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a.

Gang Plank : Henry Fayol gave the principle of the 'Scalar Chain', which emphasized on
maintaining the line of communication from the top to the lower level. Though he gave
importance to the concept of the Scalar Chain, he was aware of the dangers of excess formalism.
'Gang plank' referred to the principle where the subordinate could willing to communicate with
the other colleague at the same level , there would be no need of routing the communication
through the entire chain, if the superior of the two agreed for the communication. It was meant to
ensure that excess formalism does not result in hampering the business.

b. Espirit de Corps : One of the 14 principles given by Henry Fayol for increasing the efficiency
of the organization. It stated that the 'harmony' between the personnel would be essential for the
progress of the organization. It was the responsibility of the management to ensure that there are
harmonious relations between the personnel. This would create a group feeling among the
workers which would be essential in maintaining their work output.

c. Peter principle : Peter principle states that the in each organization the employee gets
promoted to his level of incompetence. This is based on the fact that the criteria for promotion of
the employee is based on his performance in the current role, without realizing the challenges
and skills required for new assignment. This results into the promotion at each level, till the
employee reaches the level, where he cannot perform and hence his promotion gets stalled,
thereby he can only rise to his level of incompetence.