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# Introduction

## an arrangement of circuits. In a dial-up (switched) connection, a circuit

is reserved for use by one user for the duration of the calling session. In

## A virtual circuit, sometimes called a logical circuit, is a path

between two or more points that seems like a fixed physical path, but

actually is one path out of many possible physical paths that can be

## circuits. This approach is used in a frame relay network and offers a

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committed set of resources to a telephone company customer at a lower

price than if the customer leases their own circuits. A switched virtual

## An electrical circuit is a network consisting of a closed loop, giving

a return path for the current. Linear electrical networks, a special type

## research on student learning and understanding of electric circuit theory is

still in its infancy. Students conceptions in circuit theory and electricity are

## the years remedies have been suggested to overcome students conceptual

problems in electricity, but only with limited success (Mulhall et al. 2001).

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The topic is still receiving attention (for example Engelhardt and Beichner

2004; Hart 2008; Taber et al. 2006; Jaakkola, Nurmi & Veermans, 2010).

electricity.

## 1) Correct understanding of electrical circuits essentially being closed but

not short circuited, and the electricity circling in the circuit, and the current

## electrical current and voltage,

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3) Understanding of the topological types of electrical circuits; series and

## and students alternative ideas often do not correspond to the scientific

view and do not easily change through instruction (Shipstone 1985; Duit

and Von Rhoeneck 1998; Engelhardt and Beichner 2004; Taber et al.

## explain phenomena in circuits, students frequently (a) confuse important

concepts such as current and voltage, (b) use the idea that current is

consumed (or use unipolar, clashing or shared current models), (c) view

## power supplies as a source of constant current instead of constant

potential difference, (d) have difficulties building and drawing circuits and

(e) do not realize that a change of one element can have an impact on the

## chain of causes that instigates a process, a medium/vehicle, and a desired

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effect. This mental model implies a number of intuitive qualitative rules

such as:

## The effect is roughly in the direction of the cause / chain of causes,

The stronger the initial cause / chain of causes, the stronger the effect

by default proportional,

The cause / chain of causes costs 'effort', and is weakened in the long

## There is a physical connection of the cause to the effect, possibly through

the medium (or vehicle), which may damp the effect by default

## proportional to its dimensions,

The better the medium and / or the smaller the distance the stronger the

effect,

## effect. An example of cause - effect reasoning, from which students may

derive interpretations such as: a wire twice as long will make the light bulb

half as bright.

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An attempt to counter the misinterpretation of electrical circuits from

such a linear causal perspective often made is to explain that the electrical

## circuit is to be understood in terms of an analogy. Two such analogies are

regularly used in science education (Hart, 2008) with their own strengths

and weaknesses:

analysis

## among others. In most schools, there are little or no workshops. The

available workshop in the schools are ill equipped. All these makes

## education in any nation. There are shortages of qualified science

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teachers in Nigerian schools. So called science teachers are not

professionally qualified. They may have the knowledge of the subject but

## science teachers in our schools. Attitude of many teachers to teaching

are discouraging; they have been teaching for many years without

## Science teachers should use different strategies as there is no single

universal approach for specific class. Many science teachers still hold to

chalk and talk method which is not appropriate for science teaching in

## in some years back in science in a college of education. Students dont

want to offer science in school because teachers are not making its

## buttressed by Owoeye (2000), the success of any science subject

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depends on its provision. Daramola (1985) also stressed that laboratory

## student the opportunity to engage in the process of investigation and

inquiry. In spite of the benefits that can be derived from the use of

## education in Nigeria. It is even unfortunate that many teachers of

science and technology disciplines are unqualified for the job because

## Certificate in Education (NCE) according to the National Policy on

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Education (2004) (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2009b: Central Bank of

Nigeria, 2010).

## Inadequate instructional materials in schools: instructional

materials are those items that makes teaching and learning very easy. In

most of the schools, there are few instructional materials. This negatively

## Quota Admission Policy: Over the years, educational gap, particularly

between the southern and northern parts, has been a contending issue

Conclusion

## position is not the best for us because it encourages corruption. Someone

who went to jail for stealing public money should not come out and

become hero or king he should be seen as a bad person who has lost his

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respect and dignity. Finally on corruption, the ongoing constitution review

must be taking serious and it should stipulate a life imprisonment for any

## blessed with fertile lands. If government can invent on agriculture, there

will be job for the jobless and there will be improvement in economic

## security of the nation.

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References

Duit, R., and von Rhneck, C (2009), Learning and understanding key
concepts of electricity, in Connecting Research in Physics Education
with Teacher Education, edited by Tiberghien, A., Jossem, E.L., and
Barojas, J, 1997. [http://www.ph
ysics.ohiostate.edu/~jossem/ICPE/BOOKS.html]
McDermott, L. C. (2010), and Shaffer, P. S., Research as a guide for
curriculum development: An examplefrom introductory electricity.
Part I: Investigation of student understanding, Am. J. Phys., 60,
994- 1003, 1992; erratum, ibid., 61, 81,
McDermott, L.C (2007). How research can guide us in improving the
introductory course, in Proc Conf on Intro Physics Course , edited by
Wilson, J., New York, , Wiley, pp. 33-45.
Nilsson, J., and Riedel, S (2009), Electric Circuits, 6:th edition, Upper
Saddle River, New Jersey,Plenum.
Okebukola, P.A.O (2013). Curriculum implementation in Nigeria. Strategies
For the 21st century. Journal of the Institute of Education, Lagos
state University, 1, 1-6.
Olagunju, O. (2010). Corruption control in Nigeria: Holistic approach.
Advance in Arts, Social Sciences and Education Research. 2 (1), 76-
84
Shaffer, P. S., and McDermott, L. C (2012)., Research as a guide for
curriculum development: An example from introductory electricity.
Part II: Design of an instructional strategy, Am. J. Phys., 60, 1003-
1013,

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