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ASSIGNED QUESTIONS & SOLUTIONS

ON

APPLIED STATISTICS

(PRE 823)

BY

IYANDA, Alaba

PG/ENG1614769

SUBMITTED TO

PROF. A.C. IGBOANUGO

DEPARTMENT OF PRODUCTION ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF BENIN

IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE AWARD OF MASTERS DEGREE (M.SC) IN

ENGINEERING MANAGEMENT

JULY, 2017
Question 1.0

Linearize y= ae bx to a form suitable for application of equations (1.19), e bears its usual
meaning.

Solution

y= ae bx

Linearize by taking logarithm of both sides,

log 10 y = log 10 a + bx log e (i)

Comparing equation (i) with y = a + bx,

Y = log 10 y

A = log 10 a

b=b

X = x log e

Y = A + bX . (ii)

To get the estimates (a,b);

n XY X Y
b=
n X 2 ( X ) 2

A = Y b x

=
Y b x
n n

To get a,

A = log 10 a

a = 10 A

Question 2.0

Growth of bacteria (N) in a culture solution after t hrs is given in the table below:

t 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
N 32 47 65 92 132 190 275

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Fit a curve of the form N = abt and estimate N when t=7

Solution

N = abt .(i)

Linearize by taking the logarithm of both sides


log 10 y = log 10 a + t log 10 b .(ii)

Compare equation (ii) with n = a + bt

N = log 10 n

A = log 10 a

t=t

B = log 10 b

N = A + Bt .(iii)

n Nt N t
B=
n t 2 ( t ) 2

t n N = log 10 n N t t
2
N
2

0 32 1.50515 0 0 2.26548
1 47 1.67210 1.67210 1 2.79591
2 65 1.81291 3.62583 4 3.28665
3 92 1.96379 5.89136 9 3.85646
4 132 2.12057 8.48230 16 4.49683
5 190 2.27875 11.39377 25 5.19272
6 275 2.43933 14.63600 36 5.95034
t=21 N =13.7926 Nt t 2=91
=45.70136 N 2=27.84439

n Nt N t
B= 2 2
n t ( t )

7 ( 45.70136 ) (13.7926 )( 21 )
= 2
7 ( 91 ) ( 21 )

319.90952289.6446
=
637441

= 0.15441

A= Nb t

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=
N b t
n n
13.7926 21
= ( 0.15441 )
7 7

= 1.50713

Transforming A and B to get the estimates a and b

B = log 10 b

b = 10B

= 100.15441

b= 1.427

A = log 10 a

a= 10 A

= 101.50713

a= 32.146

Thus N = 32.146 ( 1.427 )t is the model

When t = 7,

N = 32.146 ( 1.427 )7

= 387.342

= 387

Question 3.0

2 b
Apply the method of least squares to fit the curve y = a x + to the following data:
x

x 1 2 3 4
y -1.51 0.99 3.88 7.66

Solution

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2 b
y = ax +
x
y b
= a+
x2 x3
2
yx = a+bx 3 . (i)

Comparing equation (i) with y = a + bx

2 y
Y= yx =
x2

a=a

b=b
1
X= 3
=x3
x

Y=a+bX

n XY X Y
b=
n X 2 ( X ) 2

x y X= x3 y X*Y X2
Y= 2
x
1 -1.51 1 -1.51 -1.51 1
2 0.99 0.125 0.2475 0.03094 0.01563
3 3.88 0.03704 0.43111 0.01597 0.00137
4 7.66 0.01563 0.47875 0.00748 0.00024
X =1.17767 Y =0.35264 XY =1.45561
X 2=1.01724

4 (1.45561 )( 1.17767 ) (0.35264 )


b=
4 ( 1.01724 )( 1.17767 )2

5.82244+ 0.41529
=
4.068961.38691

= -2.01605

a = Y b X

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=
Y b X
n n
0.35264 1.17767
= (2.01605)
4 4

= 0.505

2 (2.016 )
y = 0.505 x is the model
x

Question 4.0

The readings for x and y below are known to follow a law of the type y = a + bxy

x -4 1 2 3
y 4 6 10 8

Solution

y = a + bxy . (i)

Compare (i) with y = a + bx

y=y

a=a

b=b

X = xy

y = a +bX

n Xy X y
b=
n X 2 ( X )2

x y X=x*y X*y X2
-4 4 -16 -64 256
1 6 6 36 36
2 10 20 200 400
3 8 24 192 576
y =28 X =34 XY =364 X 2=1268

4 ( 364 )( 34 28)
b=
4 (1268 )34 2

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1456952
=
50721156

= 0.1287

a= yb X

=
y b X
n n
28 34
= (0.1287)
4 4

= 5.906

Using method of least squares, a = 5.906, b= 0.1287

The model is y = 5.906+0.1287 xy

Question 5.0

Solve the equation below by Gauss-Siedel using Igboanugos method

21 = 60 + 101 + 112

37 = 100 + 201 + 172

42 = 110 + 171 + 252

Solution

Writing the equation in matrix form;

) () []
21
(
6 10 11
= 10 20 17 1 = 37 (i)
11 17 25 2 42

Writing equation (i) in canonical form;

6 10 11 21 R1
M0 = 10 20 17 37 R2
11 17 25 42 R3

Divide R1 through by 6 {using row reduction technique}

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M1 =
5 11 7 '
= R1 6 :1 R
3 6 2 1

' 10 4
= R210 R1 :0 2 R '2
3 3

' 4 29 7 '
= R311 R1 :0 R
3 6 2 3

' 10
Divide R2 through by
3

M2 =

' 5 '' 5 5 ''


= R1 R2 :1 0 R
3 22 1
10 2 3 ' '
= R'2 :0 1 R
3 5 5 2

' 4 '' 43 43 ''


= R3 + R2 :0 0 R
3 10 10 3

'' 43
Divide R3 through by
10

M3 =
5
= R'1' R ''3 ' :1 0 0 0 R'1''
2

'' 2 ''' ' ''


= R2 + R3 :0 1 01 R2
5
43
= R'3' : 0 0 1 1 R'3' '
10

From the solution above,

0= 0;

1 = 1;

2 = 1

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