The ppt should be
transferred to filter paper only after all the filtrate is removed.
Tannic acid has been extracted in the form of calcium ternate which on treatment
with hydrochloric acid give tannic acid.
The filtrate is now free from tannic acid and can be used to extract caffeine.

Extraction of Caffeine from Tannic Acid Free Filtrate - Step-III

Take tannic acid filtrate obtained in step 2(ii) and add 100 ml of chloroform in it
in a separating funnel and allow it to stand for 10 minutes.
Again the same procedure as done in (i)
Mix if with the previous one.
From this chloroform extract, chloroform may be distilled or evaporated.
The pale green residue obtained is crude caffeine. Repeat this experiment with
other brands of tea and record your observation in a tabular form.
Weight of tea used = W1 grm.
Weight of Caffeine = W2 grm.

Calculation :
Percentage of solute caffeine = W1 / W2 x 100

Calculations of Double Diamond

W1 = 6 gm
W2 = 0.7 gm
Percentage of caffeine = 0.7 / 6 x 100 = 11.6%

Calculations of Lipton Tiger

W1 = 6 gm
W2 = 0.8 gm
Percentage of caffeine = 13.3%

Calculations of Taj Mahal

W1 = 6 gm
W2 = 0.7 gm
Percentage of caffeine = 11.6%

Calculations of Red Label

W1 = 6 gm
W2 = 0.72 gm
Percentage of caffeine = 12%

Observation Table

Sr.No. Name of Brand W1 W2 %age of caffeine

1. Double Diamond 6gm 0.7 gm 11.6
2. Lipton Tiger 6gm 0.8 gm 13.3
3. Taj Mahal 6gm 0.7 gm 11.6
4. Red Label 6gm 0.72 gm 12.0

Experiment Results :

The tea sample of Double Diamond contain highest amount of caffeine and hence :-
Gives better taste than others.
Is more harmful for our health.

Precautions and Expected Errors :

Chloroform should not be smelt directly for a long time as it itself is toxic.
The measurement of weight of tea leaves and all extract should be precise.
The measurement of weight of tea sample and all extract should be precise.
The water used should be distilled.
Apparatus should be clean and dry.
No water should be added to any extract in between the experiment as it may get
errors in calculation.
No prolonged heating should be done as water may evaporate in large quantity along
with same volatile solutes.


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