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ON

APPLIED STATISTICS

(PRE 823)

BY

IYANDA, Alaba

PG/ENG1614769

SUBMITTED TO

ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT

JULY, 2017

Question 1.0

Linearize y= ae bx to a form suitable for application of equations (1.19), e bears its usual

meaning.

Solution

y= ae bx

Y = log 10 y

A = log 10 a

b=b

X = x log e

Y = A + bX . (ii)

n XY X Y

b=

n X 2 ( X ) 2

A = Y b x

=

Y b x

n n

To get a,

A = log 10 a

a = 10 A

Question 2.0

Growth of bacteria (N) in a culture solution after t hrs is given in the table below:

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

N 32 47 65 92 132 190 275

1|Page

Fit a curve of the form N = abt and estimate N when t=7

Solution

N = abt .(i)

log 10 y = log 10 a + t log 10 b .(ii)

N = log 10 n

A = log 10 a

t=t

B = log 10 b

N = A + Bt .(iii)

n Nt N t

B=

n t 2 ( t ) 2

t n N = log 10 n N t t

2

N

2

0 32 1.50515 0 0 2.26548

1 47 1.67210 1.67210 1 2.79591

2 65 1.81291 3.62583 4 3.28665

3 92 1.96379 5.89136 9 3.85646

4 132 2.12057 8.48230 16 4.49683

5 190 2.27875 11.39377 25 5.19272

6 275 2.43933 14.63600 36 5.95034

t=21 N =13.7926 Nt t 2=91

=45.70136 N 2=27.84439

n Nt N t

B= 2 2

n t ( t )

7 ( 45.70136 ) (13.7926 )( 21 )

= 2

7 ( 91 ) ( 21 )

319.90952289.6446

=

637441

= 0.15441

A= Nb t

2|Page

=

N b t

n n

13.7926 21

= ( 0.15441 )

7 7

= 1.50713

B = log 10 b

b = 10B

= 100.15441

b= 1.427

A = log 10 a

a= 10 A

= 101.50713

a= 32.146

When t = 7,

N = 32.146 ( 1.427 )7

= 387.342

= 387

Question 3.0

2 b

Apply the method of least squares to fit the curve y = a x + to the following data:

x

x 1 2 3 4

y -1.51 0.99 3.88 7.66

Solution

3|Page

2 b

y = ax +

x

y b

= a+

x2 x3

2

yx = a+bx 3 . (i)

2 y

Y= yx =

x2

a=a

b=b

1

X= 3

=x3

x

Y=a+bX

n XY X Y

b=

n X 2 ( X ) 2

x y X= x3 y X*Y X2

Y= 2

x

1 -1.51 1 -1.51 -1.51 1

2 0.99 0.125 0.2475 0.03094 0.01563

3 3.88 0.03704 0.43111 0.01597 0.00137

4 7.66 0.01563 0.47875 0.00748 0.00024

X =1.17767 Y =0.35264 XY =1.45561

X 2=1.01724

b=

4 ( 1.01724 )( 1.17767 )2

5.82244+ 0.41529

=

4.068961.38691

= -2.01605

a = Y b X

4|Page

=

Y b X

n n

0.35264 1.17767

= (2.01605)

4 4

= 0.505

2 (2.016 )

y = 0.505 x is the model

x

Question 4.0

The readings for x and y below are known to follow a law of the type y = a + bxy

x -4 1 2 3

y 4 6 10 8

Solution

y = a + bxy . (i)

y=y

a=a

b=b

X = xy

y = a +bX

n Xy X y

b=

n X 2 ( X )2

x y X=x*y X*y X2

-4 4 -16 -64 256

1 6 6 36 36

2 10 20 200 400

3 8 24 192 576

y =28 X =34 XY =364 X 2=1268

4 ( 364 )( 34 28)

b=

4 (1268 )34 2

5|Page

1456952

=

50721156

= 0.1287

a= yb X

=

y b X

n n

28 34

= (0.1287)

4 4

= 5.906

Question 5.0

21 = 60 + 101 + 112

Solution

) () []

21

(

6 10 11

= 10 20 17 1 = 37 (i)

11 17 25 2 42

6 10 11 21 R1

M0 = 10 20 17 37 R2

11 17 25 42 R3

6|Page

M1 =

5 11 7 '

= R1 6 :1 R

3 6 2 1

' 10 4

= R210 R1 :0 2 R '2

3 3

' 4 29 7 '

= R311 R1 :0 R

3 6 2 3

' 10

Divide R2 through by

3

M2 =

= R1 R2 :1 0 R

3 22 1

10 2 3 ' '

= R'2 :0 1 R

3 5 5 2

= R3 + R2 :0 0 R

3 10 10 3

'' 43

Divide R3 through by

10

M3 =

5

= R'1' R ''3 ' :1 0 0 0 R'1''

2

= R2 + R3 :0 1 01 R2

5

43

= R'3' : 0 0 1 1 R'3' '

10

0= 0;

1 = 1;

2 = 1

7|Page

8|Page

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