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COUPLED REACTIONS

F.G. QUEZON

Abstract
This experiment is involved in the demonstration of coupled reactions. Coupled reactions
are reactions paired, one with a positive G and the other with a negative G, to form a spontaneous
overall reaction. The experiment made use of dry ice cavern to serve as both reactant and container
of the burning magnesium. A hole and four canals were made on each dry ice slab. The Mg was then
ignited, and put on the slab and was covered with the other.
The products yielded were a white a flaky solid identified to be MgO and a black powdery
substance which is solid carbon. The spontaneous reaction of magnesium and oxygen was
combined with the nonspontaneous decomposition of carbon dioxide to produce the spontaneous
reaction of magnesium and carbon dioxide to form magnesium oxide and carbon solid. This
experiment will help students grasp the concept of coupled reactions.

Methodology
2 grams of magnesium ribbon were coiled around each other. It was held with crucible tongs
over the slab of dry ice and ignited using a barbecue lighter. When lit, it was dropped on the hole on
the surface of the dry ice slab, and then the slab was covered with the other dry ice slab.
The set-up was then observed. After magnesium starts burning, the top slab was removed
and the left over materials in the dry ice hole was observed.

Answers to Questions
From Manual:
1. The magnesium is exposed to cold temperature from the dry ice, therefore, more heat is needed
in order for it to burn. Also, since the dry ice chamber contains more carbon dioxide than oxygen,
magnesium needs to react with oxygen first to burn. This starts the reaction and enables
magnesium to combust in the dry ice chamber with carbon dioxide.
2. Because the magnesium ribbon will react with oxygen in the environment instead of carbon
dioxide.
3. 2Mg(s) + CO2 (g) 2MgO(s) + C(s)
G = = [1(0) + 2(-569.4 kJ/mol)]-[2(0) + 1(-394.4 kJ/mol)] = -744.4 kJ/mol

The negative G implies that the reaction is spontaneous. This means that products will be formed
without applying action from outside the system.
4. Mg(s) + O2 (g) MgO(s) G = -569.4 kJ/mol
CO(g) C(s) + O2 (g) G = 137.2 kJ/mol
Mg(s) + CO(g) MgO(s) G = -432.2 kJ/mol

Mg(s) + O2 (g) MgO(s) G = -569.4 kJ/mol


FeO(s) Fe(s) + O2 (g) G = 255.2 kJ/mol
Mg(s) + FeO(s) MgO(s) + Fe(s) G = -314.4 kJ/mol
5. ATP + H2O ADP + Pi G = -31 kJ/mol (exergonic)
Pi + glucose glucose-6-P + H2O G = +14 kJ/mol (endergonic)
ATP + glucose glucose-6-P + ADP G = -17 kJ/mol
From Guide Questions:
1. 2Mg(s) + CO2 (g) 2MgO(s) + C(s)
2. The white flaky substance that resulted from the experiment is identified to be MgO. The other
product is a black powdery substance which is identified to be solid C.
3. C(s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) G = 400 kJ/mol
2 Mg(s) + O2 (g) 2MgO(s) G = -1000 kJ/mol
2Mg(s) + CO2 (g) 2MgO(s) + C(s) G = -600 kJ/mol
4. Mg reacts with oxygen gas spontaneously to form MgO. The magnesium ribbon needs to be filed
in order to remove the MgO on the surface so that it will not affect the reaction.
5. The low temperature because of the dry ice caused the slow ignition of the Mg since ignition
required high temperature. Also, magnesium cannot spontaneously react with carbon dioxide, and
because of the carbon dioxide gas being sublimated from the dry ice, Mg ribbon was not easily
ignited.
6. 3Mg(s) + N2 (g) Mg3N2(s)
7. 2g Mg x 1 mol Mg x 2 mol MgO x 40.305 g MgO = 3.316601522 g MgO
24.305 g Mg 2 mol Mg 1 mol MgO
= 3.8 g or 4 g of product
2g Mg x 1 mol Mg x 1 mol C x 12.01 g C = 0.494137008 g C
24.305 g Mg 2 mol Mg 1 mol C

8. Ignited Mg ribbon was not placed immediately on the dry ice chamber. The magnesium would
react with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium oxide, therefore, lowering the
yield of carbon solid.

Calculations:
Manual
3. 2Mg(s) + CO2 (g) 2MgO(s) + C(s)
G = = [1(0) + 2(-569.4 kJ/mol)]-[2(0) + 1(-394.4 kJ/mol)] = -744.4 kJ/mol
4. Mg(s) + O2 (g) MgO(s) G = -569.4 kJ/mol
CO(g) C(s) + O2 (g) G = 137.2 kJ/mol
Mg(s) + CO(g) MgO(s) G = -432.2 kJ/mol

Mg(s) + O2 (g) MgO(s) G = -569.4 kJ/mol


FeO(s) Fe(s) + O2 (g) G = 255.2 kJ/mol
Mg(s) + FeO(s) MgO(s) + Fe(s) G = -314.4 kJ/mol
5. ATP + H2O ADP + Pi G = -31 kJ/mol (exergonic)
Pi + glucose glucose-6-P + H2O G = +14 kJ/mol (endergonic)
ATP + glucose glucose-6-P + ADP G = -17 kJ/mol

Guide Questions
3. C(s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) G = 400 kJ/mol
2 Mg(s) + O2 (g) 2MgO(s) G = -1000 kJ/mol
2Mg(s) + CO2 (g) 2MgO(s) + C(s) G = -600 kJ/mol
7. 2g Mg x 1 mol Mg x 2 mol MgO x 40.305 g MgO = 3.316601522 g MgO
24.305 g Mg 2 mol Mg 1 mol MgO
= 3.8 g or 4 g of product
2g Mg x 1 mol Mg x 1 mol C x 12.01 g C = 0.494137008 g C
24.305 g Mg 2 mol Mg 1 mol C
References

Petrucci, R. , Herring F. , Madura J. & Bissonnette C. (2011). General Chemistry.


Canada: Pearson Education

Institute of Chemistry. (June 2011). General Chemistry : Laboratory Manual

StudyMode (n.d.) Retrieved November 22, 2012, from http://www.studymode.com/


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Scribd (n.d.) Retrieved November 22, 2012, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/78030867/


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